Montana State Energy Profile



Montana Quick Facts

  • The Bakken and Three Forks formations in the Williston Basin of Montana and North Dakota are currently estimated to be capable of producing 7.4 billion barrels of oil. 
  • As of the end of 2015, Montana held nearly one-fourth of the nation's demonstrated coal reserve base and was the sixth-largest coal-producing state. It produced 4.7% of U.S. coal in 2015 and distributed coal to seven other states.
  • Montana's four refineries, with more than 31% of U.S. Petroleum Administration for Defense District 4 (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming) refining capacity as of January 1, 2016, process domestic and Canadian crude oils for regional markets.
  • Hydroelectric power provided almost one-third of Montana's net electricity generation in 2015 and wind energy provided most of the rest of the state's renewable generation. 
  • Montana has the second largest amount of land in farms, and the industrial sector, which includes agriculture, is the largest energy-consuming sector in the state.

Last Updated: January 19, 2017



Data

Last Update: September 21, 2017 | Next Update: October 19, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Montana Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.0 million 0.3% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 0.5 million 0.3% Jul-17  
Economy Montana U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 46.0 billion 49 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 3,622 million 46 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 42,386 39 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 12,345 million miles 42 2015  
Land in Farms 59.8 million acres 2 2012  
Climate Montana U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 44.6 degrees Fahrenheit 44 2016  
Precipitation 16.9 inches 45 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 38.94 /barrel $ 42.19 /barrel Jun-17  
Natural Gas Montana U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.30 /thousand cu ft $ 4.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Residential $ 9.58 /thousand cu ft $ 15.98 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Coal Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 17.44 /short ton $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.10 /million Btu Jun-17  
Electricity Montana U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.73 cents/kWh 13.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Commercial 10.49 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Industrial 5.31 cents/kWh 7.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 326 million barrels 1.0% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 692 billion cu ft 0.2% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 15 million barrels 0.1% 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 817 million short tons 4.5% 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 5,655 wells 1.0% 2015 find more
Production Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,087 trillion Btu 1.2% 2015 find more
Crude Oil 1,667 thousand barrels 0.6% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 57,421 million cu ft 0.2% 2015 find more
Coal 41,864 thousand short tons 4.7% 2015 find more
Capacity Montana Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 214,700 barrels/calendar day 1.2% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 6,222 MW 0.6% Jun-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 2,000 thousand MWh 0.6% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Montana U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired NM 32.1 % Jun-17 find more
Coal-Fired 33.8 % 30.4 % Jun-17 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.8 % Jun-17 find more
Renewables 61.2 % 17.7 % Jun-17  
Stocks Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 347 thousand barrels 2.2% Jun-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,034 thousand barrels 0.8% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 203,701 million cu ft 2.8% Jun-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-17 find more
Production Facilities Montana
Major Coal Mines Spring Creek Coal Company / Spring Creek Coal LLC, Rosebud Mine&crusher/Conveyor / Western Energy Company, Bull Mountains Mine No 1 / Signal Peak Energy LLC, Absaloka Mine / Westmoreland Resources Inc. find more
Petroleum Refineries Calumet Montana Refining (Great Falls), Cenex Harvest States (Laurel), ExxonMobil Refining & Supply (Billings), Phillips 66 Company (Billings) find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Colstrip (PPL Montana LLC) ; Noxon Rapids (Avista Corp) ; Libby (USCE-North Pacific Division) ; Silver Bow Generation Plant (CES Acquisition Corp) ; Hungry Horse (U S Bureau of Reclamation)  
Nuclear Power Plants None find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers Montana
Petroleum Ports None find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs None  
Major Pipelines Montana find more
Crude Oil Amoco, Belle Fourche, Cenex, Conoco, Exxon, Portal, Shell, Texaco, Wascana.  
Petroleum Product Phillips 66 Pipeline  
Natural Gas Liquids None  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Bison Pipeline LLC, Northern Border Pipeline Company, WBI Energy Transmission Inc  
Fueling Stations Montana Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 498 stations 0.4% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 51 stations 1.6% 2017  
Electricity 31 stations 0.2% 2017  
Ethanol 0 stations 0.0% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 2 stations 0.2% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Montana U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 391 trillion Btu 44 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 379 million Btu 14 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 4,337 million 46 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,202 13 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Montana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 81 trillion Btu 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 75 trillion Btu 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 125 trillion Btu 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 111 trillion Btu 0.4% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 810 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 705 million 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 610 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,212 million 0.4% 2015 find more
by Source Montana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 31.5 million barrels 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 72.7 billion cu ft 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 10.6 million short tons 1.3% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,717 million 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 404 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 309 million 0.8% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 4 thousand barrels 0.2% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas NM NM Jun-17 find more
Coal 481 thousand short tons 0.8% Jun-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Montana U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 54.6 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 1.2 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 22.0 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 11.9 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 10.3 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,437 MW 1.7% Jun-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 1,065 thousand MWh 3.5% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 155 thousand MWh 0.6% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 2 thousand MWh * Jun-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 2 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-17  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Montana U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 30.6 % 5 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 1,269 thousand barrels 42 2015  
Total Emissions Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 32.0 million metric tons 0.6% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Montana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 18,136 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 13 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 19 thousand metric tons 1.0% 2015  

Analysis



Last Updated: January 19, 2017

Overview

Montana is a net supplier of energy to the rest of the country, producing energy from both fossil and renewable resources.1,2,3 About one-fourth of the nation's demonstrated coal reserve base is in Montana, and the northern and eastern areas of the state are believed to contain large deposits of crude oil and natural gas.4,5,6

Montana holds one-fourth of the nation's demonstrated coal reserve base and substantial renewable resources.

The Missouri River is the longest river in the United States and the fourth longest in the world.7 Beginning in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and flowing eastward across the state, the Missouri River and its tributaries give Montana substantial hydroelectric energy resources.8,9,10 The state's western mountains capture warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean, creating a more moderate climate in the western third of Montana than further east, where the Rocky Mountains give way to dry, wind-swept plains that stretch to the Dakotas.11,12 The state's vast plains provide Montana with some of the best wind potential in the nation.13

Montana is the fourth largest state in the nation and the third least densely populated.14,15 Much of the eastern third of the state has, on average, less than one resident per square mile.16 Montana's population is clustered in and around a few towns, mainly in the valleys of the Missouri River and its tributaries.17

Montana's early economy was built around mining, ranching, wheat farming, and timber. After World War II, spurred by such popular destinations as Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks, tourism increased. In 1970, tourism surpassed mining, becoming the second largest industry in the state after agriculture.18 In 2014, the service sector—including real estate, health care, the hospitality industry, and government—was the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), but natural resources and mining continue to be significant contributors.19

The mining; crude oil and natural gas production; petroleum refining; and agricultural industries are all energy-intensive. Those industries, as well as long travel distances within the state, place Montana's per capita energy consumption among the top one-third of all states.20 The transportation and industrial sectors lead state end-use energy consumption, together accounting for three-fifths of the state's total. Summer days can exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit on the plains and winter can bring Arctic blasts with subzero temperatures. Despite the temperature extremes, Montana's small population results in a residential sector that uses far less energy than other end-use sectors in the state.21,22

Petroleum

At the end of 2015, Montana had almost 1% of U.S. proved petroleum reserves, but potential recoverable resources in the state could be much greater.23,24 Montana produces nearly 1% of the nation's crude oil.25 Production is concentrated in the northeastern part of the state near the North Dakota border.26 Montana's Elm Coulee field was initially the most prolific oil field in the Williston Basin, a geologic basin that spreads from eastern Montana into North Dakota and Canada.27 However, as drilling activity moved to North Dakota where the productive Bakken Shale formation is thicker, the state's oil production declined from its 2006 peak.28,29 Recently, production rebounded as drilling activity increased in northeastern Montana's portion of the Williston Basin.30

Montana has four operating oil refineries with a combined crude oil-processing capacity of about 203,000 barrels per day. Three refineries are in the Billings area, and one is in Great Falls.31 Those refineries receive crude oil mainly from Canada and Wyoming and produce a wide range of refined products, including motor gasoline, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, aviation fuels, butane, propane, petroleum coke, and asphalt. Pipelines and railroads are used to ship crude oil into, and refined products out from, the refineries.32,33,34,35

Transport of Montana crude oil by railroad increased as pipelines became congested or unavailable.

Several pipelines carry Montana crude oil to refineries in other states as well.36 New production in the region has been constrained by the lack of pipeline takeaway capacity. A number of new pipeline projects are in development, primarily to transport crude oil to major refining centers in the Midwest, in Oklahoma, and on the Gulf Coast.37 The transport of crude oil by rail increased as an alternative to pipeline shipment. However, crude-by-rail volumes have decreased since mid-2015, as production in the region has slowed.38,39,40

Although Montana's total petroleum consumption is low compared with that of other states, it is among the top 10 states on a per capita basis.41,42 The transportation sector consumes almost two-thirds of the petroleum used in the state.43 During the winter months, federal air quality standards require oxygenated motor gasoline use in the Missoula area.44,45 The state requires the use of motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol.46 Montana has no ethanol refineries, although one has been proposed that would use wheat and barley as its feedstocks.47,48 Ethanol is brought in from nearby states and blended with conventional motor gasoline at two locations in the state.49 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum, accounting for about one-fourth of the state's use. The residential sector, where 1 in 10 households heat with fuel oil, and the electric power sector consume almost all the rest.50

Natural gas

Natural gas production in Montana is less than half of what it was at its peak in 2007.51 In 2015, the state produced less than 0.2% of the nation's natural gas.52 Production from natural gas wells and coalbed methane wells in the state has trended downward in recent years as exploration activities have focused on drilling for oil rather than for natural gas.53,54 More than three-fourths of the producing natural gas wells in Montana are located in the northern part of the state, near the Canadian border. Production also comes from wells in smaller fields in the Williston Basin in northeastern Montana near the North Dakota border and from wells in south-central Montana.55

Montana is crossed by natural gas pipelines from Canada and Wyoming.56 Almost all the natural gas entering the state comes from Canada, crossing the border at 10 import points.57,58 In 2015, about one-fourth of the nation's net natural gas imports from Canada entered the country through Montana.59,60 Nearly all the natural gas that enters Montana-more than 95%-leaves the state, most of it continuing on to North Dakota on its way to Midwestern markets.61 Some of the natural gas entering Montana is put in storage. The state has more underground natural gas storage capacity than any other state in the Rocky Mountain region, and the Baker/Cedar Creek field in the Williston Basin in eastern Montana is the nation's largest single underground natural gas storage facility.62,63

More than half of Montana households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.64 Overall, natural gas consumption is fairly evenly divided among the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors. Only a small amount of natural gas is used for electricity generation. Despite cold winters that can be especially harsh in eastern Montana, the state's per capita natural gas use is below the national average.65,66,67 Although Montana is among the five states with the lowest total natural gas consumption, residents use more natural gas than the state produces, making Montana a net consumer.68,69

Coal

About one-fourth of the coal mined in Montana is exported.

Montana produces almost 5% of the nation's coal from just half a dozen mines. Most of the state's coal production comes from several large surface mines in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana.70,71 One of Montana's largest coal mines, the Rosebud surface mine, supplies almost all its production to the state's largest electricity generating station, the coal-fired power plant at Colstrip, Montana.72,73,74 Almost all the coal used in the state fuels electricity generation and is delivered to generating plants by conveyor. In 2015, about one-fourth of the coal mined in Montana was consumed in the state, and all but a small fraction of that coal was used to generate electric power. About half of Montana's coal production was sent by rail to other states in 2015. The remaining one-fourth of Montana production was exported to western Canada, where much of it continued on to Asia.75,76,77,78

Montana has the nation's largest estimated recoverable coal reserves and holds one-fourth of the nation's demonstrated coal reserve base.79 However, demand for coal has been declining because of competition from natural gas, decreasing coal exports, and regulatory and permitting challenges.80,81,82 U.S. electricity generators have retrofitted many coal-fired generating plants with emission controls that allow use of higher-sulfur coal, thereby reducing demand for Montana's low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal.83

Electricity

More than half of Montana's net electricity generation comes from coal, but new federal environmental rules are affecting coal-fired generation.84 In 2015, one of Montana's older coal-fired power plants was shut down. The owner cited the projected costs of new pollution controls needed to meet federal restrictions on emissions of mercury and other toxins produced by burning coal.85 Montana is hosting a test of carbon sequestration in a formation near the state's Canadian border, which could help coal-fired power plants reduce the impact of carbon emissions.86 Five coal-fired power plants remain in operation in the state.87 Most of the rest of Montana's electricity generation comes from hydroelectric power plants. Wind and natural gas-fired power plants provide additional electricity generating capacity, with wind providing the largest share of the additional generation.88,89

Montanans use about half of the electricity generated in the state.90 The rest is sent to other western states by high-voltage transmission lines. Generating more electricity for sale in other states is seen as an economic opportunity for Montana, but current transmission lines are congested, and new capacity must be built to expand sales. Most of Montana is part of the Western Interconnection grid serving western states and Canadian provinces.91 Several transmission projects are being developed to increase capacity to move electricity from both conventional and renewable sources out of Montana to states in the west and southwest. Construction of a line between Montana and Alberta, Canada, was completed in 2013. It is the first direct interconnection between the two areas.92 A portion of eastern Montana is part of the eastern U.S. grid. One of the nation's eight converter stations that connect the eastern and western grids is located at Miles City, Montana.93,94

Montana deregulated its electricity system starting in 1997, but the state experienced rising retail electricity costs and later re-regulated some aspects.95 In 2015, the state's average retail electricity prices were well below the national average, and the average price of electricity for all customers in Montana was less than in two-thirds of the states.96 About one-fifth of Montana households use electricity for heating.97 The commercial and residential sectors each consume a little more than one-third of the electricity used in Montana, and the industrial sector consumes the balance.98

Renewable energy

Montana has substantial renewable energy resources. Its mountainous terrain along the Continental Divide creates fast-running rivers, and the eastern two-thirds of the state is drained by the Missouri River and its tributaries.99 In 2015, Montana was the seventh-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation, having fallen from the fifth-largest because of drought conditions, particularly in western Montana, in the second half of 2015.100,101 The state has 23 hydroelectric dams. Six of Montana's 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are hydroelectric facilities.102,103 Opportunities for hydroelectric generating capacity expansions around the state are being evaluated.104,105

Montana's plains have some of the best utility-scale wind energy potential in the nation.

With its high plains crossed by occasional mountains and wide river valleys, eastern Montana has some of the best utility-scale wind potential in the nation.106,107 The first utility-scale wind farm in the state came online in 2005.108 By 2016, Montana had 655 megawatts of wind-powered electricity generating capacity in operation from utility-scale wind farms located in the center of the state. More wind projects are in various stages of development.109,110 However, new wind projects depend in part on demand for renewable energy from other states and on available transmission capacity.111 To provide a stable supply of electricity to the grid and offset the variability of wind-power, a large transmission and closed loop pumped hydro storage project is in development about 100 miles northwest of Billings, Montana.112,113

In some areas, Montana has significant geothermal energy resources.114 Among more than 50 geothermal areas that the state has identified, about one-third are high-temperature sites. Montana's most significant geothermal resources are in the mountainous southwest, but, so far, they have not been tapped for electricity generation. Low- and moderate-temperature resources are found in nearly all areas of the state.115 Those geothermal resources have a variety of direct-use applications in Montana, including recreational hot springs, greenhouses, and fish farms. Several hot springs resorts and public bathing facilities in Montana take advantage of their geothermal resources by using them for space heating, as well as for mineral baths.116

Although almost one-tenth of Montana's residents heat their homes with wood, very little electricity generation in the state is from biomass.117,118 Most of Montana's biomass comes from and is used at wood-processing facilities. Montana is considering increasing the use of biomass from wood waste, particularly from trees culled as part of efforts to fight pine beetle infestations.119

Montana had 4.5 megawatts of installed solar generating capacity by the end of 2015, but none of it was at electric utility-scale solar facilities. There are a variety of residential and commercial distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar generation installations around the state.120,121

Montana's renewable resource standard (RRS) requires retail electricity suppliers to get at least 15% of the electricity they sell in-state from renewable energy sources beginning in 2015. Power must come from renewable facilities that began operation after January 1, 2005. The RRS recognizes renewable energy from wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, small hydroelectric facilities, landfill gas, anaerobic digesters, and fuel cells that use renewable fuels as qualifying renewable resources. The standard requires electricity suppliers to buy a set amount of power from smaller community-based renewable energy projects.122

Energy on tribal lands

More than 5.5 million acres of Montana, about 6% of the state's land area, is held by Native Americans.123 Of the 12 tribes in Montana, 11 are federally recognized. Montana's tribal lands sit on top of a wealth of coal, crude oil, and natural gas resources. The largest of the seven federal reservations in the state, the Crow Nation Reservation, with more than 2 million acres in south-central Montana, is underlain by one of the largest coal reserves in the United States.124,125,126 The Northern Cheyenne Reservation in southeastern Montana, adjacent to the Crow Nation Reservation, also has a large coal resource.127

In addition to an estimated 9 billion tons of low-sulfur coal, the Crow Nation Reservation has oil and natural gas resources.128 The Blackfeet Reservation on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains has, on its more than 1.5 million acres, oil and natural gas resources that are being developed. Crude oil was discovered in the early 1950s on the Fort Peck Reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state. The Fort Peck Reservation is located in northeastern Montana, and it overlies the western edge of the Bakken formation.129 There are several oil and natural gas fields near the reservation's borders, but the tribe has not yet had any successful Bakken wells drilled on its lands, and interest has flagged with falling oil prices.130

Montana's tribal lands sit on top of a wealth of coal, crude oil, and natural gas resources.

Much of Montana's tribal land has abundant renewable resource potential, and several tribes are focusing their energy development on those resources. The Salish and Kootenai tribes, on the Flathead reservation in western Montana, became the first tribal owners and operators of a major hydroelectric facility in the nation when they acquired sole ownership of the Kerr Dam on the boundary of their reservation in September 2015.131 The Flathead and the Northern Cheyenne reservations, with their timber resources, have significant biomass potential.132,133 The best wind potential in Montana is in the eastern three-fourths of the state, particularly in the northern and northeastern regions where the Blackfeet, Rocky Boy, Fort Belknap, and Fort Peck reservations are located.134,135 The Blackfeet Reservation, the third largest reservation in Montana, has pursued wind energy projects for several years. In 1996, a utility-scale wind project came online at the Blackfeet Community College in Browning, Montana, offsetting the college's electricity costs.136 In 1999, the four 10-kilowatt wind turbines installed by the tribe at a wastewater treatment plant in Browning began supplying one-fourth of the plant's electricity needs.137,138 In 2016, Montana's governor directed the state's Department of Environmental Quality to work with tribes to facilitate the development of solar power on tribal lands.139

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2014, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2014.
2 U.S. EIA, Montana Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed January 8, 2017.
3 U.S. EIA, Montana Renewable Electricity Profile 2010, accessed January 8, 2017.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
5 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, Map (April 13, 2015).
6 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves 2015 (December 2016).
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, The USGS Water Science School, Lengths of the major rivers, updated December 2, 2016.
8 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Hydropower, accessed December 13, 2016.
9 Northwestern Energy, Hydroelectric Facilities Acquisition, accessed December 13, 2016.
10 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District, Fort Peck Dam, accessed January 8, 2017.
11 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS 'State Climates' Series, accessed December 14, 2016.
12 Montana Climate Office, Mean Annual Precipitation, accessed December 14, 2016.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Montana Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, accessed December 14, 2016.
14 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, The USGS Water Science School, How much of your state is wet?, updated December 2, 2016.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012, The National Data Book, 131st Edition (2011), p. 19, Table 14, State Population-Rank, Percent Change, and Population Density: 1980 to 2010.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Montana Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
17 Geology.com, Montana Map Collection, Map of Montana Cities and Montana Rivers Map, accessed December 14, 2016.
18 Montana Official State Website, History of Montana, accessed December 15, 2016.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, Current Dollars, All Industries, Montana, 2014.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
21 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS 'State Climates' Series, accessed December 14, 2016.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C10, Energy Consumption by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
23 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Annual Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2016.
24 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013, Fact Sheet 2013-3013 (April 2013).
25 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2010-15, accessed December 15, 2016.
26 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Oil and Gas Conservation Division, Annual Review 2015, Volume 59, p. 3-1.
27 Montana Department of Transportation, The Elm Coulee Oil Field, Birthplace of the Bakken Oil Boom, accessed December 15, 2016.
28 U.S. EIA, Montana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2015.
29 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013, Fact Sheet 2013-3013 (April 2013).
30 Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Energy, Oil and Gas Evaluation, accessed December 15, 2016.
31 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2016 (June 22, 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016, p. 14.
32 CHS, Energy and Industrial, Refining, CHS Refinery at Laurel, accessed December 15, 2016.
33 Phillips 66, Billings Refinery, accessed December 15, 2016.
34 ExxonMobil, Billings Refinery, accessed December 15, 2016.
35 Calumet, Calumet Montana Refining, Great Falls, Montana, accessed December 15, 2016.
36 U.S. EIA, Montana Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed December 15, 2016.
37 U.S. EIA, "In Rocky Mountain region, increased crude production is being shipped by pipeline, rail," Today in Energy (July 15, 2015).
38 U.S. EIA, "Crude by rail accounts for more than half of East Coast refinery supply in February," Today in Energy (May 5, 2015).
39 U.S. EIA, "Crude oil shipments by rail from Midwest to coastal regions decline," Today in Energy (March 11, 2016).
40 U.S. EIA, Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, accessed December 15, 2016.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C11, Energy Consumption by Source, Ranked by State, 2014.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates, State Totals: Vintage 2014, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 (NST-EST2014-01).
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data 2014: Updates by Energy Source, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2014.
44 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008), p. 1.
45 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map, ExxonMobil (June 2015).
46 Edelstein, Stephen, "State Laws On Ethanol In Gasoline: Only Seven States Require E10 Blend," Green Car Reports (July 17, 2015).
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Profile Data, Montana, Environment, accessed December 16, 2016.
48 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Proposed (January 23, 2016).
49 Lutey, T., "Ethanol Sputters in Montana but Feds Favor More," Billings Gazette (May 8, 2012).
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data 2014: Updates by Energy Source, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2014.
51 U.S. EIA, Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2015.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015.
53 U.S. EIA, Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2015.
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