Montana State Energy Profile



Montana Quick Facts

  • Montana has the nation's largest recoverable coal reserves, which is about 30% of the U.S. total, and the state accounts for about 5% of U.S. coal production.
  • Montana's temperature extremes and its small population contribute to the state's residential sector having the second-highest per capita energy consumption of any state, behind only North Dakota.
  • In 2019, Montana ranked among the top 10 states with the largest share of electricity generated from renewables, about 45%. Montana is also the sixth-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation, and 6 of the state's 10 largest generating plants produce hydropower.
  • Coal-fired power plants provided the largest share of Montana's electricity generation in 2019, but coal accounted for less than 40% of the state’s generation at the end of 2020 as hydropower provided the largest share.
  • In 2019, about 14% of the natural gas the United States imported by pipeline from Canada entered through Montana, and the state has the largest single underground natural gas storage site in the nation with 287 billion cubic feet of space.

Last Updated: February 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: June 17, 2021 | Next Update: July 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Montana Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.1 million 0.3% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.5 million 0.3% Apr-21  
Economy Montana U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 51.5 billion 48 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 3,124 million 46 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 53,329 32 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 12,892 million miles 42 2019  
Land in Farms 59.8 million acres 2 2017  
Climate Montana U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 43.2 degrees Fahrenheit 45 2020  
Precipitation 16.9 inches 39 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 56.39 /barrel $ 60.67 /barrel Mar-21  
Natural Gas Montana U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.74 /thousand cu ft $ 4.09 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Residential $ 7.60 /thousand cu ft $ 10.55 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Coal Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 21.66 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.89 /million Btu Mar-21  
Electricity Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.93 cents/kWh 13.29 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Commercial 10.59 cents/kWh 11.13 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Industrial 5.48 cents/kWh 7.01 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 298 million barrels 0.7% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 613 billion cu ft 0.1% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 14 million barrels 0.1% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 778 million short tons 5.5% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 5,093 wells 1.0% 2019 find more
Capacity Montana Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 223,000 barrels/calendar day 1.2% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 5,813 MW 0.5% Mar-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 997 trillion Btu 1.0% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 52 thousand barrels per day 0.5% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 43,263 million cu ft 0.1% 2019 find more
Coal 34,468 thousand short tons 4.9% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 2,155 thousand MWh 0.7% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Montana U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 1.3 % 33.9 % Mar-21 find more
Coal-Fired 50.2 % 20.0 % Mar-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.5 % Mar-21 find more
Renewables 45.4 % 24.6 % Mar-21  
Stocks Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 483 thousand barrels 3.3% Mar-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,053 thousand barrels 0.9% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 185,347 million cu ft 3.0% Mar-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 14 thousand barrels 0.1% Mar-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Mar-21 find more
Fueling Stations Montana Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 492 stations 0.4% 2019  
Propane 39 stations 1.4% 2021  
Electricity 61 stations 0.2% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Montana U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 446 trillion Btu 43 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 410 million Btu 12 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,025 million 45 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,787 10 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Montana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 106 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 87 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 137 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 116 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,018 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 762 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 669 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,575 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source Montana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 34 million barrels 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 88 billion cu ft 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 9 million short tons 1.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,172 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 459 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 314 million 1.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas 321 million cu ft * Mar-21 find more
Coal 696 thousand short tons 2.0% Mar-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Montana U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 51.5 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.9 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 26.2 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 13.5 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 7.9 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,701 MW 1.4% Mar-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 704 thousand MWh 3.3% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 272 thousand MWh 0.5% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 2 thousand MWh * Mar-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 3 thousand MWh 0.1% Mar-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Montana U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 33.8 % 5 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,345 thousand barrels 43 2019  
Total Emissions Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 30.7 million metric tons 0.6% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 16,348 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 17 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2019  

Analysis



Last Updated: February 18, 2021

Overview

Montana, known as Big Sky Country, is the fourth-largest state and a significant supplier of energy to the rest of the nation.1,2,3 The state is rich in both fossil fuels and renewable resources.4 About three-tenths of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves are in Montana, and the northern and eastern areas of the state contain deposits of crude oil and natural gas.5,6,7 The Continental Divide runs along the state's western mountains, making Montana the only state in the nation with rivers that drain into the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Hudson Bay.8 The Missouri River, the longest river in the United States, rises in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and flows eastward across the state.9 The river and its tributaries offer substantial hydroelectric energy resources.10,11 Montana's western mountains capture warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean, creating a more moderate climate in the western third of the state than farther east, where the Rocky Mountains give way to dry, wind-swept plains that stretch into the Dakotas.12,13 The state's vast plains provide Montana with some of the best wind resources in the nation.14 Although Montana is the fourth-biggest state in land area, it is the third least densely populated state, averaging about 7 people per square mile.15,16 The state's population reached 1 million people in 2012.17 Montana's residents are clustered in and around a few cities, mainly in the valleys of the Missouri River and its tributaries.18 Much of the eastern third of the state has, on average, less than one resident per square mile.19

Montana's early economy was built around mining, ranching, wheat farming, and timber. After World War II, spurred by such popular destinations as Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks, tourism increased. In 1970, tourism surpassed mining to become the second-largest industry in the state after agriculture.20 Finance, insurance, real estate, rentals, and leasing are the largest contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), but natural resources and mining continue to be significant parts of the state's economy.21 Mining, crude oil and natural gas production, petroleum refining, and agricultural industries are all energy-intensive. Those industries, as well as the amount of transportation fuels used to travel the long distances within the state and the state's small population, place Montana's per capita total energy consumption among the top one-fourth of the states.22

Montana has the second-highest residential sector per capita energy consumption of any state.

The industrial sector leads state end-use energy consumption, accounting for about 30% of the state total, followed closely by the transportation sector at 27%. The residential sector makes up 23% of the state's energy use, and the commercial sector accounts for 20%.23 Summer heat can exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit on the plains and winter can bring Arctic blasts with subzero temperatures.24 The state's temperature extremes and its small population contribute to Montana's residential sector having the second-highest per capita energy consumption of any state, exceeded only by North Dakota.25

Coal

Montana has the largest estimated recoverable coal reserves among the states, accounting for about 30% of the U.S. total.26 In 2019, the state produced about 5% of the nation's coal from six operating mines. Most of Montana's coal production came from five large surface mines in the Powder River Basin in the southeastern corner of the state.27,28 Montana's Spring Creek Coal mine was the among the top 10 U.S. coal-producing mines in 2019. Montana's second-largest coal mine, the Rosebud surface mine, supplied almost all of its production to the state's largest electricity generating station— the Colstrip coal-fired power plant located next to the mine. Two of the plant's four generating units were retired in early 2020, reducing the plant's generating capacity to about 1,500 megawatts.29,30,31,32,33,34

About 68% of Montana’s coal production was shipped to other states and countries in 2019.

In 2019, about 32% of Montana coal was consumed in the state, and almost all that coal was used by the electric power sector. About half of Montana's coal production was sent to other states, mainly by rail to Michigan, Minnesota, and Washington for electricity generation. The remaining 17% was exported to other countries, mostly to western Canada, where much of it continued on to Asia.35,36,37 Montana's coal production has declined in recent years, mainly because of competition from natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation.38,39,40

Petroleum

Montana accounts for less than 1% of U.S. total proved crude oil reserves, and the state produces about 1 in every 200 barrels of U.S. oil.41,42 Most of Montana's oil production comes from the Bakken Formation in the northeastern part of the state along the border with North Dakota.43,44,45 Montana's Elm Coulee field was initially the most prolific oil field in the Williston Basin, a geologic basin that spreads from eastern Montana into North Dakota and Canada.46 However, the state's oil production has declined from its 2006 peak of nearly 100,000 barrels per day as drilling activity moved to North Dakota, where the Bakken Shale formation is thicker and holds more oil. In 2019, Montana's annual oil production increased slightly for the second year in a row, rising to 63,000 barrels per day.47,48 However, the state's oil production declined in 2020 along with the decline in petroleum demand and oil prices resulting from the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the state's oil output at the lowest level in nearly two decades.49

Montana’s four oil refineries can process about 213,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.

Montana has four oil refineries with a combined crude oil processing capacity of about 213,000 barrels per calendar day. Three refineries are in the Billings area, and one is in Great Falls.50 The refineries receive crude oil mainly from Canada and Wyoming and produce a wide range of refined products, including motor gasoline, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, aviation fuels, butane, propane, petroleum coke, and asphalt.51,52,53,54 Pipelines and railroads are used to ship crude oil to the refineries and to transport the facilities' refined products throughout Montana and to nearby states. Several pipelines carry Montana crude oil to refineries in other states as well.55 In January 2021, the Biden administration canceled the permit for the Keystone XL Pipeline extension, which would have crossed the state as a shorter route to transport Canadian crude oil to refineries along the U.S. Gulf Coast.56

Although Montana's total petroleum consumption is among the lowest 10 states, its small population helps place it among the top 10 states in petroleum consumption per capita.57 The transportation sector consumes nearly two-thirds of the petroleum used in Montana.58 During the winter months, federal air quality standards require oxygenated motor gasoline use in the Missoula area near the Idaho border.59 Montana has no ethanol production plants.60 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum, accounting for almost one-fourth of the state's total use. The residential sector—where about 1 out of 7 households heat with propane, fuel oil, or kerosene—and the electric power and commercial sectors make up the rest, about 12%, of the state's petroleum consumption.61,62

Natural gas

Montana accounts for about 0.1% of U.S. total natural gas reserves and marketed production.63,64 The state's natural gas production is less than half of what it was at its peak in 2007, and output in 2020 dropped to its lowest level since the early 1970s. Production from natural gas wells and coalbed methane wells in the state has trended downward in recent years as energy companies have focused on drilling for oil rather than for natural gas.65,66 Nearly three-fourths of Montana's natural gas production comes from wells located in the northern part of the state near the Canadian border. Almost all the remaining natural gas production comes from wells in the Williston Basin in northeastern Montana near the North Dakota border.67

Montana has the largest single underground natural gas storage site in the nation.

Montana consumes more natural gas than it produces, which makes the state a net gas importer.68,69 Montana is crossed by interstate natural gas pipelines from Canada, North Dakota, and Wyoming.70 In 2019, about 90% of the natural gas that entered the state came from Canada, crossing the border at five import points. Of the remaining gas shipments, about 6% came from Wyoming and 4% came from North Dakota.71,72 About one-seventh of all the natural gas the United States imported by pipeline from Canada in 2019 entered through Montana.73 About 89% of the natural gas that enters Montana leaves the state, almost all of it continuing on to North Dakota on its way to Midwestern markets.74 Some of the natural gas that enters Montana is put in storage. The state has more underground natural gas storage capacity than any other state in the Rocky Mountain region, including the nation's largest single underground storage site—the depleted Baker field in the Williston Basin in eastern Montana. It can hold 287 billion cubic feet of gas.75,76

Montana's total natural gas consumption ranks among the five lowest states. However, with its frigid winters and small population, Montana's per capita natural gas use ranks near the middle of the 50 states.77,78 The largest share of natural gas deliveries in Montana goes to the commercial sector, which accounts for about 34% of the total. The residential and industrial sectors each account for about 29% of the natural gas delivered to Montana customers, while the electric power sector accounts for about 7%.79 Half of Montana households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.80

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants have typically provided the largest share of Montana's electricity net generation. Until 2016, coal consistently supplied more than half of the state's generation. However, coal's share has slipped because of competitively priced natural gas as a fuel for generating electricity, the growth of renewable-based electricity, and the retirement of coal-fired power plants.81,82,83,84 While coal-fired generation rose slightly to just over 50% of Montana's generation in 2019, coal's share fell below 40% at the end of 2020 and hydroelectric power provided the largest amount of electricity, almost half the state's generation.85,86

Six utility-scale coal-fired power plants still operate in the state, although one 56-megawatt plant is scheduled to shut down in the spring of 2021.87 Most of the rest of Montana's electricity generation comes from hydroelectric power plants, which provided 36% of the state's electricity generation in 2019.88 Several projects to expand the state's hydroelectric generating capacity are planned. A large pumped hydro storage project with 400 megawatts of generating capacity is in development about 100 miles northwest of Billings.89,90,91 Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods when power prices are higher by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir in off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir through turbine generators when additional generating capacity is needed.92 In 2019, wind power had the third-largest share, nearly 9% of the state's generation, and natural gas and petroleum coke each provided almost 2% of generation.93

Montana has one of the nation’s eight converter stations that connect the eastern and western U.S. electric grids.

Montana consumers use about half of the electricity generated in the state.94 The rest is sent to other western states, mostly Washington and Oregon, over high-voltage transmission lines.95 Generating more electricity to sell in other states is seen as an economic opportunity for Montana, but current transmission lines are congested, and new capacity is needed in order to expand sales.96 Several transmission projects are in development that will increase capacity to move Montana-generated electricity to states in the West and Southwest.97 Construction of a line between Montana and Alberta, Canada was completed in 2013 and it can move electricity in either direction. It is the first direct interconnection between the two areas.98 Most of Montana is part of the Western Interconnection grid, which serves western states, Canadian provinces, and a small part of northern Mexico. A portion of eastern Montana is connected to the Eastern Interconnection of the U.S. grid.99,100 One of the nation's eight converter stations that connect the eastern and western electric grids is located at Miles City, Montana.101

Montana deregulated its electricity system in 1997, but the state experienced increased retail electricity costs and later re-regulated some aspects of its electric sector.102 In 2019, the residential sector accounted for about 35% of the electricity retail sales in the state, with the industrial and commercial sectors close behind at 33% and 32%, respectively.103 About one-fourth of Montana households rely on electricity for their primary heating source.104 In 2019, Montana's average electricity retail price was below the national average and less than in two-thirds of the states.105

Renewable energy

In 2019, Montana was the nation’s sixth-largest producer of hydroelectric power.

Montana has substantial renewable energy resources, and in 2019 it ranked among the top 10 states with the largest share of electricity generated from renewables. Renewables, primarily hydropower, accounted for about 45% of Montana's in-state electricity.106,107 Its mountainous terrain along the Continental Divide creates fast-running rivers, and the eastern two-thirds of the state is drained by the Missouri River and its tributaries.108 In 2019, Montana was the sixth-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation.109 The state has about two dozen utility-scale hydroelectric plants, and six of Montana's 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are hydroelectric facilities.110,111

With its high plains dotted with hills, wide river valleys, and occasional mountains, eastern Montana has some of the best utility-scale wind power potential in the nation.112,113 The first utility-scale wind farm in the state came online in 2005.114 As of late 2020, Montana had more than 550 turbines with nearly 900 megawatts of wind power generating capacity in operation. More wind projects are in various stages of planning and construction.115

Montana's solar-generated electricity was provided exclusively by small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) residential and business solar panel installations until 2017, when the state's first utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar power facilities came online. By late 2020, Montana had six utility-scale solar power farms with a combined generating capacity of 17 megawatts. An 80-megawatt solar farm is scheduled to be online in late 2022.116,117 Montana has a government program to provide technical, planning, and financial assistance for developing community solar projects.118

Montana has biomass resources, and about 7 in 100 households heat their homes with wood. However, very little electricity generation in the state comes from biomass.119,120 There is only one utility-scale biomass-fueled generating facility in the state, and it is owned by a lumber company.121,122 Woody biomass is also used as fuel in boilers to provide heat, mostly in western Montana schools, hospitals, and other public buildings.123

Montana has geothermal resources, but there are no utility-scale electricity generating facilities fueled by the underground heat.124 The state has identified more than 50 geothermal areas, and about one-third of them are high-temperature sites that could be used for electricity generation. Montana's most significant geothermal resources are in the mountainous southwest. Low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources are found in nearly all areas of the state.125 Those geothermal resources have a variety of direct-use applications in Montana, including recreational hot springs, greenhouses, and fish farms. Several hot springs resorts and public bathing facilities in Montana take advantage of their geothermal resources by using them for space heating as well as for mineral baths.126

Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which was enacted in 2005, requires retail electricity suppliers to acquire at least 15% of the electricity they sell in-state from renewable energy sources starting in 2015. The renewable requirement was reached in 2015 and continues to be met. Qualifying renewable resources include wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, small hydroelectric facilities, landfill gas, anaerobic digesters, and fuel cells that use renewable fuels. The RPS also requires electricity suppliers to buy a set amount of power from smaller, community-based renewable energy projects.127 Montana provides low-interest loans to households and businesses to pay for energy savings measures, like installing insulation and energy-efficient appliances and windows. The loans also cover alternative energy systems, including solar panels, geothermal systems, wind generators, and low-emission wood stoves.128

Energy on tribal lands

More than 5.5 million acres in Montana, about 6% of the state's total land area, are Native American tribal lands.129 Montana has 7 reservations that are home to 12 tribes.130 In December 2019, the U.S. Department of the Interior updated regulations to make it easier for tribes to control development of energy resources on their land.131 Most of Montana's tribal lands sit on top of coal, crude oil, or natural gas resources.132

The largest reservation in the state, the Crow Nation Reservation, covers 2.2 million acres in south-central Montana, and the Crow Tribe mines some of its estimated 9 billion tons of coal reserves. The Crow Nation Reservation also has oil and natural gas resources.133,134,135 136 The Northern Cheyenne Reservation in southeastern Montana, adjacent to the Crow Nation Reservation, also has large coal reserves, but the Northern Cheyenne Tribe has chosen not to mine its coal.137 The Blackfeet Reservation—located on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains near Glacier National Park with more than 1.5 million acres—has crude oil and natural gas resources. While the Blackfeet Tribe has opposed leases on its most sacred lands, it is not against oil and gas development in other areas on the reservation.138,139,140 Crude oil was discovered in the early 1950s on the Fort Peck Reservation, which is home to two tribes and is the second-largest reservation in the state at over 2 million acres. The Fort Peck Reservation is located in northeastern Montana, and it overlies the western edge of the Bakken formation where there is oil production.141

Much of Montana's tribal lands also have abundant renewable resources. The Fort Peck, Blackfeet, and Crow Nation reservations are among the 15 reservations in the nation with the best potential for wind electricity generation, and the Fort Peck Reservation has tribal lands with some of the highest potential for solar power generation.142 The Flathead and Crow tribal lands have some of the largest hydropower potential among U.S. tribal lands.143 The Salish and Kootenai tribes, on the Flathead reservation in western Montana, became the first tribal owners and operators of a major hydroelectric facility in the nation when they acquired sole ownership of the Kerr Dam on the boundary of their reservation in September 2015.144 The Flathead Reservation, with its timber resources on the mountains and valleys of northwestern Montana, has the most biomass generation potential of all the tribal lands in the state.145,146

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, U.S. States by Size, accessed January 20, 2021.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018, Montana.
3 NETSTATE, State Nicknames, accessed January 20, 2021.
4 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Montana, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legends: Fossil Resources, Solid Biomass Resources, Geothermal Potential, Solar Resources, Onshore 50 Meter Tower Wind Potential.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
6 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, Map (April 13, 2015).
7 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11, 2021), Table 7, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of crude oil, 2019, and Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2019.
8 NETSTATE, The Geography of Montana, accessed January 20, 2021.
9 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Rivers of the World: World's Longest Rivers, accessed January 20, 2021.
10 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Hydropower, accessed January 20, 2021.
11 Northwestern Energy, Hydroelectric Facilities Acquisition, accessed January 20, 2021.
12 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed January 20, 2021.
13 Montana Climate Office, Mean Annual Precipitation, accessed January 20, 2021.
14 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Montana, Maps & Data, accessed January 20, 2021.
15 World Atlas, U.S. States by Size, accessed January 20, 2021.
16 World Population Review, U.S. States by Density 2020, accessed January 20, 2021.
17 Montana Official State Website, History of Montana, accessed January 20, 2021.
18 Geology.com, Map of Montana Cities and Roads, accessed January 20, 2021.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Montana Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
20 Montana Official State Website, History of Montana, accessed January 20, 2021.
21 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Tools, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Montana, All statistics in table, 2019.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
24 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed January 20, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Montana, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legends: All Coal Mines, Coal Field.
29 Westmoreland Mining LLC, Westmoreland Rosebud Mining LLC, accessed January 20, 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2019.
31 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Montana, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal, and Inventory of Retired Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Montana, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
32 U.S. EIA, Montana Electricity Profile, 2019, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2019.
33 Talen Energy, "Colstrip Steam Electric Stations Units 1 and 2 to Retire," Press Release (June 11, 2019).
34 "Colstrip coal-fired power plant starts partial demolition," Associated Press (August 5, 2020).
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: Origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Montana, Table OS-14: Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Montana.
37 Brown, Matthew, "Coal company shifts to Canadian port to reach Asia markets," Associated Press (October 13, 2016).
38 U.S. EIA, "U.S. coal-fired electricity generation in 2019 falls to 42-year low," Today in Energy (May 11, 2020).
39 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Montana, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), 2001-19.
40 U.S. EIA, "2019 U.S. coal production falls to its lowest level since 1978," Today in Energy (July 28, 2020).
41 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11, 2021), Table 6, Proved reserves, reserve changes, and production of crude oil and lease condensates, 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, Montana 2014-19.
43 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Minerals Management Bureau, Fiscal Year 2019, Oil production by county, p. 7.
44 Geology.com, Montana County Map with County Seat Cities, accessed January 22, 2021.
45 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Production by region, Bakken, Shale play map, accessed January 22, 2021.
46 Montana Department of Transportation, The Elm Coulee Oil Field, Birthplace of the Bakken Oil Boom, accessed January 22, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Montana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2019.
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49 U.S. EIA, Montana Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2020.
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