Nebraska State Energy Profile



Nebraska Quick Facts

  • Nebraska produces about 14% of the nation's fuel ethanol and ranks second in the nation, after Iowa, in ethanol production and capacity.
  • In 2020, Nebraska obtained 51% of its in-state electricity net generation from coal, 24% from wind, and 17% from nuclear power. Almost all of the rest was generated from hydropower (4%) and natural gas (4%).
  • In 2018, Nebraska ranked seventh in the nation in per capita total energy consumption in part because of its energy-intensive industrial sector and because of the state’s hot summers and harsh winters.
  • In 2020, Nebraska ranked third in the nation, after Texas and California, in number of industrial electricity customers. About 36% of electricity retail sales in the state went to the industrial sector, which includes agriculture where electricity is used to run irrigation systems.
  • The share of petroleum consumed as distillate fuel oil is greater in Nebraska than it is in all other states except North Dakota and Wyoming.

Last Updated: May 20, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.9 million 0.6% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 1.0 million 0.6% Jul-21  
Economy Nebraska U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 128.8 billion 36 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 13,541 million 35 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 57,942 21 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 21,242 million miles 37 2019  
Land in Farms 45.0 million acres 4 2017  
Climate Nebraska U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 50.5 degrees Fahrenheit 31 2020  
Precipitation 18.2 inches 39 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 65.14 /barrel $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.30 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential NA $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.17 /million Btu $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Nebraska U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.35 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 9.28 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 7.49 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 12 million barrels * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 147 wells * 2019 find more
Capacity Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 10,008 MW 0.9% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 451 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 5 thousand barrels per day * Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 384 million cu ft * 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,562 thousand MWh 1.0% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Nebraska U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 6.2 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 57.0 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 15.7 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 21.2 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 18 thousand barrels 0.1% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 533 thousand barrels 0.5% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 30,982 million cu ft 0.4% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 67 thousand barrels 0.3% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,683 thousand tons 2.4% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 984 stations 0.9% 2019  
Propane 30 stations 1.1% 2021  
Electricity 139 stations 0.3% 2021  
E85 84 stations 2.3% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 11 stations 0.9% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Nebraska U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 901 trillion Btu 33 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 466 million Btu 7 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 8,847 million 36 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,578 10 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 169 trillion Btu 0.8% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 148 trillion Btu 0.8% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 376 trillion Btu 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 207 trillion Btu 0.7% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,556 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,133 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,882 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,276 million 0.7% 2019 find more
by Source Nebraska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 47 million barrels 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 186 billion cu ft 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 14 million short tons 2.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 5,136 million 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 958 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 299 million 1.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,735 million cu ft 0.2% Jun-21 find more
Coal 1,330 thousand short tons 2.8% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Nebraska U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 59.2 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.4 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 30.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 7.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.4 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,035 MW 1.1% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 2,288 million gal/year 13.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 143 thousand MWh 0.6% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 604 thousand MWh 1.5% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 7 thousand MWh 0.2% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 3 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 50,117 thousand barrels 13.3% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Nebraska U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 22.1 % 10 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,091 thousand barrels 37 2019  
Total Emissions Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 52.8 million metric tons 1.0% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Nebraska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 23,660 thousand metric tons 1.4% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 42 thousand metric tons 3.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 20, 2021

Overview

Located in the center of the continental United States, Nebraska is a Plains state with rolling hills that include about 20,000 square miles of ancient sand dunes beneath the prairie grasses. Those sandhills cover more than one-fourth of the state and sit on top of a vast, shallow aquifer that extends beneath parts of eight states and provides groundwater crucial for agriculture.1 The groundwater and the fertile soils of the prairie that cover much of Nebraska make it a leading agricultural state.2,3 Nebraska produces the nation's third-largest corn crop, and, using corn as a feedstock, the state has become the second-largest producer of fuel ethanol.4,5,6 The broad plains that occupy much of Nebraska also have some of the nation's best wind energy resources.7 The wide rivers that cross the state provide hydropower, and the abundant sunshine, especially in western Nebraska, offers a good solar resource.8,9,10 Crop residues supply a plentiful biomass resource as well.11 Nebraska has modest fossil fuel resources and production, primarily crude oil. Small amounts of natural gas are also produced in the state. Uranium, the source for nuclear reactor fuel, has been mined in northwestern Nebraska.12,13,14

Nebraska’s energy-intensive food processing industry, including meatpacking, is a leading contributor to the state’s GDP.

Industry, which includes agriculture, is the end-use sector that uses the most energy in Nebraska. It accounts for more than two-fifths of the state's end-use energy consumption.15 Nebraska is one of the world's major meatpacking centers, and the energy-intensive agricultural and food processing industries are leading contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP). Other energy-intensive industries in Nebraska are chemical manufacturing—particularly of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and fertilizers—and machinery manufacturing.16,17,18 Transportation, Nebraska's second-largest end-use energy-consuming sector, accounts for nearly one-fourth of state energy use. The residential sector and the commercial sector share the rest, with a slightly larger portion used by the residential sector.19 The state's weather varies greatly from season to season. Hot summer temperatures occasionally exceed 110°F and harsh winter temperatures can fall to minus 30°F, which can result in high seasonal energy consumption for air conditioning and heating.20 Nebraska's energy-intensive industries and weather extremes contribute to the state ranking among the 10 states with the highest per capita energy consumption.21,22

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants provide the largest share of Nebraska's electricity generation, and 4 of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 6 of the 10 largest by actual generation are coal-fired. Although coal-fired power plants fuel more than half of the state's net generation, coal's contribution is at its lowest level since at least 1990.23 Most of the rest of the in-state electricity generation is provided by wind, nuclear energy, natural gas, and hydroelectric power. Wind accounted for almost one-fourth of Nebraska's net generation in 2020.24 The state had two operating nuclear power plants—Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station and Cooper Nuclear Station—located along the Missouri River on the state's eastern border.25 After Missouri River flooding and a fire in 2011 caused extended outages at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station, it was restarted at the end of 2013. However, in October 2016, the Omaha Public Power District, citing economic factors, permanently shut down the Fort Calhoun reactor.26 Because of that, nuclear power's contribution to in-state electricity generation decreased from about three-tenths in 2010 to one-sixth of in-state generation in 2020. Hydroelectric power fueled about 4% of the state's net generation in 2020. Natural gas-fired generation more than doubled between 2017 and 2020, and its contribution almost equaled that of hydroelectric power.27

Nebraska is the only state in which all electricity providers are publicly-owned.

Nebraska is the only state in which all electricity providers are publicly owned—either public power districts, municipal power systems, or rural electric cooperatives. Nebraska's average retail price of electricity is among the lowest one-third of the states, while Nebraska's per capita electricity retail sales are among the top one-fourth of the states.28,29,30 Although electricity sales to the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors are fairly even, the biggest share goes to the industrial sector. Nebraska has the third-largest number of industrial electricity customers in the nation, after Texas and California.31,32 A significant amount of Nebraska's industrial consumption is seasonal demand from farms where electricity is used to run irrigation systems.33,34 Electricity retail sales to the residential sector, where about 3 in 10 households rely on electricity for home heating, are less in Nebraska than in two-thirds of the states. However, per capita residential electricity retail sales are greater than in about two-thirds of the states.35,36 Overall, more electricity is produced in Nebraska than is consumed there, and, in 2019, about 13% of the state's net generation was sent to the regional grid.37

Renewable energy

Renewable resources fuel almost three-tenths of Nebraska's total electricity net generation. Wind energy potential is excellent across the entire state, and wind powers almost all of the state's renewable generation.38 In 2020, wind contributed almost one-fourth of the state's total net generation, which was nearly three times more than it did five years earlier.39 Two large wind projects with a combined capacity of 530 megawatts came online in 2020, and Nebraska had nearly 2,600 megawatts of installed capacity at utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities as of February 2021.40,41

Hydroelectric facilities produce most of the rest of Nebraska's renewable electricity generation. There are 10 utility-scale conventional hydroelectric power plants in Nebraska, including one at the federal Gavins Point Dam on the Missouri River.42 That dam straddles the border between South Dakota and Nebraska, but the hydroelectric power plant is on the Nebraska side. Gavins Point Dam plays an important role in controlling the water flow on the 800 miles of open river between Nebraska and St. Louis, Missouri.43 In the 21st century, hydroelectric power has contributed less than 5% of Nebraska's total in-state electricity net generation annually. In 2020, it supplied 4% of in-state generation.44 There is little potential for additional large-scale conventional hydropower development in the state, but the installation of micro-hydroelectric dams in natural water flows may be feasible.45

Nebraska's solar resources are greatest in the western part of the state.46 Solar energy contributes about 0.2% of the state's net generation, and its share has more than doubled in the past two years.47 The largest solar photovoltaic (PV) project in Nebraska, a 5.8-megawatt facility, became operational in December 2017.48 By the end of 2020, Nebraska had nearly 28 megawatts of utility-scale solar PV capacity and almost 14 megawatts of customer-sited, small-scale capacity.49 More utility-scale solar PV facilities are in development in the state.50

Although moderate geothermal energy potential exists across much of the state, there are only a few small areas in northern Nebraska with the high-temperature resources needed for power generation. Nebraska does not generate electricity from geothermal energy.51,52 However, geothermal heat pumps used for heating and cooling buildings have been installed at several commercial and residential sites in the state.53,54

Nebraska is the nation’s second-largest producer of fuel ethanol.

Nebraska is a major biofuels manufacturer and is second only to Iowa in the production of fuel ethanol.55,56 There are 26 ethanol production plants in the state. Nebraska ethanol producers use more than 700 million bushels of corn to manufacture more than 2.3 billion gallons of ethanol each year.57,58 In 2018, Nebraska accounted for 14% of the nation's fuel ethanol production.59 The state's ethanol plants produce 25 times more fuel ethanol than is consumed in Nebraska, and most of the ethanol produced in the state is shipped to other states.60 Nebraska also has power plants that use landfill gas and other waste biomass to generate electricity. However, biomass-fueled power plants contributed less than 0.3% to the state's electricity net generation in 2020.61,62

Nebraska does not have a renewable energy standard.63 The state does have interconnection and net metering rules for customer-sited solar, landfill gas, wind, biomass, geothermal electric, anaerobic digestion, and small hydroelectric power generation. Customer generators are required to pay for the costs of interconnection, and the utility has to provide, at no cost to the customer, the metering system. Utilities are required to provide net metering and interconnections to qualifying customer systems with generating capacities of up to 25 kilowatts. Utilities may enter into agreements with generators that have larger capacities.64 However, utilities are not required to offer net metering to customer-generators once the aggregate total of all customer-sited capacity equals 1% of the utility's average monthly peak demand for the year.65 To encourage renewable generation, a number of utility, state, and federal financial incentives, rebates, loans, tax incentives, and technical resources are also available.66

Petroleum

Nebraska's modest crude oil reserves account for less than 0.03% of the nation's total.67 Commercial quantities of crude oil have been produced in the state since 1939. Annual production peaked at nearly 25 million barrels in 1962 but declined to less than 2 million barrels by 2020, less than one-tenth of the peak.68,69 Almost all the state's crude oil is produced from wells in western and southwestern Nebraska.70

The share of petroleum consumed as distillate fuel oil is greater in Nebraska than in all other states except North Dakota and Wyoming.

Nebraska does not have any crude oil refineries, but pipelines that cross the state deliver crude oil to facilities in neighboring states.71 A crude oil pipeline that crosses southern Nebraska transports crude oil from Wyoming to refineries in the Midwest.72 A second pipeline crosses the southwestern corner of the state bringing crude oil from Wyoming to Cushing, Oklahoma.73 A third pipeline runs south across eastern Nebraska to a location near the Kansas border where it splits. One section moves crude oil from Canada and North Dakota south to the Cushing, Oklahoma, hub and from there to Texas refineries. The other branch brings crude oil east to refineries in Illinois.74,75 A network of petroleum product pipelines and terminals supply refined products from refining centers in nearby states to Nebraska markets.76

Nebraska consumes less petroleum than about two-thirds of the states. However, on a per capita basis, it uses more petroleum than about two-thirds of the states.77 Most of the petroleum used in Nebraska is consumed either as motor gasoline or as distillate fuel oil. Distillate fuel oil includes diesel fuel, used both on-highway for transportation and off-highway by agricultural machinery, as well as fuel oil used for space heating and electricity generation.78 The share of petroleum consumed as distillate fuel oil is greater in Nebraska than it is in all other states except North Dakota and Wyoming.79

About four-fifths of Nebraska's total petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector.80 The state has no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-identified non-attainment areas for air quality, and conventional motor gasoline without ethanol added can be used statewide.81 However, in addition to the widespread availability of motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, Nebraska has more than 80 fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline.82,83

The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum-consuming sector in the state and accounts for almost all the rest of the state's petroleum use. It includes agriculture, where diesel fuel is used off-highway and propane is used to dry corn.84,85 A small amount of petroleum is used in the residential and commercial sectors. About 1 in 13 Nebraska households heat their homes with petroleum products. Almost all of those households use hydrocarbon gas liquids in the form of bottled, tank, or liquid propane gas.86 Nebraska has about three dozen power plants with some petroleum-fired units, but they account for very little of the state's petroleum consumption.87,88

Natural gas

Nebraska does not have significant natural gas reserves.89 Production in the state has declined from a peak of more than 28 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 1960 to less than 400 million cubic feet in 2019.90,91 Nebraska relies on interstate pipeline deliveries to meet most of its natural gas needs. Natural gas enters Nebraska by pipeline, primarily from Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. About nine-tenths of the natural gas that enters Nebraska leaves the state and continues on to markets elsewhere, primarily through Iowa and Missouri. A smaller amount is sent to South Dakota.92 Some of the natural gas that remains in Nebraska is stored in the state's one natural gas storage field, which has a capacity of about 35 billion cubic feet.93,94

Nebraska's industrial sector, which includes agriculture, uses about half of the natural gas consumed in the state.

Nebraska's industrial sector uses about half of the natural gas consumed in the state.95 Agriculture, a leading component of Nebraska's industrial sector, uses natural gas to run irrigation pumps, and the state's chemical industry uses it to make anhydrous ammonia fertilizer.96 The residential sector, where three of every five homes use natural gas for heating, is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in the state and accounts for almost one-fourth of the natural gas used in Nebraska.97,98 The commercial sector uses slightly less natural gas than the residential sector. A small but increasing amount of natural gas is used for electric power generation. Between 2015 and 2020, the amount of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector more than tripled.99

Coal

More than half of Nebraska's electricity generation is fueled by coal, but the state does not have any significant coal resources and has no coal production.100 The coal consumed in Nebraska arrives by rail from the nearby low-sulfur coal fields in Wyoming's Powder River Basin.101,102 More than nine-tenths of the 14 million tons of coal consumed in Nebraska is used for electricity generation.103 A small amount of coal also is delivered to industrial facilities in the state.104

Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service, Groundwater Irrigation and Water Withdrawals: The Ogallala Initiative (August 2013), Summary.
2 NETSTATE, Nebraska, The Geography of Nebraska, updated February 25, 2016.
3 NETSTATE, Nebraska, Nebraska Economy, updated December 19, 2019.
4 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production, 2020 Summary (January 2021), p. 11.
5 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
6 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Nebraska, accessed March 30, 2021.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 33.
9 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
10 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed March 30, 2021.
11 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residue in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
12 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report, Annual, Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2016-19.
14 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 31.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
16 NETSTATE, Nebraska, Nebraska Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars (SAGDP2), All statistics in table, Nebraska, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, "Energy for growing and harvesting crops is a large component of farm operating costs," Today in Energy (October 17, 2014).
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
20 Dutcher, Al, "Nebraska: Home of the Whopper," Nebraska's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, ‘State Climates' Series, accessed March 30, 2021.
21 U.S. Census Bureau, Evaluation Estimates, 2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Nebraska Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B, 5.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nebraska, All fuels and all fuel types, Annual 2001-20.
25 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nebraska, updated October 29, 2020.
26 Omaha Public Power District, OPPD's Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station Historical Highlights, revised December 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Natural gas, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
28 Nebraska Power Association, Public Power, Benefits, accessed March 31, 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
30 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
31 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
32 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.8.
33 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Annual State Energy Report, 2019, p. 17.
34 U.S. EIA, "Many industrial electricity customers are farmers," Today in Energy (May 12, 2014).
35 U.S. Census Bureau, Nebraska, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019: ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040, Occupied Housing Units.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
37 U.S. EIA, Nebraska Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
38 U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Nebraska 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed April 1, 2021.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
40 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of February 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2021), Table 6.2.B.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
43 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated September 29, 2017.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
45 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 33.
46 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Solar Energy Generation in Nebraska, Community Solar Projects Map, accessed April 1, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.B.
50 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Solar Energy Generation in Nebraska, accessed April 1, 2021.
51 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.16.B.
53 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 32-3.
54 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Nebraska Energy Statistics, Geothermal Projects in Nebraska, updated February 13, 2018.
55 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
56 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity, January 2020, Excel file.
58 Nebraska Ethanol Board, Nebraska Ethanol Plants, updated June 16, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
60 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018, and Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
61 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nebraska, All fuels, Biomass, 2001-20.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
63 Shields, Laura, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, National Conference of State Legislatures (March 9, 2021).
64 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nebraska, Interconnection Guidelines, updated December 18, 2020.
65 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nebraska, Net Metering, updated June 25, 2019.
66 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nebraska, Programs, accessed April 1, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
68 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Nebraska Energy Statistics, Crude Oil Production in Nebraska, updated January 25, 2021.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2020.
70 Nebraska Energy Office, Crude Oil Production by County in Nebraska, updated February 8, 2021.
71 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2020.
72 Enbridge, Interactive Map, Platte Pipeline, accessed April 13, 2021.
73 Tallgrass Energy, System Map, accessed April 13, 2021.
74 TC Energy, Keystone Pipeline System Map, accessed April 13, 2021.
75 U.S. EIA, Nebraska, Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 13, 2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Nebraska, Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed April 13, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Distillate Fuel Oil, accessed April 13, 2021.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
81 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed April 13, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
83 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, updated April 13, 2021.
84 University of Nebraska Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Cropwatch, Harvesting, Drying, Storing Late-Maturing, High-Moisture Corn, accessed April 13, 2021.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, Nebraska, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019: ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040, Occupied Housing Units.
87 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form U.S. EIA-860 Detailed Data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
89 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2014-19.
90 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 31.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Nebraska, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-19.
92 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nebraska, Annual, 2014-19.
93 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2019.
94 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2019.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2015-20.
96 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2018, p. 13-14.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2015-20.
98 U.S. Census Bureau, Nebraska, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019: ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040, Occupied Housing Units.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nebraska, Annual, 2015-20.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
101 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Nebraska Table DS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
102 Nebraska Energy Office, Annual Report 2017 (February 14, 2018), p. 31.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Nebraska Table DS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.


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