Missouri State Energy Profile



Missouri Quick Facts

  • The eastern and western sections of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), one of the nation’s longest natural gas pipelines, connect in northern Missouri.
  • In 2021, coal provided 74% of Missouri's electricity net generation, the second-highest share of any state, behind only West Virginia.
  • Missouri uses nearly eight times more energy than it produces. The state ranks sixth in the nation in per capita energy consumption in the residential sector.
  • Missouri has the third-largest biodiesel production capacity in the nation: 253 million gallons annually at 8 biodiesel plants.
  • In 2021, renewable energy provided nearly 12% of the state's total electricity net generation, exceeding 10% for the first time. Compared with 2020, the largest increase came from wind energy, where generation capacity more than doubled.

Last Updated: June 16, 2022



Data

Last Update: August 18, 2022 | Next Update: September 15, 2022

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography Missouri Share of U.S. Period
Population 6.2 million 1.9% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 3.1 million 1.9% Jun-22  
Economy Missouri U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 360.0 billion 22 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 43,373 million 19 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 55,159 38 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 72,797 million miles 14 2020  
Land in Farms 27.8 million acres 12 2017  
Climate Missouri U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 56.3 degrees Fahrenheit 18 2021  
Precipitation 44.0 inches 19 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Missouri U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 108.29 /barrel May-22  
Natural Gas Missouri U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 10.55 /thousand cu ft $ 8.41 /thousand cu ft May-22 find more
Residential $ 17.22 /thousand cu ft $ 17.55 /thousand cu ft May-22 find more
Coal Missouri U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 53.00 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.94 /million Btu $ 2.23 /million Btu May-22  
Electricity Missouri U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.95 cents/kWh 14.92 cents/kWh May-22 find more
Commercial 9.15 cents/kWh 12.14 cents/kWh May-22 find more
Industrial 7.64 cents/kWh 8.35 cents/kWh May-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines * * 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 3 wells * 2020 find more
Capacity Missouri Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 22,013 MW 1.9% May-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 225 trillion Btu 0.2% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 0 thousand barrels per day 0.0% May-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 1 million cu ft * 2020 find more
Coal 159 thousand short tons * 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,952 thousand MWh 1.4% May-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Missouri U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.2 % 0.2 % May-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 11.2 % 37.2 % May-22 find more
Coal-Fired 71.6 % 18.1 % May-22 find more
Nuclear 0.2 % 18.5 % May-22 find more
Renewables 15.2 % 25.3 % May-22  
Stocks Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 115 thousand barrels 0.9% May-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 685 thousand barrels 0.9% May-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 12,140 million cu ft 0.2% May-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 298 thousand barrels 1.4% May-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 5,677 thousand tons 6.1% May-22 find more
Fueling Stations Missouri Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,625 stations 2.3% 2019  
Propane 63 stations 2.5% 2022  
Electricity 1,002 stations 2.2% 2022  
E85 131 stations 3.2% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 10 stations 0.8% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Missouri U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,702 trillion Btu 20 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 277 million Btu 27 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 18,888 million 19 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,069 30 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Missouri Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 507 trillion Btu 2.5% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 379 trillion Btu 2.3% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 305 trillion Btu 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 511 trillion Btu 2.1% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,232 million 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,153 million 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,157 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 8,346 million 2.1% 2020 find more
by Source Missouri Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 116 million barrels 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 297 billion cu ft 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 31 million short tons 6.6% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 9,663 million 1.9% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,008 million 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 870 million 4.4% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 20 thousand barrels 1.3% May-22 find more
Natural Gas 4,598 million cu ft 0.5% May-22 find more
Coal 2,099 thousand short tons 6.0% May-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Missouri U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 49.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 37.1 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 9.0 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.7 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,874 MW 1.0% May-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 315 million gal/year 1.8% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 148 thousand MWh 0.6% May-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 598 thousand MWh 1.0% May-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 8 thousand MWh 0.2% May-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 55 thousand MWh 0.9% May-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 6,098 thousand barrels 1.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Missouri U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.9 % 40 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,816 thousand barrels 14 2020  
Total Emissions Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 117.0 million metric tons 2.3% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Missouri Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 54,133 thousand metric tons 3.5% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 84 thousand metric tons 8.2% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 48 thousand metric tons 4.0% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: June 16, 2022

Overview

Missouri is a transportation hub for the United States at the junction of the nation’s two longest rivers, the Missouri and the Mississippi.1 The state’s infrastructure and location give shippers the ability to move raw materials and agricultural and manufactured products by rail, river, highway, and air to destinations across the country.2,3 Missouri has little fossil fuel production, but it does have fossil fuel resources, including coal deposits and petroleum-bearing tar sands and oil shales.4,5,6,7

The rich soils of the plains, the rolling hills north of the Missouri River, and the southeastern lowlands form the state’s fertile agricultural regions.8,9 Missouri’s large corn and soybean crops are feedstocks for the state’s biofuels industry.10,11 South of the Missouri River, the heavily forested Ozark Plateau has abundant biomass resource potential, and the open prairies of northern and western Missouri have the state’s best wind resources.12,13,14 Three of the largest earthquakes in U.S. history were centered in southeastern Missouri.15 The potential for further tremors in that geologically active part of the state is taken into consideration in siting nuclear power plants throughout the Midwest.16,17

Missouri ranks sixth in the nation in per capita energy consumption in the residential sector.

Missouri has a moderate climate, and extended periods of very cold or very hot weather are uncommon.18 The state’s total energy consumption per capita is close to the national average, but the state ranks sixth in the nation in per capita energy consumption in the residential sector.19 Missouri consumes almost eight times more energy than it produces.20 The transportation and residential sectors are the two largest energy-consuming end-use sectors, and together they account for three-fifths of the state’s total energy use. The commercial sector accounts for slightly more than one-fifths of Missouri’s energy consumption. The industrial sector—which includes agriculture, construction, mining, and manufacturing—accounts for nearly one-sixth of the state’s energy use.21,22

Petroleum

Cass County is the source of 6 out of 10 barrels of crude oil produced in the state.

Missouri does not have significant crude oil reserves. The state had modest production at around 100,000 barrels per year since the mid-1980s that has been in decline since 2013. In 2021, the state’s annual oil output was 50,000 barrels, down significantly from its peak of 285,000 barrels in 1984.23 The first crude oil production in the state came from wells drilled near Kansas City, Missouri, in the late 1860s. Today, crude oil is still produced in northwestern Missouri near the state’s border with Kansas and Nebraska, and also in eastern Missouri near St. Louis. Cass County, in western Missouri, just south of Kansas City, is the source of 6 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil produced in the state.24,25

Six major crude oil pipelines pass through Missouri on their way to refining centers elsewhere in the Midwest.26 However, the last petroleum refinery in the state closed in 1982.27,28 Missouri receives finished petroleum products from several interstate pipelines, most of which originate along the Gulf Coast.29 Some petroleum products also arrive at the state’s inland ports via barge on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers.30,31,32

Missouri’s petroleum consumption per capita is slightly below the national average.33 Three-fifths of the state’s petroleum consumption is in the form of motor gasoline.34 Missouri is one of only two Midwestern states—the other is Minnesota—that require statewide use of motor gasoline with at least 10% ethanol.35,36 In order to reduce emissions, the St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan areas have stricter motor gasoline requirements than the rest of the state.37 Few Missouri residents use heating oil for home heating, but about 1 in every 11 households depend on propane for their primary heating fuel.38 In addition, Missouri is a top 10 corn-producing state, and, in wet years, propane is used to dry the corn crop after the harvest.39,40

Coal

All of Missouri’s mined coal is bituminous. Bituminous coal has a high heat content when burned and is used to generate electricity and to make iron and steel.41 Most of it is sent out of the state by truck and rail to Kansas.42,43 Missouri holds 1.5% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves, but much of the coal has a high sulfur content that makes it less desirable for power plants because of federal clean air standards.44,45,46 The state has one operating surface mine that produces a small amount of coal for industrial use.47,48 Missouri has a rich coal mining history dating back to the 1880s, but coal production declined significantly from a high of 6.7 million short tons in 1984 to about 44 thousand short tons in 2021.49,50,51

In 2021, nearly 34 million short tons of coal was burned for electricity generation in Missouri, the second-most in any state, only behind Texas.52 Nearly all the coal that fuels Missouri’s power plants comes by rail from Wyoming. Minor amounts of coal arrive by rail from Illinois. Additional small amounts of coal from Illinois, Indiana, and Colorado are delivered by river barges, rail, and trucks to industrial and commercial users in the state.53

Natural gas

Missouri has minor natural gas reserves and produced modest amounts of natural gas in the past. Except for a few wells that supply natural gas for private use, commercial production of natural gas in the state has ceased.54,55,56 One-third of Missouri, about 24,000 square miles, lies on top of coal seams that potentially could produce coalbed methane. Those coal deposits are located in the northern and western areas of the state.57,58

The eastern and western sections of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), one of the nation’s longest natural gas pipelines, connect in northern Missouri.

Missouri is crossed by a dozen interstate natural gas pipelines.59,60 Natural gas enters the state from the west and south, mostly by way of Kansas, Arkansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Most of that natural gas continues on to Illinois and Iowa for delivery to markets in the Midwest and beyond.61 The eastern and western sections of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), one of the nation’s largest and longest natural gas pipelines, connect in northern Missouri. The REX pipeline’s western section originates in Colorado and brings Rocky Mountain natural gas east. The pipeline’s eastern section is bidirectional and can bring natural gas to Missouri that is produced from shale areas in Ohio and Pennsylvania.62,63,64 Missouri has one underground natural gas storage field, which is located near St. Louis. It can hold almost 14 billion cubic feet of gas.65,66,67

Missouri’s residential sector, where half of households use natural gas as their primary energy source for heating, consumes more than one-third of the natural gas delivered to end users in the state.68 The electric power, commercial, and industrial sectors each account for 22% of the state’s natural gas consumption by end users.69 The use of natural gas for electricity generation in Missouri fluctuates, depending on the relative prices of coal and natural gas as generation fuels. As more than 1,400 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity shut down since 2011, natural gas use in the state’s power sector increased to a record high 71.4 billion cubic feet in 2020. However, in 2021, relatively higher natural gas prices helped make coal-fired generation more economical and natural gas use for power generation decreased by 14% to 61.7 billion cubic feet.70,71

Electricity

Missouri has the second-highest share of in-state electricity generated from coal.

In 2021, coal fueled 74% of Missouri’s electricity net generation, and 8 of the 10 largest power plants in the state.72,73 Missouri ranks second, behind West Virginia, for the highest share of in-state electricity net generation from coal.74 However, coal’s share of net generation declined slightly from a peak of 81% in 2010, as older coal-fired plants retired, switched to natural gas, or replaced with renewable generation.75,76,77,78 In 2021, electricity net generation from natural gas and wind made up about 9% each. Both natural gas and wind generation surpassed nuclear power for the first time in 2021. Callaway, Missouri’s one nuclear power plant located west of St. Louis, accounted for about 6% of in-state generation, the lowest on record. Historically, Callaway generates about 10% of the state’s electricity, but declined in 2020 and 2021 because of multiple unplanned shutdowns for several months.79,80 Hydropower accounted for about 2% of total in-state generation, while solar, petroleum, and biomass accounted for the rest.

On an annual basis, Missouri typically uses more electricity than it generates and imports power from other states via the regional grid.81 Electric utilities provide almost all of the electricity generated in Missouri.82 Electric cooperatives serve the northeast corner and southeastern part of the state.83 However, most of the state’s population is concentrated in urban areas—mainly St. Louis and Kansas City—and receives retail electric service from investor-owned utilities.84 The residential sector uses the most electricity in the state, accounting for almost half of total sales.85 The average electricity retail price in Missouri’s residential sector is near the lowest one-tenth of the states.86 Nearly 4 out of 10 Missouri households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.87

Missouri currently has nearly 1,000 public charging stations for electric vehicles, with over 2,100 EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) ports (DC Fast and Level 2). The majority of charging stations are located in and around St. Louis and Kansas City.88 The Missouri Department of Natural Resources is looking to expand its charging station network through both public and private investments.89

Renewable energy

In 2021, renewable sources accounted for nearly 12% of Missouri’s total in-state electricity net generation from both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger capacity) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt capacity), marking the first time renewable electricity exceeded 10%. Missouri’s primary renewable electricity sources are wind energy, which provided more than 70% of the state’s renewable generation, and hydropower, which provided 20%. Solar and biomass provided the remainder.90 At the beginning of 2022, Missouri had more than 2,200 megawatts of wind power generating capacity and an additional 57 megawatts under construction. In 2020 and 2021, nearly 1,300 megawatts of wind power generating capacity were added, more than doubling the previous generating capacity of 954 megawatts.91,92 In 2021, Missouri ranked 13th in the nation in wind power generation.93 The best wind energy resources are located in the northwest corner of the state, known as the northern plains.94,95

As of January 2022, Missouri had just over 500 megawatts of hydropower generating capacity. The state’s five hydroelectric power plants were built between 1930 and 1984, and are located on the tributaries of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers.96,97 Missouri has three pumped-storage hydroelectric plants that generate electricity during peak demand periods by using water pumped into an upper reservoir in off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir when additional generating capacity is needed. Power is generated as the water flows through turbines located between the reservoirs. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, the plant supplies cheaper power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.98,99,100 There are currently no plans to add any new hydroelectric power plants in the state.101

The amount of electricity generated from utility-scale and small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the state more than tripled since 2014, and generated 6% of the state’s renewable electricity in 2021.102 More than three-fourths of the state’s solar power comes from customer-sited, small-scale generating systems, many of which are installed on rooftops at both businesses and homes.103,104,105

A small amount of the state’s electricity generation comes from biomass, mostly wood.106 Missouri has significant biomass potential from agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and the 14 million acres of forest that cover roughly one-third of the state.107,108 However, electricity net generation from biomass has remained stable over the last eight years and accounted for 1% of the state’s renewable electricity in 2021. Missouri’s forests and biomass resources also provide feedstock for the state’s wood pellet industry. The state has three wood pellet manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of about 160,000 tons per year.109 Wood pellets are used as fuel for generating electricity and for heating.110

Missouri ranks third in the nation in biodiesel production capacity.

Missouri produces significant amounts of both biodiesel and fuel ethanol.111,112 The state has the third-largest biodiesel production capacity in the nation—253 million gallons annually at 8 biodiesel plants.113 The biodiesel plants use a variety of feedstocks, mostly soy oil or animal fats. Missouri’s biodiesel consumption of 38 million gallons in 2020 was also among the top one-third of the states.114,115 The state has six manufacturing plants that use corn as the feedstock to manufacture ethanol. The ethanol plants have a production capacity of 315 million gallons per year.116,117,118 In 2020, Missouri ranked among the top one-third of states in fuel ethanol consumption of 286 million gallons.119

Some of Missouri’s large pig farms provide methane from manure lagoons that is converted into renewable natural gas (RNG). This RNG is then delivered by pipeline to cities and towns in the state.120,121

In 2008, Missouri voters approved a mandatory renewable portfolio standard (RPS) to replace a voluntary goal. The RPS required investor-owned electric utilities to meet 15% of their electricity sales with power generated from renewable sources by 2021.122 The standard also required that solar power account for at least 0.3% of total electricity retail sales by 2021. Ameren, Missouri’s largest electric utility, reported in April 2022 that it met the RPS target for 2021.123 State regulators implemented cost caps to keep electricity retail rates from rising more than 1% in any year because of the mandate.124

Endnotes

1 Missouri Department of Transportation, A Vision for Missouri’s Freight Transportation Future, accessed May 17, 2022.
2 U.S. Geological Survey, Rivers of the World: World’s Longest Rivers, June 11, 2018.
3 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Why Missouri?, Missouri Transportation and Logistics Portal, accessed April 27, 2022.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, View History, 1981–2021.
5 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014–21.
6 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Geological Survey, Geology, Oil and Gas in Missouri, accessed April 27, 2022.
7 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
8 Missouri Department of Agriculture, Missouri Ag Highlights, accessed April 27, 2022.
9 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, Physiographic Regions of Missouri - PUB2515, August, 26, 2021.
10 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
11 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel Producers and Production Capacity by State.
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in Missouri, September 2015.
13 University of Missouri Extension, Woody Biomass for Energy in Missouri, accessed April 27, 2022.
14 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Missouri, Maps & Data, accessed April 27, 2022.
15 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Earthquakes in Missouri, accessed April 27, 2022.
16 U.S. Geological Survey, The New Madrid Seismic Zone, accessed April 27, 2022.
17 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Background on Seismic Reviews at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, updated June 13, 2018.
18 Decker, Wayne L., “Climate of Missouri,” Missouri Climate Center, accessed April 27, 2022.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
22 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification, NAICS, Missouri, All statistics in table, Area Missouri, 2021.
23 U.S. EIA, Missouri Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 1981–2021.
24 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 2019-2020 Annual Report Oil and Gas Activities, Presentation, State Oil and Gas Council Meeting (July 15, 2020), p. 8-10.
25 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Annual Oil Production Figures, 2021 Annual Oil Production Figures, updated January 11, 2022.
26 Missouri Department of Transportation, Missouri Pipeline System, accessed April 29, 2022.
27 “Amoco to close Sugar Creek refinery,” UPI (March 3, 1982).
28 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2015–21.
29 Pipeline 101, Where Are Liquids Pipelines Located? accessed April 29, 2022.
30 Missouri Port Authority, Welcome to Our Waterways, accessed April 29, 2022.
31 World Port Source, Port of Kansas City, accessed April 29, 2022.
32 World port Source, Port of Metropolitan St. Louis, accessed April 29, 2022.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
35 Missouri Department of Agriculture, The Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard Act, accessed April 7, 2021.
36 U.S. EIA, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS), How much ethanol is in gasoline, and how does it affect fuel economy?, updated May 4, 2021.
37 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
38 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2020 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Missouri.
39 U.S. EIA, “Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size,” Today in Energy, (October 2, 2014).
40 Missouri Department of Agriculture, Missouri Agriculture at a glance, accessed April 29, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, Types of Coal, Bituminous, accessed May 7, 2022.
42 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, Missouri, Table OS-12, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
45 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Summary of the Clean Air Act, accessed May 7, 2022.
46 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, p. 3, updated January 1, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
49 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, p. 3–4, updated January 1, 2020.
50 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (April 1, 2022), Table 2. Coal production by state (thousand short tons).
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2019, p. 66.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Total consumption for all sectors, annual (thousand tons), 2001–21.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, Missouri, Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
54 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020, Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016–21.
56 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 2019-2020 Annual Report Oil and Gas Activities, Presentation, State Oil and Gas Council Meeting (July 15, 2020).
57 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, p. 3, updated January 1, 2020.
58 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, Oil and Gas in the Show-Me State, The Geologic Column of Missouri, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Summer 2007), p. 2, 4.
59 Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, Map, accessed May 9, 2022.
60 Missouri Public Service Commission, Missouri Natural Gas Pipelines, updated July 12, 2018.
61 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Missouri, 2015–20.
62 Tallgrass Energy, Rockies Express Pipeline map (October 6, 2019).
63 Tallgrass Energy, Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), accessed May 9, 2022.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Weekly Update, “Rex Zone 3 capacity expansion enters full service, increasing Northeast takeaway capacity,” (January 11, 2017).
65 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015–20.
66 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2015–20.
67 U.S. EIA, Missouri State Profile and Energy Estimates, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Underground Storage, accessed May 9, 2022.
68 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2020 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Missouri.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), Annual, Missouri, 2015-21.
70 U.S. EIA, Missouri Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (million cubic feet), 1997–2021.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of January 2022, Missouri, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.4.B., Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Coal, by State, by Sector, Year-to-Date through December 2021 and 2020 (Thousand Megawatthours).
73 U.S. EIA, Missouri Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual (thousand megawatthours), 2018–21.
75 Sweeney, Darren and Taylor Kuykendall, “US utilities, power providers continue plans to accelerate coal retirements,” S&P Global Market Intelligence (August 18, 2020).
76 U.S. EIA, “Coal will account for 85% of U.S. electric generating capacity retirements in 2022,” Today in Energy (January 11, 2022).
77 Uhlenhuth, Karen, “Small Missouri utility proposes big pivot to clean energy in latest resource plan,” Energy News Network (July 29, 2019).
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of January 2022, Missouri, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
80 “After 2 months, Callaway nuclear plant remains shut down,” AP News, March 4, 2021.
81 U.S. EIA, Missouri Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020, Missouri.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.3.B, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation, by State, by Sector, Year-to-Date through December 2021 and 2020 (Thousand Megawatthours).
83 Association of Missouri Electric Cooperatives, Our Co-ops, accessed May 9, 2022.
84 Missouri Public Service Commission, Missouri Electric Service Areas (November 8, 2019).
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B, Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State, Year-to-Date through December 2021 and 2020 (Cents per Kilowatthour).
87 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2020 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Missouri.
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Finder, Missouri, accessed May 11, 2022.
89 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Electric Vehicle Charging Stations, accessed May 11, 2022.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
91 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 6.2.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, February 2022 and 2021 (Megawatts).
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated April 26, 2022.
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.14.B, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Wind, by State, by Sector, Year-to-Date through December 2021 and 202 (Thousand Megawatthours).
94 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Missouri, Maps & Data, accessed May 9, 2022.
95 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Wind, accessed May 27, 2022.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated April 26, 2022.
97 Missouri River Energy Services, Powering with Water, accessed May 9, 2022.
98 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
99 National Hydropower Association, Missouri, accessed May 9, 2021.
100 U.S. EIA, “Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss,” Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated April 26, 2022.
102 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
103 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
104 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Missouri Solar, accessed May 10, 2022.
105 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Solar, accessed May 10, 2022.
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2018–21.
107 Missouri Department of Conservation, Missouri Forest Facts, accessed May 10, 2022.
108 National Association of State Energy Officials, Missouri Comprehensive State Energy Plan (October 2015) p. 30–32.
109 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (April 20, 2022), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, January 2022.
110 U.S. EIA, “New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets,” Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
111 U.S. EIA, “EIA now estimates biodiesel production and consumption by state,” Today in Energy (July 23, 2020).
112 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State 2019.
113 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel Producers and Production Capacity by State, December 2020.
114 U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational, Biodiesel Magazine (January 24, 2022).
115 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
116 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
117 U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, Ethanol Producer Magazine (December 13, 2021).
118 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Energy, Biofuels, accessed May 10, 2022.
119 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
120 Gay, Bryce, “Manure-to-energy' projects on Missouri pig farms attract fresh $45 million investment,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (February 20, 2020).
121 Smithfield Foods, Inc., “Largest Renewable Natural Gas Project of Its Kind Implements Manure-to-Energy Technology Across Northern Missouri, Celebrates Construction Completion Ahead of Joint Venture’s 10-Year Anniversary,” (August 11, 2021).
122 Missouri Public Service Commission, Renewable Energy Standard Compliance Reports/Plan, accessed May 10, 2022.
123 Ameren Missouri, Compliance, Renewable Energy Standard Compliance Report 2021, p. 11, April 15, 2022.
124 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Missouri, Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 12, 2018.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map