North Dakota State Energy Profile



North Dakota Quick Facts

  • In 2019, North Dakota ranked second in the nation, after Texas, in both crude oil production and proved crude oil reserves.
  • North Dakota is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, and its five ethanol plants with nearly 500 million gallons in production capacity provide about 3% of the nation’s fuel ethanol.
  • North Dakota has about 2% of U.S. natural gas reserves, and in 2019 the state's gross withdrawals of natural gas exceeded 1 trillion cubic feet for the first time.
  • North Dakota contains the world's largest known deposit of lignite, and it is a top-10 coal producing state, accounting for 4% of U.S. total coal production.
  • In 2019, coal-fired power plants provided 63% of North Dakota’s electricity generation and wind energy accounted for 27%, which was the fourth-highest share from wind power for any state.

Last Updated: April 16, 2020



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.8 million 0.2% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.4 million 0.3% Feb-21  
Economy North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 57.0 billion 46 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,024 million 45 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 59,388 19 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,826 million miles 47 2019  
Land in Farms 39.3 million acres 7 2017  
Climate North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 42.2 degrees Fahrenheit 48 2020  
Precipitation 12.9 inches 41 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 48.76 /barrel $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.74 /thousand cu ft $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 5.67 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 18.93 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.53 /million Btu $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.44 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 8.63 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 6.63 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 5,897 million barrels 13.3% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 11,104 billion cu ft 2.4% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,422 million barrels 6.6% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 928 million short tons 6.6% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 1,311 wells 0.3% 2019 find more
Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 90,000 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,486 MW 0.8% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 4,229 trillion Btu 4.4% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 1,109 thousand barrels per day 10.0% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 851,750 million cu ft 2.3% 2019 find more
Coal 26,997 thousand short tons 3.8% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,933 thousand MWh 1.1% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 2.5 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 58.9 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 38.4 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 120 thousand barrels 0.7% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 812 thousand barrels 0.6% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 36 thousand barrels 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 459 stations 0.4% 2018  
Propane 24 stations 0.9% 2021  
Electricity 46 stations 0.1% 2021  
E85 36 stations 1.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 661 trillion Btu 39 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 872 million Btu 3 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 6,138 million 42 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 8,097 2 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 76 trillion Btu 0.4% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 93 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 354 trillion Btu 1.1% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 139 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 734 million 0.3% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 771 million 0.4% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,932 million 0.9% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,702 million 0.5% 2018 find more
by Source North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 36 million barrels 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 136 billion cu ft 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 27 million short tons 4.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,923 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 324 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 583 million 2.3% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 4 thousand barrels 0.2% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 969 million cu ft 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Coal 1,884 thousand short tons 4.1% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 40.0 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 2.0 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 41.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 13.9 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.8 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,847 MW 1.8% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 495 million gal/year 2.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 338 thousand MWh 1.3% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,171 thousand MWh 3.1% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation NM NM Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 11,309 thousand barrels 3.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption North Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 24.0 % 9 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,102 thousand barrels 46 2019  
Total Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 56.0 million metric tons 1.1% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 28,668 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 31 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 29 thousand metric tons 2.2% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: April 16, 2020

Overview

North Dakota has substantial fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.1,2,3 The state is the second-largest crude oil producer in the nation, after Texas, and has significant coal reserves.4,5,6 Located at the geographic center of North America, North Dakota has a continental climate characterized by large temperature variations, irregular precipitation, plentiful sunshine, low humidity, and nearly continuous wind. North Dakota's rolling plains slope gently upward to the west toward the Rocky Mountains. Two major river systems, the Missouri River and the Red River, flow through North Dakota, and hydropower has been harnessed by a large federal hydroelectric project on the Missouri River. Winds move unobstructed across the state, creating a renewable resource that generates an increasing share of the state's electricity.7,8 The state's rich soils produce many crops, including corn for ethanol production.9 The state is among the top 10 ethanol producers in the nation.10,11 North Dakota's abundant sunshine provides the energy for the state's small, but growing, amount of solar generation.12

In part because of the state's small population, North Dakota's total energy consumption ranks among the lowest in the nation. However, North Dakota's energy consumption per capita and the amount of energy needed to produce each dollar of the state's gross domestic product (GDP) rank among the top five states, mainly because of its energy-intensive industrial sector.13,14 The industrial sector accounts for more than half of end-use energy consumption in the state.15 The energy-intensive oil and natural gas extraction industries, mining that includes coal production, and agriculture are major contributors to the state's economy.16 The transportation sector accounts for about one-fifth of end-use energy consumption in the state. The residential sector accounts for about one-seventh, and the commercial sector makes up about one-tenth of energy use.17

North Dakota's total energy production is almost six times greater than its energy consumption.18 A surge in energy production over the past decade has come from the development of the state's oil reserves.19 About three-fifths of North Dakota's total primary energy production is in the form of crude oil. Natural gas accounts for almost one-fourth of the state's energy production, and coal makes up about one-tenth. Renewable energy, including biofuels, accounts for the remainder of the state's energy output.20

Petroleum

North Dakota ranks second in the nation after Texas in both proved crude oil reserves and oil production.

North Dakota ranks second in the nation, after Texas, in both proved crude oil reserves and crude oil production.21,22 Oil exploration in North Dakota began in the early 20th century, but the state's first oil discovery did not occur until 1951.23 Production was modest until new drilling technologies—horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing—were applied a decade ago to exploration of the Bakken Shale formation in western North Dakota in the Williston Basin. The Willison Basin is an area of several hundred thousand square miles that includes parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.24 The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that up to 11.4 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil are in the Bakken formation and much of that oil is in North Dakota.25 Twenty of the nation's 100 largest oil fields, as measured by proved reserves, are in North Dakota.26

North Dakota has been the nation's second-largest crude oil-producing state since 2012. Production continued to increase dramatically in the past decade, and the state's oil output in 2019 was more than four times higher than in 2010 with monthly production in the Bakken formation topping 45 million barrels in October 2019 for the first time ever.27,28,29

North Dakota has two oil refineries with a combined operating capacity of about 90,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which is less than one-tenth of the state's daily oil production.30,31 A third refinery with a capacity of nearly 50,000 barrels per calendar day is being built to accommodate increased Bakken oil production in the state. The refinery is scheduled to be fully operational by 2023.32,33 During the past decade, most of North Dakota's crude oil production was shipped out of the state by rail. But new pipelines have been built in recent years and there is now more oil takeaway pipeline capacity than rail capacity.34,35,36 At the end of 2019, about two-thirds of the state's oil production was transported by pipeline.37 North Dakota is also a U.S. entrance point for pipelines carrying Canadian crude oil.38 Canadian oil is transported via pipeline to Midwest refining centers and to the market hub at Cushing, Oklahoma, as well as to refineries on the Gulf Coast.39

Relatively little of the oil produced in North Dakota is used in the state. Almost three-fifths of North Dakota's petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector, and the industrial sector accounts for nearly one-third.40,41 Statewide use of conventional motor gasoline without ethanol is allowed.42 However, there are about 40 fueling stations in the state that distribute E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline.43 Less than 5% of the petroleum used in North Dakota is consumed by the residential sector, where about one in six households uses petroleum products—including fuel oil, propane, and kerosene—for home heating.44,45

Natural gas

North Dakota’s annual natural gas gross withdrawals topped 1 trillion cubic feet in 2019 for the first time.

North Dakota has about 2% of the nation's total natural gas reserves, and the state accounts for almost 3% of U.S. total natural gas gross withdrawals, which includes marketed production.46,47 Natural gas was produced in North Dakota as early as 1892, but significant commercial production was not established until 1929, when development of a Montana natural gas field extended into North Dakota. Sporadic development of the state's natural gas resources continued between the mid-1940s and the early 1980s.48 Production remained below 85 billion cubic feet per year until 2008, when output began to increase rapidly from the associated gas produced with the development of the state's shale oil resources. Gross withdrawals of natural gas in the state exceeded 1 trillion cubic feet for the first time in 2019.49,50

North Dakota natural gas production exceeds the state's takeaway pipeline capacity. There are natural gas processing plants and pipelines planned to handle more of the state's gas output, and North Dakota regulators are studying the feasibility of building petrochemical plants in the state to use the natural gas recovered from Bakken oil production.51,52 Substantial amounts of the state's natural gas is flared (burned) at the wellhead. Burning the associated gas that is extracted during oil production is preferred to having the gas vent into the air because methane, the main component of natural gas, is a greenhouse gas that is more potent than the carbon dioxide that is the main product of flaring.53,54 To reduce the state's emissions from natural gas, North Dakota's Industrial Commission has set incremental targets over several years to increase the amount of natural gas that is captured. In late 2019, about 83% of the state's natural gas production was captured, less than the 88% target rate for the period. The capture target rate is set for 91% for the last quarter of 2020.55,56,57 The state has no underground natural gas storage fields.58

Additional cross-border deliveries of natural gas enter North Dakota primarily from Montana and Canada and continue on mainly to South Dakota and Minnesota. More natural gas leaves the state than enters it. Almost 1.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas was shipped out of North Dakota in 2018, more than double the amount from two decades earlier, while gas deliveries to the state totaled 937 billion cubic feet, the lowest since 2000.59 In recent years, about 40% of the total natural gas consumed in North Dakota was used in the production, processing, and transportation of natural gas. Of the natural gas delivered to the state's end users in 2019, just under half was consumed in the industrial sector. The commercial sector used one-fifth of the delivered natural gas, and the residential sector consumed nearly one-fifth, as 4 in 10 North Dakota households rely on natural gas for heating.60,61 Natural gas use by the electric power sector has doubled since 2015 because of increased natural-gas fired electricity generation, and in 2019 the sector's gas consumption was slightly less than in the residential sector. 62

Coal

North Dakota contains the largest known deposit of lignite in the world.

North Dakota is among the 10 top coal-producing states and accounts for nearly 4% of U.S. coal output.63 The state has almost 3% of U.S. economically-recoverable total coal reserves.64 Western North Dakota contains the world's largest known deposit of lignite, which has the lowest heating value of all coal types and is mostly used to generate electricity, at an estimated 351 billion tons. Coal has been mined at hundreds of sites in North Dakota since the 1870s, but now only lignite is produced at five surface mines in the west-central part of the state. Oxidized lignite (leonardite), which is used in soil stabilization and as a drilling fluid additive, is also mined in North Dakota.65,66,67

All the lignite from North Dakota's five coal mines is used within the state by electricity generating plants and industrial users.68 Industrial facilities and commercial users in the state also receive small amounts of subbituminous coal from Montana and Wyoming.69 In addition, North Dakota uses coal to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). The only operating coal-to-SNG facility in the nation is the Great Plains Synfuels Plant in Beulah, North Dakota, where lignite can be converted into an average of 153 million cubic feet of pipeline-quality natural gas each day.70

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants accounted for 63% of North Dakota's electricity generation in 2019, and 5 of the state's 10 largest power plants are coal-fired.71,72 The rest of the state's electricity generation comes primarily from wind energy, which supplied about 27% of generation, and from hydroelectric power that provided 7%. A small amount of generation, almost 3%, was fueled by natural gas. The state does not have any nuclear power plants.73 About 17% of North Dakota's electricity generation from utility-scale facilities (1 megawatt or larger) comes from independent power producers, and all of it is wind power.74

North Dakota generates more electricity than it consumes, and about half of the power generated in the state is sent to the regional electric grid.75 Several high-voltage electric transmission lines connect North Dakota to Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, and beyond. There are also three electric transmission line crossings at North Dakota's border with Canada.76

The industrial sector is the state's leading electricity consumer, accounting for more than two-fifths of retail power sales in the state, followed by the commercial sector, which accounts for almost one-third. The residential sector, where 4 out of every 10 households heat with electricity, accounts for about one-fourth of retail power sales.77,78

Renewable energy

North Dakota is among the top five states in the share of its electricity generated by wind energy.

North Dakota's wind power generation has more than tripled since 2009.79 The state has substantial and nearly continuous wind energy resources. In 2019, wind was the second-largest electricity generating source in North Dakota and provided about one-fourth of the state's net generation. North Dakota ranks fourth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind energy.80,81 At the end of 2019, the state had about 3,600 megawatts of installed wind power generating capacity from nearly 1,900 turbines.82 Five major wind projects with a combined generating capacity of 950 megawatts were scheduled to come online in 2020.83

In the past decade, hydropower has contributed between 5% and 7% of the state's electricity net generation.84 North Dakota's fifth-largest power plant is at the Garrison Dam, located northwest of Bismarck, on the Missouri River. Construction of the Garrison Dam in the 1950s significantly reduced the extent of serious flooding in the state while also supplying electricity.85,86 The 583-megawatt Garrison generating facility is North Dakota's only hydroelectric plant.87,88 A small amount of electricity is also generated from the state's one biomass-fueled facility, a 10-megawatt capacity industrial unit that provides back-up power supply.89

North Dakota has other undeveloped renewable energy resources, including geothermal and solar energy. The western half of North Dakota has moderately favorable conditions for geothermal development, but the state has no electricity generation from geothermal energy.90 The state has moderate sunshine, but there is only a small amount of customer-sited, small-scale electricity generation from solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, most of which comes from rooftop solar panels. The state has no utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar power generating facilities.91,92,93

North Dakota is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, and it manufactures about 3% of the nation's total. The state's five ethanol production plants use corn as feedstock and can produce nearly 500 million gallons per year.94,95,96 The state also has one biodiesel production plant that uses canola oil as its primary feedstock and has a production capacity of 85 million gallons per year.97,98,99

In March 2007, North Dakota adopted a voluntary goal to obtain by 2015 10% of the state's electricity retail sales from power generated by renewables and by recovering energy that is normally lost and using it to generate electricity.100 The goal, which applied to all retail providers of electricity, was exceeded. In 2019, about 34% of the electricity generated in North Dakota came from renewable energy sources.101 In 1991, North Dakota was one of the first states to implement net metering, which allows households and businesses with small renewable energy systems and combined heat and power systems up to 100 kilowatts in capacity to sell their excess electricity to investor-owned utilities.102

Energy on tribal lands

North Dakota is home to five federally recognized tribes and one Indian community.103 Two of the five reservations—Standing Rock and Fort Berthold—are among the nation's largest reservations.104,105 There are about 30,000 Native Americans living in North Dakota, making up about 5% of the state's population, and about 2% of the state's area consists of tribal lands.106,107

The Native American tribes of North Dakota have shared in the state's increased oil production. Crude oil production from Indian lands in the United States nearly doubled between 2013 and 2019, and much of the new production came from wells on North Dakota tribal lands. The Fort Berthold Reservation, home to the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations—known as the Three Affiliated Tribes—is in the center of the prolific oil-producing Williston Basin in the western part of North Dakota.108,109 The wells on the Fort Berthold Reservation, the largest in the state, produced about 370,000 barrels of crude oil per day at the end of 2019, which was equal to about one-fourth of the state's daily oil output.110,111 The Affiliated Tribes drilled the first tribe-owned wells on the reservation in 2015.112

North Dakota's reservations have significant renewable resources. The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians has a 10-year plan to create a tribe-owned electric utility and become energy self-sufficient, relying on renewable resources and energy efficiency to eliminate their dependence on non-tribal fossil fuels.113 The Standing Rock Sioux reservation is rated among the top 10 tribal lands in the nation with the best wind and solar resources for potential electricity generation.114 The Spirit Lake Tribe on the Fort Totten Reservation received a federal grant in August 2018 to help pay for a 1.5-megawatt wind turbine to provide most of the electricity used by 12 tribal facilities and 350 residential consumers.115

Energy efficiency projects have been undertaken on tribal lands in North Dakota as well. The Fort Totten School on the Spirit Lake Indian Reservation is the first net zero energy school on tribal lands in the nation that produces more energy than it consumes and the first net zero energy school anywhere in North Dakota. The design of the school includes solar PV panels; ground-source geothermal heating and cooling; high-efficiency heat pumps; an energy recovery system; occupancy sensors; and LED and solar tube lighting, among other features.116

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013-18.
2 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas and Wet NG, 2013-18.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WindExchange, Wind Energy in North Dakota, Maps & Data, accessed March 20, 2020.
4 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2013-19.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
6 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
7 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
8 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, North Dakota, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-19.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2019 State Agriculture Overview, North Dakota.
10 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, updated July 3, 2018.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
12 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2017.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Classification NAICS, North Dakota, All statistics in table 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2019.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2017.
21 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013-18.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2012-18.
23 Bluemle, John P., The 50th Anniversary of the Discovery of Oil in North Dakota, Miscellaneous Series No. 89, North Dakota Geological Survey (2001), p. i.
24 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed March 20, 2020.
25 U.S. Geological Survey, How much oil and gas are actually in the Bakken Formation?, accessed March 20, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
27 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2019.
28 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, 1981-2019.
29 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, ND Monthly Bakken Oil Production Statistics, accessed March 20, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2020), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2019.
31 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 2014-19.
32 Meridian Energy Group, Davis Refinery, accessed March 20, 2020.
33 Henson, Kayla, "Davis Refinery adopts Equator Principles to explain vision to investors," The Dickinson Press (February 24, 2020).
34 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Crude Oil, From PADD 2 to, Annual- Thousand Barrels, 2014-19.
35 Horn, Steve, and Justin Mikulka, "Bakken Oil Now Flowing in Dakota Access Pipeline But Oil Trains to Remain on Tracks," DESMOG (April 3, 2017).
36 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Oil Transportation Table, accessed March 23, 2020.
37 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Monthly Update December 2019 Production & Transportation (February 14, 2020), p. 2.
38 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Liquids Pipeline Border Crossing, accessed March 23, 2020.
39 TransCanada, Operations, Oils and Liquids, Bakken Marketlink and Keystone Pipeline System, accessed March 23, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2014-19.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
42 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Dakota, Ethanol (E85), accessed March 20, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
45 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Dakota.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-19.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2018, Wet NG.
48 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed March 20, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2019.
50 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, Annual, 2007-18.
51 MacPherson, James, "Gas pipeline, processing plant proposed in North Dakota," Associated Press (January 8, 2020).
52 Edwards, Suzanne, "North Dakota Considering Petrochemical Plants to Reduce Bakken's Flared Natural Gas," Shale Daily (October 25, 2019).
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Vented and Flared, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, North Dakota, 2013-18.
54 U.S. EIA, "Natural gas venting and flaring increased in North Dakota and Texas in 2018," Today in Energy (December 6, 2019).
55 Kringstad, Justin, North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Presentation to EmPower ND Commission (February 4, 2020), slide 26.
56 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Order 24665 Policy/Guidance Version 041718, p. 2.
57 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Annual Report July 1, 2018-June 30, 2019, Natural Gas Capture, p. 7-8.
58 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, North Dakota, 2013-18.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, North Dakota, Annual, 2014-19.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Dakota.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, North Dakota, Annual, 2014-19.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
64 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining
Method, 2018
65 North Dakota Geological Survey, Mineral Resources of North Dakota: Coal, accessed March 21, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, Types of Coal, accessed April 7, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2018.
68 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, North Dakota, Table OS-16, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, North Dakota, Table DS-30, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
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