Nebraska State Energy Profile



Nebraska Quick Facts

  • Nebraska produces about 14% of the nation's fuel ethanol and ranks second in the nation, after Iowa, in ethanol production and capacity.
  • In 2019, Nebraska obtained 55% of its in-state electricity net generation from coal, 20% from wind, and 19% from nuclear power.  Almost all of the rest was generated  from matural gas (3%) and hydropower (3%).
  • Nebraska produces uranium ore that is made into fuel for nuclear reactors. In 2018, Nebraska had one of only five operating uranium in-situ-leach mines in the nation.
  • Nebraska is among the top 10 states in per capita total energy consumption in part because of its energy-intensive industrial sector, led by agriculture and food processing, and because of the state’s hot summers and harsh winters.
  • Nebraska has the third-highest number of industrial electricity customers of any state, and a significant share of Nebraska’s industrial consumption is seasonal demand from farms where electricity is used to run irrigation systems.

Last Updated: April 16, 2020



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.9 million 0.6% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 1.0 million 0.6% Feb-21  
Economy Nebraska U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 127.0 billion 36 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 13,455 million 35 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 57,942 21 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 21,242 million miles 37 2019  
Land in Farms 45.0 million acres 4 2017  
Climate Nebraska U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 50.5 degrees Fahrenheit 31 2020  
Precipitation 18.2 inches 38 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 45.56 /barrel $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.42 /thousand cu ft $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 7.01 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.12 /million Btu $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.41 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 8.44 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 7.09 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 12 million barrels * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 147 wells * 2019 find more
Capacity Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,870 MW 0.9% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 445 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 5 thousand barrels per day * Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 384 million cu ft * 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,125 thousand MWh 0.9% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Nebraska U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 1.3 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 51.0 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 19.0 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 28.7 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 37 thousand barrels 0.2% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 846 thousand barrels 0.7% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 28,727 million cu ft 0.4% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 76 thousand barrels 0.3% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,938 thousand tons 2.3% Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 968 stations 0.9% 2018  
Propane 30 stations 1.1% 2021  
Electricity 139 stations 0.3% 2021  
E85 84 stations 2.3% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 11 stations 0.9% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Nebraska U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 915 trillion Btu 33 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 475 million Btu 7 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 9,215 million 36 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,785 11 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 168 trillion Btu 0.8% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 147 trillion Btu 0.8% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 387 trillion Btu 1.2% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 212 trillion Btu 0.7% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,587 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,159 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,945 million 0.9% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,524 million 0.8% 2018 find more
by Source Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 47 million barrels 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 186 billion cu ft 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 14 million short tons 2.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 5,398 million 0.7% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 958 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 299 million 1.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 511 million cu ft 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Coal 1,074 thousand short tons 2.4% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Nebraska U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 59.2 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.4 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 30.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 7.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.4 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,899 MW 1.1% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 2,323 million gal/year 13.4% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 146 thousand MWh 0.6% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 745 thousand MWh 2.0% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 8 thousand MWh 0.2% Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 1 thousand MWh * Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 52,983 thousand barrels 13.8% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Nebraska U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 21.0 % 10 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,091 thousand barrels 37 2019  
Total Emissions Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 48.0 million metric tons 0.9% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 23,660 thousand metric tons 1.4% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 42 thousand metric tons 3.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: April 16, 2020

Overview

Nebraska’s energy-intensive food processing industry, including meatpacking, is a leading contributor to the state’s GDP.

Located in the center of the continental United States, Nebraska is a Plains state. Much of the state sits on top of a vast, shallow aquifer that extends beneath parts of eight states and provides groundwater crucial for agriculture.1 The groundwater and the fertile soils of the prairie that covers much of the state make Nebraska a leading agricultural state.2,3 Nebraska produces the nation's third-largest corn crop, and, using corn as a feedstock, the state has become the second-largest producer of fuel ethanol.4,5,6 The broad plains that occupy much of Nebraska also have some of the nation's best wind energy resources.7 The wide rivers that cross the state provide hydropower, and the abundant sunshine, especially in western Nebraska, offers a good solar resource.8,9,10 Crop residues supply an abundant biomass resource as well.11 Nebraska has modest fossil fuel resources and production, primarily crude oil. Small amounts of natural gas are also produced in the state. Uranium, the source for nuclear reactor fuel, is mined in northwestern Nebraska.12,13,14

Industry is the end-use sector that uses the most energy in Nebraska. It accounts for nearly half of the state's end-use energy consumption.15 Nebraska is one of the world's major meatpacking centers, and the energy-intensive food processing industry is a leading contributor to the state's gross domestic product (GDP). Other energy-intensive industries in Nebraska include agriculture, chemical manufacturing—particularly of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and fertilizers—and machinery manufacturing.16,17,18 Transportation, Nebraska's second-largest end-use energy-consuming sector, uses about half as much energy as the industrial sector. The residential sector and the commercial sector share the rest, with a slightly larger portion used by the residential sector.19 The state has a small population and a climate that varies greatly from season to season, with hot summer temperatures that occasionally exceed 110°F and harsh winter temperatures that fall to minus 30°F.20,21 In part because of this, Nebraska is among the 10 states with the highest per capita energy consumption.22

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants provide the largest share of Nebraska's electricity net generation and have for decades.23 In 2019, coal fueled more than half of Nebraska's net generation. Most of the rest of the state's electricity generation is provided by wind and nuclear power, and, to a lesser extent, natural gas and hydroelectric power. Wind accounted for one-fifth of state electricity net generation in 2019.24 The state's two nuclear power plants—Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station and Cooper Nuclear Station—are located along the Missouri River on the state's eastern border.25 After Missouri River flooding and a fire in 2011 caused extended outages at the plant, Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station restarted at the end of 2013. However, in October 2016, the Omaha Public Power District, citing economic factors, permanently shut down the Fort Calhoun reactor.26 Because of that, nuclear power's contribution to in-state electricity generation decreased from about three-tenths in 2010 to less than one-fifth of in-state generation in 2019. Natural gas and hydroelectric power each fuel about 3% of the state's net generation. Natural gas's contribution has more than tripled since 2010 and, in 2019, surpassed hydroelectric power for the first time in more than a decade.27

Nebraska does not process uranium into nuclear fuel, but it does have one active uranium mine.28 Uranium was discovered in Nebraska in 1980, and operations began at the Crow Butte mine in the state's northwestern corner in 1991.29 Crow Butte was one of the nation's five operating uranium in-situ-leach mines operating at the end of 2018.30 In-situ-leach mining extracts uranium from the ore by dissolving it in place with chemicals and pumping the resulting mixture to the surface where the uranium is recovered from the leach solution.31

Nebraska is the only state in which all electricity providers are publicly-owned utilities.

Nebraska is the only state in which all electricity providers are publicly-owned utilities—either public power districts, municipal power systems, or rural electric cooperatives.32 The average retail price of electricity in Nebraska is among the lowest one-third of the states. However, Nebraska's per capita electricity retail sales are among the top 10 states.33,34 Retail sales of electricity in the state are nearly evenly divided between the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors.35 Nebraska has the third-highest number of industrial electricity customers of any state.36 A significant share of Nebraska's industrial consumption, which includes agriculture, is seasonal demand from farms where electricity is used to run irrigation systems.37,38 About 3 in 10 Nebraska households rely on electricity for home heating.39 Overall, more electricity is produced in Nebraska than is consumed there, and, in 2018, about 10% of the state's net generation was sent out of state.40

Renewable energy

Renewable resources fuel almost one-fourth of Nebraska's electricity net generation, and the state has substantial undeveloped renewable resource potential. Wind energy potential is excellent across the entire state, and wind powers almost all of Nebraska's renewable electricity generation.41 In 2019, wind contributed nearly three times as much to the state's net generation as it had five years earlier.42 Nebraska has more than 1,000 wind turbines with more than 2,100 megawatts of installed capacity at utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities.43,44 Two large wind projects with a combined capacity of 530 megawatts are under construction and are scheduled to come online in 2020.45

Hydroelectric facilities produce most of the rest of Nebraska's renewable electricity generation. There are 11 utility-scale hydroelectric generating plants in Nebraska.46 In the 21st century, hydroelectric power has typically contributed less than 5% of Nebraska's total in-state electricity net generation.47 There is little potential for additional large-scale conventional hydropower development in the state, but the installation of micro-hydroelectric dams in natural water flows may be feasible.48

Nebraska is the nation’s second-largest producer of fuel ethanol.

Nebraska's solar resources are greatest in the western part of the state.49 Although solar energy contributes less than 0.2% of the state's net generation, its share has more than doubled in the past two years.50 The largest solar photovoltaic (PV) project in Nebraska, a 5.8-megawatt facility, became operational in December 2017.51 By the end of 2019, Nebraska had about 18 megawatts of utility-scale solar PV capacity and almost 10 megawatts of customer-sited, small-scale capacity.52 More utility-scale solar PV facilities are in development in the state.53

Although moderate geothermal energy potential exists across much of the state, there are only a few small areas in northern Nebraska with the high-temperature resources needed for power generation, and Nebraska does not generate electricity from geothermal energy.54,55 However, geothermal heat pumps used for heating and cooling buildings have been installed at several commercial sites in the state.56,57

Nebraska is a major biofuels manufacturer and is second only to Iowa in the production of corn-based fuel ethanol.58,59 There are 25 active ethanol production facilities in the state. Nebraska ethanol producers use more than 700 million bushels of grain to manufacture more than 2.5 billion gallons of ethanol each year.60 In 2017, Nebraska accounted for almost one-seventh of the nation's fuel ethanol production.61 The state's ethanol plants produce 25 times as much ethanol as is consumed in Nebraska, and most of it is shipped to other states.62 Nebraska also has one operating biodiesel plant that can produce 50 million gallons annually.63 Landfill gas and other waste biomass are used to generate electricity, but biomass-fueled power plants contribute less than 0.3% to the state's electricity net generation.64,65

Nebraska does not have a renewable energy standard.66 The state does have interconnection and net metering rules for customer-sited solar PV, landfill gas, wind, biomass, geothermal electric, anaerobic digestion, and small hydroelectric power generation. Customer generators are required to pay for the costs of interconnection, and the utility has to provide, at no cost to the customer, the metering system.67 Utilities are required to provide net metering and interconnections from qualifying customer systems with capacities of up to 25 kilowatts, but may enter into agreements with generators that have capacities greater than 25 kilowatts. The utility must accept customer-sited generation up to an aggregate total of at least 1% of the utility's average monthly peak electricity demand for the year.68 To encourage renewable generation, a number of utility and state financial incentives, rebates, loans, tax incentives, and technical resources are also available.69

Petroleum

Nebraska's modest crude oil reserves account for less than 0.1% of the nation's total.70 Commercial quantities of crude oil have been produced in the state since 1939. Annual production peaked at nearly 25 million barrels in 1962 but has declined substantially since then.71 In 2019, Nebraska's crude oil production was less than one-tenth of its peak.72 Almost all crude oil is produced from wells in southwestern Nebraska.73 The Niobrara shale formation, a crude oil play in Colorado and Wyoming, extends into Nebraska, but significant Niobrara crude oil production has not been established in the state.74,75

The share of petroleum consumed as distillate fuel oil in Nebraska is greater than in all other states except North Dakota and Wyoming.

Nebraska does not have any crude oil refineries.76 A crude oil pipeline that crosses southern Nebraska transports crude oil from Wyoming to refineries in the Midwest.77 A second pipeline crosses the southwestern corner of the state bringing crude oil from Wyoming to Cushing, Oklahoma.78 A third pipeline runs south across eastern Nebraska to a location near the Kansas border where it splits. One section moves crude oil from Canada and North Dakota south to the Cushing, Oklahoma, hub and from there to Texas refineries, and the other brings crude oil east to refineries in Illinois.79,80 A network of petroleum product pipelines and terminals supply refined products from refining centers in nearby states to Nebraska markets.81

Most of the petroleum used in Nebraska is consumed either as motor gasoline or as distillate fuel oil. The share of petroleum consumed as distillate fuel oil in Nebraska is greater than in all other states except North Dakota and Wyoming.82 Distillate fuel oil includes diesel fuel, used both on-highway for transportation and off-highway by agricultural machinery. Some fuel oil is also used for space heating.83 About four-fifths of Nebraska's petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector.84 Nebraska has no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-identified non-attainment areas for air quality, and conventional motor gasoline without ethanol added can be used statewide.85 However, Nebraska has more than 80 fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline.86 The industrial sector, which includes agriculture where diesel fuel is used off-highway and propane is used to dry corn, is the second-largest petroleum-consuming sector in the state and accounts for almost all the rest of the state's petroleum use.87,88 A small amount of petroleum is used in the residential and commercial sectors. About 1 in 13 Nebraska households heat their homes with petroleum products. Almost all of those households use hydrocarbon gas liquids in the form of bottled, tank, or liquid propane gas.89 A number of small power plants are fueled by petroleum, but total petroleum consumption by the electric power sector is minimal.90,91

Natural gas

Nebraska does not have any significant natural gas reserves.92 Production in the state has declined from its peak of more than 28 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year in 1960 to less than a half billion cubic feet in 2018.93,94 Nebraska relies on interstate deliveries to meet most of its natural gas needs.95 Natural gas enters Nebraska by pipeline, primarily from Kansas, Wyoming, and Colorado. More than nine-tenths of the natural gas entering Nebraska leaves the state and is shipped on to markets elsewhere, primarily through Iowa and Missouri. A smaller amount is sent north to South Dakota.96 Some of the natural gas that enters Nebraska is stored in the state's one natural gas storage field, which has a capacity of nearly 35 billion cubic feet.97,98

Natural gas is used to run irrigation pumps and to make fertilizers.

Nebraska's industrial sector typically consumes slightly more than half of the natural gas delivered to end users in the state.99 Agriculture, a leading component of Nebraska's industrial sector, uses natural gas to run irrigation pumps, and the chemical industry uses it to make anhydrous ammonia fertilizer—a natural gas product.100 The residential sector, where three of every five homes use natural gas for heating, is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Nebraska and typically accounts for nearly one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to end users.101,102 The commercial sector uses slightly less natural gas than the residential sector. A small but increasing amount of natural gas is used for electric power generation. In 2014, less than 3% was used by the electric power sector, and by 2018 it was more than 5%.103

Coal

More than half of Nebraska's electricity generation is fueled by coal, but the state does not have any significant coal resources and has no coal production.104 Nearly all of the coal consumed in Nebraska arrives by rail from the nearby low-sulfur coal fields in Wyoming's Powder River Basin.105,106 More than nine-tenths of the nearly 16 million tons of coal consumed in Nebraska is used for electricity generation.107 A small amount of coal from Wyoming and Colorado is delivered to industrial facilities in Nebraska.108

Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service, Groundwater Irrigation and Water Withdrawals: The Ogallala Initiative (August 2013), Summary.
2 NETSTATE, Nebraska, The Geography of Nebraska, updated February 25, 2016.
3 NETSTATE, Nebraska, Nebraska Economy, updated December 19, 2019.
4 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production, 2019 Summary (January 2020), p. 11.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
6 Ethanol Producer Magazine, "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," updated February 24, 2020.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Nebraska, accessed March 18, 2020.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 33.
9 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
10 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed March 18, 2020.
11 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residue in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
12 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, 2018 Domestic Uranium Production Report (May 2019), Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2013-18.
14 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 31.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
16 NETSTATE, Nebraska, Nebraska Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars (SAGDP2), All statistics in table, Nebraska, 2017-18.
18 U.S. EIA, "Energy for growing and harvesting crops is a large component of farm operating costs," Today in Energy (October 17, 2014).
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
20 U.S. Census, Quick Facts, Nebraska, Population estimates July 1, 2019 (V2019).
21 Dutcher, Al, "Nebraska: Home of the Whopper," Nebraska's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, ‘State Climates' Series, accessed March 19, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
23 U.S. EIA, Nebraska Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, All sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Annual 2001-19.
25 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nebraska, updated May 21, 2018.
26 Omaha Public Power District, OPPD's Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station Historical Highlights, revised December 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, All sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Nuclear, Natural gas, Annual, 2010-19.
28 U.S. EIA, 2018 Domestic Uranium Production Report (May 2019), Table 4, U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2013-18.
29 Cameco Resources, Crow Butte, accessed March 20, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, 2018 Domestic Uranium Production Report (May 2019), Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2015-18.
31 World Nuclear Association, In Situ Leach Mining of Uranium, updated October 2017.
32 Nebraska Power Association, Public Power, Benefits, accessed March 20, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
36 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.8.
37 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2018, p. 14.
38 U.S. EIA, "Many industrial electricity customers are farmers," Today in Energy (May 12, 2014).
39 U.S. Census Bureau, Advanced Search, Nebraska, Physical Housing Characteristics for Occupied Housing Units, American Community Survey, 2018, Table S2504.
40 U.S. EIA, Nebraska Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
41 U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Nebraska 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed March 20, 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, All sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Annual, 2014-19.
43 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
44 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Nebraska, accessed March 20, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of January 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
47 U.S. EIA, Nebraska Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
48 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 33.
49 Gilroy, Nicholas, Concentrating Solar Power Resources, Nebraska, Nebraska Community Solar Power Generation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (April 4, 2017).
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Nebraska, All sectors, All fuels, All solar, 2014-19.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
53 Nebraska Energy Office, Solar Energy Generation in Nebraska, updated March 13, 2020.
54 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.16.B.
56 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 32-3.
57 Nebraska Energy Office, Geothermal Projects in Nebraska, updated February 13, 2018.
58 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
59 Ethanol Producer Magazine, "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," updated February 24, 2020.
60 Nebraska Ethanol Board, Nebraska Ethanol Plants, updated October 25, 2018.
61 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2017, and Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
63 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2019.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
65 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
66 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, accessed March 21, 2020.
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nebraska, Interconnection Guidelines, updated October 5, 2015.
68 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nebraska, Net Metering, updated June 25, 2019.
69 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nebraska, Programs, accessed March 21, 2020.
70 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2018.
71 Nebraska Energy Office, Crude Oil Production in Nebraska, updated February 12, 2018.
72 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2019.
73 Nebraska Energy Office, Crude Oil Production by County in Nebraska, updated September 7, 2017.
74 Olberding, Matt, "Oil production, exploration continue in Nebraska; boom unlikely," Lincoln Journal Star (March 24, 2013).
75 Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Data Mining, accessed March 22, 2020.
76 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2019.
77 Enbridge, Interactive Map, Platte Pipeline, accessed March 22, 2020.
78 Tallgrass Energy, Pony Express Pipeline, accessed March 22, 2020.
79 TC Energy, Keystone Pipeline System, Overview, accessed March 22, 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, Nebraska, Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed March 22, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, Nebraska, Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed March 22, 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
83 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Distillate Fuel Oil, accessed March 22, 2020.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
85 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed March 22, 2020.
86 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, updated March 22, 2020.
87 University of Nebraska Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Cropwatch, Harvesting, Drying, Storing Late-Maturing, High-Moisture Corn, accessed March 22, 2020.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
89 U.S. Census Bureau, Advanced Search, Nebraska, Physical Housing Characteristics for Occupied Housing Units, American Community Survey, 2018, Table S2504.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
92 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2018.
93 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 31.
94 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Nebraska, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2013-18.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2014-19.
96 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nebraska, Annual, 2013-18.
97 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2018.
98 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2018.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2014-19.
100 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2018, p. 13.
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2014-19.
102 U.S. Census Bureau, Advanced Search, Nebraska, Physical Housing Characteristics for Occupied Housing Units, American Community Survey, 2018, Table S2504.
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2014-19.
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Nebraska Table DS-24, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
106 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 31.
107 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
108 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Nebraska Table DS-24, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.


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