New York State Energy Profile



New York Quick Facts

  • New York revised its Clean Energy Standard in 2019 to require 100% carbon-free electricity from both renewable sources and nuclear energy by 2040. In 2020, renewable sources and nuclear power, together, supplied 60% of New York's in-state generation from utility-scale and small-scale facilities.
  • Nuclear power accounted for 29% of New York's utility-scale net generation in 2020, down from 34% in 2019 because of the retirement of one reactor.  A second reactor retired in 2021, completing the closure of Indian Point, one of the state's four nuclear power plants. 
  • In 2020, New York accounted for 11% of U.S. hydroelectricity net generation, and the state was the third-largest producer of hydroelectricity in the nation, after Washington and Oregon.
  • In 2019, New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states. New York's natural gas consumption per capita was less than in almost three-fourths of the states even though three in five households use natural gas for home heating. 
  • In 2019, New York was the fifth-largest consumer of petroleum among the states, but New Yorkers consume less petroleum per capita than residents of any other state in the nation.

Last Updated: October 21, 2021



Data

Last Update: January 20, 2022 | Next Update: February 17, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New York Share of U.S. Period
Population 19.3 million 5.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 9.2 million 5.7% Nov-21  
Economy New York U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 1,699.0 billion 3 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 66,644 million 9 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 75,548 4 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 123,986 million miles 5 2019  
Land in Farms 6.9 million acres 36 2017  
Climate New York U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 47.8 degrees Fahrenheit 36 2020  
Precipitation 39.1 inches 29 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum New York U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase W $ 78.51 /barrel Oct-21  
Natural Gas New York U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 8.63 /thousand cu ft $ 6.41 /thousand cu ft Oct-21 find more
Residential NA $ 17.48 /thousand cu ft Oct-21 find more
Coal New York U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 2.03 /million Btu Oct-21  
Electricity New York U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 20.59 cents/kWh 14.11 cents/kWh Oct-21 find more
Commercial 17.18 cents/kWh 11.56 cents/kWh Oct-21 find more
Industrial 6.70 cents/kWh 7.53 cents/kWh Oct-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 81 billion cu ft * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 6,372 wells 1.3% 2020 find more
Capacity New York Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 39,413 MW 3.5% Oct-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 933 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
Crude Oil * * Oct-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 9,692 million cu ft * 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,859 thousand MWh 3.1% Oct-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New York U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Oct-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 48.4 % 40.9 % Oct-21 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 19.5 % Oct-21 find more
Nuclear 21.4 % 18.2 % Oct-21 find more
Renewables 29.7 % 20.4 % Oct-21  
Stocks New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 1 thousand barrels * Oct-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 3,643 thousand barrels 3.6% Oct-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 219,272 million cu ft 2.7% Oct-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,841 thousand barrels 12.4% Oct-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Oct-21 find more
Fueling Stations New York Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 4,959 stations 4.4% 2019  
Propane 37 stations 1.5% 2022  
Electricity 2,766 stations 5.9% 2022  
E85 69 stations 1.7% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 34 stations 2.6% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New York U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 3,856 trillion Btu 6 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 198 million Btu 49 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 58,748 million 4 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,018 49 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector New York Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 1,139 trillion Btu 5.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 1,122 trillion Btu 6.2% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 384 trillion Btu 1.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 1,211 trillion Btu 4.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 18,071 million 6.8% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 14,133 million 7.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,200 million 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 23,344 million 4.1% 2019 find more
by Source New York Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 273 million barrels 3.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,292 billion cu ft 4.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.1% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 28,686 million 4.1% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 10,152 million 6.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 41 million 0.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Oct-21 find more
Natural Gas 36,097 million cu ft 3.7% Oct-21 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Oct-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New York U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 60.7 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 18.7 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 12.2 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.3 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 4.1 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 7,946 MW 2.8% Oct-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 162 million gal/year 0.9% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 2,309 thousand MWh 12.7% Oct-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 463 thousand MWh 1.1% Oct-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 157 thousand MWh 3.5% Oct-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 188 thousand MWh 4.9% Oct-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 3,519 thousand barrels 0.9% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption New York U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 12.9 % 19 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 13,937 thousand barrels 4 2019  
Total Emissions New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 167.7 million metric tons 3.2% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 26,772 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 26 thousand metric tons 2.1% 2020  

Analysis



Last Updated: October 21, 2021

Overview

New York consumes less total energy per capita than all but two other states.

New York is the nation's fourth most populous state, and its largest city, New York, has been the U.S. city with the largest population in every census since 1790.1,2,3 However, almost nine-tenths of the state is considered rural, and the population density of New York State as a whole is less than that of six other states.4,5 Much of New York is rolling agricultural land and rugged mountains with plentiful renewable resources, including hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass.6 Portions of two of the Great Lakes—Lake Erie and Lake Ontario—are in New York. The Niagara River, with its massive falls, flows between the lakes and makes the state a leading producer of hydroelectric power.7,8 The Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean shorelines have some of the state's best wind resources.9 New York produces some natural gas but only small amounts of crude oil, and it does not mine any coal.10 As a result, New York is dependent on energy supplies from out of state to meet about three-fourths of its energy needs.11

New York has the nation's third-largest state economy. It also has one of the most energy-efficient economies in the nation, and New Yorkers consume less total energy per capita than the residents than all but two other states, California and Rhode Island.12,13 The transportation, commercial, and residential sectors each account for about three-tenths of state end-use energy consumption.14 Many of New York's key industries, like finance and real estate; professional and business services; and government, are not energy-intensive, and the industrial sector accounts for only one-tenth of state energy use, a smaller share than in all other states except Maryland and Massachusetts.15,16 Per capita energy consumption in New York's transportation sector is lower than in all other states except Rhode Island.17 The state's energy efficiency results in part from the wide use of mass transportation in New York's densely populated urban areas. In 2019, nearly three-tenths of state residents used public transit to commute to work, which was almost six times the national average.18,19 However, energy use increases during New York's winters when demand for heating rises, and arctic winds and lake-effect snows sweep in from Canada across the Great Lakes.20,21

Electricity

Natural gas, nuclear, and hydropower consistently generate more than 90% of New York’s electricity.

Natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectricity together have provided more than nine-tenths of New York State's utility-scale (1 megawatt and larger) electricity net generation since 2012. Non-hydroelectric renewable resources, such as wind, biomass, and solar, provide most of the rest.22 Natural gas fuels 5 of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity, and natural gas-fired power plants account for more than two-thirds of New York's generating capacity.23,24 In 2020, natural gas fueled two-fifths of New York's utility-scale in-state generation.25 To increase reliability, especially during the winter months when natural gas pipelines are highly congested, natural gas-fired electricity generating units with dual-fuel capability can switch fuels in the event of a supply disruption.26,27 About three-fifths of the state's natural gas-fired capacity have dual-fuel capability, allowing them to also burn petroleum products.28 However, that capacity is used sparingly, and petroleum fueled less than 0.2% of the state's generation in 2020.29

In 2020, renewable resources generated more electricity than nuclear plants in New York for the first time.30 Hydroelectric power supplied almost one-fourth of New York's utility-scale net generation. Wind, biomass, and solar facilities supplied almost all of the rest of the state's renewable generation. The contribution from both utility-scale and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar photovoltaic (PV) generators increased substantially during the past decade, and it exceeded the amount of electricity generated from biomass for the first time in 2019. In 2020, nuclear power provided about three-tenths of New York's net generation.31 One of the state's four nuclear power plants—Indian Point—accounted for nearly two-fifths of the state's nuclear generating capacity in 2019, and it provided 37% of the state's nuclear generation and 13% of the state's total net generation that year.32,33,34 However, one of Indian Point's two reactors ceased operations at the end of April 2020, and the second reactor was retired at the end of April 2021. The state's remaining three nuclear power plants have about 3,200 megawatts of generating capacity.35

Coal fueled a small amount of New York's power. Coal-fired generation, which provided about one-sixth of the state's generation two decades ago, supplied only 0.1% of New York's in-state electricity in 2020, when the state's last coal-fired plant, which was located on the shores of Lake Ontario, closed.36,37

The independent electric transmission system operator, NYISO, manages state wholesale electricity markets and electric grid operations in New York. Electricity usually flows east and south toward the state's high-demand areas in the New York City and Long Island region.38,39 The state typically needs more power than it generates, and New York receives additional electricity supply from neighboring states and Canada.40

Per capita electricity consumption in New York is among the lowest in the nation; only California, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts were lower in 2019.41 The commercial sector accounted for 49% of the state's electricity retail sales in 2020. The residential sector, where only one in eight households heat with electricity, accounted for about 38%, and the industrial sector used about 11%. The transportation sector used the rest.42,43 In part because of its large electrified mass public rail systems, New York has the most electricity retail sales to the transportation sector of any state, and accounted for about 40% of the nation's total sales to that sector in 2020.44,45 There are also almost 3,000 public and private access electric vehicle fueling stations in the state.46 In 2020, total electricity retail sales in New York declined about 4% compared with 2019, in part because of COVID-19 mitigation efforts.47,48 Only the residential sector saw increased sales as more residents worked from home during the pandemic.49,50

Renewable energy

New York's 2.5-gigawatt Robert Moses Niagara power plant is the third-largest conventional hydroelectric power plant in the United States.

In 2020, renewable sources generated about three-tenths of New York's utility-scale net generation, and the state ranked fifth in the nation in the amount of electricity generated from renewable resources.51 Hydroelectric power accounted for nearly three-fourths of the state's utility-scale renewable electricity generation in 2020, and almost one-fourth of the state's total net generation.52 New York is consistently among the nation's top four producers of hydroelectricity, and the state produced more hydroelectric power in 2020 than all but two other states, Washington and Oregon.53 The 2.5-gigawatt Robert Moses Niagara hydroelectric power plant, at Lewiston near Niagara Falls, produces the largest share of New York's hydropower. The plant is the third-largest conventional hydroelectric power plant by capacity in the United States.54,55 The associated Lewiston pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, with 12 pump-turbines and a 1,900-acre storage reservoir, operates during periods of peak power demand to supplement power from the Robert Moses plant.56

Wind is New York's second-largest renewable source of electricity net generation, which has almost doubled during the past decade. In 2020, wind accounted for almost 4% of all utility-scale net generation in New York.57 As of June 2021, New York had a total of about 2,000 megawatts of wind capacity at almost two dozen wind farms.58,59 New York's additional onshore wind energy potential is located primarily at the eastern end of each of the state's two Great Lakes, along the Long Island shoreline, and along the ridges of the Adirondack Mountains and the Catskill Mountains. However, the state's highest peaks are in state parks where wind development is restricted. New York has additional offshore wind resources along the Long Island coastline and in the two Great Lakes.60 The state is in the process of soliciting bids for development of 9,000 megawatts of offshore wind energy by 2035. As of 2020, New York had more than 4,300 megawatts of offshore wind energy in development.61

In 2020, solar energy provided 2.5% of New York's total in-state net generation, two-thirds of it from small-scale systems with capacities of less than 1 megawatt each.62 New York encourages small-scale solar installations, such as rooftop solar, through net metering and a variety of financial support programs. In 2020, the state ranked fifth in the nation in electricity generation from small-scale solar.63,64 Most of the state's more than 240 utility-scale solar installations have capacities less than 20 megawatts, but there are three large solar facilities with capacities greater than 20 megawatts. All of them are on Long Island. About one-fourth of New York's utility-scale solar capacity came online between January 2020 and June 2021.65 In mid-2021, New York had nearly 2,700 megawatts of solar capacity at utility-scale and small-scale installations.66 The state increased its earlier target of 3,000 megawatts of solar PV capacity by 2023 to 6,000 megawatts by 2025.67

Biomass fueled less than 1.5% of New York's total net generation in 2020, but the state was among the top one-fourth of states in the amount of electricity generated from biomass.68 Municipal solid waste facilities account for almost three-fifths of the state's biomass generating capacity. New York has many smaller landfill gas-fueled generators at locations across the state, and they account for about one-fourth of the state's biomass generating capacity. New York's two utility-scale wood- and wood waste-fueled generating facilities account for about one-sixth of the state's biomass generating capacity. However, in 2020, they contributed almost one-fourth of state biomass-fueled generation.69,70 New York has other biomass and biofuel resources that are used for purposes other than electricity generation. The state has five wood pellet plants that have a combined manufacturing capacity of about 371,000 tons of pellets each year. Wood pellets are used for heating and also as a fuel for electricity generation.71 The state also has two fuel ethanol production plants with a combined capacity of about 162 million gallons per year.72 The state consumed about 585 million gallons of fuel ethanol in 2019, the fourth most of any state.73 New York does not have any biodiesel production, but the state is the fifth-largest biodiesel consumer in the nation.74 Per capita biodiesel consumption, however, is less than in half the states.75,76

New York adopted its first renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004. In 2015, when the RPS expired, the state reached its target of obtaining 29% of electricity sales from renewable sources.77 In 2016, New York replaced its RPS with the state's Clean Energy Standard (CES), which originally required utilities and other electricity retail suppliers in the state to acquire 50% of the electricity they sold from clean energy resources by 2030. In July 2019, New York revised the CES to require 70% renewable electricity by 2030 and 100% carbon-free electricity by 2040.78 The legislation also calls for 100% economy-wide net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.79 The CES includes qualifying nuclear power plants in the state as zero emission resources.80 Facilities that are not technically capable of eliminating all carbon emissions can purchase carbon offsets to meet a portion of the required 100% net-zero goal. The offsets must be from nearby sources that reduce carbon, like forests and agriculture.81 In 2018, New York's per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions were lower than those of any other state in the nation.82

Petroleum

New York is one of the nation’s largest petroleum consumers, but the state consumes less petroleum per capita than any other state.

Despite a long history of crude oil production, New York currently has no significant proved crude oil reserves and produces only a small amount of crude oil.83,84,85 In the 19th century, New York was an important crude oil production and processing center with more than 50 oil refineries, including one of the world's largest, which was located in Olean in southwestern New York. By the end of the 20th century, all the refineries in the state were closed, and the small amount of crude oil produced in New York is shipped to out-of-state refineries.86,87

Petroleum products consumed in New York are supplied by refineries in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, by pipelines from the Gulf Coast and the Midwest, and by imports, mostly from Canada. New York Harbor, which includes terminals on both the New York and New Jersey shorelines, is the largest petroleum products hub in the Northeast, with bulk storage capacity exceeding 75 million barrels. Petroleum products delivered to the harbor are redistributed by truck or by barge to smaller ports on Long Island and upstate along the Hudson River, as well as to western New England. Western New York receives refined petroleum products from Pennsylvania and the Midwest through pipelines and from Canada through the Port of Buffalo.88

With its large population, New York is one of the nation's five largest consumers of petroleum overall, but the state consumes less petroleum per capita than any other state.89 The transportation sector uses about four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state. New York is the fourth-largest consumer of both motor gasoline and jet fuel among the states, even though it had the second-lowest per capita transportation energy consumption of any state in 2019. In large part because of the wide use of mass transportation, New York also had the lowest per capita motor gasoline consumption of any state.90,91 Much of the rest of the petroleum consumed in New York is used for heating in the residential and commercial sectors.92 Almost one-fourth of New York households heat with petroleum products, primarily fuel oil.93 Because of concerns about home heating oil shortages in New York and other northeastern states, the federal government created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) in 2000. In 2011, the federal government converted the reserve to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), in part because of New York's decision to require consumers heating with petroleum to use ULSD starting in 2012.94 New York was the first northeastern state to require the use of ULSD.95 The industrial sector accounts for the rest of the state's petroleum consumption, about 5% of state use in 2019.96

To reduce ozone formation, the New York City metropolitan area and Long Island require the use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol. The rest of the state is required to use a low volatility motor gasoline blend in the summer.97,98 New York Harbor is the primary Northeast distribution hub for fuel ethanol supplies. Although some ethanol is produced in New York, it is much less than the amount consumed in the state. In 2019, four times more fuel ethanol was consumed in New York than was produced there.99,100 Ethanol produced in the Midwest and marine imports from overseas arrive through New York Harbor for distribution throughout the state and beyond. An additional large storage facility at Albany, New York, receives fuel ethanol by rail for distribution throughout the Northeast.101

Natural gas

New York has few natural gas reserves and only modest production.102,103 The state's first commercial natural gas well was drilled in 1821.104 Annual production reached a recent annual high of almost 56 billion cubic feet in 2006, but in 2020 New York produced less than 10 billion cubic feet of natural gas.105 Most of the natural gas consumed in the state enters by pipelines from other states. The largest share of the natural gas that enters New York comes from Pennsylvania.106 The Marcellus Shale, named for a town in central New York where the shale is visible at the surface, is a natural gas-bearing formation that extends under parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland.107 It is currently the most prolific natural gas area in the United States.108 In 2014, New York's governor banned hydraulic fracturing.109 Commonly called fracking, hydraulic fracturing, is a technique used to produce natural gas from low permeability shales like the Marcellus. In 2020, the state legislature made the fracking ban permanent.110 The only wells that produce natural gas from the Marcellus Shale in New York were completed before the ban.111 The total amount of natural gas retrievable from the Marcellus Shale in New York is unknown.112

New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states in 2019.

New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states in 2019. However, New York consumed less natural gas per capita than almost three-fourths of the states.113 In 2020, the residential sector, where three out of every five households heat with natural gas, accounted for more than one-third of the natural gas delivered to New York consumers.114 Natural gas fuels two-fifths of the state's electricity generation, and slightly more than one-third of the natural gas delivered to consumers in New York in 2020 went to the electric power sector.115 Nearly one-fourth of the natural gas consumed in the state went to the commercial sector. The industrial sector accounted for 7%. Very little natural gas was used as vehicle fuel in New York, but there are about 60 public and private access compressed natural gas fueling stations in the state.116,117

New York has 26 natural gas underground storage facilities. Most are in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, but one is in a salt cavern. Those storage fields, along with storage in nearby states, are key to meeting demand spikes, particularly during the winter heating season.118 Virtually all major interstate pipelines from the Gulf Coast, Appalachia, and western Canada reach New York, both to supply in-state customers and to deliver supplies to New England.119

Coal

New York does not have any coal mines and has no coal reserves.120 In 2020, the industrial sector consumed the only coal used in the state.121 Deliveries to the electric power sector ended in 2019, and the state's last coal-fired power plant closed in March 2020.122,123

U.S. coal exports that travel through New York primarily leave the state through the Port of Buffalo, although some coal also leaves the state through the ports at Ogdensburg in northern New York and at New York City. Very small amounts of imported coal also enter the state at those ports.124

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
2 U.S. Census Bureau, Library, Top 20 Cities, Highest Ranking Cities, 1790 to 2010 (July 19, 2012).
3 Castronuovo, Celine, "All 10 largest cities grew, Phoenix supplants Philly as 5th largest in US," The Hill (August 12, 2021).
4 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020), accessed August 30, 2021.
5 Aubertine, Daniel J., Rural New York, New York State Senate (July 29, 2010).
6 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Data and Tools, Renewable Energy Atlas, Hydropower, Wind, Solar Photovoltaic, and Biomass, accessed August 30, 2021.
7 Niagara Parks, Niagara Falls Geology, Facts and Figures, accessed August 30, 2021.
8 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.10.B.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Data and Tools, Renewable Energy Atlas, Wind Speed-Offshore, accessed August 30, 2021.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2019.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, New York, All statistics in table, 2019, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New York Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Table B08301, Means of Transportation to Work, Workers 16 years and over, 2019, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, United States, New York State, All counties in New York State.
20 Wysocki, Mark, "I Love NY's Climate Zones!," New York's Climate, The CoCoRaHS State Climates Series, accessed August 30, 2021.
21 NYSERDA, Monthly Cooling and Heating Degree Day Data, accessed August 30, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, Fuel type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
23 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels (utility-scale), Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
26 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2017, p. 35.
27 U.S. EIA, "About 13% of U.S. electricity generating capacity can switch between natural gas and oil," Today in Energy (February 11, 2020).
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Petroleum liquids, Annual, 2001-20.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Indian Point 2 and Indian Point 3, 2001-20.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Nuclear, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Annual, 2001-20.
35 U.S. EIA, "New York's Indian Point nuclear power plant closes after 59 years of operation," Today in Energy (April 30, 2021).
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
37 Prohaska, Thomas J., "New York's last coal-burning power plant closes on Lake Ontario shore," The Buffalo News (March 30, 2020).
38 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets, New York (NYISO), updated July 20, 2021.
39 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2021, p. 7.
40 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
43 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New York, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
44 New York Public Transit Association, Public Transit Facts, accessed October 13, 2021
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Transportation sector, All states, 2020.
46 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, New York, Electric, Access Public and Private, Available, accessed September 15, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, "Daily electricity demand in New York falls about 13% after COVID-19 mitigation efforts," Today in Energy (May 6, 2020).
48 U.S. EIA, "Daytime electricity demand in New York City most affected by COVID-19 mitigation actions," Today in Energy (May 22, 2020).
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
50 Pew Research Center, "How the Coronavirus Outbreak Has - and Hasn't - Changed the Way Americans Work," Research Topics (December 9, 2020).
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.17.B.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other Renewables (Total), Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
54 New York State, NY Power Authority, Niagara Power Project, accessed September 2, 2021.
55 World Atlas, World Facts, "The Largest Hydroelectric Power Stations In The United States," accessed September 2, 2021.
56 "A Powerful 50 Years at Niagara," International Water Power & Dam Construction (April 15, 2011).
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
58 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2021), Table 6.2.B.
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New York, accessed September 10, 2021.
61 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Offshore Wind Projects, New York State Offshore Wind
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62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.17.B.
64 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Programs, Filter by New York and Solar Photovoltaics, accessed September 13, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2021), Table 6.2.B.
67 Brandt, Jacyln, "New York governor unveils plan to double solar goal and expand offshore wind," Daily Energy Insider (January 17, 2019).
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), Biomass (Total), Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2001-20.
71 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, June 2021.
72 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Excel file, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity: January 1, 2021.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
74 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
77 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated June 26, 2018.
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Clean Energy Standard, updated June 29, 2021.
79 Roberts, David, "New York just passed the most ambitious climate target in the country," Vox (July 22, 2019).
80 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Clean Energy Standard, updated January 8, 2019.
81 Roberts, David, "New York just passed the most ambitious climate target in the country," Vox (July 22, 2019).
82 U.S. EIA, Environment, Energy-Related CO2 Emission Data Tables, Table 5, Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000-18).
83 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York's Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, Part 1 (2007), First Commercial Oil Development in New York, p. 10.
84 U.S. EIA, New York Field Production of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels), Annual, 1981-2020.
85 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 2021), Table 7, Crude oil proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2019.
86 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York's Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, Part 1 (2007), Crude Oil Refining in New York State, p. 10.
87 U.S. EIA, New York Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 1982-2021.
88 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Energy Assurance Plan (September 14, 2012) p. IV-6-IV-7, V-28-V-36.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
91 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
93 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New York, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Bottled, tank or LP gas and Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.
94 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History and About NEHHOR, accessed September 13, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, "Sulfur content of heating oil to be reduced in northeastern states," Today in Energy (April 18, 2012).
96 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
97 Larson, B. K., "U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018," ExxonMobil, accessed September 13, 2021.
98 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Programs, Reformulated Gasoline and Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed September 13, 2021.
99 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
100 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
101 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Energy Assurance Plan (September 14, 2012), p. IV-7.
102 U.S. EIA, New York Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet), 1977-2019.
103 U.S. EIA, New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2020.
104 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York's Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, Part 1 (2007), Crude Oil Refining in New York State, p. 8.
105 U.S. EIA, New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2020.
106 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New York, Annual, 2015-20.
107 Soeder, Daniel J., Resource and Environmental Studies on the Marcellus Shale, National Energy Technology Laboratory (2008), p. 5-6.
108 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4.
109 Kaplan, Thomas, "Citing Health Risks, Cuomo Bans Fracking in New York State," The New York Times (December 17, 2014).
110 Guerrero, Marisa, "New York State Codifies Fracking Ban in Budget," Natural Resources Defense Council (April 3, 2020).
111 U.S. EIA, Marcellus Shale Play Geology review, Updates to the Marcellus Shale Play Maps (January 2017), p. 3.
112 U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Estimates 214 trillion Cubic Feet of Natural Gas in Appalachian Basin Formations, accessed September 27, 2021.
113 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
114 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New York, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
115 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
116 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New York, Annual, 2015-20.
117 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, New York, Compressed Natural Gas, Access Public and Private, Available, accessed September 15, 2021.
118 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, New York, Annual, 2015-20.
119 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region, accessed September 15, 2021.
120 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
121 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, New York, Table DS-27, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
122 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, New York, Table DS-30, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
123 Prohaska, Thomas J., "New York's last coal-burning power plant closes on Lake Ontario shore," The Buffalo News (March 30, 2020).
124 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, Coal Exports by Customs District, and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.


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