North Dakota State Energy Profile



North Dakota Quick Facts

  • In 2020, North Dakota ranked second in the nation, after Texas, in both crude oil production and proved crude oil reserves.
  • North Dakota is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, and its five ethanol plants with nearly 500 million gallons in production capacity provide about 3% of the nation’s fuel ethanol.
  • North Dakota has almost 3% of U.S. natural gas reserves, and in 2020 the state accounted for 2.5% of U.S. natural gas gross withdrawals.
  • North Dakota contains the world's largest known deposit of lignite, and it is a top-10 coal producing state, accounting for 4% of U.S. total coal production.
  • In 2020, coal-fired power plants provided 57% of North Dakota’s electricity generation, and wind energy accounted for 31%, which was the fifth-highest share from wind power for any state.

Last Updated: May 20, 2021



Data

Last Update: June 17, 2021 | Next Update: July 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.8 million 0.2% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.4 million 0.3% Apr-21  
Economy North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 54.0 billion 47 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,046 million 45 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 59,388 19 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,826 million miles 47 2019  
Land in Farms 39.3 million acres 7 2017  
Climate North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 42.2 degrees Fahrenheit 48 2020  
Precipitation 12.9 inches 41 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 60.19 /barrel $ 60.67 /barrel Mar-21  
Natural Gas North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.39 /thousand cu ft $ 4.09 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Residential $ 6.27 /thousand cu ft $ 10.55 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Coal North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 18.93 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.62 /million Btu $ 1.89 /million Btu Mar-21  
Electricity North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.17 cents/kWh 13.29 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Commercial 8.82 cents/kWh 11.13 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Industrial 7.04 cents/kWh 7.01 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 5,897 million barrels 13.3% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 11,104 billion cu ft 2.4% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,422 million barrels 6.6% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 928 million short tons 6.6% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 1,311 wells 0.3% 2019 find more
Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 90,000 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,486 MW 0.8% Mar-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 4,229 trillion Btu 4.4% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 1,027 thousand barrels per day 9.2% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 851,750 million cu ft 2.3% 2019 find more
Coal 26,997 thousand short tons 3.8% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,730 thousand MWh 1.2% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 3.1 % 33.9 % Mar-21 find more
Coal-Fired 53.4 % 20.0 % Mar-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.5 % Mar-21 find more
Renewables 43.2 % 24.6 % Mar-21  
Stocks North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 97 thousand barrels 0.7% Mar-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 794 thousand barrels 0.7% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Mar-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 33 thousand barrels 0.1% Mar-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Mar-21 find more
Fueling Stations North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 449 stations 0.4% 2019  
Propane 24 stations 0.9% 2021  
Electricity 46 stations 0.1% 2021  
E85 36 stations 1.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 668 trillion Btu 39 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 872 million Btu 3 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,930 million 41 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 8,097 2 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 79 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 97 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 360 trillion Btu 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 131 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 762 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 780 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,896 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,491 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 36 million barrels 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 136 billion cu ft 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 27 million short tons 4.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,661 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 324 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 583 million 2.3% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 8 thousand barrels 0.5% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,081 million cu ft 0.1% Mar-21 find more
Coal 1,634 thousand short tons 4.7% Mar-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 40.0 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 2.0 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 41.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 13.9 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.8 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,847 MW 1.8% Mar-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 495 million gal/year 2.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 199 thousand MWh 0.9% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,411 thousand MWh 2.8% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Mar-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Mar-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 11,309 thousand barrels 3.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption North Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 24.0 % 9 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,102 thousand barrels 46 2019  
Total Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 59.3 million metric tons 1.1% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 28,668 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 31 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 29 thousand metric tons 2.2% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 20, 2021

Overview

North Dakota has substantial fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.1,2,3 The state is the second-largest crude oil producer in the nation, after Texas, and also has significant coal reserves.4,5,6 Located at the geographic center of North America, North Dakota has a continental climate characterized by large temperature variations, irregular precipitation, plentiful sunshine, low humidity, and nearly continuous wind. North Dakota's rolling plains slope gently upward to the west toward the Rocky Mountains. Two major river systems, the Missouri River and the Red River, flow through North Dakota, and hydropower has been harnessed by a large federal hydroelectric project on the Missouri River. Winds move unobstructed across the state, providing a renewable resource that generates an increasing share of the state's electricity.7,8 The state's rich soils produce many crops, including corn for ethanol production.9 The state is among the top 10 ethanol producers in the nation.10 North Dakota's abundant sunshine provides the energy for the state's small, but growing, amount of solar generation.11

In part because of the state's small population, North Dakota's total energy consumption ranks among the lowest in the nation. However, North Dakota's energy consumption per capita and the amount of energy needed to produce each dollar of the state's gross domestic product (GDP) rank among the top five states, mainly because of its energy-intensive industrial sector.12,13 The industrial sector accounts for more than half of end-use energy consumption in the state.14 The energy-intensive oil and natural gas extraction industries, mining that includes coal production, and agriculture are major contributors to the state's economy.15 The transportation sector accounts for about one-fifth of end-use energy consumption in the state. The commercial sector accounts for about one-seventh, and the residential sector makes up about one-tenth of energy use.16

North Dakota's total energy production is almost seven times greater than its energy consumption.17 A surge in energy production over the past decade has come from the development of the state's oil reserves.18 About three-fifths of North Dakota's total primary energy production is in the form of crude oil. Natural gas accounts for almost one-fourth of the state's energy production, and coal makes up about one-tenth. Renewable energy, including biofuels, accounts for the remaining 5% of state energy output.19

Petroleum

North Dakota ranks second in the nation after Texas in both proved crude oil reserves and oil production.

North Dakota ranks second in the nation, after Texas, in both proved crude oil reserves and crude oil production.20,21 Oil exploration in North Dakota began in the early 20th century, but the state's first oil discovery did not occur until 1951.22 Production was modest until new drilling technologies—horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing—were applied more than a decade ago to exploration of the Bakken Shale formation in western North Dakota in the Williston Basin. The Williston Basin is an area of several hundred thousand square miles that includes parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.23 The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that up to 11.4 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil are in the Bakken formation and much of that oil is in North Dakota.24 Twenty of the nation's 100 largest oil fields, as measured by proved reserves, are in North Dakota.25

North Dakota has been the nation's second-largest crude oil-producing state since 2012. Production has increased dramatically in the past decade. The state's oil output fell by 17%, or 244,000 barrels per day, in 2020 from 2019's record volume. The decline was mainly due to the drop in oil prices and petroleum demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the state's crude oil production was still almost four times higher than in 2010.26,27,28,29

North Dakota has two oil refineries with a combined operating capacity of about 90,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which is less than one-tenth of the state's daily oil production.30,31 A third refinery with a capacity of nearly 50,000 barrels per calendar day is being built to accommodate increased Bakken oil production in the state. The refinery is scheduled to be fully operational by 2023.32,33 During the past decade, most of North Dakota's crude oil production was transported out of the state by rail. But new pipelines have been built in recent years, and there is now more oil takeaway pipeline capacity than rail car capacity.34,35,36 At the end of 2020, about four-fifths of the state's oil production was transported by pipeline.37 North Dakota is also a U.S. entrance point for pipelines carrying Canada's crude oil.38 Oil from Canada is transported via pipeline to Midwest refining centers and to the crude oil market hub at Cushing, Oklahoma, as well as to refineries on the Gulf Coast.39

Relatively little of the oil produced in North Dakota is used in the state. About three-fifths of North Dakota's petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector, and the industrial sector accounts for one-third.40,41 Statewide use of conventional motor gasoline without ethanol is allowed.42 There are about 40 fueling stations in the state that distribute E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline.43 North Dakota has the highest motor gasoline expenditures per capita, mainly due to the state's small population.44 About 6% of the petroleum used in North Dakota is consumed by the residential sector, where about one in six households uses petroleum products—including fuel oil, propane, and kerosene—for home heating.45,46

Natural gas

North Dakota’s natural gas gross withdrawals topped 1 trillion cubic feet in 2019 for the first time.

North Dakota has almost 3% of the nation's total natural gas reserves, and the state accounts for 2.5% of U.S. total natural gas gross withdrawals,.47,48 Natural gas was produced in North Dakota as early as 1892, but significant commercial production was not established until 1929, when development of a Montana natural gas field extended into North Dakota. Sporadic development of the state's natural gas resources continued between the mid-1940s and the early 1980s.49 Production remained below 85 billion cubic feet per year until 2008, when output began to increase rapidly from the associated gas produced with the development of the state's shale oil resources. Gross withdrawals of natural gas in the state exceeded 1 trillion cubic feet for the first time in 2019, but dropped below that record volume in 2020 due to lower U.S. natural gas demand resulting from a warmer winter in 2020 and the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.50,51,52

North Dakota natural gas production exceeds the state's takeaway pipeline capacity. There are natural gas processing plants and pipelines planned to handle more of the state's gas output, and North Dakota regulators are studying the feasibility of building petrochemical plants in the state to use the natural gas recovered from Bakken oil production.53,54,55,56 Substantial amounts of the state's natural gas production is flared (burned) at the wellhead. State regulators prefer burning the associated gas that is extracted during oil production to having the gas vent into the air when possible because methane, the main component of natural gas, is a more potent greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide that is the main product of flaring.57,58 To reduce the state's emissions from natural gas, North Dakota's Industrial Commission has set incremental targets over several years to increase the amount of natural gas that is captured. In the third quarter of 2020, about 92% of the state's natural gas production was captured, which was ahead of the 88% target capture rate for that period and also ahead of the 91% capture rate set for the last quarter of 2020.59,60 The state has no underground natural gas storage fields.61 North Dakota's Industrial Commission is seeking authority from the state's legislature to issue permits for underground storage sites that could hold natural gas, natural gas liquids, or crude oil.62,63

Cross-border deliveries of natural gas enter North Dakota primarily from Canada and Montana and continue on mainly to South Dakota and Minnesota. More natural gas leaves the state than enters it. Almost 1.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas was shipped out of North Dakota in 2019, down slightly from the record export volumes in 2018. Natural gas shipments into the state totaled 829 billion cubic feet, the lowest since 1999.64 In recent years, about 40% of the total natural gas consumed in North Dakota was used in the production, processing, and distribution of natural gas. Of the natural gas delivered to the state's end users in 2020, just under half went to the industrial sector. Natural gas deliveries to the state's electric power sector exceeded deliveries to both the commercial sector and the residential sector for the first time in 2020, accounting for one-fifth of the state total. Natural gas use by the electric power sector has more than doubled since 2017 because of increased natural-gas fired electricity generation. In 2020, North Dakota's commercial sector used slightly less than one-fifth of the delivered natural gas and the residential sector used nearly one-seventh, as 4 in 10 North Dakota households rely on natural gas for heating.65,66

Coal

North Dakota contains the largest known deposit of lignite in the world.

North Dakota is among the top 10 coal-producing states and accounts for about 4% of U.S. coal output.67 The state has nearly 3% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves.68 Western North Dakota contains the world's largest known deposit of lignite, which has the lowest heating value of all coal types and is mostly used to generate electricity. Coal has been mined at hundreds of sites in North Dakota since the 1870s, but now only lignite is produced at five active surface mines in the west-central part of the state. Oxidized lignite (leonardite), which is used in soil stabilization and as a drilling fluid additive, is also mined in North Dakota.69,70,71

All of North Dakota's mined lignite is used within the state by electricity generating plants and industrial users.72 Industrial facilities and commercial users in the state also receive small amounts of subbituminous coal from Montana and Wyoming.73 In addition, North Dakota uses coal to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). The only operating coal-to-SNG facility in the nation is the Great Plains Synfuels Plant in Beulah, North Dakota, where lignite can be converted into an average of 153 million cubic feet of pipeline-quality natural gas each day.74

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants accounted for 57% of North Dakota's electricity generation in 2020, and the state's four largest power plants by generating capacity are coal-fired.75,76 The rest of the state's electricity generation came primarily from wind energy, which supplied about 31% of generation, and from hydroelectric power that provided 8%. A small amount of generation, almost 4%, was fueled by natural gas. The state does not have any nuclear power plants.77 About 19% of North Dakota's electricity generation from utility-scale facilities (1 megawatt or larger) is provided by independent power producers, and all of it is wind power.78

North Dakota generates more electricity than it consumes, and almost half of the power generated in the state is sent to other states and Canada via the regional electric grid.79 Several high-voltage electric transmission lines connect North Dakota to Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, and beyond. There are also three electric transmission line crossings at North Dakota's border with Canada.80

North Dakota has the second-highest per capita electricity sales after Wyoming.

North Dakota ranks among the 10 states with the lowest total electricity sales, but in part because of its small population, the state is second, after Wyoming, in highest per capita electricity sales.81 The industrial sector is the state's leading electricity consumer, accounting for almost half of retail power sales in the state, followed by the commercial sector, which accounts for three-tenths. The residential sector, where 4 out of every 10 households heat with electricity, accounts for slightly less than one-fourth of retail electricity sales.82,83

Renewable energy

North Dakota is among the five states with the largest share of its electricity generated by wind energy.

North Dakota's wind power generation more than doubled from 2015 to 2020. The state has substantial and nearly continuous wind energy resources. In 2020, wind was the second-largest electricity generating source in North Dakota and provided about three-tenths of the state's net generation. The state ranked fifth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind energy.84,85 At the beginning of 2021, North Dakota had about 4,000 megawatts of installed wind power generating capacity. The state's largest wind farm, which has 300 megawatts of generating capacity, came online in early 2021.86

Hydropower contributed 8% of North Dakota's in-state electricity net generation in 2020.87 The state's fifth-largest power plant is at the Garrison Dam located on the Missouri River northwest of Bismarck. Construction of the Garrison Dam in the 1950s significantly reduced the extent of serious flooding in the state while also supplying electricity.88,89 The 583-megawatt Garrison generating facility is North Dakota's only utility-scale hydroelectric plant.90,91 A small amount of electricity is also generated from the state's one biomass-fueled facility, a 10-megawatt industrial unit that provides back-up power supply.92

North Dakota has undeveloped renewable energy resources, including geothermal and solar energy. The western half of North Dakota has moderately favorable conditions for geothermal development, but the state has no electricity generation from geothermal energy.93 The state has moderate sunshine, but there is only a small amount of customer-sited, small-scale electricity generation from solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems most of which comes from rooftop solar panels. The state has no utility-scale solar power generating facilities.94,95,96

North Dakota is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, and it manufactures about 3% of the nation's total ethanol. The state's five ethanol production plants use corn as feedstock and together can produce nearly 500 million gallons per year.97,98,99 The state also has one biodiesel production plant that uses canola oil as its primary feedstock and has a production capacity of 85 million gallons per year.100,101

In March 2007, North Dakota adopted a voluntary goal to obtain 10% of the state's electricity retail sales by 2015 from power generated by renewables and by recovering energy that is normally lost and using it to generate electricity.102 The goal, which applied to all retail providers of electricity, has been exceeded. In 2020, about 39% of the electricity generated in North Dakota came from renewable energy sources.103 In 1991, North Dakota was one of the first states with a net metering program to allow households and businesses with small renewable energy systems and combined heat-and-power systems up to 100 kilowatts in capacity to sell their excess electricity to investor-owned utilities.104

Energy on tribal lands

North Dakota is home to five federally recognized Native American tribes and one Indian community.105 Two of the five reservations—Standing Rock and Fort Berthold—are among the nation's largest reservations at about 1.2 million acres each.106,107 There are about 30,000 Native Americans living in North Dakota, making up about 5% of the state's population, and about 2% of the state's land area consists of tribal lands.108,109

The Native American tribes of North Dakota have shared in the state's increased oil production. Crude oil production from tribal lands in the United States more than doubled between 2013 and 2020, and much of the new production came from wells on North Dakota tribal lands. The Fort Berthold Reservation, home to the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations—known as the Three Affiliated Tribes—is in the center of the prolific oil-producing Williston Basin in the western part of North Dakota.110 The wells on the Fort Berthold Reservation, which is the largest reservation in the state, produced about 299,000 barrels of crude oil per day at the end of 2020, equal to about one-fourth of the state's total daily oil output.111,112 The Affiliated Tribes drilled the first tribe-owned wells on the reservation in 2015.113 In April 2021, the Affiliated Tribes sought to use the captured natural gas from oil wells on the reservation for heat and electricity generation at new greenhouses constructed to grow vegetables.114

North Dakota's reservations have significant renewable resources. The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians has a 10-year plan to create a tribe-owned electric utility and become energy self-sufficient, relying on renewable resources and energy efficiency to eliminate their dependence on non-tribal fossil fuels.115 The Standing Rock Sioux Reservation is rated among the top 10 tribal lands in the nation with the best wind and solar resources for potential electricity generation.116 The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe plans to build a 235-megawatt wind farm.117,118 The Spirit Lake Tribe on the Fort Totten Reservation received an U.S. Department of Energy grant in August 2018 to help pay for a 1.5-megawatt wind turbine to provide most of the electricity used by 12 tribal facilities and 350 residential consumers.119

Energy efficiency projects have been undertaken on tribal lands in North Dakota as well. The Fort Totten School on the Spirit Lake Indian Reservation is the first net zero-energy school on tribal lands in the nation and the first anywhere in North Dakota. The school produces more energy than it consumes. The design of the school includes solar PV panels; ground-source geothermal heating and cooling; high-efficiency heat pumps; an energy recovery system; occupancy sensors; and LED and solar tube lighting, among other features.120

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-19.
2 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas and Wet NG, 2014-19.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WindExchange, Wind Energy in North Dakota, Maps & Data, accessed April 19, 2021.
4 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2014-20.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
6 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
7 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
8 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, North Dakota, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, North Dakota.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
11 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, North Dakota, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Classification NAICS, North Dakota, All statistics in table, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2020.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-19.
21 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2015-20.
22 Bluemle, John P., The 50th Anniversary of the Discovery of Oil in North Dakota, Miscellaneous Series No. 89, North Dakota Geological Survey (2001), p. i.
23 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed April 19, 2021.
24 U.S. Geological Survey, How much oil and gas are actually in the Bakken Formation?, accessed April 19, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
26 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2020.
27 U.S. EIA, "COVID-19 mitigation efforts result in the lowest U.S. petroleum consumption in decades," Today in Energy (December 20, 2020).
28 U.S. EIA, "The number of active U.S. crude oil and natural gas rigs is at the lowest point on record," Today in Energy (May 20, 2020).
29 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, ND Monthly Bakken Oil Production Statistics, accessed April 20, 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2015-20.
32 Meridian Energy Group, Davis Refinery, accessed April 20, 2021.
33 Jean, Renée, "Meridian CEO says Davis refinery's design improved during two-year delay caused by litigation," Williston Herald (January 14, 2021).
34 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Crude Oil, From PADD 2 to, Annual- Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
35 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Oil Transportation Table, accessed April 20, 2021.
36 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, North Dakota Crude Oil Pipelines, accessed April 25, 2021.
37 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Monthly Update December 2020 Production & Transportation (February 12, 2021), p. 2.
38 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Liquids Pipeline Border Crossing, accessed April 20, 2021.
39 TransCanada, Operations, Oils and Liquids, Overview, accessed April 20, 2021.
40 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production-Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
42 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Dakota, Ethanol (E85), accessed April 20, 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2018.
45 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Dakota.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2019, Wet NG.
49 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed April 20, 2021.
50 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2020.
51 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, Annual, 2007-19.
52 U.S. EIA, "EIA expects U.S. natural gas consumption to continue decreasing in 2021 and 2022," Today in Energy (April 20, 2021).
53 MacPherson, James, "Gas pipeline, processing plant proposed in North Dakota," Associated Press (January 8, 2020).
54 Edwards, Suzanne, "North Dakota Considering Petrochemical Plants to Reduce Bakken's Flared Natural Gas," Shale Daily (October 25, 2019).
55 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Natural Gas Processing Capacity, Million Cubic Feet Per Day, accessed April 25, 2021.
56 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, North Dakota Natural Gas Pipelines, updated February 2019.
57 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Vented and Flared, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, North Dakota, 2014-19.
58 U.S. EIA, "Natural gas venting and flaring in North Dakota and Texas increased in 2019," Today in Energy (December 8, 2020).
59 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Order 24665 Policy/Guidance Version 041718, p. 2.
60 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Annual Report July 1, 2019-June 30, 2020, Natural Gas Capture, p. 9-10.
61 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2019.
62 Nemec, Rich, "North Dakota Examining Potential for Bakken Natural Gas, Liquids Storage," Shale Daily (December 17, 2020).
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