New Jersey State Energy Profile



New Jersey Quick Facts

  • In 2017, natural gas and nuclear power, combined, provided more than 90% of New Jersey's net electricity generation.
  • Port Reading, New Jersey is one of the three storage sites for the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.
  • New Jersey was the fifth largest producer of electricity from solar energy in 2017, and nearly 75% of the state's renewable electricity generation came from solar power.
  • New Jersey's renewable portfolio standard was updated in 2018 to require that 21% of the electricity sold in the state  be generated from renewable sources by 2021, 35% by 2025, and 50% by 2030.
  • About 75% of New Jersey households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, 12% use electric heat, and 10% of depend on heating oil.

Last Updated: July 19, 2018



Data

Last Update: July 19, 2018 | Next Update: August 16, 2018

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Population 8.9 million 2.8% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 4.4 million 2.7% May-18  
Economy New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 581.1 billion 8 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 45,417 million 19 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,968 4 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 77,093 million miles 13 2016  
Land in Farms 0.7 million acres 45 2012  
Climate New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 54.7 degrees Fahrenheit 21 2017  
Precipitation 45.0 inches 22 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 63.50 /barrel Apr-18  
Natural Gas New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.46 /thousand cu ft $ 3.62 /thousand cu ft Apr-18 find more
Residential NA $ 10.12 /thousand cu ft Apr-18 find more
Coal New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 30.57 /short ton 2016  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.06 /million Btu Apr-18  
Electricity New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 15.59 cents/kWh 12.89 cents/kWh Apr-18 find more
Commercial 11.72 cents/kWh 10.44 cents/kWh Apr-18 find more
Industrial 9.52 cents/kWh 6.58 cents/kWh Apr-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2016 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2016 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2016 find more
Capacity New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 475,000 barrels/calendar day 2.6% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,833 MW 1.6% Apr-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 364 trillion Btu 0.4% 2016 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2016 find more
Coal -- -- 2016 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,850 thousand MWh 1.9% Apr-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Jersey U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Apr-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 51.8 % 33.1 % Apr-18 find more
Coal-Fired 1.7 % 24.3 % Apr-18 find more
Nuclear 41.9 % 19.6 % Apr-18 find more
Renewables 3.5 % 22.0 % Apr-18  
Stocks New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 114 thousand barrels 0.7% Apr-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 6,691 thousand barrels 7.2% Apr-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 609 thousand barrels 2.3% Apr-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 148 thousand tons 0.1% Apr-18 find more
Fueling Stations New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,373 stations 2.1% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 21 stations 0.6% 2017  
Electricity 206 stations 1.3% 2017  
Ethanol 3 stations 0.1% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 14 stations 1.1% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,219 trillion Btu 14 2016 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 247 million Btu 38 2016 find more
Total Expenditures $ 28,048 million 11 2016 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,124 32 2016 find more
by End-Use Sector New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 543 trillion Btu 2.7% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial 569 trillion Btu 3.2% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial 257 trillion Btu 0.8% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation 851 trillion Btu 3.1% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 6,844 million 2.9% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial $ 6,291 million 3.5% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,838 million 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation $ 13,075 million 2.9% 2016 find more
by Source New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 187.7 million barrels 2.6% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 764.1 billion cu ft 2.8% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 0.7 million short tons 0.1% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 14,769 million 2.7% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,960 million 3.1% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 56 million 0.2% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 4 thousand barrels 0.2% Apr-18 find more
Natural Gas 21,127 million cu ft 2.9% Apr-18 find more
Coal 42 thousand short tons 0.1% Apr-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Jersey U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 74.6 % 48.4 % 2016  
Fuel Oil 9.9 % 5.3 % 2016  
Electricity 12.2 % 37.7 % 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1.9 % 4.8 % 2016  
Other/None 1.4 % 3.8 % 2016  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 901 MW 0.4% Apr-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Production New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Apr-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 119 thousand MWh 0.3% Apr-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 82 thousand MWh 1.7% Apr-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 183 thousand MWh 6.7% Apr-18  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2016  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Jersey U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 3.9 % 46 2016  
Ethanol Consumption 10,352 thousand barrels 11 2016  
Total Emissions New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 112.0 million metric tons 2.1% 2015  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 21,108 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2016  
Sulfur Dioxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2016  
Nitrogen Oxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2016  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 19, 2018

Overview

New Jersey is a major distribution center for petroleum products to the northeastern United States.

New Jersey has no fossil energy reserves but does have substantial wind and solar energy resources. Shipping complexes on the Delaware River and at the New York-New Jersey harbor—with their connecting pipeline, rail, and air terminals—make the state a major distribution center for petroleum products for the Northeast.1 Situated between New York and Pennsylvania, New Jersey has the highest population density of any state in the nation at nearly 1,200 people per square mile.2 Many New Jersey residents commute to work in the New York City or Philadelphia metropolitan areas, and the state has some of the nation's longest commute times.3 New Jersey also has extensive Atlantic Ocean beaches and, in the north, the Ramapo Mountains that are part of the Appalachian chain. The state's climate is temperate. Weather in coastal areas is moderated by the sea, and in the north by the mountains. In metropolitan areas, local temperatures are influenced by urban heat islands, where heavily populated areas tend to be warmer than less populated areas.4

New Jersey is a major consumer of petroleum products, ranking among the top 10 states,5 and the petroleum-dependent transportation sector consumes more energy than any other sector in the state.6 New Jersey depends on natural gas and nuclear power for almost all of its in-state electricity generation.7 The state's industrial sector energy consumption is below the national median despite its energy-intensive chemical manufacturing and petroleum refining industries.8 Overall, New Jersey ranks in the lowest one-fifth of states in energy consumed per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP)9 and in the lowest one-fourth of states in energy consumed per capita.10

Petroleum

New Jersey has no crude oil reserves or production,11,12 but the state has two operating oil refineries.13 The complex refineries produce a range of refined products, including motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil.14,15 The state's Paulsboro refinery, which was the largest U.S. asphalt refinery, shut down in 2017.16 Three other New Jersey refineries were closed between 2010 and 2013.17 Some refinery sites that were shut down have been converted into petroleum storage terminals, taking advantage of the pipeline, rail, road, and marine facilities already at the locations.18,19

A large part of New York Harbor lies on the New Jersey shore. The harbor has petroleum bulk terminal storage capacity of about 75 million barrels, making it the largest petroleum product hub in the Northeast.20,21 The 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, established in 2000 to avert heating oil shortages during extreme winter weather, is stored at three sites, including one at Port Reading, New Jersey, and at depots in Connecticut and Massachusetts.22 In 2011, the federal government converted the reserve to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) following decisions made by several states, including New Jersey, to begin requiring ULSD with sulfur levels of less than 15 parts per million for home heating fuel.23 One in 10 New Jersey households depend on fuel oil as their primary source of home heating.24

The largest U.S. petroleum products pipeline from the Gulf Coast region terminates in New Jersey.

New Jersey is crossed by major petroleum product pipeline systems. Linden, New Jersey, is the northern terminus of the Colonial Pipeline, the nation's largest petroleum product pipeline and a critical supplier from Gulf Coast refineries to the New York and New England markets. The Colonial Pipeline system was expanded to increase the supply of finished petroleum products to the Northeast after several regional refineries shut down.25,26,27 Other pipeline systems distribute refined petroleum products from New Jersey refineries and terminals to upstate New York and west through Pennsylvania to the Great Lakes states.28,29 New Jersey also receives petroleum product imports by tanker from all over the world.30

New Jersey is one of the few states that require statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol.31,32 The New York Harbor area is the primary distribution hub for ethanol supplies for the East Coast.33 Several petroleum logistics firms have facilities in New Jersey to receive ethanol deliveries by unit train from the Midwest and by ship from other countries. The ethanol is distributed throughout the Northeast for blending with motor gasoline.34

Natural gas

New Jersey does not produce natural gas, nor does the state have any economically recoverable natural gas reserves.35,36 Scrutiny of using hydraulic fracturing for natural gas production in the Marcellus Shale in neighboring states has spread to New Jersey because of shared concern about protecting the quality of Delaware River Basin drinking water. Although no drilling has been proposed in the state, New Jersey's state government in early 2018 supported a ban on hydraulic fracturing in the Delaware River Basin.37 In addition, new natural gas pipeline projects in the state have met some opposition.38,39

Pennsylvania, due to its growth in natural gas production, has become New Jersey's main supplier. New Jersey is crossed by several interstate pipelines that are primary carriers of natural gas into New York and New England, and nearly half of the natural gas entering New Jersey is shipped on to other states.40,41 New pipeline sections are under construction, including distribution infrastructure in New Jersey, to transport more natural gas from Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale into the Northeast.42,43

In New Jersey, natural gas is used primarily by the electric power and residential sectors. Since 2010, natural gas consumption for electricity generation has increased by more than one-third.44 Three out of four households in the state use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.45

Coal

New Jersey does not have any coal reserves or mined coal production.46 The state's coal-fired electricity generating plants receive coal by rail, usually from Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia.47 New Jersey obtains less than 2% of its net electricity generation from coal, down from 10% in 2010.48 Most of New Jersey's coal-fired power plants have been shut down or converted to natural gas. Two of the remaining five stations were shut down in mid-2017,49 leaving just one coal-fired power plant and two coal-fired cogeneration stations. The coal-fired plant will be converted to natural gas when a fuel supply pipeline is available.50 The cogeneration stations began operating in 1994 and produce electricity and steam for industrial enterprises.51,52,53

Electricity

In 2018, New Jersey’s legislature approved subsidies to help the state’s nuclear power plants continue running.

Natural gas-fired power plants and nuclear power stations provide more than 90% of the utility-scale electricity generated in New Jersey.54,55 Through 2014, nuclear power typically supplied the biggest share of New Jersey's net electricity generation. But natural gas-fired generation exceeded nuclear power generation for the first time in 2015, and that trend continued through 2017, with natural gas accounting for almost half the state's net electricity generation.56 The state has three nuclear power plants, but the nation's oldest—Oyster Creek in Lacey, New Jersey—as of July 2018 was scheduled to shut permanently in September 2018.57,58,59 In May 2018, New Jersey's legislature approved a subsidy totaling $300 million a year to help support the state's other two nuclear power plants.60

Almost all of New Jersey's new generation capacity is natural gas-fired,61 and some coal-fired plants have been converted to natural gas, increasing natural gas-fired electricity generation by 50% from 2010 to 2017.62,63 In 2017, coal and renewables together provided almost 7% of in-state electricity generation.64

New Jersey is part of the PJM Interconnection, the regional transmission organization that coordinates movement of power supplies on the mid-Atlantic regional electricity grid.65 Electricity consumption in New Jersey has declined, and the state obtains less than one-tenth of its power from generators in other states.66 The commercial sector uses half of all electricity consumed in the state, and the residential sector consumes almost two-fifths.67 One in eight New Jersey households use electricity as their primary heat source.68 New Jersey's average electricity prices are typically among the 10 highest of the 50 states.69 The state restructured its electricity industry in 1999 and allows customers to choose retail electricity suppliers.70,71

Renewable energy

In 2017, solar power supplied nearly 75% of New Jersey’s renewable electricity generation.

Renewable energy supplies about 5% of New Jersey's total net electricity generation. Solar power is the state's leading renewable energy source, accounting for nearly 75% of net renewable electricity generation from utility-scale and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities. Previously, biomass—principally municipal solid waste and landfill gas—had been the largest renewable power provider. In 2017, biomass facilities supplied nearly all the state's non-solar renewable electricity generation.72

New Jersey's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was initiated in 1999 as part of restructuring the state's electric power sector. The state legislature has enacted several substantial revisions to the RPS, including increasing the requirements for solar energy,73 offshore wind energy, and small-scale hydroelectric or waste-to-energy facilities.74,75,76 Overall, the law, which was updated in May 2018, requires 21% of the electricity sold in New Jersey by 2021 to come from approved renewable sources, 35% by 2025, and 50% by 2030.77 The requirement for additional solar power was increased to 5.1% of sales by 2021, and then the solar requirement will be gradually reduced to 1.1% of sales by 2033.78 The state legislature also approved a community solar program to allow groups of households, especially in multifamily buildings, to connect to nearby solar arrays of up to 5 megawatts and receive a credit on their power bills for the electricity that is generated.79 New Jersey requires electric utilities to offer net metering to distributed renewable facilities, but in 2018 the state legislature limited net metering to 5.1% of the total electricity sold by each power supplier during the prior one-year period.80 The state is also seeking to achieve 600 megawatts of energy storage by 2021 and 2,000 megawatts by 2030. For the long-term, New Jersey's governor has directed state agencies to develop a plan by the middle of 2019 for the state to achieve 100% clean energy production by 2050.81

By April 2018, almost 91,000 solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities were installed around the state on residential and business rooftops, with solar capacity exceeding 1,900 megawatts from smaller distributed generation and 544 megawatts from larger utility-scale generation.82 In 2017, about three-fifths of all solar electricity generation in New Jersey came from small distributed facilities.83 The state's larger commercial solar PV farms include two facilities that each have a capacity of about 20 megawatts.84 State regulatory policies have favored solar farms that are sited on former industrial sites such as municipal landfills.85 At the end of 2017, New Jersey ranked 11th among the states in installed solar PV capacity, and fifth in net solar generation.86,87

Only a small fraction of New Jersey's renewable electricity is generated by wind,88 at two turbine facilities located on the Atlantic Ocean coast.89 New Jersey's largest wind power potential is found offshore along its coastline,90 and New Jersey was the first state to establish a specific requirement for offshore wind,91 increasing the mandate in 2018 to 3,500 megawatts by 2030.92 Wind projects proposed for state and federal waters off the New Jersey coast are in the planning stages.93,94 New Jersey electric and natural gas utilities also offer a variety of energy efficiency programs to save energy and to reduce electricity demand peaks.95 Programs include incentives to improve efficiency by retrofitting commercial boilers with combined heat and power systems.96

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, State Imports for New Jersey, 2013-16, accessed June 7, 2018.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table GCT-PH1, Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010-United States-States; and Puerto Rico, 2010 Census Summary File 1.
3 Astudillo, Carla, "The best and worst towns in New Jersey for commuting," NJ.com, updated May 26, 2017.
4 Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist, NJ Climate Overview, Rutgers University, accessed June 7, 2018.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2016.
6 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
7 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
8 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2016.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
11 U.S. EIA, New Jersey, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply (2016).
12 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011-17.
13 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2018 (June 2018), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2018, p. 14-16.
14 PBF Energy, Refineries, Paulsboro, New Jersey, accessed June 7, 2018.
15 Phillips 66, Bayway Refinery, accessed June 7, 2018.
16 "Biggest U.S. Asphalt Plant Closes," Bloomberg News (February 6, 2017).
17 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2018 (June 2018), Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown by PAD District Between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2018.
18 "Sunoco Can Send, Receive Products from Eagle Point," Reuters (June 12, 2012).
19 McGurty, Janet, "Buckeye Says NJ Terminal Deal Gives Access to Water," Reuters (February 10, 2012).
20 ICF International, New York State Petroleum Terminal Resiliency Assessment (March 2014), p. 10.
21 ICF Consulting LLC, Petroleum Infrastructure Study, Final Report (September 2006), p. 38-40.
22 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed June 14, 2018.
23 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve History, accessed June 14, 2018.
24 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Jersey, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-16 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
25 McGurty, Janet, "Colonial Adds Distillate Capacity to Eastern U.S.," Reuters (August 1, 2012).
26 U.S. EIA, "Colonial Pipeline restarts Line 1, resumes gasoline shipments to U.S. Southeast," Today in Energy (November 8, 2016).
27 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed June 14, 2018.
28 Buckeye Partners, L.P. "Positioned to Capitalize on Opportunities," 2017 Annual Report, Pipelines, Pennsylvania-New York-New Jersey.
29 Buckeye Partners, L.P., System Map, accessed June 14, 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, all months, 2017, 2016, 2015.
31 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated gasoline, accessed June 14, 2018.
32 American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018.
33 IndexMundi, New York Harbor Ethanol, accessed June 14, 2018.
34 "Kinder Morgan Completes Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline in NJ," Ethanol Producer Magazine (April 3, 2012).
35 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2011-16.
36 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2012-17.
37 State of New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy, "Governor Murphy Declares Support for Fracking Ban in the Delaware River Basin," Press Release (February 1, 2018).
38 Bresswein, Kurt, "PennEast Pipeline gains federal approval, 2018 construction start eyed," NJ.com (January 20, 2018).
39 Warren, Michael, "Controversial $180 million pipeline clears last major hurdle in Pinelands case," NJ.com (September 15, 2017).
40 U.S. EIA, New Jersey, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Inter/Interstate Pipeline, accessed June 17, 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Jersey, Annual, 2011-16, and Pennsylvania, Annual, 2011-16.
42 Johnson, Tom, "Is New Jersey Becoming the Pipeline Capital of the Northeast?" NJSpotlight (May 28, 2015).
43 U.S. EIA, "New Pipeline Projects Increase Northeast Natural Gas Takeaway Capacity," Today in Energy (January 28, 2016).
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Jersey, Annual, 2012-17, View History, 1997-2017.
45 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Jersey, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-16 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
46 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
47 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), New Jersey, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, 2016.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, New Jersey, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-2017.
49 O'Neill, James M., "2 NJ coal power plants close for good, ensuring cleaner air," NorthJersey.com (May 31, 2017).
50 Johnson, Tom, "Coal-fired B.L. England power plant to stay in service 2 more years," Philadelphia Business Journal (April 17, 2017).
51 Brand, Stefanie A., "Breaking the Coal Habit," New Jersey Division of Rate Counsel, accessed June 20, 2018, slides 10, 11.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2017, Operable tab.
53 Maykuth, Andrew, "PSEG shutting its last 2 coal plants in N.J.," philly.com (October 5, 2016).
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990-2016 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
57 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Reactors, Figure 11. U.S. Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors, p. 28.
58 Gecan, Alex, and Erik Larsen, "Nation's oldest nuke plant to close ahead of schedule," USA Today (February 2, 2018).
59 Parry, Wayne, "Oldest US nuke plant, near Jersey shore, closing Sept. 17," Associated Press (July 2, 2018).
60 DiSavino, Scott, "New Jersey governor signs nuclear power subsidy bill into law," Reuters (May 23, 2018).
61 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2017, Proposed tab.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990-2016 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-926).
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
65 PJM Interconnection, Who We Are, accessed June 18, 2018.
66 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Jersey Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
67 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Jersey Electricity Profile 2016, Table 8, Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2016.
68 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Jersey, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-16 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
69 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.6.B.
70 State of New Jersey, NJ Power Switch, Know Your Rights, accessed June 18, 2018.
71 State of New Jersey, Board of Public Utilities, Residential Customers, accessed June 18, 2018.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
73 Hunter, Scott, "Experience and Issues with NJ's Solar ‘Carve Out' in the RPS," New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (December 3, 2012).
74 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Jersey, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated June 8, 2018.
75 Climate Lawyers Blog, "NJ Governor Signs Offshore Wind Measure into Law" (August 19, 2010).
76 Johnson, Tom, "Stakeholders Not Blown Away by Proposals to Finance Offshore Wind," NJ Spotlight (May 6, 2013).
77 State of New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy, "Governor Murphy Signs Measures to Advance New Jersey's Clean Energy Economy," Press Release (May 23, 2018).
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Jersey, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated June 8, 2018.
79 New Jersey Senate Budget and Appropriations Committee, Statement to Senate No. 2314 (April 5, 2018), p. 5.
80 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Jersey, updated June 7, 2018.
81 State of New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy, "Governor Murphy Signs Measures to Advance New Jersey's Clean Energy Economy," Press Release (May 23, 2018).
82 New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, New Jersey Clean Energy Program, Solar Activity Reports, New Jersey Solar Installations, as of March 31, 2018.
83 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
84 Johnson, Tom, "The List: Counting Down New Jersey's 10 Largest Solar Farms," NJ Spotlight (June 9, 2014).
85 Regan, Tracy, "From Landfills to Solar Fields," New Jersey Business (April 4, 2014).
86 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar Spotlight-New Jersey, accessed June 18, 2018.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, 2001-17.
89 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in New Jersey, accessed June 18, 2018.
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New Jersey, Maps & Data, accessed June 18, 2018.
91 Climate Lawyers Blog, "NJ Governor Signs Offshore Wind Measure into Law" (August 19, 2010).
92 State of New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy, "Governor Murphy Signs Measures to Advance New Jersey's Clean Energy Economy," Press Release (May 23, 2018).
93 Brunetti, Michelle, "Murphy restarts big offshore wind plan for New Jersey," Press of Atlantic City (January 31, 2018).
94 Maykuth, Andrew, "Wind energy eyes restart in N.J. with Gov. Phil Murphy in office," Philly.com (March 8, 2018).
95 New Jersey Clean Energy Program, Program Savings and Benefits, accessed June 18, 2018.
96 New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, "N.J. Board of Public Utilities Continues Energy Conservation Efforts in Approving Energy Efficiency Incentives Totaling Over $8 Million," Press Release (May 31, 2017).


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