North Carolina State Energy Profile



North Carolina Quick Facts

  • In 2019, North Carolina ranked second after California in both the amount of total installed solar power generating capacity at almost 4,700 megawatts and actual solar generation.
  • North Carolina has 112 public and private fueling stations that supply diesel fuel blended with at least 20% biodiesel. About one-seventh of the nation's total biodiesel fueling stations are in North Carolina. 
  • North Carolina was sixth among the states in electricity net generation from nuclear power in 2019, producing about 5% of the nation's total. Nuclear power recaptured the top spot in 2019 as the largest source of North Carolina's electricity generation, surpassing natural gas to provide about 32% of in-state electricity.
  • North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita petroleum use, but its total annual expenditures for motor gasoline is among the top 10 states.
  • In 2018, North Carolina ranked fourth among the states in the amount of electricity consumed by its residential sector and 12th in per capita residential sector electricity consumption.

Last Updated: November 19, 2020



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Population 10.6 million 3.2% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 5.0 million 3.1% Jul-21  
Economy North Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 586.1 billion 11 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 98,755 million 5 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 50,086 40 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 122,475 million miles 6 2019  
Land in Farms 8.4 million acres 32 2017  
Climate North Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 61.0 degrees Fahrenheit 10 2020  
Precipitation 66.3 inches 4 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 5.93 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 22.35 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.29 /million Btu $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity North Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.51 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 8.65 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 5.98 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 35,117 MW 3.1% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 692 trillion Btu 0.7% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 11,700 thousand MWh 3.1% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) North Carolina U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 32.9 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 20.8 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 31.2 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 15.0 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 113 thousand barrels 0.9% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,049 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,133 thousand barrels 4.9% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,810 thousand tons 2.5% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 4,509 stations 4.0% 2019  
Propane 63 stations 2.3% 2021  
Electricity 838 stations 2.1% 2021  
E85 85 stations 2.3% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 29 stations 2.3% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary North Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,653 trillion Btu 12 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 253 million Btu 36 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 34,166 million 10 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,254 45 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 696 trillion Btu 3.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 578 trillion Btu 3.2% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 554 trillion Btu 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 825 trillion Btu 2.9% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 8,341 million 3.2% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,306 million 2.8% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 4,021 million 2.0% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 16,497 million 2.9% 2019 find more
by Source North Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 181 million barrels 2.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 552 billion cu ft 1.8% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 13 million short tons 2.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 18,976 million 2.7% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,259 million 2.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 906 million 3.6% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 16 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 28,833 million cu ft 2.6% Jun-21 find more
Coal 979 thousand short tons 2.0% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) North Carolina U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 24.4 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 2.6 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 64.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 6.6 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.1 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 7,944 MW 2.9% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 57 million gal/year 0.3% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 472 thousand MWh 1.9% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,101 thousand MWh 2.8% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 177 thousand MWh 3.8% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 44 thousand MWh 0.9% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption North Carolina U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.4 % 26 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 11,357 thousand barrels 8 2019  
Total Emissions North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 119.5 million metric tons 2.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions North Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 47,372 thousand metric tons 2.7% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 37 thousand metric tons 2.9% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 46 thousand metric tons 3.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 19, 2020

Overview

North Carolina rises from its Atlantic Ocean coastline to the highest peak east of the Mississippi River—Mount Mitchell, which stands more than a mile above sea level at 6,684 feet.1 The state's terrain ranges from the barrier islands of the Outer Banks in the east, where North Carolina is brushed by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, across the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont region to the heavily forested spine of the Appalachian Mountains in the west.2 North Carolina, especially the Outer Banks, is often hit by severe tropical storms and hurricanes, and the state is second only to Florida in tropical cyclone landfalls.3

North Carolina has substantial renewable energy resources.4,5 Offshore winds along the state's coast could provide energy for electricity generation.6,7 North Carolina's solar resources help make the state a leader in solar power8 The 18 million acres of woodlands that cover almost three-fifths of the state provide a large biomass resource and employment for about 75,000 people who work in North Carolina's forestry and forest products industries.9,10 Rivers that flow through the state provide hydroelectric power to many communities.11,12 North Carolina has few fossil fuel resources and does not have any oil, natural gas, or coal production.13 In 2020, the federal government added North Carolina to an offshore oil and natural gas drilling moratorium through June 2032, joining Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina.14,15 In addition to its natural resources, North Carolina is one of the nation's leading nuclear power-producing states.16

North Carolina consumes almost four times more energy than it produces.17 Total energy consumption per capita in North Carolina is among the lowest one-third of the states.18 The residents, tourists, and truckers who use motor gasoline and diesel fuel on the state's heavily traveled highway system and the jet fuel consumed at the busy Charlotte Douglas International Airport—one of the top U.S. airports as ranked by passenger traffic—make the transportation sector North Carolina's largest end-use energy-consuming sector, accounting for nearly three-tenths of the state's total energy consumption.19,20,21 The residential sector closely follows the transportation sector, accounting for more than one-fourth of the state total. The commercial and industrial sectors each consume slightly more than one-fifth of state energy.22

North Carolina has a large agricultural industry and is a leading producer of poultry, hogs, and tobacco.23 The state's other key industries include aerospace and defense; auto and truck manufacturing; biotechnology and pharmaceuticals; business and financial services; energy; food processing; furniture; information technology; plastics and chemicals; and textiles.24 The energy-intensive chemical industry; food, beverage, and tobacco products; and the computer and electronics sector, together, account for more than half of the state's gross domestic product from manufacturing.25

Electricity

North Carolina is one of the nation’s top 10 producers of electricity from nuclear power.

North Carolina is among the nation's top 10 producers of electricity from nuclear power. Nuclear power was the largest fuel source for electricity generation in North Carolina in 2019 and contributed almost one-third of the state's net generation.26,27 The contribution of natural gas-fired generation has increased as electric utilities have added natural gas-fired power plants. In 2019, natural gas provided slightly less generation than nuclear power. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired generation for the first time in 2016.28 Before 2012, coal-fired power plants provided more than half of the electricity generated in North Carolina, but nearly 30 coal-fired units have been retired since 2011 and about 30 natural gas-fired units were added. By 2019, the remaining coal-fired power plants provided less than one-fourth of the electricity generated in the state. Solar power, hydroelectric power, and biomass provided almost all of North Carolina's remaining electricity generation.29,30,31

Even though North Carolina is among the top 10 electricity-generating states in the nation, its consumers use more power than is generated in the state, and additional electricity is supplied from other states over the regional grid.32,33 The residential sector accounts for more than two-fifths of the total retail sales of electricity in North Carolina, the largest share among the end-use sectors.34 More than 6 out of 10 North Carolina households use electricity for home heating, and, because of hot and humid summers, almost all of the state's households use air conditioning as well.35,36

Renewable energy

North Carolina ranks second in the nation, after California, in solar generation and installed solar generating capacity.

More than one-tenth of the electricity generated in North Carolina is produced from renewable resources. The amount of electricity generated from solar energy has increased rapidly. In 2017, utility-scale solar power became the largest renewable energy source used for the state's electricity generation and surpassed conventional hydroelectric power for the first time. In 2019, solar power provided nearly 6% of the state's generation.37 North Carolina ranked second in the nation after California in total installed solar generating capacity with almost 4,700 megawatts at the end of 2019. The state was also second in the nation in total electricity generation from utility-scale and small-scale solar photovoltaic facilities combined.38,39

Hydroelectric power is the second-largest source of renewable generation in North Carolina, and accounted for about 5% of the state's total generation in 2019.40 Most of North Carolina's approximately 40 utility-scale hydroelectric dams are found in the mountainous area in the western two-thirds of the state. The state has one pumped storage hydroelectric facility, with 86 megawatts of generating capacity, located near the border with Tennessee.41,42

Biomass provided an additional 2% of generation in North Carolina in 2019.43 Wood- and wood waste-fueled power plants account for more than four-fifths of capacity at biomass-fueled power plants in the state. Although much of North Carolina's electricity generation from biomass comes from wood, wood waste, and landfill gas, the state also has abundant biomass resources from agricultural, swine, and poultry waste.44,45,46 North Carolina's forest biomass resources also provide feedstock for four wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about 1.6 million tons of pellets each year.47 Wood pellets are used for heating and for electricity generation.48 About 1 in 50 North Carolina households heat with wood.49

Wind energy has provided utility-scale power generation in North Carolina since 2016, when the state's first, and only, wind farm came online in the northeastern part of the state with 208 megawatts of generating capacity from 104 turbines. It was the first coastal wind farm in the Southeast.50,51,52 In 2019, wind energy supplied 0.4% of North Carolina's electricity.53 The state has more undeveloped wind resources in its far western mountains and offshore.54

North Carolina has one operating biodiesel plant and one ethanol plant. The state's biodiesel plant has a production capacity of 2 million gallons per year, and the ethanol plant's annual production capacity is 57 million gallons.55,56 The owners of the ethanol plant plan to transition from using corn to tobacco as the feedstock for making ethanol.57 Biodiesel is sold at refueling stations across North Carolina. Most of the 112 biodiesel fueling stations in the state are private-access service stations used for government or private fleets.58 Although almost all the motor gasoline sold in the nation is E10 fuel, which is gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, a motor fuel mixture containing up to 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, known as E85, is also sold at nearly 90 stations in North Carolina. Most of those fueling stations are public-access.59,60 North Carolina accounts for about 3.3% of U.S. ethanol consumption and 1.1% of biodiesel use.61

In August 2007, North Carolina became the first state in the Southeast to adopt a renewable portfolio standard, called the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS). The REPS requires investor-owned electric utilities in North Carolina to have 12.5% of their electricity retail sales come from renewable energy resources by 2021. Rural electric cooperatives and municipal electric suppliers were required to obtain 10% of their retail sales of electricity from renewable sources by 2018. Energy efficiency and demand-side management can be used to meet up to one-fourth of the investor-owned utilities' requirements until 2021, when the amount can reach two-fifths. Municipal utilities and electric cooperatives were allowed to use unlimited amounts of energy efficiency and demand-side management to meet their requirements and could also use large (greater than 10 megawatts) hydropower facilities to meet up to 30% of their renewable energy requirement. Sales of electricity generated from solar energy were required to reach 0.2% of retail sales in 2020 for all investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities, and electric cooperatives. Additionally, the REPS sets statewide targets for energy recovery and electricity generation by burning methane derived from swine and poultry waste for all providers.62,63 Most electric power suppliers were given more time to meet the swine waste targets, but all electricity providers met the other general 2019 REPS requirements and were on track to meet the 2020 requirements, according to the North Carolina Utilities Commission.64

Petroleum

North Carolina does not have any crude oil reserves or production.65 More than 125 exploratory oil and natural gas wells have been drilled in the state since 1925, and, although traces of crude oil and natural gas were found in a few wells, none were sufficient for commercial production. However, several unexplored areas of the state are considered to have crude oil potential.66 North Carolina does not have any petroleum refineries, but there are two major petroleum product pipelines-the Colonial Pipeline and the Plantation Pipeline-that deliver refined products at several locations in the state on their way to the Northeast from the Gulf Coast.67,68,69 A third pipeline-the Dixie Pipeline-supplies propane from refineries in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to customers in seven southeastern states, including North Carolina, before terminating in Apex, North Carolina, just southwest of Raleigh.70,71 Some petroleum products also arrive in North Carolina at the Port of Wilmington.72

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina.

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita petroleum use.73 More than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina is used by the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.74,75 There are currently no federal regulatory restrictions on the use of conventional motor gasoline in the state.76 North Carolina drivers' total annual expenditures for gasoline is among the top 10 states.77 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum in North Carolina, followed by the residential sector and the commercial sector.78 About 1 in 10 North Carolina households rely on fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.79 The electric power sector uses less than 1% of the petroleum consumed in the state.80

Natural gas

North Carolina does not have any economically recoverable natural gas reserves or production.81,82 Although commercial quantities of natural gas have not been found in North Carolina, shales and coalbeds in the geologic basins located in the center of the state may contain natural gas resources.83,84

Pipelines in development will link North Carolina to additional shale gas production from the Marcellus and Utica Shales to the north.

Interstate pipelines supply the natural gas North Carolina needs. Natural gas enters the state from the south through South Carolina and from the north through Virginia.85 The amount delivered through Virginia has increased substantially since 2015 as more shale gas produced from the Marcellus and Utica Shales further north has arrived in the state.86,87 Additional interstate pipelines that will increase deliveries of Marcellus and Utica natural gas to North Carolina are in development.88,89

North Carolina's natural gas use per capita is among the 10 lowest states.90 Natural gas use for electricity generation in the state has increased nearly eight-fold in the past decade.91 The electric power sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer and accounted for nearly three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in 2019. The industrial sector led state consumption until 2012, when the electric power sector became the largest natural gas user for the first time. In 2019, the industrial sector accounted for slightly more than one-fifth of the state total. The residential sector, where one out of four North Carolina households use natural gas for home heating, is the third-largest natural gas-consuming sector and accounted for one-eighth of state natural gas use, followed by the commercial sector at one-tenth.92,93 North Carolina ranks among the top five states in residential sector electricity sales.94

Coal

North Carolina has a small amount of economically recoverable coal reserves but no commercial coal production.95,96 The Deep River coalfield in central North Carolina is the only area in the state known to have coal. Bituminous coal was produced from that field intermittently from 1854 to 1953. Production in the Deep River area ceased because the remaining coal is deeply buried, and the coalbeds are broken by many geologic faults. It is estimated that more than 110 million tons of coal exist in that area, but, because of the difficult geology, less than half of the coal might ever be mined.97

Fuel-grade peat deposits, averaging about 5 feet in thickness, cover almost 700,000 acres of coastal North Carolina. Peat consists of partially decomposed plant debris and is an early stage in the development of coal. There are about 500 million tons of moisture-free peat in the state, but North Carolina peat has been used only in agricultural products, not for energy. Most of the state's peat is found in coastal swamps and other environmentally sensitive areas.98,99

Almost all of the coal consumed in North Carolina is used for electricity generation. Most of the coal delivered to the state's eight coal-fired power plants is transported by rail from states east of the Mississippi River, primarily West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The remaining coal consumed in North Carolina is sent to industrial and commercial users.100,101,102

Endnotes

1 North Carolina State Parks, Mount Mitchell State Park, accessed October 16, 2020.
2 NETSTATE, The Geography of North Carolina, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Donegan, Brian, "North Carolina Second Only to Florida for U.S. Tropical Storms and Hurricanes," The Weather Channel (September 11, 2018).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (), North Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply & Distribution, accessed October 23, 2020.
5 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, accessed October 23, 2020.
6 American Wind Energy Association, AWEA State Wind Energy Facts, North Carolina Wind Fact, accessed October 16, 2020.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, accessed October 16, 2020.
8 U.S.EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
9 North Carolina Forestry Association, Members, accessed October 16, 2020.
10 NC State Extension, Economic Contribution of the Forest Sector in North Carolina, 2018.
11 Geology.com, North Carolina Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed October 19, 2020
12 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
13 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply & Distribution, accessed October 19, 2020.
14 White House, "Presidential Determination on the Withdrawal of Certain Areas of the United States Outer Continental Shelf from Leasing Disposition," (September 25, 2020).
15 Frazin, Rachel, "Trump to include North Carolina in offshore drilling moratorium, senator says," The Hill (September 21, 2020).
16 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.9.B.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
21 Federal Aviation Administration, Preliminary CY 2019 Passenger Boarding Data, Enplanements at All Commercial Service Airports by Rank.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
23 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2019 North Carolina Agricultural Statistics, p. 9.
24 Economic Development Partnership of North Carolina, Industries, accessed October 20, 2020.
25 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, North Carolina, All statistics in table, 2019.
26 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
29 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Coal Units Only) and (Operable Natural Gas Units Only).
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
32 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
33 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 through 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
36 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing characteristics tables, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
42 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, Pumped Storage Power Plant, accessed October 22, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
45 Morrison, James, "In North Carolina, Hog Waste Is Becoming A Streamlined Fuel Source," North Carolina Public Radio (April 17, 2018).
46 Sullivan, Karen, "Gas from swine, poultry waste will power 4 Duke plants," The Charlotte Observer (March 20, 2016).
47 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, July 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
49 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
51 Avangrid Renewables, Amazon Wind Farm North Carolina - Desert Wind, accessed October 22, 2020.
52 Carnevale, Chris, "Amazon Wind Farm in the North Carolina," CleanEnergy.org (August 14, 2020).
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-19.
54 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, North Carolina Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed October 22, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, July 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity: January 2020, available in XLS.
57 Tyton Biofuels, Renewable Fuel Production in North Carolina, accessed October 22, 2020.
58 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locators, North Carolina, Biodiesel (B20 and above), accessed October 22, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locations, Ethanol (E85),accessed October 22, 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
62 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS), accessed October 22, 2020.
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated July 9, 2018.
64 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Annual Report Regarding Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard in North Carolina (September 28, 2020), Conclusions, p. 57.
65 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, and Estimated Production, 2013-18.
66 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Petroleum and natural gas, accessed October 22, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, North Carolina, Annual (as of January 1), 2015-20.
68 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Us, Our Company, System Map, accessed October 22, 2020.
69 Kinder Morgan, Product Pipelines, Southeast Operations, Plantation Pipe Line Company, accessed October 22, 2020.
70 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., NGL Pipelines, Dixie Pipeline, accessed October 22, 2020.
71 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., Dixie Pipeline, accessed October 22, 2020.
72 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Previous Issues, July 2019 through July 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
76 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, U.S Gasoline Requirements Map (updated January 2018).
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2013-18.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, 2014-19.
83 North Carolina Environmental Quality, Oil and Gas Program Geologic Assessment, accessed October 23, 2020.
84 Leonard, Anne, "North Carolina Natural Gas? East Coast Triassic Rift Basins Opening Up," Enverus (October 9, 2014).
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