North Dakota State Energy Profile



North Dakota Quick Facts

  • In 2016, North Dakota was the second-largest crude oil-producing state in the nation and accounted for 12% of total U.S. crude oil production, including oil produced in federal offshore areas.
  • In 2016, North Dakota had 6% of the nation’s recoverable coal reserves at producing mines and accounted for 4% of U.S. coal production.
  • North Dakota’s total energy production is six times greater than its energy consumption.
  • In 2017, two-thirds of North Dakota's net electricity generation came from coal, more than one-fourth came from wind energy, and 5% came from conventional hydroelectric power.
  • North Dakota has abundant wind resources. In 2016, the state ranked 9th in the nation in utility-scale generation and 11th in installed capacity. In 2017, North Dakota was 5th in the nation in the share of electricity generated from wind.

Last Updated: February 15, 2018



Data

Last Update: June 21, 2018 | Next Update: July 19, 2018

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Energy Indicators  
Demography North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.8 million 0.2% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 0.4 million 0.3% Apr-18  
Economy North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 52.1 billion 46 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 3,705 million 45 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 55,038 11 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,739 million miles 45 2016  
Land in Farms 39.3 million acres 7 2012  
Climate North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 42.1 degrees Fahrenheit 48 2017  
Precipitation 13.0 inches 46 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 59.00 /barrel $ 60.68 /barrel Mar-18  
Natural Gas North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 3.71 /thousand cu ft Mar-18 find more
Residential $ 6.09 /thousand cu ft $ 9.79 /thousand cu ft Mar-18 find more
Coal North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 17.95 /short ton $ 30.57 /short ton 2016  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.55 /million Btu $ 2.04 /million Btu Mar-18  
Electricity North Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.65 cents/kWh 12.99 cents/kWh Mar-18 find more
Commercial 8.79 cents/kWh 10.47 cents/kWh Mar-18 find more
Industrial 8.52 cents/kWh 6.64 cents/kWh Mar-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 5,256 million barrels 16.0% 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 7,030 billion cu ft 2.2% 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,108 million barrels 7.5% 2016 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 1,024 million short tons 6.0% 2016 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 31 rigs 6.1% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 457 wells 0.1% 2016 find more
Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 93,300 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 8,232 MW 0.8% Mar-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,655 trillion Btu 4.2% 2015 find more
Crude Oil 35,665 thousand barrels 11.0% Mar-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 531,889 million cu ft 1.9% 2016 find more
Coal 28,121 thousand short tons 3.9% 2016 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,668 thousand MWh 1.1% Mar-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Mar-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 2.3 % 32.5 % Mar-18 find more
Coal-Fired 64.4 % 25.2 % Mar-18 find more
Nuclear 0 % 21.0 % Mar-18 find more
Renewables 33.0 % 20.3 % Mar-18  
Stocks North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 48 thousand barrels 0.3% Mar-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 828 thousand barrels 0.8% Mar-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Mar-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 30 thousand barrels 0.1% Mar-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Mar-18 find more
Fueling Stations North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 467 stations 0.4% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 25 stations 0.8% 2017  
Electricity 8 stations 0.1% 2017  
Ethanol 40 stations 1.4% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary North Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 586 trillion Btu 40 2016 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 803 million Btu 4 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 4,588 million 44 2016 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 7,248 3 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 67 trillion Btu 0.3% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial 85 trillion Btu 0.5% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial 310 trillion Btu 1.0% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation 124 trillion Btu 0.4% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 624 million 0.3% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial $ 695 million 0.4% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,374 million 0.8% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,895 million 0.4% 2016 find more
by Source North Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 31.7 million barrels 0.4% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 102.5 billion cu ft 0.4% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 28.4 million short tons 3.9% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,571 million 0.5% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 242 million 0.2% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 641 million 2.0% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 4 thousand barrels 0.3% Mar-18 find more
Natural Gas 885 million cu ft 0.1% Mar-18 find more
Coal 1,933 thousand short tons 4.4% Mar-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) North Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 41.2 % 48.4 % 2016  
Fuel Oil 3.1 % 5.3 % 2016  
Electricity 39.7 % 37.7 % 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12.8 % 4.8 % 2016  
Other/None 3.2 % 3.8 % 2016  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,593 MW 1.7% Mar-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 470 million gal/year 3.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Production North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 194 thousand MWh 0.8% Mar-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,013 thousand MWh 3.0% Mar-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Mar-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Mar-18  
Ethanol Production 10,474 Thousand Barrels 3.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption North Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 18.2 % 11 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 1,095 thousand barrels 46 2016  
Total Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 57.0 million metric tons 1.1% 2015  
Electric Power Industry Emissions North Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 29,908 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2016  
Sulfur Dioxide 43 thousand metric tons 2.4% 2016  
Nitrogen Oxide 36 thousand metric tons 2.2% 2016  

Analysis

Last Updated: February 15, 2018

Overview

North Dakota has substantial fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.1,2 The state is the second-largest crude oil producer in the nation and has significant lignite coal reserves.3,4,5 Located at the geographic center of North America, North Dakota has a continental climate characterized by large temperature variations, irregular precipitation, plentiful sunshine, low humidity, and nearly continuous wind. North Dakota's rolling plains slope gently upward to the west toward the Rocky Mountains. Two major rivers, the Missouri River and the Red River, and their tributaries, flow through North Dakota, and hydropower has been harnessed by a large federal hydroelectric project on the Missouri River. Winds move unobstructed across the state, creating a renewable resource that provides an increasing share of the state's electricity generation.6,7 The state's rich soils and fertile farmland produce many crops, including corn for North Dakota's ethanol production.8 The state is among the top ethanol-producers in the nation.9 North Dakota's abundant sunshine provides the energy for the state's small but increasing amount of solar generation.10

Because of the state's small population, North Dakota's total energy consumption ranks among the lowest in the nation; however, consumption per capita and per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) rank among the highest because of the state's energy-intensive industrial sector and the high heating demand during North Dakota's very cold winters.11,12,13,14 The industrial sector accounts for more than half of end-use energy consumption in the state.15 Mining, including lignite coal production, and the energy-intensive oil and natural gas industries, are major contributors to the state's GDP, along with agriculture and renewable energy.16,17 The transportation sector, which uses less than half as much energy as the industrial sector, accounts for more than one-fifth of end-use energy consumption in the state.18 North Dakota has one of the smallest populations in the United States, and it experienced one of the largest percentage increases in population between 2010 and 2017 because of the state's recent oil boom.19,20 Despite the increase in population and the very cold winters, the residential sector accounts for only one-tenth of the state's end-use sector energy consumption.21

North Dakota's total energy production is about six times greater than its energy consumption.22 A surge in energy production over the past few years has come from the development of the state's petroleum resources.23 More than two-thirds of North Dakota's total energy production is in the form of crude oil. Coal and natural gas supply another three-tenths of the state's total energy production, and renewable energy, including biofuels and the rapidly developing wind sector, provides the remainder.24,25

Petroleum

North Dakota ranks second in the nation after Texas in proved crude oil reserves.

North Dakota ranks second in the nation after Texas in proved crude oil reserves.26 Oil exploration in North Dakota began in the early 20th century, but the first oil discovery did not occur until 1951.27 Production was modest until new drilling technologies were applied to exploration of the Bakken formation in western North Dakota in the Williston Basin, an area of several hundred thousand square miles that includes parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.28 The U.S. Geological Survey has estimated that more than 7 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil are in the Bakken and Three Forks formations in the Williston Basin; much of that oil is in North Dakota.29 Twenty of the nation's 100 largest oil fields, as measured by reserves, are in North Dakota.30

North Dakota has been the nation's second largest crude oil-producing state, after Texas, since 2012.31 By the end of 2016, cumulative crude oil production in the state had reached almost 3.8 billion barrels.32 Production has increased dramatically in the past decade, primarily as a result of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies that increased production from the Bakken Shale.33,34 Despite a slight decline in production from a 2015 peak, output in 2016 was almost 10 times greater than in 2006. Production rebounded to 2015 levels in 2017.35 North Dakota has two oil refineries with a combined operable capacity of about 93,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which is less than one-tenth of the state's daily oil production.36,37 A third refinery is in development to accommodate increased Bakken and Three Forks production in the state.38 However, much of the state's oil production leaves North Dakota by pipeline and rail.39,40

North Dakota is a U.S. entrance point for pipelines carrying Canadian crude oil.41 Some Canadian crude oil is transported via pipeline to Midwest refining centers and to the market hub at Cushing, Oklahoma, as well as to refineries on the Gulf Coast, including the nation's largest at Port Arthur, Texas.42 Although the state is crossed by several crude oil pipelines, North Dakota producers ship some crude oil by rail because oil production has outpaced pipeline capacity. At its height in 2013, about three-fourths of the crude oil produced in the state was shipped by rail, but the amount has fallen and, by late 2017, only about one-tenth of the state's crude oil was transported by rail.43,44

Relatively little of the petroleum produced in North Dakota is consumed in the state. The industrial sector accounts for nearly one-third of the petroleum consumed in the state. Almost two-thirds of North Dakota's petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector.45,46 The state produces 3% of the nation's fuel ethanol, and only about one-tenth of that is consumed in North Dakota. Statewide use of conventional motor gasoline without ethanol is allowed.47,48 However, there are more than 40 fueling stations in the state that distribute E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.49 Less than 5% of the petroleum used in North Dakota is consumed by the residential sector, where about one in six households use petroleum products—including fuel oil, propane, and kerosene—for home heating.50,51

Natural gas

North Dakota has only about 2% of the nation's total natural gas reserves, and accounts for a similar share of U.S. natural gas production.52,53 Natural gas was produced in North Dakota as early as 1892, but significant commercial production was not established until 1929, when development of a Montana natural gas field extended into North Dakota. Sporadic development of the state's natural gas resources continued between the mid-1940s and the early 1980s.54 Production remained below 85 billion cubic feet per year until 2008 when production began to increase rapidly with the development of the state's shale gas resources.55,56

The natural gas produced in North Dakota is rich in natural gas liquids (NGL), and attractive NGL prices have resulted in the development of new natural gas processing facilities and pipelines.57 Those projects substantially increased natural gas-processing capacity and pipeline access in the region.58,59 However, North Dakota natural gas production still exceeds pipeline capacity, and substantial amounts of natural gas have been flared (burned) at the wellhead. North Dakota's Industrial Commission has established incrementally increasing targets to decrease the amount of flared natural gas over the next several years. In 2016, natural gas operating companies in North Dakota exceeded the state targets of 80% and attained a 91% natural gas capture rate for Bakken production.60 The state has no underground natural gas storage fields.61

North Dakota typically accounts for less than 0.4% of the nation's natural gas consumption.62 Interstate deliveries of natural gas enter North Dakota primarily from Montana and Canada and continue on to South Dakota and Minnesota. More natural gas leaves the state than enters because of the added North Dakota production.63 More than one-third of the natural gas consumed in North Dakota is used in the production and transportation of natural gas. Of the natural gas delivered to end users, half is consumed in the industrial sector. The commercial sector uses about one-fifth of the natural gas delivered to end users, and the residential sector uses slightly less than that. Natural gas consumption use for electricity generation has expanded dramatically since 2012 and, by 2016, it was almost equal to consumption by the residential sector. 64 Two in five North Dakota households use natural gas for home heating.65

Coal

North Dakota contains the single largest known deposit of lignite in the world.

Western North Dakota contains the single largest known deposit of lignite in the world.66 All of its coal is relatively low grade, and North Dakota is among the 10 top coal-producing states in the nation in terms of tonnage.67 Coal has been mined at hundreds of sites in North Dakota since the 1870s, but it is now produced at only five surface mines in the west-central part of the state. Oxidized lignite (leonardite), which is used in soil stabilization and as a drilling fluid additive, is also mined in North Dakota.68,69

All lignite from North Dakota's five coal mines is distributed within the state to electricity generating plants and industrial users.70 Power plants, industrial facilities, and commercial users in the state also receive small amounts of coal from Montana and Wyoming.71 In addition, North Dakota uses coal to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). The only operating coal-to-SNG facility in the nation is the Great Plains Synfuels Plant in Beulah, North Dakota, where lignite coal is converted into pipeline-quality gas.72

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants account for seven-tenths of North Dakota's power generation, and 7 of the state's 10 largest power plants are coal-fired.73 The rest of the state's electricity generation comes primarily from wind energy and, to a much lesser extent, from hydroelectric power. A small amount of generation is fueled by natural gas. The state does not have any nuclear power plants. About one-ninth of the utility-scale electricity generation in North Dakota comes from independent power producers, all of which is from wind.74

Much more electricity is generated in North Dakota than is consumed there, and about half of the electricity generated in the state is sent to the regional electricity grid.75 Several high-voltage electricity transmission lines connect North Dakota to Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, and beyond.76 There are three electricity border crossings on North Dakota's border with Canada.77

The reliability of the North Dakota power industry is overseen by the Midwest Reliability Organization, one of the eight regional entities of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation.78 The Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. operates much of the state's electricity grid.79 Rural electric cooperatives and investor-owned utilities serve the largest number of North Dakota's retail customers. Municipal utilities serve most of the rest. A few large customers purchase power directly from the federal Western Area Power Administration.80 Overall, per capita retail sales of electricity in North Dakota are second only to those of Wyoming. The industrial sector is the leading purchaser, accounting for about two-fifths of retail sales, followed closely by the commercial sector, which accounts for one-third of sales. The residential sector, where two of every five households heat with electricity, accounts for about one-fourth of retail sales in the state.81,82,83

Renewable energy

North Dakota is among the top states in the share of electricity generation provided by wind energy.

North Dakota has substantial wind energy resources. The state experiences nearly continuous winds and average wind speeds range from 10 miles per hour to 13 miles per hour depending on location.84 In 2016, wind was the second-largest electricity generation source in North Dakota, providing more than one-fifth of the state's net generation. North Dakota ranks fifth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind energy.85 The state has about 3,000 megawatts of installed wind capacity, and still has significant undeveloped wind energy potential.86

North Dakota's fifth largest power plant is at the Garrison Dam, northwest of Bismarck. Construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in the 1950s significantly reduced the extent of serious flooding in the state while supplying hydroelectric power.87 The Garrison facility is North Dakota's only hydroelectric plant.88 In the past decade, hydropower, on average, has contributed between 5% and 6% of the state's net electricity generation.89,90,91

North Dakota has other undeveloped renewable energy resources including geothermal and solar energy. The western half of North Dakota has moderately favorable conditions for geothermal development.92 North Dakota has abundant sunshine, but there is only a limited amount of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) electricity generation from solar photovoltaic (PV) energy.93,94

North Dakota is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states in the nation. The state's 5 ethanol plants use corn as feedstock and have a combined capacity of almost 490 million gallons of ethanol per year.95,96 Although the state has only one biodiesel refinery, North Dakota's biodiesel production capacity is among the top 10 states in the nation.97 That biodiesel plant has a capacity of 85 million gallons per year and uses canola oil as feedstock.98

In March 2007, North Dakota adopted a voluntary renewable- and recycled-energy objective that set a goal for electricity generated from renewable sources to comprise 10% of all retail electricity sold in the state by 2015. The goal applied to all retail providers of electricity. There were no penalties for electricity providers who failed to meet the target.99 However, the goal was exceeded in 2015.100 In 2016, more than 21% of the electricity generated in North Dakota came from nonhydroelectric renewable resources.101 There is no statewide energy efficiency policy in North Dakota.102

Energy on tribal lands

North Dakota is home to five of the more than 300 Native American land areas in the nation.103 Two of the five reservations straddle the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota.104 Although all or part of two of the nation's largest reservations, Standing Rock and Fort Berthold, are in North Dakota, only about 2% of the state is in tribal hands.105,106 There are about 42,000 Native Americans living in North Dakota. They are members of several Plains Indian tribes.107,108

The Native American tribes of North Dakota have shared in the state's oil boom. Crude oil production from Indian lands in the United States increased more than four-fold between 2003 and 2014, and much of the new production came from wells on North Dakota tribal lands. The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, home to the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations—known as the Three Affiliated Tribes—is in the center of the prolific oil-producing Williston Basin in the western part of North Dakota.109 Significant oil reserves are located beneath the Affiliated Tribes reservation, and the wells there produced almost 190,000 barrels per day in early 2017, almost one-fifth of North Dakota's daily oil production.110,111 Although more than 1,300 oil wells were drilled on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation before 2015, almost all had been drilled by non-tribal oil companies.112 The Affiliated Tribes drilled the first tribe-owned wells on the reservation in 2015.113

North Dakota reservations have significant renewable resources. The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa has a 10-year plan to become self-sufficient, relying on renewable resources and energy efficiency to eliminate their dependence on non-tribal utility fossil fuels. The Turtle Mountain Band is forming a tribal electric utility to become more energy independent and is updating a wind turbine development project on the reservation.114 The Fort Berthold Reservation, the largest reservation in the state, has, in addition to its crude oil resources, an estimated potential wind resource capacity of more than 28,000 megawatts.115 The Standing Rock Sioux reservation of North Dakota and South Dakota is rated among the top five reservations in the nation in terms of its potential for wind- and solar PV-powered electricity generation. The Lake Traverse Reservation, a small portion of which is in North Dakota, is a leader among the nation's reservations in its potential for electricity generation from biomass.116

Energy efficiency projects have been undertaken on tribal lands in North Dakota as well. The Fort Totten School on the Spirit Lake Indian Reservation is the first net zero energy school on tribal lands in the nation and the first net zero energy school anywhere in North Dakota. The design of the school includes solar PV panels, ground-source geothermal heating and cooling, high-efficiency heat pumps, an energy recovery system, occupancy sensors, LED and solar tube lighting, special insulation, and triple pane windows, among other features.117

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), North Dakota Profile Data, Reserves, accessed January 2, 2018.
2 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Data, Environment, accessed January 2, 2018.
3 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2016 and 2015.
6 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
7 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017) (January 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
8 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016 State Agriculture Overview, North Dakota.
9 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, updated November 2017.
10 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017) (January 2018), Table 1.17.B.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F30, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2015.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
14 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed January 4, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Classification NAICS, All Industries, North Dakota, 2015.
17 "Top 5 Industries in North Dakota: Which Parts of the Economy Are Strongest?" Newsmax (April 13, 2015).
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
20 Silva, Mark, "North Dakota's Oil Boom Fuels Economic Growth," U.S. News (March 3, 2017).
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 through 2015, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
23 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2016.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 through 2015, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
25 American Wind Energy Association, North Dakota Wind Energy, accessed January 5, 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015, accessed January 5, 2018.
27 Bluemle, John P., The 50th Anniversary of the Discovery of Oil in North Dakota, Miscellaneous Series No. 89, North Dakota Geological Survey (2001), p. i.
28 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed January 5, 2018.
29 Gaswirth, Stephanie B., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3013 (April 2013).
30 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
31 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2011-16.
32 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, Oil in North Dakota, 2016 Production Statistics, p. XVI.
33 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2016, accessed January 5, 2018.
34 North Dakota Industrial Commission, Department of Mineral Resources, ND Monthly Bakken Oil Production Statistics, accessed January 5, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, 1981-2016, accessed January 5, 2018.
36 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2017), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2017.
37 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 2011-16.
38 Meridian Energy Group, Davis Refinery, accessed January 5, 2018.
39 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Crude Oil, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2011-16.
40 Horn, Steve, and Justin Mikulka, "Bakken Oil Now Flowing in Dakota Access Pipeline But Oil Trains to Remain on Tracks," DESMOG (April 3, 2017).
41 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Overview, Liquids Pipeline Border Crossing Map Layer, accessed January 5, 2018.
42 TransCanada, Operations, Oils and Liquids, Bakken Marketlink and Keystone Pipeline System, accessed January 5, 2018.
43 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed January 5, 2018.
44 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Monthly Update, October 2017 Production and Transportation (December 15, 2017).
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2011-16.
46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
47 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute (June 2015).
48 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Data, Environment, accessed January 5, 2018.
49 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Dakota, Ethanol (E85), accessed January 5, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, North Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011-16.
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2015, Dry Natural Gas and Wet NG.
54 North Dakota Geological Survey, "Overview of the Petroleum Geology of the North Dakota Williston Basin," accessed January 5, 2018.
55 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2016.
56 U.S. EIA, North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, Annual, 2007-16.
57 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, North Dakota Natural Gas, A Detailed Look at Natural Gas Gathering (October 21, 2013), p. 2.
58 North Dakota Pipeline Authority, Gas Plants, Natural Gas Processing Capacity, Million Cubic Feet Per Day, accessed January 6, 2018.
59 Industrial Commission of North Dakota, North Dakota Pipeline Authority Annual Report July 1, 2015-June 30, 2016, p. 12-15.
60 Industrial Commission of North Dakota, North Dakota Pipeline Authority Annual Report July 1, 2015-June 30, 2016, p. 8-9.
61 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2016.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2011-16.
63 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, North Dakota, 2011-16.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, North Dakota, Annual, 2016.
65 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, North Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
66 North Dakota Geological Survey, Mineral Resources of North Dakota: Coal, accessed January 6, 2018.
67 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
68 North Dakota Geological Survey, Mineral Resources of North Dakota: Coal, accessed January 6, 2018.
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70 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), North Dakota, Table OS-18, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2016.
71 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), North Dakota, Table DS-33, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
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78 North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Key Players, accessed January 8, 2018.
79 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: Midcontinent (MISO), updated July 13, 2017.
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82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, North Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
84 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
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89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
90 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, North Dakota Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
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94 Enz, John W., North Dakota Topographic, Climatic, and Agricultural Overview (January 16, 2003).
95 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, updated December 1, 2017.
96 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational, updated September 23, 2017.
97 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report with data for October 2017 (December 2017), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, October 2017.
98 Biodiesel Magazine, U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational, updated December 13, 2017.
99 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, North Dakota Renewable and Recycled Energy Objective, updated October 28, 2016.
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101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017) Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
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110 Ogden, Eloise, "North Dakota's oil production remains high," Minot Daily News (April 8, 2017).
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112 Visser, Nick, "North Dakota Tribe To Drill Own Oil Wells," Green Earth Report from Huffington Post Green (November 2, 2014).
113 "‘Sovereignty by the Barrel': Tribe Takes Control of Oil Production," Indian Country Media Network (June 6, 2016).
114 Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians TMBCI 10Y Energy, Environmental and Economic Development Platform, Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Tribal Leader Forum Series (July 27, 2015).
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117 DSGW, "Fort Totten School to be first net zero school on tribal land in the country," Press Release (October 19, 2016).


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