New Jersey State Energy Profile



New Jersey Quick Facts

  • In 2016, for the first time, natural gas provided more than half the electricity generated in New Jersey. Nuclear power provided 39%, and, together, the two fuels provided 95% of the state's net electricity generation.
  • New Jersey’s Oyster Creek nuclear reactor, which is the oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States, began operation in 1969 and is scheduled to shut down in 2019.
  • New Jersey refineries added rail access for crude oil deliveries and can receive crude oil either by rail from North Dakota or by tanker from overseas, whichever is more economic.
  • In 2016, solar power supplied 74% of New Jersey's renewable electricity generation from both utility and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) sources. Nearly two-thirds of that solar electricity came from distributed solar panels.
  • New Jersey has adopted a renewable portfolio standard that will require nearly one-fourth of net electricity sales to come from renewable energy resources by 2021. Specific solar and offshore wind requirements are included in the standard.

Last Updated: July 20, 2017



Data

Last Update: May 17, 2018 | Next Update: June 21, 2018

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Population 8.9 million 2.8% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 4.5 million 2.8% Mar-18  
Economy New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 581.1 billion 8 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 45,417 million 19 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,968 4 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 77,093 million miles 13 2016  
Land in Farms 0.7 million acres 45 2012  
Climate New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 54.7 degrees Fahrenheit 21 2017  
Precipitation 45.0 inches 22 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 61.20 /barrel Feb-18  
Natural Gas New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.55 /thousand cu ft $ 3.97 /thousand cu ft Feb-18 find more
Residential $ 8.66 /thousand cu ft $ 9.65 /thousand cu ft Feb-18 find more
Coal New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 30.57 /short ton 2016  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.06 /million Btu Feb-18  
Electricity New Jersey U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 15.87 cents/kWh 12.62 cents/kWh Feb-18 find more
Commercial 12.49 cents/kWh 10.60 cents/kWh Feb-18 find more
Industrial 10.73 cents/kWh 6.75 cents/kWh Feb-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2016 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2016 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2016 find more
Capacity New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 475,000 barrels/calendar day 2.6% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,826 MW 1.6% Feb-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 398 trillion Btu 0.5% 2015 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2016 find more
Coal -- -- 2016 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,821 thousand MWh 1.9% Feb-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Jersey U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 46.3 % 31.4 % Feb-18 find more
Coal-Fired 1.4 % 26.8 % Feb-18 find more
Nuclear 48.5 % 21.1 % Feb-18 find more
Renewables 2.7 % 19.6 % Feb-18  
Stocks New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 179 thousand barrels 1.1% Feb-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 12,515 thousand barrels 11.6% Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Feb-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 615 thousand barrels 2.3% Feb-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 136 thousand tons 0.1% Feb-18 find more
Fueling Stations New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,373 stations 2.1% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 21 stations 0.6% 2017  
Electricity 206 stations 1.3% 2017  
Ethanol 3 stations 0.1% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 14 stations 1.1% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Jersey U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,288 trillion Btu 14 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 256 million Btu 37 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 31,137 million 10 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,485 33 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 588 trillion Btu 2.9% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 597 trillion Btu 3.3% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 251 trillion Btu 0.8% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 852 trillion Btu 3.1% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 7,307 million 3.0% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 6,754 million 3.6% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,288 million 1.2% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 14,789 million 2.9% 2015 find more
by Source New Jersey Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 187.7 million barrels 2.6% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 764.1 billion cu ft 2.8% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 0.7 million short tons 0.1% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 14,769 million 2.7% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,960 million 3.1% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 56 million 0.2% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 3 thousand barrels 0.2% Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas 18,924 million cu ft 2.8% Feb-18 find more
Coal 36 thousand short tons 0.1% Feb-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Jersey U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 74.4 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 10.5 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 11.9 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1.9 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 1.2 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 901 MW 0.4% Feb-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Feb-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 79 thousand MWh 0.3% Feb-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 75 thousand MWh 1.5% Feb-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 122 thousand MWh 6.9% Feb-18  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Jersey U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 3.7 % 46 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 10,352 thousand barrels 11 2016  
Total Emissions New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 112.0 million metric tons 2.1% 2015  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Jersey Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 21,108 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2016  
Sulfur Dioxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2016  
Nitrogen Oxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2016  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 20, 2017

Overview

New Jersey is a major distribution center for petroleum products to the northeastern United States.

New Jersey has no fossil energy reserves but does have substantial wind and solar energy resources. Shipping complexes on the Delaware River and the New York-New Jersey harbor—with their connecting pipeline, rail, and air terminals—make the state a major distribution center for petroleum products for the Northeast.1 Situated between New York and Pennsylvania, New Jersey has the highest population density of any state in the nation.2,3 Many New Jersey residents commute to work in the New York City or Philadelphia metropolitan areas, and the state has some of the nation's longest commute times.4,5 New Jersey also has extensive Atlantic Ocean beaches and, in the north, the Ramapo Mountains, part of the Appalachian chain. The state's climate is temperate. Weather in coastal areas is moderated by the sea, and, in the north, by the mountains. In metropolitan areas, local temperatures are influenced by urban heat islands.6

New Jersey is a major consumer of petroleum products,7 and the petroleum-dependent transportation sector consumes more energy than any other sector in the state.8 New Jersey depends on natural gas and nuclear power for most of its in-state electricity generation.9 The state's industrial sector energy consumption is below the national median despite its energy-intensive chemical manufacturing and petroleum-refining industries.10 Overall, New Jersey ranks in the lowest one-fifth of states in energy consumed per dollar of gross domestic product11 and the lower one-third in energy consumed per capita.12

Petroleum

New Jersey has no crude oil reserves or production,13,14 but the state has three operating oil refineries.15 Two complex refineries produce a range of refined products, including motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil,16,17 and one refinery produces asphalt.18 When the cost of imported crude oil feedstock rose in recent years, refinery owners in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware developed rail shipping capability for crude oil feedstock from Canada and North Dakota's Bakken Shale to enable continued operations.19,20 The refineries can now take feedstock by rail or tanker, whichever is more economic. Rail shipments declined in 2016.21,22,23 Three other New Jersey refineries were shut down between 2010 and 2013.24 Some shutdown refinery sites have been converted into petroleum storage terminals, taking advantage of the pipeline, rail, road, and marine facilities already on location.25,26

A large part of New York Harbor lies on the New Jersey shore. The harbor has petroleum bulk terminal storage capacity of about 75 million barrels, making it the largest petroleum product hub in the Northeast.27,28 The federal Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, established in 2000 to avert heating oil shortages during extreme winter weather, is stored partly at Port Reading, New Jersey, and partly at depots in Connecticut and Massachusetts.29 In 2011, the federal government converted the reserve to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) following decisions made by several states, including New Jersey, to begin requiring ULSD for home heating fuel.30,31 Slightly more than 1 in 10 New Jersey households depend on fuel oil as their primary source of home heating.32

The largest U.S. petroleum products pipeline from the Gulf Coast region terminates in New Jersey.

New Jersey is crossed by major petroleum product pipeline systems. Linden, New Jersey, is the northern terminus of the Colonial Pipeline, the nation's largest product pipeline and a critical supplier from Gulf Coast refineries to the New York and New England markets. The Colonial Pipeline system was expanded to increase the supply of finished petroleum products to the Northeast after several regional refineries shut down.33,34 Other pipeline systems distribute refined petroleum products from New Jersey refineries and terminals west to Pennsylvania and upstate New York.35 New Jersey also receives petroleum product imports by tanker from all over the world.36

New Jersey is one of the few states that require statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol.37 The New York Harbor area is the primary regional distribution hub for ethanol supplies.38 Several petroleum logistics firms have facilities in New Jersey to receive ethanol shipments by unit train from the Midwest and by ship from other countries. The ethanol is distributed throughout the Northeast for blending with motor gasoline.39

Natural gas

New Jersey has geologic indications of natural gas deposits in its northern half but no proved natural gas reserves.40,41 The state does not produce natural gas.42 Controversy over hydraulic fracturing in the Marcellus Shale in neighboring states has spilled over to New Jersey because of shared concern about protecting the quality of Delaware River Basin drinking water. Although no drilling has been proposed in the state, New Jersey banned hydraulic fracturing for the year 2012, the legislature has passed bills barring disposal of drilling wastes in the state, and proposals for new natural gas pipelines have met some opposition.43,44

New Jersey's natural gas has traditionally come from the Gulf of Mexico region, but, with the growth of natural gas production in Pennsylvania, that state has become New Jersey's main supplier. The state is crossed by five interstate pipelines that are primary carriers of natural gas into New York and New England, and about half of the natural gas entering New Jersey is shipped on to other states.45,46,47 New pipeline sections are being built to transport more natural gas from Pennsylvania's nearby Marcellus Shale into the Northeast,48,49,50 and distribution infrastructure within New Jersey is being upgraded.51 In New Jersey, natural gas is used primarily by the electric power and residential sectors. In the years 2011 through 2016, natural gas consumption for electricity generation increased by two-thirds.52 In 2015–16, new infrastructure enabled the opening of two new electricity generating plants fueled with natural gas in the state.53,54,55,56 About three-fourths of households in the state use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.57

Coal

New Jersey does not have any coal reserves or coal mining.58 The state's coal-fired electricity generating plants receive coal by rail, usually from Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia,59,60 and also have imported coal from Latin America and Asia.61 New Jersey obtains less than 2% of its net electricity generation from coal, down from one-fifth in the 1990s.62,63 Most of New Jersey's coal-fired power plants have been shut down or converted to natural gas. Two of the last five stations were shut down in mid-2017,64,65 leaving just one coal-fired electric utility station, which will be converted to natural gas when a fuel supply pipeline is available,66,67 and two coal-fired cogeneration stations, which produce electricity and steam for industrial enterprises.68,69,70,71

Electricity

Since 2011, natural gas and nuclear power have supplied more than nine-tenths of the electricity generated in New Jersey.72,73 Through 2013, nuclear power typically supplied about half of New Jersey's net electricity generation.74 But the share of generation from natural gas has been growing and, in 2016, for the first time, natural gas supplied more than half of the state's net generation.75,76 The state has three nuclear power plants, but the oldest is scheduled to be shut permanently in 2019.77 New generation is overwhelmingly natural gas-fired,78 and some coal-fired plants have been converted to natural gas, nearly doubling natural gas-fired electricity generation from 2010 to 2016.79,80,81 In 2016, coal and renewables together provided almost 7% of in-state electricity generation.82

New Jersey is part of the PJM Interconnection, the mid-Atlantic regional electricity grid.83 Electricity consumption in New Jersey has been declining, and the state obtains just under one-tenth of its power from generators in other states.84,85,86 The commercial sector uses half of all electricity consumed in the state, and the residential sector consumes two-fifths.87 Only one in nine New Jersey households use electricity as their primary heat source.88 New Jersey's average electricity prices are typically among the 10 highest of the 50 states.89 The state restructured its electricity industry in 1999 and allows customers to choose retail electricity suppliers.90 More than one in six customers has opted for non-utility suppliers.91,92

Renewable energy

Renewable energy supplies almost 5% of New Jersey's net electricity generation. Solar power is the state's leading renewable energy source, supplying nearly three-fourths of net renewable electricity generation from utility-scale and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities. Previously, biomass—principally municipal solid waste and landfill gas—had been the largest renewable power provider, and, in 2016, biomass facilities supplied nearly all the state's non-solar renewable electricity generation.93

In 2016, solar power supplied nearly three-fourths of New Jersey’s renewable electricity generation.

New Jersey's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was initiated in 1999 as part of electricity regulatory restructuring. Since 1999, the state legislature has enacted several substantial revisions to the RPS, including adding specific minimum requirements for solar energy,94 offshore wind energy, and small-scale hydroelectric or waste-to-energy facilities.95,96,97 Overall, the law currently requires nearly one-fourth of the electricity sold in New Jersey after 2021 to come from qualified renewable sources. Requirements for additional solar power continue to increase until 2027.98,99

The state requires electric utilities to offer net metering to distributed renewable facilities,100 and, in 2012, the New Jersey legislature accelerated the RPS solar requirements.101,102 By April 2017, more than 73,000 solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities were installed around the state on residential and business rooftops, with solar capacity exceeding 1,630 megawatts from distributed generation and 495 megawatts from utility-scale generation.103 In 2016, more than three-fifths of all solar electricity generation in New Jersey came from distributed facilities.104 The state's commercial solar PV farms include two facilities that each have a capacity of 19.9 megawatts.105 State regulatory policies have favored solar farms that are sited on former industrial sites such as municipal landfills.106 At the end of 2016, New Jersey ranked fifth among the states in installed solar PV capacity, and fourth in net solar generation.107,108

Only a small fraction of New Jersey's renewable electricity is generated by wind,109 at two facilities located on the Atlantic Ocean coast.110 New Jersey's best wind power potential is found offshore along its coastline,111,112 and New Jersey was the first state to establish a specific requirement for offshore wind,113 mandating 1,100 megawatts by 2021. Wind projects proposed for state and federal waters off the New Jersey coast are still in the planning stages.114,115 New Jersey electric and natural gas utilities also offer a variety of energy efficiency programs that are credited both with saving energy and with reducing electricity demand peaks.116,117 Programs include incentives to improve efficiency by retrofitting commercial boilers with combined heat and power systems.118

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, State Imports for New Jersey, 2013–16, accessed June 12, 2017.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table GCT-PH1, Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010–United States–States; and Puerto Rico, 2010 Census Summary File 1.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2010, Resident Population Data (Text Version), Population Density, accessed June 12, 2017.
4 Higgs, Larry, "New Jersey Commutes Are the Worst and Getting Worse, Census Survey Says," NJ.com (December 4, 2014).
5 Astudillo, Carla, "The best and worst towns in New Jersey for commuting," NJ.com, updated May 26, 2017.
6 Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist, NJ Climate Overview, Rutgers University, accessed June 12, 2017.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
8 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
9 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
13 U.S. EIA, New Jersey, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply (2015).
14 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
15 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2016 (June 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016, p. 14–16.
16 PBF Energy, Refineries, Paulsboro, New Jersey, accessed June 12, 2017.
17 Phillips 66, Bayway Refinery, accessed June 12, 2017.
18 Axeon Specialty Products, Paulsboro Refinery, accessed June 12, 2017.
19 PBF Energy, PBF Energy (May 2014), slides 7–12.
20 U.S. EIA, "Crude-by-Rail Transportation Provides Bakken Shale Production Access to Major Markets," Today in Energy (June 10, 2014).
21 Renshaw, Jarrett, and Catherine Ngai, "U.S. Oil Refiners Look Abroad for Crude Supplies as North Dakota Boom Fades," Reuters (November 3, 2015).
22 Renshaw, Jarrett, "Phillips 66 shuns domestic oil, imports Algerian crude for NJ Bayway refinery," North American Energy News (April 20, 2016).
23 U.S. EIA, Movements of Crude Oil and Selected Products by Rail between PAD Districts, Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
24 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2016 (June 2016), Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown by PAD District Between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2016.
25 "Sunoco Can Send, Receive Products From Eagle Point," Reuters (June 12, 2012).
26 McGurty, Janet, "Buckeye Says NJ Terminal Deal Gives Access to Water," Reuters (February 10, 2012).
27 ICF International, New York State Petroleum Terminal Resiliency Assessment (March 2014), p. 10.
28 ICF Consulting LLC, Petroleum Infrastructure Study, Final Report (September 2006), p. 38–40.
29 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed June 12, 2017.
30 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve History, accessed June 12, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, "Heating oil futures contract now uses ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel," Today in Energy (May 10, 2013).
32 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Jersey, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
33 McGurty, Janet, "Colonial Adds Distillate Capacity to Eastern U.S.," Reuters (August 1, 2012).
34 U.S. EIA, "Colonial Pipeline restarts Line 1, resumes gasoline shipments to U.S. Southeast," Today in Energy (November 8, 2016).
35 Buckeye Partners (BPL), 10-K, Pennsylvania-New York-New Jersey (March 2, 2009).
36 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, all months, 2016, 2015, 2014.
37 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated gasoline, accessed June 13, 2017.
38 IndexMundi, New York Harbor Ethanol, accessed June 13, 2017.
39 "Kinder Morgan Completes Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline in NJ," Ethanol Producer Magazine (April 3, 2012).
40 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2010–15.
41 U.S. Geological Survey, "Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011," Fact Sheet 2012-3075 (June 2012).
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Dry Production, Annual, 2011–16.
43 Johnson, Tom, "Environmentalists, Lawmakers Trying New Tack to Keep Out Fracking Waste," NJ Spotlight (September 22, 2015).
44 Brown, Keith, "Pipeline protesters decry Pinelands intrusion at Statehouse rally," NJ.com (March 14, 2016).
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region, accessed June 13, 2017.
46 U.S. EIA, New Jersey State Energy Profile, Distribution and Marketing, Major Pipelines, accessed June 13, 2017.
47 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Jersey, Annual, 2010–15, and Pennsylvania, Annual, 2010–15.
48 Johnson, Tom, "Is New Jersey Becoming the Pipeline Capital of the Northeast?" NJSpotlight (May 28, 2015).
49 U.S. EIA, "New Pipeline Projects Increase Northeast Natural Gas Takeaway Capacity," Today in Energy (January 28, 2016).
50 U.S. EIA, "FERC certificates several new natural gas pipelines in 2017," Today in Energy (March 7, 2017).
51 State of New Jersey, Energy Master Plan, New Jersey Energy Master Plan Update (December 2015), p. 4.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Jersey, Annual, 2011–16.
53 U.S. EIA, "Wind Adds the Most Electric Generation Capacity in 2015, Followed by Natural Gas and Solar," Today in Energy (March 23, 2016).
54 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 6.3.
55 Skanska, Newark Energy Center, accessed June 13, 2017.
56 Competitive Power Ventures, About the CPV Woodbridge Energy Center, accessed June 13, 2017.
57 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Jersey, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, 2015.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, 2014, 2013.
61 Deyette, Jeff, and Barbara Freese, Burning Coal, Burning Cash, Union of Concerned Scientists (May 2010), p. 38.
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-926).
64 "PSEG To Retire Two New Jersey Coal Plants in 2017," Press Release, Public Service Enterprise Group (October 5, 2016).
65 O'Neill, James M., "2 NJ coal power plants close for good, ensuring cleaner air," NorthJersey.com (May 31, 2017).
66 Johnson, Tom, "Coal-fired B.L. England power plant to stay in service 2 more years," Philadelphia Business Journal (April 17, 2017).
67 Hernandez, Joe, "N.J. Issues Draft Permit for B.L. England Coal Plant to Switch to Natural Gas Power," Newsworks (April 18, 2016).
68 Brand, Stefanie A., "Breaking the Coal Habit," New Jersey Division of Rate Counsel, accessed June 14, 2017, slides 10, 11.
69 Johnson, Tom, "Another Power Plant to Make the Move From Coal to Natural Gas," NJ Spotlight (June 22, 2012).
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015, Operable tab.
71 Maykuth, Andrew, "PSEG shutting its last 2 coal plants in N.J.," philly.com (October 5, 2016).
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-926).
74 State of New Jersey, Energy Master Plan, New Jersey Energy Master Plan Update (December 2015), p. 20.
75 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-926).
77 "Exelon to Retire Oyster Creek Generating Station in 2019," Press Release, Exelon (December 8, 2010).
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015, Proposed tab.
79 State of New Jersey, Energy Master Plan, New Jersey Energy Master Plan Update (December 2015), p. 8, 9.
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B, 6.5.
81 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-926).
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
83 PJM Interconnection, Who We Are, accessed June 14, 2017.
84 State of New Jersey, Energy Master Plan, New Jersey Energy Master Plan Update (December 2015), p. 8.
85 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Jersey Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
87 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Jersey Electricity Profile 2015, Table 8, Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2015.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Jersey, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
90 State of New Jersey, Board of Public Utilities, Residential Customers and Commercial Customers, Shop for Energy Suppliers, accessed June 14, 2017.
91 Friedman, Alexi, "Frigid Winter Sends Electric Prices Soaring for NJ Customers Who Switched Power Suppliers," NJ.com (February 23, 2014).
92 Johnson, Tom, "Despite Deregulated Power Sector, NJ Consumers Stick to Utilities," NJ Spotlight (January 10, 2014).
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
94 Hunter, Scott, "Experience and Issues with NJ's Solar 'Carve Out' in the RPS," New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (December 3, 2012).
95 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Jersey, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated February 28, 2017.
96 Climate Lawyers Blog, "NJ Governor Signs Offshore Wind Measure into Law" (August 19, 2010).
97 Johnson, Tom, "Stakeholders Not Blown Away by Proposals to Finance Offshore Wind," NJ Spotlight (May 6, 2013).
98 PJM, Environmental Information Services, Comparison of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) Programs in PJM States (February 15, 2017).
99 The Beacon Hill Institute at Suffolk University, The Economic Impact of New Jersey's Renewable Portfolio Standards (April 2014), Introduction, p. 4.
100 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Jersey, updated November 9, 2016.
101 Volcovici, Valerie, "Christie Signs Bill to Boost New Jersey's Solar Industry," Reuters (July 25, 2012).
102 Hoskins, Anne, The Solar Market in New Jersey, PSEG (October 2012).
103 New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, New Jersey Clean Energy Program, Solar Activity Reports, New Jersey Solar Installations, as of April 30, 2017.
104 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
105 Johnson, Tom, "The List: Counting Down New Jersey's 10 Largest Solar Farms," NJ Spotlight (June 9, 2014).
106 Regan, Tracy, "From Landfills to Solar Fields," New Jersey Business (April 4, 2014).
107 Solar Energy Industries Association, New Jersey Solar, accessed June 14, 2017.
108 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
109 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
110 American Wind Energy Association, New Jersey Wind Energy, accessed June 14, 2017.
111 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, New Jersey Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
112 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, New Jersey Offshore 90-Meter Wind Maps and Wind Resource Potential, updated June 13, 2014.
113 Climate Lawyers Blog, "NJ Governor Signs Offshore Wind Measure into Law" (August 19, 2010).
114 O'Neill, James M., "Push for wind farms off Jersey coast loses steam," NorthJersey.com (August 30, 3015).
115 Walton, Robert, "DOE to pull funding from New Jersey offshore wind project," Utility Dive (January 5, 2017).
116 New Jersey Clean Energy Program, Program Savings and Benefits, accessed June 15, 2017.
117 State of New Jersey, Energy Master Plan, New Jersey Energy Master Plan Update (December 2015), p. 9.
118 New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, "N.J. Board of Public Utilities Continues Energy Conservation Efforts in Approving Energy Efficiency Incentives Totaling Over $8 Million," Press Release (May 31, 2017).


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