North Carolina State Energy Profile



North Carolina Quick Facts

  • In 2020, North Carolina ranked third in the nation in total installed solar power generating capacity and fourth in actual solar generation.
  • North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest natural gas use per capita, even though natural gas use for electricity generation in the state has more than quadrupled in the past decade.
  • North Carolina ranked 5th among the states in producing electricity from nuclear power in 2020, and nuclear power accounted for 34% of the state's net generation.
  • North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita petroleum use, but its total annual expenditure for motor gasoline is among the top 10 states.
  • North Carolina ranks among top 10 states with the highest electricity consumption and is in the top 5 for residential sector electricity sales.

Last Updated: November 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 15, 2022 | Next Update: October 20, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Population 10.6 million 3.2% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 5.2 million 3.1% Jul-22  
Economy North Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 655.0 billion 11 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 111,979 million 5 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 55,043 39 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 106,342 million miles 5 2020  
Land in Farms 8.4 million acres 32 2017  
Climate North Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 60.1 degrees Fahrenheit 12 2021  
Precipitation 47.3 inches 14 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 113.73 /barrel Jun-22  
Natural Gas North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 11.89 /thousand cu ft $ 10.12 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Residential $ 28.08 /thousand cu ft $ 22.73 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Coal North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.23 /million Btu $ 2.32 /million Btu Jun-22  
Electricity North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.83 cents/kWh 15.42 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Commercial 8.75 cents/kWh 12.90 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Industrial 6.92 cents/kWh 8.96 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 35,183 MW 3.1% Jun-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 723 trillion Btu 0.8% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 12,276 thousand MWh 3.2% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) North Carolina U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 42.5 % 40.9 % Jun-22 find more
Coal-Fired 10.9 % 19.3 % Jun-22 find more
Nuclear 30.4 % 17.3 % Jun-22 find more
Renewables 15.9 % 21.8 % Jun-22  
Stocks North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 68 thousand barrels 0.6% Jun-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 873 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,009 thousand barrels 4.7% Jun-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,936 thousand tons 3.4% Jun-22 find more
Fueling Stations North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 4,509 stations 4.0% 2019  
Propane 53 stations 2.1% 2022  
Electricity 1,003 stations 2.2% 2022  
E85 89 stations 2.2% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 28 stations 2.2% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary North Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,471 trillion Btu 12 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 236 million Btu 35 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 28,737 million 10 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,748 42 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 671 trillion Btu 3.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 537 trillion Btu 3.2% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 527 trillion Btu 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 736 trillion Btu 3.0% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 8,035 million 3.1% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 4,864 million 2.8% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,478 million 2.1% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 12,362 million 3.0% 2020 find more
by Source North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 163 million barrels 2.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 540 billion cu ft 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 9 million short tons 1.9% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 14,317 million 2.8% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,021 million 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 583 million 3.0% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 18 thousand barrels 1.1% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas 44,148 million cu ft 3.8% Jun-22 find more
Coal 542 thousand short tons 1.3% Jun-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) North Carolina U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 24.4 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 2.6 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 64.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 6.6 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.1 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 8,543 MW 2.9% Jun-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 57 million gal/year 0.3% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 531 thousand MWh 2.0% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,244 thousand MWh 2.4% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 180 thousand MWh 3.8% Jun-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 58 thousand MWh 1.0% Jun-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption North Carolina U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 11.9 % 24 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 10,107 thousand barrels 7 2020  
Total Emissions North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 122.6 million metric tons 2.4% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 38,462 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 30 thousand metric tons 2.9% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 38 thousand metric tons 3.1% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 18, 2021

Overview

North Carolina rises from its Atlantic Ocean coastline to the highest peak east of the Mississippi River—Mount Mitchell, which stands more than a mile above sea level at 6,684 feet.1 The state's terrain ranges from the barrier islands of the Outer Banks in the east, where North Carolina is brushed by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, across the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont region to the heavily forested spine of the Appalachian Mountains in the west.2 North Carolina, especially the Outer Banks, is often hit by severe tropical storms and hurricanes, and the state is second only to Florida in tropical cyclone landfalls.3

North Carolina has substantial renewable energy resources.4,5 Strong offshore winds along the state's coast could provide energy for electricity generation.6 North Carolina's solar resources help make the state a leader in solar power.7 The 18 million acres of woodlands that cover about three-fifths of the state provide a large biomass resource and employment for about 74,000 people who work in North Carolina's forestry and forest products industries.8,9 Rivers that flow through the state provide hydroelectric power to many communities.10,11 North Carolina has few fossil fuel resources and does not have any oil, natural gas, or coal production.12 In 2020, the federal government added North Carolina to an offshore oil and natural gas drilling moratorium through June 2032, joining Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina.13 In addition to its natural resources, North Carolina is one of the nation's leading nuclear power-producing states.14

North Carolina consumes almost four times more energy than it produces.15 Total energy consumption per capita in North Carolina is among the lowest one-third of the states.16 The residents, tourists, and truckers who use motor gasoline and diesel fuel on the state's heavily traveled highway system and the jet fuel consumed at the busy Charlotte Douglas International Airport—one of the top U.S. airports as ranked by passenger traffic—make the transportation sector North Carolina's largest end-use energy-consuming sector, accounting for about three-tenths of the state's total energy consumption.17,18,19 The residential sector follows the transportation sector, accounting for about one-fourth of the state total. The commercial and industrial sectors each make up slightly more than one-fifth of the state's energy consumption.20

North Carolina has a large agricultural industry and is a top producer of poultry, hogs, tobacco, and sweet potatoes.21 The state's other key industries include: business and financial services; aerospace; auto and truck manufacturing; biotechnology and pharmaceuticals; food processing; furniture manufacturing; information technology; plastics and chemicals; and textiles.22 The energy-intensive food, beverage, and tobacco products industry; chemicals; and the computer and electronics products sector, together, account for more than half of the state's gross domestic product (GDP) from manufacturing.23

Electricity

North Carolina is one of the nation’s top producers of electricity from nuclear power.

North Carolina is among the nation's top five producers of electricity from nuclear power. In 2020, nuclear energy was the largest fuel source for electricity generation in North Carolina and contributed 34% of the state's net generation.24,25 Over the past decade, the contribution of natural gas-fired generation has increased as electric utilities have added natural gas-fired power plants. In 2020, natural gas provided slightly less generation than nuclear power, accounting for 33% of the state total. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired generation for the first time in 2016.26 Before 2012, coal-fired power plants provided more than half of the electricity generated in North Carolina, but 35 coal-fired units with about 3,700 megawatts of generating capacity have been retired since 2010 and 35 natural gas-fired units with about 5,300 megawatts of capacity were added. In 2020, the remaining coal-fired power plants provided about 17% of the electricity generated in the state. Solar power, hydroelectric power, and biomass accounted for almost all the rest of North Carolina's electricity generation.27,28,29

Even though North Carolina is among the top 10 electricity-producing states in the nation, its consumers use about 12% more power than is generated in the state, and additional electricity is supplied from other states over the regional grid.30,31 The residential sector accounts for slightly less than half of the total electricity retail sales in North Carolina, the largest share among the end-use sectors.32 More than 6 out of 10 North Carolina households use electricity for home heating.33 The commercial sector makes up about one-third of the state's electricity sales and the industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth.34 North Carolina ranks among the top 10 states in total electricity sales and is in the top 5 for residential sector electricity sales.35

Renewable energy

North Carolina ranks fourth in the nation in solar power generation and third in installed solar generating capacity.

In 2020, renewable sources produced about 16% of the total electricity generated in North Carolina from both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-sale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities. The amount of electricity generated from solar energy increased rapidly in recent years. In 2017, solar energy became the largest renewable source used for the state's electricity generation and surpassed conventional hydroelectric power for the first time. In 2020, solar power provided about 7% of the state's total generation and about 44% of its renewable electricity.36 North Carolina ranked fourth in the nation, after California, Texas, and Arizona, in total solar power generation and third, after California and Texas, in solar generating capacity with 5,260 megawatts installed at the end of 2020.37,38

Hydroelectric power is the second-largest source of renewable electricity in North Carolina, and accounted for about 5% of the state's total generation in 2020.39 Most of North Carolina's approximately 40 utility-scale hydroelectric dams with about 2,000 megawatts of generating capacity are found in the mountainous area in the western two-thirds of the state. The state has the first reversible pumped storage turbine in the United States, with 86 megawatts of generating capacity, located at the Hiwassee Dam near the border with Tennessee. Water flows in one direction through the turbine to generate electricity and then in the reverse direction as a pump. When surplus electricity is produced at other power plants the Hiwassee pumped storage turbine operates as an energy storage battery and pulls water back into the reservoir.40,41,42

Biomass provided about 2% of North Carolina's generation in 2020.43 Wood- and wood waste-fueled power plants account for more than four-fifths of the generating capacity at the state's biomass-fueled power plants. In addition, the state has abundant biomass resources to generate electricity from agricultural, swine, and poultry waste.44,45,46 North Carolina's forest biomass resources also provide feedstock for five wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about 2.1 million tons of pellets each year.47 Wood pellets are used for heating and for electricity generation.48 About 1 in 50 North Carolina households heat with wood.49

Wind energy has provided utility-scale power generation in North Carolina since 2016, when the state's first, and still only, wind farm came online in the northeastern part of the state with 208 megawatts of generating capacity from 104 turbines. It was the first coastal wind farm in the Southeast.50,51,52,53 In 2020, wind energy supplied 0.4% of North Carolina's electricity.54 The state has more undeveloped wind resources offshore and in its far western mountains.55 North Carolina's governor issued an executive order in June 2021 that sets a goal for the state to have 2,800 megawatts of offshore wind power generating capacity by 2030 and 8,000 megawatts by 2040.56 The federal government is reviewing the proposed 2,500-megawatt Kitty Hawk Offshore Wind Project, which would be located 27 miles from the North Carolina coast in federal waters. Construction of the project's first 800 megawatts is planned to begin in 2024. The electricity generated from the offshore wind turbines would be sent through an undersea cable connected to an onshore substation in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and transmitted to the regional electric grid.57,58,59

North Carolina has one operating ethanol plant and one biodiesel plant. The ethanol plant has a production capacity of 57 million gallons per year, and the biodiesel plant's production capacity is 2 million gallons.60,61 Although almost all the motor gasoline sold in the nation is E10 fuel, which is gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, a motor fuel mixture containing up to 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, known as E85, is sold at 100 stations in North Carolina. Most of those fueling stations are public-access.62,63 Biodiesel is sold at refueling stations across North Carolina. There are 110 biodiesel fueling stations in the state, but only 2 of them are accessible by the public and the rest provide fuel to government or private fleets.64 North Carolina accounts for about 3.3% of U.S. ethanol consumption and 1% of biodiesel use.65

In August 2007, North Carolina became the first state in the Southeast to adopt a renewable portfolio standard, called the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS). The REPS requires investor-owned electric utilities in North Carolina to have 12.5% of their electricity retail sales come from renewable energy sources by 2021. Rural electric cooperatives and municipal electric suppliers met the requirement to obtain 10% of their electricity retail sales from renewable sources by 2018. Energy efficiency and demand-side management can be used to meet up to one-fourth of the investor-owned utilities' requirements until 2021, when the share can reach two-fifths. Municipal utilities and electric cooperatives are allowed to use unlimited amounts of energy efficiency and demand-side management to meet their requirements and can also use large (greater than 10 megawatts) hydropower facilities to meet up to 30% of their renewable energy requirement. Additionally, the REPS sets statewide targets for energy recovery and electricity generation from burning methane derived from swine and poultry waste for all providers.66,67,68 North Carolina's governor signed clean energy legislation into law in October 2021 that will close some of the state's coal-fired power plants by 2030 and replace them with new generation from renewable sources. Under the law, the North Carolina Utilities Commission will issue regulations to reduce the state's carbon emissions from electric generating facilities 70% by 2030 and reach carbon neutrality by 2050.69,70

Petroleum

North Carolina does not have any crude oil reserves or production.71,72 More than 125 exploratory oil and natural gas wells have been drilled in the state since 1925, and, although traces of crude oil and natural gas were found in a few wells, none were sufficient for commercial development. However, several unexplored areas of the state could have some crude oil.73 North Carolina does not have any petroleum refineries, but there are two major petroleum product pipelines-the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline (formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline)-that deliver refined products at several locations in the state on their way to the Northeast from the Gulf Coast.74,75,76,77 A third pipeline-the Dixie Pipeline-supplies propane from refineries in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to customers in seven southeastern states, including North Carolina, before terminating in Apex, North Carolina, just southwest of Raleigh.78,79 Some petroleum products also arrive in North Carolina at the Port of Wilmington.80

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina.

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita petroleum use.81 The transportation sector uses more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.82,83 There are currently no federal regulatory restrictions on the use of conventional motor gasoline in the state.84 North Carolina drivers' total annual expenditure for gasoline and total motor gasoline consumption are among the top 10 states.85,86 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum in North Carolina at about 8% of the state total, followed by the commercial sector and the residential sector at about 3% each.87 About 1 in 10 North Carolina households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.88 The electric power sector also uses a small amount of petroleum as fuel for electricity generation.89

Natural gas

North Carolina does not have any economically recoverable natural gas reserves or production.90,91 Although commercial quantities of natural gas have not been found in North Carolina, shales and coalbeds in the geologic basins located in the center of the state may contain natural gas resources.92,93

Interstate pipelines supply the natural gas North Carolina uses. Natural gas enters the state from the south through South Carolina and from the north through Virginia.94 The amount delivered through Virginia has almost doubled since 2017 as more gas produced from the Marcellus and Utica Shales further north has arrived in the state.95,96 Additional interstate pipelines that will increase deliveries of Marcellus and Utica natural gas to North Carolina are in development.97,98

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita natural gas consumption.

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest natural gas use per capita.99 Natural gas use for electricity generation in the state has more than quadrupled during the past decade.100 The electric power sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer and accounted for nearly three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to end-users in 2020. The industrial sector led state consumption until 2012, when the electric power sector became the largest natural gas user for the first time. In 2020, the industrial sector accounted for slightly more than one-fifth of the state's total natural gas use. The residential sector, where one out of four North Carolina households use natural gas for home heating, accounted for almost one-eighth of state natural gas use, followed by the commercial sector at nearly one-tenth. The state's transportation sector uses a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.101,102

Coal

North Carolina has a small amount of economically recoverable coal reserves but no commercial coal production.103,104 The Deep River coalfield in central North Carolina is the only area in the state known to have coal. Bituminous coal was produced from that field intermittently from 1854 to 1953. Production in the Deep River area ceased because the remaining coal is deeply buried, and the coalbeds are broken by many geologic faults. It is estimated that more than 110 million tons of coal exist in that area, but, because of the difficult geology, less than half of the coal might ever be mined.105

Fuel-grade peat deposits, averaging about 5 feet in thickness, cover almost 700,000 acres of coastal North Carolina. Peat consists of partially decomposed plant debris and is an early stage in the development of coal. There are about 500 million tons of moisture-free peat in the state, but North Carolina peat has been used only in agricultural products, not for energy. Most of the state's peat is found in coastal swamps and other environmentally sensitive areas.106,107

Almost all of the coal consumed in North Carolina is used for electricity generation. Most of the coal delivered to the state's seven coal-fired power plants is transported by rail from states east of the Mississippi River, primarily West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. A small amount of coal is also consumed by North Carolina industrial and commercial users.108,109,110

Endnotes

1 North Carolina State Parks, Mount Mitchell State Park, accessed October 18, 2021.
2 NETSTATE, The Geography of North Carolina, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Donegan, Brian, "North Carolina Second Only to Florida for U.S. Tropical Storms and Hurricanes," The Weather Channel (September 11, 2018).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), North Carolina Profile Data, Environment, accessed October 18, 2021.
5 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, accessed October 18, 2021.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, accessed October 18, 2021.
7 U.S.EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic, Table 3.22, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Solar Thermal.
8 North Carolina Forestry Association, Members, accessed October 18, 2021.
9 NC State Extension, Economic Contribution of the Forest Sector in North Carolina, 2019.
10 Geology.com, North Carolina Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed October 18, 2021.
11 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021, North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
12 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply & Distribution, accessed October 18, 2021.
13 "Trump announces extension of offshore drilling moratorium for Virginia, North Carolina," 13NewsNow (September 25, 2020).
14 U.S. EIA, U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.13, Utility-Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
19 Federal Aviation Administration, CY 2020 Passenger Boarding Data, Enplanements at All Commercial Service Airports by Rank.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
21 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2020 North Carolina Agricultural Statistics, p. 9.
22 Economic Development Partnership of North Carolina, Industries, accessed October 18, 2021.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, North Carolina, All statistics in table, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.13, Utility-Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
27 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2020, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: All; Inventory of Retired Generators as of August 2021, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: All.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.7, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation.
31 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 through 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
33 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic, Table 3.22, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Solar Thermal.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 4.7.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2020 and 2019 (Megawatts).
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
41 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, Pumped Storage Power Plant, accessed October 18, 2021.
42 Tennessee Valley Authority, "Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump-Turbine 1956," (July 14, 1981), p. 3, 5.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
45 Morrison, James, "In North Carolina, Hog Waste Is Becoming A Streamlined Fuel Source," North Carolina Public Radio (April 17, 2018).
46 Sullivan, Karen, "Gas from swine, poultry waste will power 4 Duke plants," The Charlotte Observer (March 20, 2016).
47 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, June 2021.
48 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
49 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
52 Avangrid Renewables, Amazon Wind Farm North Carolina - Desert Wind, accessed October 18, 2021.
53 Carnevale, Chris, "Amazon Wind Farm in North Carolina," CleanEnergy.org (August 14, 2020).
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-20.
55 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, North Carolina Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed October 18, 2021.
56 State of North Carolina Governor, Executive Order No. 218, Advancing North Carolina's Economic and Clean Energy Future with Offshore Wind (June 9, 2021).
57 Kitty Hawk Offshore, Project Overview, accessed October 23, 2021.
58 Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, North Carolina Activities, What's New?, accessed October 23, 2021.
59 Kitty Hawk Offshore, Construction and Operations Plan (July 26, 2021), p. 1.
60 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2021, available in XLS.
62 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locations, Ethanol (E85), accessed October 18, 2021.
64 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locators, North Carolina, Biodiesel (B20 and above), accessed October 18, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
66 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS), accessed October 18, 2021.
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated May 20, 2021.
68 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Annual Report Regarding Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard in North Carolina (September 28, 2020), p 57.
69 Duncan, Charles, "North Carolina has a new clean energy law. Here's what's in it," Spectrum News 1 (October 14, 2021).
70 General Assembly of North Carolina, House Bill 951, accessed October 20, 2021.
71 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, and Estimated Production, 2014-19.
72 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2015-20.
73 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Petroleum and natural gas, accessed October 18, 2021.
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82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
84 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, U.S Gasoline Requirements Map (updated January 2018).
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2019.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
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90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2014-19.
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104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
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