New Mexico State Energy Profile



New Mexico Quick Facts

  • New Mexico is the nation’s second-largest crude oil-producing state, after Texas. In 2023, the state accounted for 14% of total U.S. crude oil production.
  • New Mexico is among the top 10 natural gas-producing states and accounts for 7% of the nation’s total natural gas gross withdrawals. The state also has almost 7% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves.
  • New Mexico has almost 3% of the nation’s estimated recoverable coal reserves, 10th-largest among the states. The state accounts for about 1% of total U.S. coal production.
  • New Mexico ranks eighth in the nation in electricity generation from wind power. About 38% of New Mexico’s total electricity net generation came from wind in 2023, and wind power was more than six times greater than in 2015.
  • New Mexico is 1 of 16 states that produces natural gas from coalbeds. The state is second only to Colorado in coalbed methane production and accounts for one-fourth of the nation’s total.

Last Updated: June 20, 2024



Data

Last Update: June 20, 2024 | Next Update: July 18, 2024

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Population 2.1 million 0.6% 2023  
Civilian Labor Force 1.0 million 0.6% Apr-24  
Economy New Mexico U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 130.2 billion 38 2023  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,385 million 45 2023  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 54,428 46 2023  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 26,831 million miles 36 2022  
Land in Farms 39.1 million acres 6 2023  
Climate New Mexico U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 55.4 degrees Fahrenheit 20 2023  
Precipitation 10.8 inches 49 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 80.21 /barrel $ 78.97 /barrel Mar-24  
Natural Gas New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 4.05 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Residential NA $ 13.85 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Coal New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 44.07 /short ton $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.68 /million Btu $ 2.49 /million Btu Mar-24  
Electricity New Mexico U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.49 cents/kWh 16.68 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Commercial 10.37 cents/kWh 12.76 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Industrial 5.86 cents/kWh 7.73 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 4,517 million barrels 11.0% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 33,072 billion cu ft 5.6% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2,172 million barrels 8.3% 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 36 million short tons 0.3% 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 32,529 wells 6.7% 2020 find more
Capacity New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 110,000 barrels/calendar day 0.6% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 11,029 MW 0.9% Mar-24  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 5,505 trillion Btu 5.6% 2021 find more
Crude Oil 2,014 thousand barrels per day 15.3% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 2,687,231 million cu ft 6.8% 2022 find more
Coal 10,550 thousand short tons 1.8% 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,223 thousand MWh 1.0% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Mexico U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 27.4 % 40.3 % Mar-24 find more
Coal-Fired 16.4 % 11.9 % Mar-24 find more
Nuclear 0.0 % 19.6 % Mar-24 find more
Renewables 55.9 % 27.6 % Mar-24  
Stocks New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 28 thousand barrels 0.3% Mar-24  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 350 thousand barrels 0.4% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 70,600 million cu ft 1.0% Mar-24 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers NM NM Mar-24 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Mar-24 find more
Fueling Stations New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 806 stations 0.7% 2021  
Propane 59 stations 2.5% May-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 279 stations 0.4% May-24  
E85 13 stations 0.3% May-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 10 stations 0.4% May-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Mexico U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 688 trillion Btu 39 2022 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 349 million Btu 18 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 11,755 million 37 2022 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,333 20 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 108 trillion Btu 0.6% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial 103 trillion Btu 0.6% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial 248 trillion Btu 0.8% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation 230 trillion Btu 0.8% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,693 million 0.5% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,451 million 0.6% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,466 million 0.5% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation $ 7,145 million 0.8% 2022 find more
by Source New Mexico Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 49 million barrels 0.7% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas 293 billion cu ft 0.9% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 7,432 thousand short tons 1.4% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 8,158 million 0.8% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,405 million 0.5% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 406 million 1.5% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas 7,562 million cu ft 0.8% Mar-24 find more
Coal 288 thousand tons 1.3% Mar-24 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Mexico U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 62.8 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 21.9 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 7.1 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 8.1 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 5,941 MW 1.7% Mar-24  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2023  
Renewable Energy Production New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,799 thousand MWh 2.9% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation NM NM Mar-24  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 70 thousand MWh 1.0% Mar-24  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Mexico U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 18.8 % 13 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,583 thousand barrels 36 2021  
Total Emissions New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 45.9 million metric tons 0.9% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Mexico Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 18,112 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 11 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2022  

Analysis



Last Updated: June 20, 2024

Overview

New Mexico is the fifth-largest energy-producing state.

New Mexico is home to the forested peaks and valleys of the southern Rocky Mountains, high plateaus of the Great Plains, and spectacular desert canyons and mesas. Elevations in the state range from New Mexico's lowest point of less than 3,000 feet above sea level to its highest at Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, more than 13,000 feet above sea level.1,2 In addition to its dramatic vistas, the state has a wealth of fossil fuel, mineral, and renewable energy resources, including substantial oil and natural gas reserves, abundant sunshine, strong winds, and a large portion of the nation's known uranium reserves.3,4,5,6 New Mexico is the fifth-largest energy producer in the nation, primarily because of its crude oil, natural gas, and coal production.7 About one-third of the state's surface acreage and nearly half of New Mexico's minerals acreage is administered by the federal government, and the state has the nation's second-largest number of producing crude oil and natural gas leases on federal lands, after Wyoming.8,9

New Mexico is the 5th-largest state by land area and ranks 36th in population.10,11 As a result, the state is the sixth-least densely populated in the nation.12 More than one in four New Mexico residents live in the city of Albuquerque, and most of the state has fewer than 5 people per square mile.13,14 New Mexico's energy consumption per capita and energy consumption per dollar of state gross domestic product (GDP) are both in the top two-fifths of the states and above the national average.15,16 Crude oil and natural gas extraction, along with coal and mineral mining and related support activities, are major contributors to New Mexico's GDP and tax revenue.17 The second-highest average weekly wages in the state are in mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction.18

Among the state's end-users, the industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy. It accounts for about one-third of the state's total energy consumption. The transportation sector ranks among the top 10 states in per capita energy use and accounts for slightly less than one-third of New Mexico's total energy consumption. The rest of the state's energy use is split between the residential sector and the commercial sector.19,20 Despite the state's climate extremes, with summer temperatures above 100°F common in the desert south and winter temperatures that have fallen to 50°F below zero in the snowy peaks in the north, energy consumption per capita in New Mexico's residential sector is lower than in all but 7 other states.21,22 Although energy-intensive industries, such as oil and natural gas production and mining, are important contributors to New Mexico's GDP, a much larger share of state GDP is from less energy-intensive service sector businesses. Government activities, including the U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories, account for about one-fifth of state GDP and of non-farm jobs in New Mexico.23,24 Even so, New Mexico's energy intensity—the amount of energy needed to produce each dollar of GDP—is greater than in two-thirds of the states.25

Petroleum

New Mexico is the nation’s second-largest crude oil-producing state after Texas.

In 2023, New Mexico was the nation's second-largest crude oil-producing state, after Texas, and it accounted for more than 14% of the nation's total crude oil production and about 13% of U.S. total proved crude oil reserves.26,27 New Mexico's crude oil production has increased significantly since 2010 and more than doubled since 2018.28 Most of the increased output comes from the Permian Basin, which is located in eastern New Mexico and western Texas. The Permian Basin is one of the most prolific crude oil-producing areas in the nation and the world.29,30,31 Advanced drilling and oil recovery technologies have increased production from the Basin's low-permeability shale formations.32 In 2023, New Mexico's annual crude oil production reached an all-time high of just over 1.8 million barrels per day, 10 times greater than it was in 2010.33

New Mexico's one remaining crude oil refinery is located in Artesia in southeastern New Mexico. It has a refining capacity of about 110,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and can process both heavy sour and light sweet crude oils.34 Most of the crude oil processed at Artesia comes from the Permian Basin, but some comes by pipeline from other areas, including Canada. The refinery serves markets in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.35 A second, small refinery in northwestern New Mexico, which processed local San Juan Basin crude oil, closed in 2020.36

New Mexico's per capita petroleum consumption is greater than in about two-thirds of the states.37 The transportation sector is the leading petroleum consumer in New Mexico and accounts for 82% of all petroleum used in the state.38 Slightly more than half of that petroleum was consumed as motor gasoline.39 Metropolitan Albuquerque is the only area in the state that requires the use of oxygenated motor gasoline to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.40 Ethanol is used as the oxygenate and is blended with motor gasoline at fuel terminals. New Mexico accounts for less than 1% of the nation's fuel ethanol consumption, and because the state does not have any commercial fuel ethanol plants, ethanol supplies come mainly from the Midwest.41,42,43 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in New Mexico, and it accounts for about 13% of the petroleum used in the state. The residential sector, where about 7 in 100 households use petroleum products (mostly propane) for space heating, consumes about 3%. The commercial sector accounted for 2%, and the electric power sector uses a small amount.44,45

Natural gas

New Mexico is among the top 10 natural gas-producing states in the nation.

New Mexico is among the top 10 natural gas producing states in the nation.46 As with crude oil, the state's major natural gas deposits are in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the state.47 Almost 7% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves are in New Mexico.48 In 2023, the state's annual natural gas gross withdrawals exceeded 3 trillion cubic feet for the first time, and New Mexico accounted for 7% of the nation's total natural gas production.49 Natural gas is produced from low permeability sands, from coalbeds as coalbed methane, and from shale-gas wells in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico. Conventional oil and gas wells and shale gas wells in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico also produce large amounts of natural gas.50,51 New Mexico's natural gas production from shale gas wells accounts for about three-fourths of the total natural gas produced in the state.52,53 New Mexico also is 1 of only 16 states that produce natural gas from coalbeds. In 2022, the state was second only to Colorado in coalbed methane production. Even though New Mexico's coalbed methane production declined to less than one-third of its 2007 peak of more than 616 billion cubic feet, it accounted for one-fourth of the nation's total in 2022.54,55

Interstate deliveries of natural gas enter New Mexico from Colorado and Texas by pipeline. However, because New Mexico produces much more natural gas than it consumes, more than three times as much natural gas leaves the state as enters it. Most of that natural gas goes to Arizona and Texas.56,57,58 Some of New Mexico's natural gas is placed in the state's two underground storage fields.59 Those fields have a combined storage capacity of about 89 billion cubic feet of natural gas, equal to about 1% of the nation's total storage capacity.60

New Mexico produces about nine times more natural gas than it consumes.61,62 About three-fifths of the natural gas consumed in New Mexico went to end users in 2022. The rest was used in the production, processing, and distribution of natural gas.63 The electric power sector is New Mexico's largest natural gas consumer. In 2022, electric power generation accounted for 53% of the state's natural gas deliveries to consumers. The state's residential sector, where about six in ten households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating, accounted for 22% of end-use deliveries.64,65 The commercial sector accounted for 17%, and the industrial sector used nearly 8%. The transportation sector consumed a small amount as compressed natural gas vehicle fuel.66

Coal

New Mexico has almost 3% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and coal resources are estimated to underlie 12% of the state.67,68 Most of the state's known coal reserves are in northern New Mexico in the San Juan and Raton Basins. The San Juan Basin is the state's largest coal-bearing region and the only area currently being mined.69,70 In 2023, New Mexico's coal production from its three active mines was just under 8 million tons, equal to about 1% of U.S. total coal production and down almost two-thirds from the state's coal output a decade earlier.71,72,73 All of the coal mined in New Mexico was used for power generation in either New Mexico or Arizona.74 Industrial facilities in New Mexico received a small amount of coal from Colorado.75

Electricity

In 2023, natural gas supplied 34% of New Mexico’s total in-state generation, surpassing coal’s contribution for the first time.

Renewable energy is the largest source of New Mexico's total in-state electricity generation. In 2023, wind power alone accounted for 38% of total in-state generation. Natural gas supplied more electricity in 2023 than coal for the first time, providing 34% of the state's generation. Coal was the third-largest source of in-state generation at 19%, down from almost 90% two decades earlier.76 Until 2022, New Mexico's two largest power plants were coal-fired, but the San Juan Generating Station, the second-largest, was retired in mid-2022.77 About 2,500 megawatts of the state's coal-fired capacity has retired since 2010.78 Solar energy supplied almost all the rest of the New Mexico's in-state generation in 2023, about one-fifth of it from small-scale, customer-sited generation.79 All of New Mexico's planned electricity generating capacity additions in 2024 and 2025 are solar photovoltaic (PV) or battery energy storage installations.80

New Mexico has no nuclear power plants, but it does have some of the largest known uranium reserves in the nation.81,82 Although there are no active uranium mines in New Mexico, uranium was mined in the state between 1948 and 2002. Several companies have plans to recover uranium by in-situ leaching.83,84 That process avoids removing the ore from depth by chemically dissolving the mineral in place and then pumping the solution to the surface for uranium recovery.85 Two uranium in-situ leaching plants are in development in New Mexico's San Juan Basin. Those plants are in the permitting and licensing process, and each will have a production capacity of 1 million pounds per year.86

In 2023, New Mexico's industrial sector accounted for about two-fifths of electricity sales, and the commercial sector accounted for about one-third. The residential sector, where 22% of households use electricity as the primary source for home heating and 85% of homes use air conditioning, accounted for around one-fourth.87,88,89 Although New Mexico's per capita residential electricity sales are among the lowest 10 states, the state's total electricity use per capita is more than in almost half of the states.90 However, because the state consumes less electricity than it produces, New Mexico is a net supplier of electricity to neighboring states.91

Renewable energy

In 2023, renewable resources provided 47% of New Mexico’s in-state electricity generation.

In 2023, renewable resources supplied about 47% of New Mexico's in-state electricity net generation from utility-scale (1 megawatt and larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities combined. The amount of total electricity generation from renewable resources in the state was more than six times greater in 2023 than in 2015.92 New Mexico is among the top five states in wind energy potential.93 Much of it is on the high plains in the eastern half of the state.94 In 2023, wind energy contributed 81% of New Mexico's renewable generation and provided the largest share of the state's total in-state generation at 38%.95 Five of New Mexico's 10 largest power plants by capacity and annual generation are wind farms.96 The largest in the state is a 522-megawatt wind facility in eastern New Mexico. It came online in December 2020.97 At the end of 2023, New Mexico ranked ninth in the nation in wind power capacity with about 4,400 megawatts installed.98 Another 1,800 megawatts of solar power capacity and related battery energy storage are scheduled to come online in the state during 2024.99

New Mexico's climate is typified by abundant sunshine, and there are high solar energy resources throughout the state.100,101 Utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided about 6% of New Mexico's total in-state net generation in 2023, and small-scale, customer-sited solar PV installations supplied almost 2%.102 New Mexico does not have any in-state solar thermal power plants that concentrate the sun's rays to generate power. However, the Sandia National Laboratories, headquartered in Albuquerque, is the home of the National Solar Thermal Testing Facility, which provides data for the design, construction, and operation of components used in solar thermal power plants.103

New Mexico has the nation's sixth-largest geothermal energy potential, most of which is in the southwestern and north-central parts of the state.104 Geothermal energy has many direct use applications in the state. It is used to heat greenhouses in New Mexico, many of which are used to raise the state's famed green chilies, and for aquaculture. Geothermal energy also is used for space heating, district heating, and spas.105 In December 2013, the state's first and only utility-scale geothermal power plant came online in southwestern New Mexico. In 2018, the plant added a new generating unit that increased its nameplate capacity from 4 megawatts to about 19 megawatts.106 New Mexico was one of seven states with geothermal utility-scale generation in 2023.107 Biomass contributes a minor amount to New Mexico's electricity net generation, but about 6% of New Mexico households heat with wood.108,109 The state's biomass resources, including wood product manufacturing waste, provide the feedstock for New Mexico's three wood pellet manufacturing plants. Those plants can produce a combined total of about 19,000 tons of pellets annually. Wood pellets are used for heating and electricity generation.110

In 2019, New Mexico revised its 2004 renewable portfolio standard and increased the state's required renewable energy targets. The 2019 law set new goals for investor-owned utilities, requiring that 50% of their electricity retail sales come from renewable resources by 2030, 80% by 2040, and 100% by 2045. Rural electric cooperatives are given until 2050 to reach the 100% requirement. The legislation defines renewable energy as electric energy generated by low- or zero-emissions sources with substantial long-term production potential. It does not include nuclear power or any fossil energy fueled generation. Qualifying sources include: solar; wind; geothermal; biomass; hydropower facilities brought in service after July 1, 2007; and fuel cells that are not fossil energy-fueled. Electric cooperatives may count energy produced by geothermal heat pumps toward their requirements.111 New Mexico also has regulatory and fiscal policies that encourage renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. Those include net metering, solar easements, interconnection standards, and financial incentives.112

Energy on tribal lands

New Mexico is home to 22 federally recognized Native American tribes.113,114 Tribal lands cover more than 7 million acres, or about one-tenth of the state, giving New Mexico the third-largest tribal acreage among the states, after Alaska and Arizona.115 Much of that land has significant energy resources. Two of New Mexico's largest reservations—the Jicarilla Apache Reservation and the Navajo Reservation—are in the crude oil and natural gas-rich Four Corners region of northwestern New Mexico.116 The Jicarilla Apache Nation's reservation is on the east flank of the San Juan Basin, a prolific natural gas and crude oil-producing area in the Four Corners region. The tribe is the second-largest mineral rights owner in the basin after the federal government, and also has within its reservation's boundaries several oil and gas fields.117 The Navajo Nation, whose reservation is in portions of three states, has oil and gas operations on its lands in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico and has additional potential for crude oil and natural gas recovery from shale formations using horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies.118 The Navajo Nation also has several fields in southeastern Utah and owns and operates a crude oil pipeline that runs from New Mexico through Colorado to Utah.119 The Nation owns the Navajo Mine, located on reservation land in New Mexico's San Juan Basin. That mine is the source of the coal used by the Four Corners Generating Station, the largest power plant by capacity and generation in New Mexico, which is also on the reservation.120,121 In 2018, the Navajo Nation expanded its holdings and acquired an interest in the Four Corners Generating Station.122

All of New Mexico, including the tribal areas, has significant solar energy resources.123 A 50-megawatt solar farm came online at the Jicarilla Apache Nation reservation in April 2022, which at the time was the third-largest solar project on tribal land in the nation. The solar farm was part of a partnership between New Mexico's largest electric utility and the tribe.124 The tribe receives 2 megawatts of power as part of their agreement with the utility. A second 50-megawatt solar farm on the reservation began operating in August 2023.125,126,127

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded several grants for solar deployments in New Mexico since 2015.128 In 2017, with the assistance of a $1 million grant from DOE, the Picuris Pueblo of northern New Mexico completed a 1-megawatt community solar PV array that offset 100% of the cost of the energy previously used by tribal buildings and residences on Picuris trust land.129 In 2018, the Pueblo received additional funding to develop a second 1-megawatt generating system.130 Several other New Mexico tribes use small-scale, customer-sited solar PV installations. In 2017, the Santo Domingo Tribe completed installation of a 115-kilowatt PV system to power the tribe's community water pump and water treatment facility.131 In 2022, the Pueblo Laguna was awarded a DOE grant to bring solar PV to community buildings in four of the Pueblo's villages.132

Almost all New Mexico reservations have some geothermal resources, and DOE identified several tribal areas in the state with potential for geothermal energy development. However, there are no geothermal-powered generating facilities on New Mexico tribal lands.133 Although some mountain ridges on reservation lands have wind energy resources, New Mexico's greatest wind energy potential is in the east, while most of the state's tribal lands are in the northwest corner of the state.134,135

The many decades of uranium mining in New Mexico occurred on some tribal lands. The federal government identified 523 abandoned uranium mines on or close to the Navajo Nation and developed a 10-year plan to clean up about half those mines through 2029.136

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The Geography of New Mexico, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Earth Observatory, Mesas and Mountains of Western New Mexico, accessed May 17, 2024.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2022 (April 29, 2024), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2022; Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2022.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2022 and 2021.
5 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
6 Uranium Producers of America, Uranium in America, Uranium in New Mexico, accessed May 17, 2024.
7 U.S. EIA, New Mexico, Rankings: Total Energy Production, 2021.
8 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics, 2022 (June 2023), Table 1-3, Mineral and Surface Acres Administered by the Bureau of Land Management, Fiscal Year 2022, p. 7.
9 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Oil and Gas Statistics, Fiscal Year 2023 Statistics, Table 5, Number of Producing Leases on Federal Lands, FY 2023.
10 NETSTATE, The Geography of New Mexico, updated February 25, 2016.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2022, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023.
12 World Population Review, United States by Density 2024, accessed May 17, 2024.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, New Mexico; Albuquerque (city), New Mexico; United States, Population estimates July 1, 2023.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 Census: New Mexico Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2021.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, SAGDP2 GDP in current dollars, New Mexico, All statistics in table, 2022.
18 New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions, 2023 State of the Workforce (September 2023) p. 44.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
21 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of New Mexico, accessed May 17, 2024.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, SAGDP2 GDP in current dollars, New Mexico, All statistics in table, 2022.
24 New Mexico Economic Development Department, Employment & Industry, Current Employment Statistics Dashboard, Industry Growth & Detail, Nonfarm Employment Industry Growth & Detail, Major Industry (%) Share of Total Nonfarm Jobs, accessed May 17, 2024.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2023.
27 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2022 (April 29, 2024), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2022.
28 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil, Thousand Barrels, Annual, 1981-2023.
29 U.S. EIA, "Texas and New Mexico led U.S. crude oil production in 2022," Today in Energy (May 18, 2023).
30 Kelly, Stephanie, "New Mexico's oil output gains top Texas in 2022, delivering half of US growth," Reuters (May 19, 2024).
31 U.S. EIA, "Two counties in New Mexico account for 29% of Permian Basin crude oil production," Today in Energy (July 6, 2023).
32 U.S. EIA, "Advances in technology led to record new well productivity in the Permian Basin in 2021," Today in Energy (September 30, 2022).
33 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil, Thousand Barrels, Annual, 1981-2023.
34 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2023), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2023, p. 14.
35 HF Sinclair, Navajo Refinery, accessed May 17, 2024.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2022, Production, Refinery closures lower domestic crude oil distillation operating capacity, but refinery utilization rates remain flat over the long term (March 3, 2022).
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption Estimates, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2021.
40 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, As of January 2018, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2022.
42 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 7, 2023), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLSX.
43 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Fuel Ethanol, Annual, 2023.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2022 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
45 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2022.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2023.
47 Cook, Mike, "Oil and gas production boomed in New Mexico in 2021," Las Cruces Journal (January 12, 2022).
48 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2022 (April 29, 2024), Table 8, Natural gas, wet after lease separation, proved reserves, reserves changes, by states and areas, 2022.
49 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2018-23.
50 NGI's Shale Daily, Information on the San Juan Basin, accessed May 18, 2024.
51 U.S. EIA, "High Permian well productivity, crude oil prices drive U.S. natural gas production growth," Today in Energy (October 18, 2023).
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, New Mexico, Annual, 2018-23.
53 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, 2007-22.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2017-22.
55 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Coalbed Wells, 2002-22.
56 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Mexico, 2017-22.
57 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2018-23.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F18, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2022.
59 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2022.
60 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2022.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F21, Natural gas consumption estimates, 2022.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, New Mexico, Annual, 2018-23.
63 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Mexico, 2018-23.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Mexico, 2018-23.
65 U.S. Census Bureau, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2022 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
66 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Mexico, 2018-23.
67 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2022.
68 New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Importance of Coal Production in New Mexico, accessed May 18, 2024.
69 New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Importance of Coal Production in New Mexico, accessed May 18, 2024.
70 New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, FAQ - Coal Mine Reclamation Program, Is there coal in New Mexico?, accessed May 18, 2024.
71 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (April 1, 2024), Table 2, Coal production by state.
72 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), United States, New Mexico, 2001-22.
73 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2022.
74 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin.
75 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), New Mexico Table OS-15, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2022, and Table DS-27, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2022.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Mexico, All Fuel Types, Annual, 2001-23.
77 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2022, Tables 2A, 2B.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2024 and Inventory of Retired Generators as of April 2024.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Mexico, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-23.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2024.
81 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, New Mexico, updated June 17, 2022.
82 New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Uranium Minerals, accessed May 26, 2024.
83 McLemore, Virginia T., "Uranium Resources in New Mexico," New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, updated January 27, 2020.
84 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report First-Quarter 2024, Table 4.
85 Ulmer-Scholle, Dana S., "Uranium—How Is It Mined?" New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, revised October 18, 2023.
86 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report, Annual, Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2018-23.
87 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2022 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Annual, New Mexico, All sectors, 2001-23.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
91 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2022, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2022.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Mexico, All fuels, Annual, 2001-23.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, U.S. Installed and Potential Wind Power Capacity and Generation, Potential, U.S Potential Wind Capacity in Megawatts (MW) at 80 Meters, accessed May 26, 2024.
94 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, New Mexico 100-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed May 26, 2024.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Mexico, All fuels, Annual, 2001-23.
96 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2022, Tables 2A, 2B.
97 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2024.
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2024), Table 6.2.B.
99 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2024; Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2024.
100 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of New Mexico, Sunshine, accessed May 26, 2024.
101 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
102 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Mexico, All Fuels, Annual, 2001-23.
103 Sandia National Laboratories, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, accessed May 26, 2024.
104 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, Seizing our Energy Potential: Creating a More Diverse Economy in New Mexico, New Mexico Energy Policy & Implementation Plan (2015), New Mexico Energy Background, p. 7-8.
105 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geothermal Energy Heat from the Earth, New Mexico, DOE/GO-102002-1563 (April 2002).
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2024.
107 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2024), Table 1.16.B.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Mexico, All Fuels, Annual, 2001-23.
109 U.S. Census Bureau, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2022 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
110 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2024, West.
111 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, New Mexico, updated December 6, 2023.
112 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Programs, New Mexico, accessed May 26, 2024.
113 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Federal Register, Vol. 89, No. 5 (January 8, 2024), p. 944-948.
114 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs: Tribal Leadership Directory, New Mexico, accessed May 26, 2024.
115 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), Table D.2, State with the Greatest Acreages of Indian Land.
116 Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico, Native Nation Lands, New Mexico (June 2011).
117 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Atlas of Oil and Gas Plays on American Indian Lands, Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico, Reservation Overview, Introduction, p. 1, accessed May 27, 2024.
118 Navajo Nation, Oil and Gas Leasing Potential in the San Juan Basin (Summer 2020), p. 2.
119 Navajo Nation Oil and Gas Company, What We Do, accessed May 27, 2024.
120 Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Navajo Mine, accessed May 27, 2024.
121 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2022, Tables 2A, 2B.
122 Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Investments & Assets, Ownership Interest in Four Corners Power Plant, accessed May 27, 2024,
123 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
124 Schatz, Justin, "First 50 MW Of Jicarilla Solar Plant Set To Be Operational By Early 2022," The Papers (October 21, 2021).
125 Repsol Global, "Repsol starts producing electricity at Jicarilla 2, its first solar plant in the US," Press Release (April 27, 2022).
126 Bryan, Susan Montoya, "New Mexico utility, tribe to break ground on solar farm," AP News (October 15, 2020).
127 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2024.
128 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Tribal Energy Projects Database, New Mexico, accessed May 27, 2024.
129 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, "Community Solar to Meet 100% of Energy Costs for New Mexico Tribe," Press Release (January 11, 2018).
130 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Northern Pueblos Housing Authority, 2018 Project, accessed May 27, 2024.
131 U.S. Department of Energy, Project Reports for Santo Domingo Tribe, 2015 Project, accessed May 27, 2024.
132 U.S. Department of Energy, Pueblo of Laguna, 2022 Project, accessed May 27, 2024.
133 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States (February 22, 2018).
134 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New Mexico, accessed May 27, 2024.
135 Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico, Native Nation Lands, New Mexico (June 1, 2011).
136 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, TEN-YEAR PLAN Federal Actions to Address Impacts of Uranium Contamination on the Navajo Nation 2020-2029, p. 8-9.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map