New Mexico State Energy Profile



New Mexico Quick Facts

  • New Mexico is the nation’s third-largest oil-producing state, after Texas and North Dakota, and is one of only three states that saw an increase in production from 2019 to 2020, when New Mexico accounted for more than 9% of U.S. crude oil production.
  • New Mexico is among the top 10 natural gas-producing states and has about 5% of the nation’s proved dry natural gas reserves. In 2020, the state accounted for about 5% of U.S. gross withdrawals of natural gas.
  • New Mexico has about 2% of the nation’s estimated recoverable coal reserves and has the ninth-largest reserve base among the states. In 2019, the state accounted for 2% of U.S. coal production.
  • In 2020, wind energy accounted for 21% of New Mexico’s utility-scale electricity net generation. and by the end of the year the state had about  2,558 megawatts of wind-powered electricity generating capacity.
  • New Mexico has no nuclear power plants, but it does have the nation's second-largest amount of known uranium reserves. As of 2019, two uranium in-situ leach plant projects in New Mexico were in the permitting and licensing process.

Last Updated: March 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: May 20, 2021 | Next Update: June 17, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Population 2.1 million 0.6% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.9 million 0.6% Mar-21  
Economy New Mexico U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 104.0 billion 38 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,391 million 44 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 45,803 49 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 27,772 million miles 36 2019  
Land in Farms 40.7 million acres 6 2017  
Climate New Mexico U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 56.0 degrees Fahrenheit 18 2020  
Precipitation 8.3 inches 45 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 57.07 /barrel $ 56.72 /barrel Feb-21  
Natural Gas New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 12.43 /thousand cu ft Feb-21 find more
Residential $ 6.90 /thousand cu ft $ 9.55 /thousand cu ft Feb-21 find more
Coal New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 39.71 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.38 /million Btu $ 1.92 /million Btu Feb-21  
Electricity New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.93 cents/kWh 13.34 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Commercial 10.31 cents/kWh 11.93 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Industrial 5.83 cents/kWh 8.15 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 3,456 million barrels 7.8% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 21,509 billion cu ft 4.6% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,571 million barrels 7.3% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 82 million short tons 0.6% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 39,104 wells 8.0% 2019 find more
Capacity New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 137,000 barrels/calendar day 0.7% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,271 MW 0.8% Feb-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,432 trillion Btu 3.6% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 981 thousand barrels per day 9.9% Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 1,787,334 million cu ft 4.9% 2019 find more
Coal 14,536 thousand short tons 2.1% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 2,419 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Mexico U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.5 % Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 30.2 % 34.1 % Feb-21 find more
Coal-Fired 32.4 % 26.9 % Feb-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 19.3 % Feb-21 find more
Renewables 36.0 % 18.7 % Feb-21  
Stocks New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 18 thousand barrels 0.1% Feb-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 276 thousand barrels 0.2% Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 63,894 million cu ft 1.0% Feb-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 16 thousand barrels 0.1% Feb-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Feb-21 find more
Fueling Stations New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 841 stations 0.7% 2019  
Propane 55 stations 2.0% 2021  
Electricity 144 stations 0.4% 2021  
E85 9 stations 0.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 9 stations 0.7% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Mexico U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 703 trillion Btu 38 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 336 million Btu 19 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 8,275 million 38 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,954 26 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 120 trillion Btu 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 123 trillion Btu 0.7% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 231 trillion Btu 0.7% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 228 trillion Btu 0.8% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,312 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,140 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,054 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,769 million 0.8% 2018 find more
by Source New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 51 million barrels 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 296 billion cu ft 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 8 million short tons 1.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 5,301 million 0.8% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 574 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 378 million 1.5% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas 6,193 million cu ft 0.8% Feb-21 find more
Coal 460 thousand short tons 1.0% Feb-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Mexico U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 61.8 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 22.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 6.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 9.2 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,554 MW 1.3% Feb-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 869 thousand MWh 2.5% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 2 thousand MWh * Feb-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 31 thousand MWh 1.0% Feb-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Mexico U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 13.5 % 18 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,529 thousand barrels 36 2019  
Total Emissions New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 45.5 million metric tons 0.9% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 20,386 thousand metric tons 1.2% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 15 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2019  

Analysis



Last Updated: March 18, 2021

Overview

New Mexico is home to the forested peaks and valleys of the southern Rocky Mountains, high plateaus of the Great Plains, and spectacular desert canyons and mesas.1,2 In addition to its dramatic vistas, the state has a wealth of fossil fuel, mineral, and renewable energy resources, including strong winds and abundant sunshine. New Mexico also has a significant portion of the nation's known uranium reserves.3,4,5,6,7 However, the state's crude oil, natural gas, and coal production help place New Mexico among the nation's top 10 energy-producing states.8

New Mexico is one of the top 10 energy producers in the nation.

New Mexico's lowest elevation is more than half a mile above sea level and its highest, Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, rises to more than two miles above sea level. The climate varies widely by location and elevation, from the deserts in the south, where summer temperatures above 100°F are common, to snowy peaks in the north, where winter temperatures have fallen to 50°F below zero. New Mexico ranks 36th in population and is the fifth-largest state by land area.9,10 As a result, the state is the sixth-least densely populated in the nation.11 More than one in four residents live in the city of Albuquerque, leaving about two-thirds of the state with fewer than 10 people per square mile.12,13

New Mexico's industrial sector and transportation sector each account for about one-third of state energy use.14 The transportation sector uses more energy per capita than it does in almost three-fourths of the states.15 The rest of New Mexico's energy use is evenly split between the residential sector and the commercial sector.16 The residential sector consumes less energy per capita than in all but six other states despite New Mexico's weather extremes.17 Overall, the state's energy consumption per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) and New Mexico's energy consumption per capita are both ranked among the top 20 states.18 Although mining, including oil and natural gas production, accounts for about one-tenth of New Mexico's GDP, more than one-fourth of state GDP is from less energy-intensive service sector businesses, including finance, insurance, real estate, and business and professional services. Nearly one-fourth of state GDP comes from government activities, including federal enterprises such as the Department of Energy's Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. Those laboratories and other large U.S. government research and development facilities account for about 1 in 10 jobs in New Mexico.19,20

Petroleum

New Mexico has about 8% of U.S. total proved crude oil reserves.21 The state's crude oil production was steady for several decades, but it has increased significantly in the past 10 years.22 In 2020, annual production was more than five times greater than it was in 2011. New Mexico is the nation's third-largest oil-producing state, after Texas and North Dakota, and it is one of only three states that saw an increase in production in 2020. The state accounted for more than 9% of U.S. crude oil production that year.23 Most of New Mexico's oil production comes from the Permian Basin.24 Located in eastern New Mexico and western Texas, the Permian Basin is one of the most prolific crude oil-producing areas in the nation and the world.25 Advanced drilling and oil recovery technologies have increased production from the Basin's low-permeability shale formations. New Mexico's crude oil production exceeded 1 million barrels per day for the first time in 2020.26,27,28 Pipeline operators have accommodated New Mexico's increased crude oil production with pipeline expansions and new construction.29

The Permian Basin in Texas and New Mexico is one of the most prolific petroleum-producing areas in the nation.

New Mexico has two operating oil refineries that have a combined processing capacity of about 137,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.30 Local San Juan Basin crude oil, known as Four Corners Sweet, is the main feedstock for a small refinery in Gallup, New Mexico. It is the only active refinery in the Four Corners area, where the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado meet. The Gallup refinery supplies the region with motor gasoline, diesel, propane, and heavy fuel oils.31 The larger refinery is located in Artesia in southeastern New Mexico and can process both heavy sour and light sweet crude oils. Most of the crude oil processed at Artesia comes from the Permian Basin, but some of it is brought by pipeline from other areas, including Canada. That refinery serves markets in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.32

Petroleum consumption per capita in New Mexico is greater than in about two-thirds of the states.33 The transportation sector is the leading petroleum consumer in New Mexico and accounts for more than four-fifths of all petroleum used in the state.34 More than half of that petroleum is consumed as motor gasoline.35 Metropolitan Albuquerque is the only area in the state that requires the use of oxygenated motor gasoline to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.36,37 Ethanol is used as the oxygenate and is blended with motor gasoline at fuel terminals. New Mexico accounts for less than 1% of the nation's fuel ethanol consumption, and, because the state does not have any commercial ethanol production, supplies come from the Midwest.38,39,40 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in New Mexico, using about 14%. The residential and commercial sectors each consume about 2%.41 Almost 6% of New Mexico households use hydrocarbon gas liquids, primarily propane, for home heating, but only 0.2% use fuel oil or kerosene.42

Natural gas

New Mexico is among the top 10 natural gas producers in the nation.

New Mexico is among the top 10 natural gas producers in the nation and has abundant natural gas deposits in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the state.43 New Mexico has about 5% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves, and in 2020, accounted for 5% of the nation's total natural gas production.44,45 Natural gas is produced from shales, low permeability sands, and coalbeds in the San Juan Basin, which is located in northwestern New Mexico and extends into southwestern Colorado, and from oil and gas wells in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico.46 The San Juan Basin is among the top five U.S. natural gas-producing areas.47 In 2019, New Mexico's natural gas production from shale gas wells was more than 10 times greater than it was in 2011 and accounted for almost three-fifths of the natural gas produced in the state.48,49 New Mexico is one of fewer than 20 states that produce natural gas from coalbeds. In 2019, the state accounted for one-fourth of the nation's total coalbed methane production.50,51 Even though coalbed methane production in the state fell by almost two-thirds from its 2007 peak of more than 600 billion cubic feet, New Mexico's coalbed methane production is still second only to Colorado's.

New Mexico is crossed by several interstate natural gas pipelines.52 There is a major connection and trading point for interstate pipelines carrying Rocky Mountain natural gas in the San Juan Basin.53 Because New Mexico produces more natural gas than it consumes, more than twice as much natural gas leaves the state as enters it.54,55 Most of the natural gas that enters New Mexico comes from Texas and Colorado, and most of the natural gas that leaves the state is sent to Arizona.56 Some of New Mexico's natural gas is placed in the state's two underground storage fields.57 Those fields have a combined storage capacity of about 89 billion cubic feet of natural gas, or about 1% of the nation's total.58

New Mexico consumes less than one-sixth of the natural gas it produces, but it is among the top 10 states in the nation in per capita natural gas consumption.59,60 The electric power sector is New Mexico's largest natural gas user and accounts for about 35% of the state's total natural gas consumption. About 34% is used in the production and distribution of energy. The state's residential sector accounts for about 14% even though more than three in five households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating. The commercial sector uses 10%, and the industrial sector uses almost all the rest. A small amount is consumed in the transportation sector.61,62

Coal

New Mexico has more than 2% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves, and in 2019, it was among the 10 states with the largest reserve base.63 Most of the state's known coal reserves are in northern New Mexico in the San Juan and Raton Basins. The San Juan Basin is the state's largest coal-bearing region and the only area currently being mined.64 In 2019, New Mexico's active coal mines accounted for about 2% of U.S. total coal production, less than half of the almost 30 million tons the state produced in 2001.65,66 In 2019, all of the coal mined in New Mexico was either used in the state or shipped by rail to Arizona for power generation. A small amount of coal from Colorado was delivered to industrial facilities and power plants in New Mexico.67 None of New Mexico's coal was exported to other countries.68

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants provide the largest, but declining, share of New Mexico’s in-state electricity generation.

Coal and natural gas fuel the largest share of New Mexico's in-state electric generation, but coal's share has steadily declined in recent years. In 1990, about 90% of in-state generation was fueled by coal, but, by 2020, coal-fired generation contributed 37%, which was less than half of state generation for the third year in a row.69,70 New Mexico's coal-fired power generation declined in part because of strict air quality regulations, more competitively priced natural gas supplies, and California's decision in 2014 to stop purchasing coal-fired generation from other states. Coal power plants supplied 24.1 million megawatthours in 2013 and less than 12.8 million megawatthours in 2020.71,72 Three of New Mexico's 10 largest power plants, including the two biggest, were coal-fired in 2019. However, three of the generating units at the state's largest coal plant were retired in 2013, and two of the four coal-fired generating units at the second-largest power plant were shut down in late 2017. That power plant is scheduled for retirement in 2022.73,74 A third coal-fired power plant, also one of the state's 10 largest in 2019, was retired in 2020.75

As coal's share of generation declined, the contributions from natural gas and renewables have increased. Natural gas fueled 43% more power in 2020 than it did in 2011 even though there was only a 6% increase in natural gas-fueled capacity. In 2020, natural gas-fired power plants accounted for about 36% of New Mexico's in-state utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity net generation, up from 22% ten years earlier.76 Renewable resources, primarily wind, provided 27% of the state's utility-scale net generation in 2020, up from about 6% in 2011.77 All of New Mexico's proposed electricity generating capacity is slated to use renewable energy or natural gas.78

New Mexico has no nuclear power plants, but it does have the second-largest uranium reserves in the nation.79,80 There are no active uranium mines in New Mexico, but substantial amounts of uranium were mined in the state between 1948 and 2002. Several companies have plans to recover uranium by in-situ leaching.81 That process avoids removing the ore from depth by chemically dissolving the mineral in place and then pumping the solution to the surface for mineral recovery.82 Two new uranium in-situ leaching plants are in development in New Mexico's San Juan Basin. Those plants are in the permitting and licensing process and will have an anticipated combined capacity of 2 million pounds per year.83

In 2020, New Mexico's industrial sector accounted for the largest share electricity retail sales in the state at 37%, and the commercial sector's share was 34%. The residential sector, where almost one in four households use electricity as the primary source for home heating, accounted for 29%.84,85 In 2020, residential electricity retail sales per capita in New Mexico were less than in all but 10 states and the District of Columbia, and New Mexico used less total electricity per capita than about half of the states.86,87 Because the state consumes less electricity than it produces, New Mexico is a net supplier of electricity to neighboring states.88

Renewable energy

New Mexico has substantial renewable resources, and they provided more than one-fourth of New Mexico's utility-scale in-state electricity net generation in 2020. There is significant wind energy potential on the high plains in the eastern half of the state. Wind energy contributed most of the state's renewable generation and one-fifth of New Mexico's in-state net generation from all fuels.89,90,91 The largest wind farm in the state, a 522-megawatt wind facility in eastern New Mexico, came online in December 2020, increasing the state's installed wind capacity to about 2,558 megawatts.92,93,94

New Mexico's climate is typified by abundant sunshine, and the state is one of the top three in the nation with the best solar energy potential.95,96 Utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided 5% of New Mexico's in-state net generation in 2020, and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar PV installations supplied about 1%.97 New Mexico does not have any in-state solar thermal electricity net generation, but the Sandia National Laboratories, headquartered in Albuquerque, is the home of the National Solar Thermal Testing Facility, which provides data for the design, construction, and operation of components used in solar thermal power plants that concentrate the sun's rays to generate power.98

Biomass contributes minor amounts to New Mexico's electricity net generation, but 7% of New Mexico households heat with wood.99,100 The state has two wood pellet manufacturing plants that produce pellets used for heating and power generation. A third pellet plant is under construction. That plant will manufacture pellets from sawmill waste and other wood by-products.101,102

New Mexico has the nation's sixth-largest geothermal potential, most of which is in the southwestern and north-central parts of the state.103 Geothermal energy has many direct use applications. It is used to heat greenhouses in New Mexico, much of it to raise the state's famed green chilies, and for aquaculture. Geothermal energy also is used for space heating, district heating, and spas.104 In December 2013, the state's first and only utility-scale geothermal power plant came online in southwestern New Mexico. In 2018, the plant added a new generating unit that increased its nameplate capacity from 4 megawatts to about 19 megawatts.105

In 2019, New Mexico revised its 2004 renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and increased the state's required renewable energy targets. The 2019 law set new goals for investor-owned utilities of 50% of electricity retail sales from renewable resources by 2030, 80% by 2040, and 100% by 2045. Rural electric cooperatives have until 2050 to reach the 100% requirement.106 New Mexico also has regulatory and financial policies that favor renewable energy. They include net metering, solar easements, interconnection standards, and financial incentives.107

Energy on tribal lands

New Mexico is home to 23 federally recognized Native American tribes. Tribal lands cover more than one-tenth of the state, giving New Mexico the third-largest tribal acreage—after Alaska and Arizona—among all states.108,109 Two of New Mexico's largest reservations—the Navajo Reservation and the Jicarilla Apache Reservation—are in the oil and gas-rich Four Corners region of northwestern New Mexico.110 The Jicarilla Apache Nation's reservation is on the east flank of the San Juan Basin—a prolific natural gas and crude oil producing area in the Four Corners region. The tribe is the second-largest mineral rights owner in the basin after the federal government, and the reservation has within its boundaries several oil and gas fields.111 The Navajo Nation, whose reservation is in portions of three states, has oil and gas operations on its lands in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico as well as several fields in southeastern Utah. The Nation owns and operates a crude oil pipeline between New Mexico and Utah.112 The Navajo Nation also owns the Navajo Mine, located on reservation land in New Mexico. That mine is the source of the coal used by the Four Corners Generating Station, the largest power plant in New Mexico, which is also on the reservation.113,114 In 2018, the Navajo Nation expanded its holdings and acquired an interest in the Four Corners Generating Station.115

All of New Mexico's reservations have some renewable energy resources, including solar, geothermal, and wind energy.116 In 2020, construction began on a solar farm on Jicarilla Apache Nation reservation land as part of a partnership between the tribe and New Mexico's largest electric utility. The 50-megawatt facility will be the third-largest solar project on tribal land in the nation.117 In 2017, the Picuris Pueblo of northern New Mexico completed a 1-megawatt community solar PV array that offset 100% of the cost of the energy previously used by the tribal buildings and residences on Picuris trust land.118 In 2018, the Pueblo received funding to initiate development of a second 1-megawatt generating system.119,120 Several tribes use small-scale, customer-sited solar PV installations. In 2017, the Santo Domingo Tribe completed installation of a 115-kilowatt PV system to power the tribe's community water pump and water treatment facility.121,122 Almost all New Mexico reservations have some geothermal resource potential, but there are no geothermal-powered generating facilities on tribal lands.123,124 Although some ridges on reservation lands have wind energy resources, New Mexico's greatest wind energy potential is in the east, whereas most of the state's tribal lands are in the west.125,126

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The Geography of New Mexico, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Earth Observatory, Mesas and Mountains of Western New Mexico, accessed February 14, 2021.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved reserves as of December 31, 2019.
4 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2019.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2019 and 2018.
6 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
7 Uranium Producers of America, Uranium in America, Uranium in New Mexico, accessed February 14, 2021.
8 U.S. EIA, New Mexico, Rankings: Total Energy Production, 2018.
9 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of New Mexico, accessed February 14, 2021.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, Vintage 2020 Population Estimates, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the Nation and States, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
11 States 101, U.S. States Populations, Land Area, and Population Density, accessed February 14, 2021.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, New Mexico; Albuquerque (city), New Mexico; United States, Population estimates July 1, 2019.
13 USA.com, New Mexico Population Density County Rank and New Mexico Land Area County Rank, accessed February 14, 2021.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, Current Dollars, New Mexico, All Statistics in Table, 2019.
20 Maverick, J. B., "New Mexico: 7 Industries for Economic Growth," Investopedia (October 6, 2018).
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019, Table 6, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of crude oil and lease condensate, 2019.
22 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil, Thousand Barrels, Annual, 1981-2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Monthly-Thousand Barrels, Download series history, 2019, 2020.
24 New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Oil & Gas Program, Importance of Oil & Gas in New Mexico, updated June 3, 2019.
25 DiChristopher, Tom, "The Permian Basin in Texas and New Mexico will soon become the third-biggest oil producing region in the world: IHS Markit," CNBC (June 13, 2018).
26 New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Oil & Gas Program, Importance of Oil & Gas in New Mexico, updated June 3, 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, "Six formations are responsible for surge in Permian Basin crude oil production," Today in Energy (July 9, 2014).
28 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, Thousand Barrels per Day, January 1981-December 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, "Permian region crude oil prices have increased with additional pipeline takeaway capacity," Today in Energy (March 26, 2019).
30 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020, p. 14.
31 Marathon, Gallup Refinery, accessed February 16, 2021.
32 HollyFrontier, Navajo Refinery, accessed February 16, 2021.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
36 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA-420-B-03-003, October 2001.
37 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, As of January 2018, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
38 U.S. EIA, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, XLS, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity, January 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Fuel Ethanol, Annual, 2019.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
43 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Energy Policy and Implementation Plan - Energy Background, Energy Geography, accessed February 17, 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019, Table 15, Estimated proved reserves of natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2020.
46 NGI's Shale Daily, Information on the San Juan Basin, accessed February 17, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, New Mexico, Annual, 2015-20.
49 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, 2007-19.
50 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Coalbed Wells, 2002-19.
51 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2014-19.
52 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, accessed February 18, 2021.
53 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Energy Policy and Implementation Plan, Energy Background, Energy Infrastructure, Pipelines, Refineries, Hubs, and Nuclear Infrastructure, accessed February 18, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Mexico, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2019-20.
56 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Mexico, 2014-19.
57 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2019.
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