New Jersey State Energy Profile



New Jersey Quick Facts

  • In 2019, natural gas and nuclear power together accounted for 94% of New Jersey's utility-scale electricity net generation.
  • Perth Amboy, New Jersey is the location of one of the three storage sites for the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.
  • New Jersey was the nation's seventh-largest producer of electricity from solar energy in 2019 and was the third-largest producer from small-scale solar facilities. Overall, 80% of the state's renewable electricity generation came from large- and small-scale solar facilities. 
  • New Jersey's renewable portfolio standard was updated in 2018 to require that 21% of the electricity sold in the state be generated from renewable sources by 2021, 35% by 2025, and 50% by 2030. In 2019, New Jersey released its Energy Master Plan: Pathway to 2050, a plan to meet 100% of the state’s energy needs with clean energy by 2050.
  • About 75% of New Jersey households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, more than 13% use electric heat, and about 10% depend on petroleum products. The rest use other fuels.

Last Updated: September 17, 2020



Data

Last Update: July 15, 2021 | Next Update: August 19, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Population 8.9 million 2.7% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 4.4 million 2.7% May-21  
Economy New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 619.1 billion 9 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 53,288 million 15 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 75,245 5 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 78,205 million miles 15 2019  
Land in Farms 0.7 million acres 45 2017  
Climate New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 55.5 degrees Fahrenheit 21 2020  
Precipitation 50.2 inches 15 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 60.08 /barrel Apr-21  
Natural Gas New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.12 /thousand cu ft $ 3.82 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Residential $ 9.91 /thousand cu ft $ 12.21 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Coal New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.89 /million Btu Apr-21  
Electricity New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 16.54 cents/kWh 13.76 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Commercial 12.41 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Industrial 10.03 cents/kWh 6.77 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 418,500 barrels/calendar day 2.2% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,358 MW 1.5% Apr-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 328 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,395 thousand MWh 1.5% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Jersey U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 43.6 % 36.6 % Apr-21 find more
Coal-Fired 1.8 % 18.4 % Apr-21 find more
Nuclear 48.4 % 19.5 % Apr-21 find more
Renewables 5.3 % 24.5 % Apr-21  
Stocks New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 33 thousand barrels 0.2% Apr-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 8,002 thousand barrels 7.6% Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 720 thousand barrels 3.0% Apr-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Apr-21 find more
Fueling Stations New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,372 stations 2.1% 2019  
Propane 13 stations 0.5% 2021  
Electricity 561 stations 1.4% 2021  
E85 4 stations 0.1% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 18 stations 1.4% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,101 trillion Btu 15 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 236 million Btu 40 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 30,433 million 12 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,423 40 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 563 trillion Btu 2.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 557 trillion Btu 3.1% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 260 trillion Btu 0.8% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 720 trillion Btu 2.5% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 7,529 million 2.8% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 6,465 million 3.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,144 million 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 14,296 million 2.5% 2019 find more
by Source New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 166 million barrels 2.2% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 760 billion cu ft 2.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.1% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 16,540 million 2.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 4,879 million 3.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 42 million 0.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas 13,031 million cu ft 1.7% Apr-21 find more
Coal 35 thousand short tons 0.1% Apr-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Jersey U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 75.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 7.4 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 13.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 2.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,169 MW 0.4% Apr-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 2 thousand MWh * Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 166 thousand MWh 0.3% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 65 thousand MWh 1.5% Apr-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 261 thousand MWh 5.7% Apr-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Jersey U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 4.0 % 47 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 9,748 thousand barrels 12 2019  
Total Emissions New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 108.2 million metric tons 2.0% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 18,869 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 10 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: September 17, 2020

Overview

New Jersey is a major distribution center for petroleum products to the northeastern United States.

New Jersey, located on the Atlantic coast between New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, is the fourth-smallest state by land area and the most densely populated state in the nation.1,2 Despite its extensive Atlantic Ocean beaches and its northern highlands that are part of the Appalachian chain, New Jersey is the only state where every county is considered urban by the U.S. Census Bureau.3 Although the state has some renewable resources, primarily solar and biomass from landfills and other municipal solid wastes, it has no fossil energy reserves.4,5,6,7 Even so, New Jersey plays a major role in the supply of energy to the Northeast. Shipping complexes on the Delaware River and at the New York-New Jersey harbor—with their connecting pipeline, rail, and air terminals—make the state a hub for the distribution of petroleum products throughout the northeastern states.8

New Jersey lies along the heavily traveled east coast transportation corridor. The state has more miles of roadway per square mile of land area than any other state, and the petroleum-dependent transportation sector consumes more energy than any other sector in the state.9,10 Many New Jersey residents commute to work in the New York City or Philadelphia metropolitan areas, and the state has some of the nation's longest average commute times. Long commutes contribute to the transportation sector’s more than one-third share of the state’s end-use energy consumption.11,12 In part because of the moderating impacts of the ocean on the New Jersey climate, the residential and commercial sectors each account for only slightly more than one-fourth of the state’s end-use energy consumption.13,14 The industrial sector’s energy use is below the national median despite New Jersey’s energy-intensive chemical manufacturing, food and beverage manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries.15,16 In spite of the state’s small size, New Jersey’s economy is among the nation’s top 8 as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) and has been for the last 50 years.17 In 2018, New Jersey ranked among the lowest one-fifth of states in energy consumed per dollar of GDP and among the lowest one-third of states in energy consumed per capita.18,19

Petroleum

New Jersey has no crude oil reserves or production, but the state has two operating oil refineries.20 Those two refineries have a combined capacity of almost 420,000 barrels per calendar day and produce a wide range of refined products, including motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, aviation jet fuel, and petrochemical feedstocks.21,22,23 Four other New Jersey refineries, whose combined capacity was about 200,000 barrels per calendar day, were closed between 2010 and 2017.24 Some refinery sites that were shut down have been converted into petroleum storage terminals, taking advantage of the pipeline, railroad, highway, and marine infrastructure already at those locations.25,26 In addition to getting crude oil shipments by rail, New Jersey’s refineries receive crude oil imports and petroleum products by tanker from all over the world at the New York-New Jersey Harbor.27 A large part of the harbor, which has petroleum bulk terminal storage capacity of about 75 million barrels, is on the New Jersey side of the port. It is the largest petroleum products hub in the Northeast.28 New Jersey is also crossed by several major petroleum product pipeline systems.29 Colonial Pipeline, the nation’s largest refined product pipeline, has its northern terminus in Linden, New Jersey. Colonial supplies petroleum products from Gulf Coast refineries to the New York and New England markets.30 Other pipeline systems distribute refined petroleum products from New Jersey terminals and refineries to upstate New York and Pennsylvania.31,32

The largest U.S. petroleum products pipeline from the Gulf Coast region terminates in New Jersey.

New Jersey is among the top 10 petroleum-consuming states.33 The transportation sector accounted for more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state in 2018.34 New Jersey requires the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming and toxic pollutants in the air.35 Although the state does not have any ethanol production plants, the New York-New Jersey Harbor area is the primary distribution hub for ethanol supplies for the East Coast.36 Facilities in New Jersey receive ethanol deliveries by rail from the Midwest and other motor gasoline blending components by ship from other countries.37,38 Almost one-eighth of the petroleum consumed in the state is used by the industrial sector. The residential sector accounts for less than 4% of state use even though about 1 in 10 New Jersey households use petroleum products, mostly fuel oil, as their primary source for home heating. The commercial sector uses the rest.39,40 One of the three storage sites for the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve is in New Jersey. The reserve was established in 2000 to avert heating oil shortages in the region during extreme winter weather.41 In 2011, the federal government converted the reserve to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) following decisions made by several states, including New Jersey, to require sulfur levels of less than 15 parts per million in home heating fuel.42,43

Electricity

In 2019, natural gas and nuclear power together fueled 94% of New Jersey’s large-scale electricity generation.

Almost all of New Jersey’s in-state electricity generation is fueled by natural gas and nuclear energy. The two fuels together accounted for 94% of the electricity generated at utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities in the state in 2019. Until 2015, nuclear power supplied the largest share of New Jersey’s electricity net generation. Natural gas-fired generation increased steadily from 2005 to 2015, when it exceeded nuclear power generation for the first time. Natural gas has accounted for more than half of the state’s net generation since then.44 Nuclear powered generation declined in 2018 because New Jersey’s Oyster Creek single reactor nuclear power plant, which was the nation’s oldest operating reactor at the time, was permanently shut down in September of that year.45 Because nuclear power is a zero emissions energy source, New Jersey’s legislature approved subsidies for the state’s remaining three nuclear power reactors to prevent nuclear plant closures that might result from competition with less expensive natural gas-fired generation.46,47

In 2019, New Jersey obtained less than 1.5% of its utility-scale net generation from coal, down from about 10% in 2010. Some coal-fired power plants have converted to natural gas, which has contributed to an increase of more than 60% in natural gas-fired electricity generation in New Jersey between 2010 and 2019.48 An additional almost 120 megawatts of new natural gas-fired capacity has been proposed.49 Utility- and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities fueled with renewables provided most of the rest of New Jersey’s in-state electricity generation in 2019.50

New Jersey is part of the PJM Interconnection, the regional transmission organization that coordinates movement of power supplies on the electricity grid in all or parts of 13 states and the District of Columbia.51 New Jersey consumes more electricity than it generates, and in 2018, New Jersey obtained about 8% of its power from generators in other states by way of the Interconnection.52 The average retail price of electricity in New Jersey is typically among the top one-fourth of the states.53 In 1999, New Jersey restructured its electricity industry, which allowed customers to choose their electricity retail suppliers.54 The commercial sector accounts for more than half of all electricity retail sales in the state, and the residential sector accounts for almost two-fifths. Almost all the rest is used by the industrial sector.55 About 2 of every 15 New Jersey households use electricity for space heating.56

Renewable energy

In 2019, New Jersey ranked third in the nation in electricity generation from small-scale solar facilities.

Renewable resources provided more than 5% of New Jersey’s total electricity generation in 2019. Solar power is New Jersey’s leading renewable energy source. Four-fifths of the electricity generated from renewable resources in the state is produced at utility-scale and small-scale facilities that use solar energy.57 At the end of 2019, New Jersey ranked seventh among the states in installed solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity, seventh in net generation from all solar PV, and third in generation at small-scale solar facilities.58 By mid-2020, solar capacity in New Jersey totaled 2,700 megawatts, and two-thirds of it was from small-scale generators.59 About 240 utility-scale facilities provide the rest. The largest have capacities of almost 18 megawatts.60 State regulatory policies have favored solar farms that are built on former industrial sites such as municipal landfills.61 The state also has approved a community solar program that allows groups of households, especially in multifamily buildings, to connect to remotely located solar arrays of up to 5 megawatts within their utility service territory and to receive a credit on their power bills for the electricity that is generated.62,63 In 2019, biomass facilities supplied nearly all the state’s non-solar renewable electricity generation, and until 2018, biomass was the largest source of utility-scale renewable power in New Jersey. More than two-thirds of the state’s biomass capacity is at facilities fueled by municipal solid waste.64,65

There are two onshore wind power facilities located on New Jersey’s Atlantic Ocean coast—a single turbine in the New York area and a five-turbine wind farm in Atlantic City.66 Those two facilities produce less than 0.1% of New Jersey’s in-state net generation.67 However, the state has much greater wind power potential offshore.68 In 2018, the state mandated 3,500 megawatts of offshore wind capacity by 2030, and, in November 2019, the goal was raised to 7,500 megawatts by 2035.69 In June 2019, New Jersey’s Board of Public Utilities approved the country’s largest single offshore wind solicitation at 1,100 megawatts of capacity.70

In 1999, New Jersey adopted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and restructured its electric power sector. The state legislature has enacted several substantial revisions to the RPS, including increased requirements for solar energy, offshore wind energy, small-scale hydroelectric, and waste-to-energy facilities. Overall, the law, which was updated most recently in May 2018, now requires that 50% of electricity sold in New Jersey come from approved renewable sources by 2030, a portion of which will be from offshore wind. There is also a requirement that 5.1% of the state’s electricity retail sales come from solar power by 2021, with the requirement gradually decreasing to 1.1% of sales by 2033.71 In 2019, New Jersey released its Energy Master Plan: Pathway to 2050, which is a blueprint for meeting 100% of the state’s energy needs with clean energy by 2050. The plan calls for carbon-neutral electricity generation, electrification of transportation, increased energy efficiency, improvements in the grid, and building sector improvements that include expanding the net zero carbon homes incentive programs. The plan also includes a commitment to install 2,000 megawatts of energy storage by 2030.72

New Jersey enacted an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) in May 2018. The EERS requires that electric and natural gas utilities implement programs to reduce energy consumption. Each electric utility must achieve annual reductions in electricity demand within five years of program implementation that are equal to 2% of the average annual demand in the prior three years. Each natural gas public utility must achieve annual reductions in the use of natural gas equal to 0.75% of the average annual usage during the prior three years within five years of the start of its natural gas energy efficiency program.73 New Jersey also requires that electric utilities offer net metering to customer-sited renewable facilities. In 2018, the state legislature increased the limit on net metering to 5.8% of the prior year total statewide electricity sales for each power supplier.74

Natural gas

New Jersey does not produce natural gas, nor does the state have any natural gas reserves.75,76 All of the state’s natural gas supply enters New Jersey from Pennsylvania, and nearly half of that natural gas is then shipped on to other states.77 Several interstate pipelines cross New Jersey and bring natural gas into New York and New England. Additional pipelines are planned that would bring natural gas produced from Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale into the Northeast through New Jersey.78,79,80

New Jersey’s electric power sector uses the largest share of the natural gas consumed in the state, about two-fifths. The residential sector uses nearly one-third. The commercial sector uses about one-fifth of the natural gas delivered to consumers and the industrial sector uses almost all of the rest. A small amount is used in the transportation sector.81 The amount of natural gas delivered to electricity generators has increased, and in 2019, it was almost twice what it had been in 2009.82 In 2018, three out of four New Jersey households used natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.83 Residential sector natural gas use varies with weather and the number of households in the state, and has increased overall during the past 40 years with increases in population.84,85

Coal

New Jersey does not have any coal reserves or production.86 A small amount of coal is delivered to New Jersey’s two remaining coal-fired power plants by rail from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.87 New Jersey had two other coal-fired power plants that were recently shut down, one in mid-2017 and the other in April 2019.88 Since 2008, all coal consumed in New Jersey has been delivered only to the electric power sector, and consumption has fallen from more than 4 million tons in 2008 to less than 530,000 tons in 2019.89

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates (August 9, 2018).
2 World Population Review, United States by Density 2020, accessed August 20, 2020.
3 World Population Review, New Jersey Population 2020, accessed August 20, 2020.
4 Koebrich, Samuel, Thomas Bowen, and Austen Sharpe, 2018 Renewable Energy Data Book, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, p. 35.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013–18.
6 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2013–18.
7 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
8 Walsh, Kevin J., “The Port of New York and New Jersey, a Critical Hub of Global Commerce,” Forbes (October 26, 2011).
9 Stockingblue, Miles of Roadway per Square Mile of Land in US States (March 30, 2018).
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
11 Index Mundi, United States, Average Commute Time by State, Rank, accessed August 21, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
13 Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist, NJ Climate Overview, Rutgers University, accessed August 21, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, GDP in current dollars, New Jersey, All statistics in table, 2017.
17 Desjardins, Jeff, “Animation: The 20 Largest State Economies by GDP in the Last 50 Years,” Visual Capitalist (August 22, 2019).
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31 and Estimated Production, 2013–18.
21 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, and Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as January 1, 2015–20.
22 PBF Energy, Refineries, Paulsboro, New Jersey, accessed August 21, 2020.
23 Phillips 66, Bayway Refinery, accessed August 21, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 2020), Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown by PAD District Between January 1, 1991 and January 1, 2020.
25 “Sunoco Can Send, Receive Products from Eagle Point,” Reuters (June 12, 2012).
26 Caroom, Eliot, “Perth Amboy refinery to get new life from $200 million overhaul,” NJ.com, updated March 30, 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Port State, New Jersey, June 2019–May 2020.
28 American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, The Fuel and Petrochemical Supply Chains (2018), p. 23.
29 U.S. EIA, New Jersey Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layer, accessed August 23, 2020.
30 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, and About Us, accessed August 23, 2020.
31 Buckeye Partners, L.P., 2018 Annual Report, Pipelines, Pennsylvania-New York-New Jersey, p. 4.
32 Buckeye Partners, L.P., System Map, accessed August 23, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
35 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed August 23, 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity, January 2019, XLS.
37 “Kinder Morgan Completes Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline in NJ,” Ethanol Producer Magazine (April 3, 2012).
38 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Port State, New Jersey, June 2019–May 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New Jersey, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
41 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, About NEHHOR, accessed August 22, 2020.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve History, accessed August 22, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, “Sulfur content of heating oil to be reduced in northeastern states,” Today in Energy (April 18, 2012).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, Fuel Type, Check all, Annual, 2001–19.
45 Parry, Wayne, “Oldest US nuke plant, near Jersey shore, closing Sept. 17,” Associated Press (July 2, 2018).
46 Johnson, Tom, “The Future of Nuclear Power in New Jersey: Crucial Hearings Set to Begin,” NJSpotlight (September 17, 2018).
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units).
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, All fuels (utility-scale), Coal, Natural gas, Annual, 2001–19.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Proposed Units).
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, Fuel Type-Check All, Annual, 2001–19.
51 PJM Interconnection, Who We Are, accessed August 24, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, New Jersey Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
54 State of New Jersey, NJ Power Switch, Know Your Rights, accessed August 24, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
56 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New Jersey, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (Total), Wind, Biomass, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001–19.
58 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.17.B, 6.2.B.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2020), Table 6.2.B.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units).
61 Regan, Tracy, “From Landfills to Solar Fields,” New Jersey Business (April 4, 2014).
62 New Jersey Senate Budget and Appropriations Committee, Statement to Senate No. 2314 (April 5, 2018), p. 5.
63 New Jersey Public Utilities Board, “NJBPU Awards More than 75 MW of Community Solar Projects to 45 Projects in Low- to Moderate-Income Communities,” Press Release (December 20, 2019).
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (Total), Wind, Biomass, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001–19.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units).
66 U.S. EIA, New Jersey Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed August 24, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Jersey, All fuels (utility-scale), Wind, Annual, 2001–19.
68 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New Jersey, accessed August 24, 2020.
69 New Jersey, Department of Environmental Protection, Air Quality, Energy, and Sustainability, Offshore Wind, accessed August 24, 2020.
70 New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, “New Jersey Board of Public Utilities Awards Historic 1,100 MW Offshore Wind Solicitation to Ørsted’s Ocean Wind Project,” Press Release (June 21, 2019).
71 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Jersey, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated June 8, 2018.
72 State of New Jersey, 2019 New Jersey Energy Master Plan, Pathways to 2050, accessed August 24, 2020.
73 National Conference of State Legislatures, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS), Table, updated July 2020.
74 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Jersey, updated November 16, 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2013–18.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
77 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Jersey, Annual, 2013–18.
78 U.S. EIA, New Jersey Profile Overview, Map Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, accessed August 24, 2020.
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipeline Projects (XLS), accessed August 24, 2020.
80 Bresswein, Kurt, “Pipeline update: Where these 2 projects through the Lehigh Valley stand, amid continuing Pa. natural gas boom,” LehighValleyLive.com (June 9, 2019).
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Jersey, Annual, 2014–19.
82 U.S. EIA, New Jersey Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997–2019.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New Jersey, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
84 U.S. EIA, New Jersey Natural Gas Residential Consumption, 1967–2019.
85 Evans, Tim, “New Jersey Losing Population for the First Time in Four Decades,” New Jersey Future (January 16, 2020).
86 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
87 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), New Jersey, Table DS-26, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only) and (Operable Units Only).
89 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total consumption (short tons), New Jersey, All sectors, Annual, 2000–19.


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