Montana State Energy Profile



Montana Quick Facts

  • Montana has the nation's largest recoverable coal reserves, which is about 30% of the U.S. total, and the state accounts for about 5% of U.S. coal production.
  • Montana's temperature extremes and small population contribute to the state's residential sector having the second-highest per capita energy consumption of any state, behind only North Dakota.
  • In 2021, Montana ranked 10th among the states with the largest share of electricity generated from renewables, about 52%. Montana is also the seventh-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation, and 6 of the state's 10 largest generating plants produce hydropower.
  • Coal-fired power plants provided the largest share of Montana's electricity generation in 2021, accounting for 43% of in-state electricity, followed by hydropower at 41%, wind power at 12%, natural gas at 2% and petroleum coke at nearly 2%.
  • In 2021, about one-tenth of the natural gas the United States imported by pipeline from Canada entered through Montana, and the state has the largest single underground natural gas storage site in the nation with 287 billion cubic feet of space.

Last Updated: March 17, 2022



Data

Last Update: May 19, 2022 | Next Update: June 16, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Montana Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.1 million 0.3% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 0.6 million 0.3% Mar-22  
Economy Montana U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 51.5 billion 48 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 3,124 million 46 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 53,329 32 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 12,104 million miles 41 2020  
Land in Farms 59.8 million acres 2 2017  
Climate Montana U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 44.0 degrees Fahrenheit 46 2021  
Precipitation 14.4 inches 45 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 87.40 /barrel $ 89.41 /barrel Feb-22  
Natural Gas Montana U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.84 /thousand cu ft $ 5.78 /thousand cu ft Feb-22 find more
Residential $ 9.10 /thousand cu ft $ 12.17 /thousand cu ft Feb-22 find more
Coal Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.17 /million Btu Feb-22  
Electricity Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.42 cents/kWh 13.83 cents/kWh Feb-22 find more
Commercial 9.81 cents/kWh 11.78 cents/kWh Feb-22 find more
Industrial 5.34 cents/kWh 7.46 cents/kWh Feb-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 256 million barrels 0.7% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 555 billion cu ft 0.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 11 million barrels 0.1% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 707 million short tons 5.4% 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 5,043 wells 1.0% 2020 find more
Capacity Montana Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 223,000 barrels/calendar day 1.2% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 5,829 MW 0.5% Feb-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 917 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 49 thousand barrels per day 0.4% Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 37,963 million cu ft 0.1% 2020 find more
Coal 26,422 thousand short tons 4.9% 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 2,330 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Montana U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 0.9 % 35.3 % Feb-22 find more
Coal-Fired 39.5 % 21.6 % Feb-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.9 % Feb-22 find more
Renewables 56.4 % 20.9 % Jan-22  
Stocks Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 364 thousand barrels 2.8% Feb-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,122 thousand barrels 1.2% Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 186,862 million cu ft 3.1% Feb-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 15 thousand barrels 0.1% Feb-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Feb-22 find more
Fueling Stations Montana Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 492 stations 0.4% 2019  
Propane 28 stations 1.1% 2022  
Electricity 75 stations 0.2% 2022  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 0 stations 0.0% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Montana U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 446 trillion Btu 43 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 417 million Btu 11 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,025 million 45 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,695 8 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Montana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 106 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 87 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 137 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 116 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,018 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 762 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 669 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,575 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source Montana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 33 million barrels 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 82 billion cu ft 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 6 million short tons 1.2% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,638 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 439 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 225 million 1.2% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas 270 million cu ft * Feb-22 find more
Coal 575 thousand short tons 1.4% Feb-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Montana U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 51.5 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.9 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 26.2 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 13.5 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 7.9 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,717 MW 1.3% Feb-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 987 thousand MWh 4.2% Feb-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 333 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 2 thousand MWh * Feb-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 3 thousand MWh 0.1% Feb-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Montana U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 30.0 % 8 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,275 thousand barrels 42 2020  
Total Emissions Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 32.3 million metric tons 0.6% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 10,416 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 9 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2020  

Analysis



Last Updated: March 17, 2022

Overview

Montana, known as Big Sky Country, is the fourth-largest state and a significant supplier of energy to the rest of the nation.1,2,3 The state is rich in both fossil fuels and renewable resources.4 About three-tenths of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves are in Montana, and the northern and eastern areas of the state contain deposits of crude oil and natural gas.5,6,7 The Continental Divide runs along the state's western mountains, making Montana the only state in the nation with rivers that drain into the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Canada's Hudson Bay.8 The Missouri River, the longest river in the United States, rises in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and flows eastward across the state.9 The river and its tributaries offer substantial hydroelectric energy resources.10,11 Montana's western mountains capture warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean, creating a more moderate climate in the western third of the state than farther east, where the Rocky Mountains give way to dry, wind-swept plains that stretch into the Dakotas.12 The state's vast plains provide Montana with some of the best wind resources in the nation.13 Montana is the third least densely populated state, averaging about 7 people per square mile. Montana's population crossed the 1 million threshold in 2012 and the state continues to grow, but still ranks among the 10 states with the fewest residents.14,15,16 Montana's residents are clustered in and around a few cities, mainly in the valleys of the Missouri River and its tributaries.17 Much of the eastern third of the state has, on average, less than one resident per square mile.18

Montana's early economy was built around mining, ranching, wheat farming, and timber. After World War II, spurred by such popular destinations as Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks, tourism increased. In 1970, tourism surpassed mining to become the second-largest industry in the state after agriculture.19 Finance, insurance, real estate, rentals, and leasing are the largest contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), but energy resource extraction and mining continue to be significant parts of the state's economy.20 Mining, crude oil and natural gas production, petroleum refining, and agricultural industries are all energy-intensive. Those industries, as well as the amount of transportation fuels used to travel the long distances within the state and the state's small population, place Montana's per capita total energy consumption among the top one-fourth of the states.21

Montana has the second-highest residential sector per capita energy consumption of any state.

The industrial sector leads state end-use energy consumption, accounting for about 31% of the state total, followed by the transportation sector at 26%. The residential sector makes up 24% of the state's energy use, and the commercial sector accounts for 19%.22 Montana's summer heat can exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit on the plains and winter can bring Arctic blasts with subzero temperatures.23 The state's temperature extremes and its small population contribute to Montana's residential sector having the second-highest per capita energy consumption of any state, exceeded only by North Dakota.24

Coal

Montana has the largest estimated recoverable coal reserves among the states, accounting for about 30% of the U.S. total.25 In 2020, the state produced about 5% of the nation's coal from six operating mines. Most of Montana's coal production came from the five large surface mines in the Powder River Basin in the southeastern corner of the state.26,27 Montana's Spring Creek Coal mine was the 11th-largest U.S. coal mine in 2020. The state's third-largest coal mine, the Rosebud surface mine, supplied almost all of its production to Montana's largest electricity generating station— the Colstrip coal-fired power plant located next to the mine about 90 miles east of Billings. Two of the plant's four generating units were retired in early 2020, reducing the plant's generating capacity to about 1,500 megawatts.28,29,30,31,32,33

About two-thirds of Montana’s coal production was sent out of state in 2020.

In 2020, Montana consumed about one-third of the coal mined in the state, almost all by the electric power sector. About half of Montana's coal production was sent to other states, mainly by rail to Minnesota, Michigan, and Washington, for electricity generation. The remaining one-fifth was exported to other countries, mostly to western Canada, where much of it continued on to Asia.34,35,36,37 Montana's coal production declined in recent years, mainly because of competition from natural gas and renewable energy sources as a fuel for electricity generation and retirements of coal-fired power plants.38,39,40,41

Petroleum

Montana accounts for less than 1% of U.S. total proved crude oil reserves, and the state produces about 1 in every 200 barrels of U.S. oil.42,43 Most of Montana's oil production comes from the Bakken Formation in the northeastern corner of the state along the border with North Dakota.44,45,46 Montana's Elm Coulee field, which began producing oil in 2001, was initially the most prolific oil field in the Williston Basin, a geologic basin that spreads from eastern Montana into North Dakota and Canada.47 However, the state's oil production declined from its 2006 peak of nearly 100,000 barrels per day as drilling activity moved to North Dakota, where the Bakken Shale formation is thicker, covers a larger area, and holds more oil. In 2021, Montana's annual oil production fell to 51,000 barrels per day, the lowest level in nearly two decades.48,49

Montana’s four oil refineries can process about 215,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.

Montana has four oil refineries with a combined crude oil processing capacity of about 215,000 barrels per calendar day. Three refineries are in the Billings area, and one is in Great Falls.50 The refineries receive crude oil mainly from Canada and Wyoming and produce a wide range of refined products, including motor gasoline, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, aviation fuels, butane, propane, petroleum coke, and asphalt.51,52,53,54 Pipelines and railroads are used to ship crude oil to the refineries and to transport the facilities' refined products throughout Montana and to nearby states. Several pipelines carry Montana crude oil to refineries in other states as well.55 In January 2021, the Biden administration canceled the permit for the Keystone XL Pipeline extension, which would have crossed the state as a shorter route to transport Canadian crude oil to refineries along the U.S. Gulf Coast.56

Although Montana's total petroleum consumption is among the lowest 10 states, its small population helps place it among the top 10 states in petroleum consumption per capita.57 The transportation sector consumes about three-fifths of the petroleum used in Montana.58 The state ranks among the top 5 in both per capita annual vehicle miles traveled and per capita gasoline expenditures.59,60 During the winter months, federal air quality standards require oxygenated motor gasoline use in the Missoula metropolitan area near the Idaho border.61 Montana has no ethanol production plants.62 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum, accounting for almost one-fourth of the state's total use. The residential sector—where 1 out of 7 households heat with propane, fuel oil, or kerosene—and the electric power and commercial sectors make up the rest, about 13%, of the state's petroleum consumption.63,64

Electricity

In 2021, coal generated 43% of Montana's in-state electricity generation. Until 2016, coal consistently supplied more than half of its in-state generation. However, over the past decade coal's share declined because of the growth of renewable electricity, retirement of coal-fired power plants, and increased price competitiveness of natural gas.65,66,67,68 In 2020, hydroelectric power generation exceeded coal-fired generation for the first time in more than two decades before coal reassumed the top spot in 2021.69

In 2021, hydropower accounted for 40% of Montana's in-state net generation, and the amount of hydroelectric generation was the lowest since 2013. The state's largest power plant by actual generation is coal-fired, but 7 of the 10 largest generating plants are hydroelectric.70,71 There are several projects planned to expand the state's hydroelectric generating capacity. A large pumped hydro storage project with 400 megawatts of generating capacity is in development about 100 miles northwest of Billings.72,73,74 Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods, when power prices are higher, using water pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir through turbine generators when additional generating capacity is needed.75 In 2021, wind power had the third-largest share, about 12%, of the state's generation, and natural gas provided 2%. Petroleum coke accounted for almost 2% of Montana's generation, the second-highest share after Louisiana.76

Montana has one of the nation’s eight converter stations that connect the eastern and western U.S. electric grids.

Montana consumers use about three-fifths of the electricity generated in the state.77 The rest is sent over high-voltage transmission lines to other western states, mostly Washington and Oregon.78 The Montana government sees generating more electricity to sell in other states as an economic opportunity, but current transmission lines are congested, and new capacity is needed in order to expand sales.79 Several transmission projects are in development that will increase capacity to move Montana-generated electricity to states in the West and Southwest.80 Construction of a line between Montana and Alberta, Canada was completed in 2013 and it can move electricity in either direction. It is the first direct interconnection between the two areas.81 Most of Montana is part of the Western Interconnection grid, which serves western states, Canadian provinces, and a small part of northern Mexico. A portion of eastern Montana is connected to the Eastern Interconnection of the U.S. grid.82,83 One of the nation's eight converter stations that connect the eastern and western electric grids is located at Miles City, Montana.84

In 2021, the residential sector accounted for about 37% of the electricity retail sales in the state, with the commercial and industrial sectors close behind at 33% and 30%, respectively.85 About one-fourth of Montana households use electricity for their primary heating source.86 In 2021, Montana's average electricity retail price was below the national average and less than in two-thirds of the states.87

Renewable energy

In 2021, Montana was the nation’s seventh-largest producer of hydroelectric power.

Montana has substantial renewable energy resources, and in 2021 it ranked among the top 10 states with the largest share of electricity generated from renewables. Renewable energy, primarily hydropower, accounted for 52% of Montana's in-state electricity.88,89 The state's mountainous terrain along the Continental Divide creates fast-running rivers from the 300 inches of snow and rain that fall in the region annually and provide the water resources for hydroelectric power generation. The headwaters of the Missouri River, the longest river in North America, are in the mountains of southwestern Montana.90,91 In 2021, Montana was the seventh-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation.92 The state has about two dozen utility-scale hydroelectric plants, and most of them are located in the western half of the state. Six of Montana's 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are hydroelectric facilities.93,94

With its broad plains dotted with hills, wide river valleys, and occasional mountains, eastern Montana has some of the best utility-scale wind power potential in the nation.95,96 The first utility-scale wind farm in the state came online in 2005.97 Wind energy powers two of the state's 10 largest generating plants by both capacity and actual yearly generation.98 The largest wind facility, the 184-megawatt Rim Rock wind farm, is located near the Canadian border next to Glacier National Park. The second-largest wind facility, the 135-megawatt Judith Gap wind farm, is located near Lewistown in the center of the state. At the end of 2021, Montana had nearly 900 megawatts of wind power generating capacity in operation. Another 1,000 megawatts are in various stages of planning and construction.99

In 2021, solar generated less than 1% of Montana's in-state electricity. Montana's solar power was provided only by small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) residential and business solar panel installations until 2017, when the state's first utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) power facilities began generating electricity. In 2021, Montana had six utility-scale solar power farms with a combined generating capacity of 17 megawatts. An 80-megawatt solar farm near Billings is scheduled to come online in late 2022, and two solar projects totaling 24 megawatts are planned for the end of 2023.100,101

Montana has biomass resources, and about 7 in 100 households heat their homes with wood. The state has the third-highest share of wood-burning households, after Maine and New Mexico. However, very little electricity generation in the state comes from biomass.102,103 The state's only utility-scale wood biomass-fueled generating facility has 3 megawatts of capacity and is owned by a lumber company in northwest Montana. An electric cooperative owns a 1.6-megawatt generating unit that is fueled by landfill gas.104,105 Woody biomass is also used as fuel in boilers to provide heat, mostly in western Montana schools, hospitals, and other public buildings.106

Montana has geothermal resources, but there are no utility-scale electricity generating facilities in the state.107 Montana's most significant geothermal resources are in the mountainous southwest. Low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources are found in nearly all areas of the state.108 Those geothermal resources have a variety of direct-use applications in Montana, including recreational hot springs, greenhouses, and fish farms. Several hot springs resorts and public bathing facilities in Montana use geothermal for space heating and mineral baths.109

Enacted in 2005, Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires electricity retail suppliers to acquire at least 15% of the electricity they sell in-state from renewable energy sources by 2015. They reached the requirement in 2015 and continue to meet it. Qualifying renewable resources include: wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, small hydroelectric facilities, landfill gas, anaerobic digesters, and renewable fuel cells. The RPS also requires electricity suppliers to buy a set amount of power from smaller, community-based renewable energy projects.110 Montana provides low-interest loans to households and businesses to pay for energy-saving measures, like energy-efficient appliances and windows. The loans also cover alternative energy systems, including solar panels, geothermal systems, wind generators, and low-emission wood stoves.111

Natural gas

Montana accounts for about 0.1% of U.S. total natural gas reserves and marketed production.112,113 The state's natural gas production is less than one-third of what it was at its peak in 2007, and output in 2021 dropped to its lowest level since the early 1970s. Production from natural gas wells and coalbed methane wells in the state trended downward in recent years as energy companies focused on drilling for oil rather than for natural gas.114,115 Nearly three-fourths of Montana's natural gas production comes from wells located in the northern part of the state near the Canadian border. Almost all the remaining natural gas production comes from wells in the Williston Basin in northeastern Montana near the North Dakota border.116

Montana has the largest single underground natural gas storage site in the nation.

Montana consumes twice as much natural gas as it produces, which makes the state a net natural gas importer.117,118 Interstate natural gas pipelines cross Montana from Canada, North Dakota, and Wyoming.119 In 2020, about 83% of the natural gas that entered the state came from Canada, crossing the border at four import points of entry. Of the remaining natural gas shipments, about 11% came from Wyoming and 6% came from North Dakota.120,121 In 2021, about one-tenth of all the natural gas the United States imported by pipeline from Canada entered through Montana.122 About three-fourths of the natural gas that enters Montana leaves the state, almost all of it continuing on to North Dakota on its way to Midwestern markets.123 Some of the natural gas that enters Montana is put in storage. The state has more underground natural gas storage capacity than any other state in the Rocky Mountain region, and has the nation's largest single underground storage site—the depleted Baker field in the Williston Basin in eastern Montana. That storage field can hold 287 billion cubic feet of gas.124,125

Montana's total natural gas consumption is among the five lowest states. However, with its frigid winters and small population, Montana ranks near the middle of the states in per capita natural gas use.126,127 The largest amount of natural gas deliveries in Montana goes to the industrial sector and the commercial sector, which each accounts for about 33% of natural gas consumption. The residential sector accounts for about 26% and the electric power sector accounts for about 7%.128 About half of Montana households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.129

Energy on tribal lands

More than 5.5 million acres in Montana, about 6% of the state's total land area, are Native American tribal lands.130 Montana has 7 reservations that are home to 12 tribes.131 In December 2019, the U.S. Department of the Interior updated regulations to make it easier for tribes to control development of energy resources on their lands.132 Most of Montana's tribal lands sit on top of coal, crude oil, or natural gas resources.133

The largest reservation in the state, the Crow Nation Reservation, covers 2.2 million acres in south-central Montana, and the Crow Tribe mines some of its estimated 9 billion tons of coal reserves. The Crow Nation Reservation also has crude oil and natural gas resources.134,135,136 137 The Northern Cheyenne Reservation in southeastern Montana, adjacent to the Crow Nation Reservation, also has large coal reserves, but the Northern Cheyenne Tribe does not mine its coal.138 The Blackfeet Reservation—located on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains near Glacier National Park with more than 1.5 million acres—has crude oil and natural gas resources. While the Blackfeet Tribe has opposed leases on its most sacred lands, it is not against oil and gas development in other areas on the reservation.139,140,141 Crude oil was discovered in the early 1950s on the Fort Peck Reservation, which is home to two tribes and is the second-largest reservation in the state at over 2 million acres. The Fort Peck Reservation is located in northeastern Montana, and it overlies the western edge of the Bakken formation where there is crude oil production.142

Much of Montana's tribal lands also have abundant renewable resources. The Fort Peck, Blackfeet, and Crow Nation reservations are among the 15 reservations in the nation with the greatest potential for wind-powered electricity generation, and the Fort Peck Reservation has some of the highest potential for solar power generation.143 The Flathead and Crow tribal lands have some of the largest hydropower potential among U.S. tribal lands.144 The Salish and Kootenai tribes, on the Flathead Reservation in western Montana, became the first tribal owners and operators of a major hydroelectric facility in the nation when they acquired sole ownership of the Kerr Dam on the boundary of their reservation in September 2015.145 The Flathead Reservation, with its timber resources on the mountains and valleys of northwestern Montana, has the most biomass generation potential of all the tribal lands in the state.146,147

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, U.S. States by Size, accessed February 18, 2022.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019, Montana.
3 NETSTATE, State Nicknames, accessed February 18, 2022.
4 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Montana, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legends: Fossil Resources, Solid Biomass Resources, Geothermal Potential, Solar Resources, Onshore 50 Meter Tower Wind Potential.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
6 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, Map (April 13, 2015).
7 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13, 2022), Table 7, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of crude oil, 2020, and Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2020.
8 NETSTATE, The Geography of Montana, accessed February 18, 2022.
9 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Rivers of the World: World's Longest Rivers, accessed February 18, 2022.
10 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Hydropower, accessed February 18, 2022.
11 Northwestern Energy, Hydroelectric Facilities Acquisition, accessed February 18, 2022.
12 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed February 18, 2022.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Montana, Maps & Data, accessed February 18, 2022.
14 World Atlas, U.S. States by Size, accessed February 18, 2022.
15 World Population Review, U.S. States by Density 2022, accessed February 18, 2022.
16 Montana Official State Website, History of Montana, accessed February 18, 2022.
17 Geology.com, Map of Montana Cities and Roads, accessed February 18, 2022.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Montana Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
19 Montana Official State Website, History of Montana, accessed February 18, 2022.
20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Tools, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Montana, All statistics in table, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
23 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed February 18, 2022.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
25 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Montana, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legends: All Coal Mines, Coal Field.
28 Westmoreland Mining LLC, Westmoreland Rosebud Mining LLC, Rosebud Mine, Montana, accessed February 18, 2022.
29 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Montana, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal, and Inventory of Retired Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Montana, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
31 U.S. EIA, Montana Electricity Profile, 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2020.
32 Talen Energy, "Colstrip Steam Electric Stations Units 1 and 2 to Retire," Press Release (June 11, 2019).
33 "Colstrip coal-fired power plant starts partial demolition," Associated Press (August 5, 2020).
34 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: Origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Montana, Table OS-13: Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Montana, 2020.
36 Brown, Matthew, "Coal company shifts to Canadian port to reach Asia markets," Associated Press (October 31, 2017).
37 Montana Department of Commerce, Montana's Coal Exporters, accessed February 22, 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, "Renewables became the second-most prevalent U.S. electricity source in 2020," Today in Energy (December 23, 2021).
39 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Montana, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), 2001-20.
40 U.S. EIA, "In September, the United States was at its lowest coal stockpiles since 1978," Today in Energy (December 7, 2021).
41 Lutey, Tom, "Coal cuts: Aging power plants, cheap natural gas shutting off Montana coal," Billings Gazette (March 21, 2021).
42 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13, 2022), Table 6, Proved reserves, reserve changes, and production of crude oil and lease condensates, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, Montana 2016-21.
44 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Minerals Management Bureau, Fiscal Year 2019, Oil production by county, p. 7.
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