North Dakota State Energy Profile



North Dakota Quick Facts

  • In 2015, North Dakota was the second largest crude oil-producing state in the nation and accounted for 12.5% of total U.S. crude oil production, including oil produced in federal offshore areas.
  • In 2015, North Dakota had 5.3% of the nation’s recoverable coal reserves at producing mines and accounted for 3.2% of U.S. coal production. 
  • North Dakota’s total energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation as a result of its small population, but the state’s consumption per capita ranks among the highest, in part because of the energy-intensive industrial sector and high heating demand in winter. 
  • In 2016, about 71% of North Dakota's net electricity generation came from coal, 21.5% came from wind energy, and about 5% came from conventional hydroelectric power.
  • North Dakota has abundant wind resources and ranked 9th in the nation in wind energy potential,10th in utility-scale generation, and 11th in installed capacity in 2016.

Last Updated: March 16, 2017



Data

Last Update: July 20, 2017 | Next Update: August 17, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.8 million 0.2% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 0.4 million 0.3% May-17  
Economy North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 55.9 billion 46 2015  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,034 million 45 2015  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 55,950 9 2015  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 10,036 million miles 44 2015  
Land in Farms 39.3 million acres 7 2012  
Climate North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 44.3 degrees Fahrenheit 46 2016  
Precipitation 22.1 inches 40 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 45.62 /barrel $ 47.23 /barrel Apr-17  
Natural Gas North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.11 /thousand cu ft $ 4.18 /thousand cu ft Apr-17 find more
Residential $ 7.61 /thousand cu ft $ 11.38 /thousand cu ft Apr-17 find more
Coal North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 17.71 /short ton $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.76 /million Btu $ 2.10 /million Btu Apr-17  
Electricity North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.39 cents/kWh 12.70 cents/kWh Apr-17 find more
Commercial 9.12 cents/kWh 10.40 cents/kWh Apr-17 find more
Industrial 8.71 cents/kWh 6.60 cents/kWh Apr-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 5,193 million barrels 16.1% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 6,203 billion cu ft 2.0% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 804 million barrels 6.3% 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 974 million short tons 5.3% 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 176 rigs 9.5% 2014  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 462 wells 0.1% 2015 find more
Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,261 trillion Btu 3.7% 2014 find more
Crude Oil 31,132 thousand barrels 11.4% Apr-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 471,504 million cu ft 1.6% 2015 find more
Coal 28,802 thousand short tons 3.2% 2015 find more
Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 93,300 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 8,136 MW 0.8% Apr-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,017 thousand MWh 1.0% Apr-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Apr-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired NM 29.4 % Apr-17 find more
Coal-Fired 60.0 % 27.8 % Apr-17 find more
Nuclear 0 % 19.3 % Apr-17 find more
Renewables 38.4 % 22.4 % Apr-17  
Stocks North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 72 thousand barrels 0.5% Apr-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,161 thousand barrels 0.9% Apr-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 31 thousand barrels 0.1% Apr-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Apr-17 find more
Production Facilities North Dakota
Major Coal Mines Freedom Mine / The Coteau Properties Company, Falkirk Mine / Falkirk Mining Company find more
Petroleum Refineries Dakota Prarie Refining (Dickinson), Tesoro West Coast (Mandan) find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Coal Creek (Great River Energy) ; Antelope Valley (Basin Electric Power Coop) ; Milton R Young (Minnkota Power Coop, Inc) ; Leland Olds (Basin Electric Power Coop) ; Garrison (USCE-Missouri River District)  
Nuclear Power Plants None find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers North Dakota
Petroleum Ports None find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs None  
Major Pipelines North Dakota find more
Crude Oil Belle Fourche, Koch, Lakehead, Little Missouri, Madador, Magellan, Portal.  
Petroleum Product Midstream Partners, Nustar, CHS Energy, Enbridge  
Natural Gas Liquids Enbridge, Kinder Morgan  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Alliance Pipeline LP, Bison Pipeline LLC, Northern Border Pipeline Company, Viking Gas Transmission Company, WBI Energy Transmission Inc  
Fueling Stations North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 465 stations 0.4% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 25 stations 0.8% 2017  
Electricity 8 stations 0.1% 2017  
Ethanol 40 stations 1.4% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 608 trillion Btu 40 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 803 million Btu 4 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,485 million 43 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 7,248 3 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 70 trillion Btu 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 86 trillion Btu 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 316 trillion Btu 1.0% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 136 trillion Btu 0.5% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 674 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 718 million 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,660 million 0.9% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,433 million 0.5% 2015 find more
by Source North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 36.4 million barrels 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 95.5 billion cu ft 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 29.5 million short tons 3.7% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,478 million 0.6% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 276 million 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 676 million 1.8% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 2 thousand barrels 0.2% Apr-17 find more
Natural Gas 466 million cu ft 0.1% Apr-17 find more
Coal 1,517 thousand short tons 3.4% Apr-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 41.3 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 3.3 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 39.1 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13.0 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 3.2 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,593 MW 1.8% Apr-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 465 million gal/year 3.1% 2016  
Renewable Energy Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 232 thousand MWh 0.8% Apr-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 925 thousand MWh 2.9% Apr-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Apr-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Apr-17  
Ethanol Production 9,070 Thousand Barrels 2.7% 2014  
Renewable Energy Consumption North Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 18.2 % 11 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 1,161 thousand barrels 44 2015  
Total Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 59.0 million metric tons 1.1% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 31,246 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 43 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 42 thousand metric tons 2.3% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 16, 2017

Overview

North Dakota has substantial fossil fuel and renewable energy resources. The state is the second largest crude oil producer in the nation and has significant lignite coal reserves.1,2,3 Located at the geographic center of North America, North Dakota has a continental climate characterized by large temperature variations, irregular precipitation, plentiful sunshine, low humidity, and nearly continuous wind. North Dakota's rolling plains slope gently upward to the west toward the Rocky Mountains, allowing winds to move unobstructed across the state.4 The winds and North Dakota's abundant sunshine are renewable resources that are contributing increasing shares of the state's electricity generation.5 Two major rivers, the Missouri River and the Red River, and their tributaries, flow through North Dakota. Hydropower has been harnessed by a large federal hydroelectric project on the Missouri River, and the Red River Valley is noted for its highly productive soils.6 The state's abundant farmland produces many crops, including the corn for North Dakota's ethanol production.7 The state is among the top ethanol-producers in the nation.8

Although North Dakota has one of the smallest populations in the United States, it experienced one of the largest percentage increases in population between 2010 and 2016, primarily because of the state's recent oil boom.9,10 Total energy consumption in North Dakota ranks among the lowest in the nation; however, consumption per capita and per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) rank among the highest because of the state's energy-intensive industrial sector and the high heating demand during North Dakota's very cold winters.11,12,13,14 The industrial sector accounts for more than half of end-use energy consumption in the state.15 Mining, including the energy-intensive oil and gas industry, is a key industry in North Dakota and a major contributor to the state's GDP, along with agriculture and renewable energy.16,17 The transportation sector uses less than half as much energy as the industrial sector and accounts for almost one-fourth of end-use energy consumption in the state.18

North Dakota's total energy production is about five times greater than its consumption.19 The surge in production over the past few years has come from the development of the state's petroleum resources.20 More than two-thirds of North Dakota's total energy production is in the form of crude oil. Coal and natural gas provide one-fourth of the state's total energy production, and renewable energy, including the rapidly developing wind sector, provides the remainder.21

Petroleum

North Dakota's Williston Basin contains several of the nation's largest oil fields.

North Dakota ranks second in the nation after Texas in crude oil reserves.22 Oil exploration in North Dakota began in the early 20th century, but the first oil discovery did not occur until 1951.23 Production was modest until the exploitation of the Bakken formation in western North Dakota in the Williston Basin, an area of several hundred thousand square miles that includes parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.24 The U.S. Geological Survey has estimated that more than 7 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil are in the Bakken and Three Forks formations in the Williston Basin; much of that oil is in North Dakota.25 About one-fifth of the nation's 100 largest oil fields, as measured by reserves, are in North Dakota.26

North Dakota has been the nation's second largest crude oil-producing state, after Texas, since 2012.27 By 2015, cumulative crude oil production in the state had reached almost 3.4 billion barrels.28 Crude oil production in North Dakota increased dramatically in the past decade and was almost 11 times greater in 2015 than in 2006,29 primarily as a result of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies that increased production from the Bakken Shale.30,31 A new refinery opened in 2015, and the state now has two refineries, with a combined operable capacity of about 93,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.32,33 More refineries are planned or are in development to accommodate increased Bakken and Three Forks production in the state.34,35,36,37 Despite a slight decline beginning in mid-2015, production in 2016 was almost 10 times greater than in 2006.38,39

North Dakota is a U.S. entrance point for pipelines carrying Canadian crude oil. Some Canadian crude oil is transported via pipeline east to Midwest refining markets and south to Cushing, Oklahoma, as well as to Port Arthur, Texas.40 Although the state is crossed by several crude oil pipelines, producers in North Dakota ship some of their crude oil by rail because oil production has outpaced pipeline capacity. At its height in 2013, about three-fourths of the crude oil produced in the state was shipped by rail, but the amount has fallen and, by late 2016, less than one-third of the state's crude oil was transported by rail.41,42

Relatively little of the petroleum and ethanol produced in North Dakota is consumed there.43,44,45 More than half of the petroleum used in North Dakota is consumed by the transportation sector.46 Statewide use of conventional motor gasoline without ethanol is allowed. However, there are more than 40 fueling stations in the state that distribute E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.47,48 The industrial sector accounts for nearly two-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state. Less than 5% of the petroleum used in North Dakota is consumed by the residential sector, where about one in six households use petroleum products—including fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene—for home heating.49,50

Natural gas

Natural gas was discovered in North Dakota as early as 1892, but significant commercial production was not established until 1929, when development of a Montana natural gas field extended into North Dakota. Sporadic development of the state's natural gas resources took place between the mid-1940s and the early 1980s.51 Beginning in 2007, production increased rapidly with the development of the state's shale gas resources.52 Only about 2% of the nation's total natural gas reserves and production is in North Dakota.53,54,55

Several natural gas pipelines cross the state, and the North Dakota Pipeline Authority was created to facilitate the expansion of the state's pipeline infrastructure to accommodate the increased production.56,57 The natural gas produced in North Dakota is rich in natural gas liquids (NGL), and attractive NGL prices have resulted in the development of new natural gas processing facilities and pipelines. Those projects substantially increased natural gas-processing capacity and pipeline access in the region.58,59 However, North Dakota natural gas production exceeds pipeline capacity and, because the state has no underground natural gas storage fields, natural gas has been flared (burned) at the wellhead.60 North Dakota's Industrial Commission has established targets to decrease the amount of flared natural gas over the next several years.61,62

North Dakota typically accounts for about 0.3% of the nation's natural gas consumption.63 Interstate deliveries of natural gas enter North Dakota primarily from Montana and Canada and continue on to South Dakota and Minnesota. More natural gas leaves the state than enters because of the added North Dakota production.64 Between one-third and two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in North Dakota is used in the production and transportation of natural gas. Of the natural gas delivered to end users, slightly more than half is consumed in the industrial sector. The commercial and residential sectors each use about one-fifth of the natural gas delivered to end users.65 Two-fifths of North Dakota households use natural gas for home heating.66 In the past few years, an increasing amount of the natural gas consumed in the state is being used by the electric power sector. In 2015, the electric power sector accounted for 6% of the natural gas delivered to end users in North Dakota.67

Coal

North Dakota contains the single largest known deposit of lignite in the world.

Western North Dakota contains the single largest known deposit of lignite in the world.68 Although all of its coal is relatively low grade, North Dakota is among the 10 top coal-producing states in the nation in terms of tonnage.69 Coal has been mined at hundreds of sites in North Dakota since the 1870s, but it is now recovered from only four surface mines in the west-central part of the state.70,71 Two smaller mining operations in North Dakota extract oxidized lignite (leonardite), which is used in soil stabilization and as a drilling fluid additive.72

All the lignite from North Dakota's four coal mines is distributed within the state to electricity generating plants and industrial users.73 Power plants, industrial facilities, and commercial users in the state also receive small amounts of coal from Montana, Wyoming, and New Mexico.74 In addition, North Dakota uses coal to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). The only operating coal-to-SNG facility in the nation is the Great Plains Synfuels Plant in Beulah, North Dakota, where lignite coal is converted into pipeline-quality gas.75

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants provide about seven-tenths of North Dakota's power generation, and 7 of the 10 largest power plants in the state are coal-fired.76 The rest of the state's electricity generation comes primarily from wind energy and, to a lesser extent, from hydroelectric power. A small amount of generation is fueled by natural gas. The state does not have any nuclear power plants. About one-ninth of the utility-scale electricity generation in North Dakota comes from independent power producers, all of which is from wind.77

Both electricity generation and consumption are low in North Dakota. More electricity is generated in the state than is consumed there, and about half the state's total electricity supply (which includes some net electricity imports from Canada) is provided to the interstate electricity trade.78 Two high-voltage direct current lines carry electricity east into Minnesota, and other transmission lines carry electricity to South Dakota and beyond.79 There are three electricity border crossings on North Dakota's border with Canada.80

The reliability of the North Dakota power industry is overseen by the Midwest Reliability Organization, one of the eight regional entities of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation.81 The Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. operates much of the state's electricity grid.82 Rural electric cooperatives and investor-owned utilities serve the largest number of North Dakota's retail customers. Municipal utilities serve most of the rest. A few large customers purchase power directly from the federal Western Area Power Administration.83 Overall, per capita retail sales of electricity in North Dakota are second only to those of Wyoming. The industrial sector is the leading purchaser, followed by the commercial sector. The residential sector, where two of every five households heat with electricity, accounts for about one-fourth of retail sales.84,85,86

Renewable energy

North Dakota is among the top states in the share of electricity generation provided by wind energy.

North Dakota has abundant renewable resources, especially wind energy. With average wind speeds ranging from 10 miles per hour to 13 miles per hour depending on location, the air is seldom calm in the state.87 North Dakota ranks fifth in the nation in the share of electricity generation provided by wind energy and has seen a rapid gain in wind-powered electricity generation in the past year.88 The state has more than 2,700 megawatts of installed wind capacity after adding 603 megawatts of capacity in 2016. North Dakota still has substantial undeveloped wind energy potential.89,90

North Dakota is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states in the nation. The combined capacity of the state's five ethanol plants is about 470 million gallons of ethanol per year, and all of its plants use corn as feedstock.91,92 North Dakota is also among the top 10 states in biodiesel production capacity.93 The state's only biodiesel refinery has a capacity of 85 million gallons per year and uses canola oil as feedstock.94

North Dakota's fifth largest power plant is at the Garrison Dam, northwest of Bismarck. Construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in the 1950s significantly reduced the extent of serious flooding in the state while supplying abundant hydroelectric power.95 It is North Dakota's only hydroelectric plant, and it typically contributes 5% to 7% of the state's net electricity.96,97,98,99 Renewable resource potential in the state includes geothermal and solar energy as well. The western half of North Dakota has moderately favorable conditions for geothermal development.100 North Dakota has abundant sunshine, but there is only a limited amount of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) electricity generation from solar energy in the state. North Dakota's low cost of electricity and the lack of incentives have been cited as reasons for its slow development.101,102,103

In March 2007, North Dakota adopted a voluntary renewable- and recycled-energy objective that set a goal for electricity generated from renewable sources to comprise 10% of all retail electricity sold in the state by 2015. The goal applied to all retail providers of electricity. There were no penalties for electricity providers who failed to meet the target.104 Commission staff have stated that the goal was exceeded.105 In 2016, more than 21% of the electricity generated in North Dakota came from nonhydroelectric renewable resources.106 There is no statewide energy efficiency policy in North Dakota.107

Energy on tribal lands

North Dakota is home to all or part of some of the largest reservations in the nation, but only about 2% of the state is in tribal hands.108,109 The more than 36,000 Native Americans living in North Dakota are members of several Plains Indian tribes.110,111 Those tribes share five reservations, two of which straddle the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota.112

The Native American tribes of North Dakota have shared in the state's oil boom. Crude oil production from Indian lands in the United States increased more than four-fold between 2003 and 2014, and much of the new production came from wells on North Dakota tribal lands. The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, home to the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations—known as the Three Affiliated Tribes—is in the center of the prolific oil-producing Williston Basin in the western part of North Dakota.113 Significant oil reserves are located beneath the Affiliated Tribes reservation, and the wells there account for almost one-fifth of North Dakota's daily oil production.114 Although more than 1,300 oil wells have been drilled on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, almost all have been drilled by non-tribal oil companies.115 The Affiliated Tribes drilled the first tribe-owned wells on the reservation in 2015.116

North Dakota reservations have significant renewable resources. The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa is forming a tribal electric utility to become more energy independent and is updating a wind turbine development project on the reservation.117 The Fort Berthold Reservation, the largest reservation in the state, has an estimated potential wind resource capacity of more than 28,000 megawatts.118 The Standing Rock Sioux reservation of North Dakota and South Dakota is rated among the top five reservations in the nation in terms of its potential for wind- and solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered electricity generation. The Lake Traverse Reservation, a small portion of which is in North Dakota, is a leader among the nation's reservations in its potential for electricity generation from biomass.119

Energy efficiency projects have been undertaken on tribal lands in North Dakota as well. The Fort Totten School on the Spirit Lake Indian Reservation will be the first net zero energy school on tribal lands in the nation and the first net zero energy school anywhere in North Dakota. The design of the school, which is scheduled to be completed in time for the 2017-18 school year, includes solar PV panels, ground-source geothermal heating and cooling, high-efficiency heat pumps, an energy recovery system, occupancy sensors, LED and solar tube lighting, special insulation, and triple pane windows, among other features.120

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015, accessed February 9, 2017.
2 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2015.
3 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2015 and 2014.
4 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
5 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 1.17.B.
6 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2015 State Agriculture Overview, North Dakota.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, updated October 20, 2016.
9 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
10 Scheyder, Ernest, "In North Dakota's oil patch, a humbling comedown," Reuters Investigates (May 18, 2016).
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F30, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2014.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2014.
14 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed February 10, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), North Dakota Tables CT4, CT5, CT6, CT7, CT8.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Classification NAICS, All Industries, North Dakota, 2015.
17 "Top 5 Industries in North Dakota: Which Parts of the Economy Are Strongest?" Newsmax (April 13, 2015).
18 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Data, Consumption and Expenditures, accessed February 10, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 through 2014, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2014.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2010-15.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 through 2014, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2014.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015.
23 Bluemle, John P., The 50th Anniversary of the Discovery of Oil in North Dakota, Miscellaneous Series No. 89, North Dakota Geological Survey (2001), p. i.
24 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed February 10, 2017.
25 Gaswirth, Stephanie B., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3013 (April 2013).
26 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
27 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2010-15.
28 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, Oil in North Dakota, 2015 Production Statistics, p. XVI.
29 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2015.
30 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, ND Monthly Oil Production Statistics, accessed February 11, 2017.
31 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, ND Monthly Bakken Oil Production Statistics, accessed February 11, 2017.
32 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual, January 1, 2016.
33 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016, p. 14.
34 Dittrick, Paula, "Dakota Prairie Refining Sells Diesel, Mulls Expansion," Oil & Gas Journal (August 12, 2015).
35 U.S. EIA, "Rising North Dakota oil production and demand spurs two new refineries," Today in Energy (March 27, 2013).
36 Brelsford, Robert, "Joint venture plans grassroots refinery for North Dakota," Oil & Gas Journal (July 21, 2015).
37 Meridian Energy Group, Davis Refinery, accessed February 11, 2017.
38 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, January 1981-December, 2016.
39 U.S. EIA, "U.S. crude oil production in 2015 was the highest since 1972, but has since declined," Today in Energy (November 7, 2016).
40 TransCanada, Our Businesses, Pipelines, Liquids, Keystone Pipeline System, accessed February 13, 2017.
41 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed February 13, 2017.
42 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Monthly Update, November 2016 Production and Transportation (January 13, 2017).
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2014.
44 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Data, Environment, accessed February 13, 2017.
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2010-15.
46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2014.
47 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute, updated June 22, 2015.
48 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Dakota, Ethanol (E85), accessed February 13, 2017.
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2014.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, North Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
51 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed February 13, 2017.
52 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, Annual, 2007-15.
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011-16.
54 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2016.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2015, Dry Natural Gas and Wet NG.
56 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed February 13, 2017.
57 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, About Us, accessed February 13, 2017.
58 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, North Dakota Natural Gas, A Detailed Look at Natural Gas Gathering (October 21, 2013), p. 2.
59 Industrial Commission of North Dakota, North Dakota Pipeline Authority Annual Report July 1, 2014-June 30, 2015, p. 10-12.
60 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015.
61 Kringstad, J. J., House Energy and Natural Resources, North Dakota Pipeline Authority (January 6, 2016), p. 14-19.
62 Industrial Commission of North Dakota, North Dakota Pipeline Authority Annual Report July 1, 2014-June 30, 2015, p. 5.
63 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2011-16.
64 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, North Dakota, 2010-15.
65 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, North Dakota, Annual, 2011-16.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, North Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
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120 DSGW, "Fort Totten School to be first net zero school on tribal land in the country," Press Release (October 19, 2016).


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