Minnesota State Energy Profile



Minnesota Quick Facts

  • Minnesota was the nation's fourth-largest fuel ethanol producer in 2018, accounting for about 8% of U.S. total production. There are more E85 (15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol) fueling stations in Minnesota than in any other state.
  • About 30% of all U.S. crude oil imports flow through Minnesota. Some of the crude oil from Canada and North Dakota is processed at Minnesota's Pine Bend Refinery, the largest crude oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state.
  • About 25% of utility-scale electricity generation in Minnesota came from coal-fired electric power plants in 2020, down from 53% in 2011.
  • In 2020, Minnesota's two nuclear power plants, Prairie Island and Monticello, fueled 26% of the state's electricity net generation, supplying the largest share of state generation for the first time. However, renewable energy, in aggregate, fueled even more at 29%.
  • In 2020, Minnesota ranked ninth in the nation in total generation from wind energy. The state's wind farms accounted for 22% of the total in-state electricity net generation and 74% of renewable generation.

Last Updated: June 17, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.7 million 1.7% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.1 million 1.9% Jul-21  
Economy Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 374.4 billion 17 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 50,754 million 17 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,540 16 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 60,731 million miles 21 2019  
Land in Farms 25.5 million acres 14 2017  
Climate Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 42.4 degrees Fahrenheit 47 2020  
Precipitation 24.3 inches 37 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 5.49 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 13.29 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.02 /million Btu $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.09 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 12.57 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 9.24 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 438,000 barrels/calendar day 2.3% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 18,241 MW 1.6% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 511 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,217 thousand MWh 1.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 21.6 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 28.8 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 23.3 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 25.8 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 359 thousand barrels 2.9% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,554 thousand barrels 1.4% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 5,669 million cu ft 0.1% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 100 thousand barrels 0.4% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,415 thousand tons 2.2% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,117 stations 1.9% 2019  
Propane 51 stations 1.9% 2021  
Electricity 524 stations 1.3% 2021  
E85 410 stations 11.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 159 stations 12.6% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,900 trillion Btu 18 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 337 million Btu 19 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 21,984 million 21 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,898 22 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 418 trillion Btu 2.0% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 357 trillion Btu 2.0% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 622 trillion Btu 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 503 trillion Btu 1.8% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,708 million 1.8% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,383 million 1.8% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,820 million 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 10,073 million 1.8% 2019 find more
by Source Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 128 million barrels 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 520 billion cu ft 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 12 million short tons 2.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 12,426 million 1.8% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,844 million 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 425 million 1.7% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 9 thousand barrels 0.6% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 8,137 million cu ft 0.7% Jun-21 find more
Coal 875 thousand short tons 1.8% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 66.2 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 1.5 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 17.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 11.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.7 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,300 MW 2.3% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,405 million gal/year 8.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 107 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,121 thousand MWh 2.8% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 116 thousand MWh 2.5% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 20 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 30,107 thousand barrels 8.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Minnesota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 15.6 % 16 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 7,788 thousand barrels 14 2019  
Total Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 92.7 million metric tons 1.8% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 25,291 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 16 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 21 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: June 17, 2021

Overview

Minnesota plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets across the Midwest and beyond.

Minnesota is one of the largest Midwestern states and extends further north than any of the other Lower 48 states.1,2 Although Minnesota has no fossil fuel reserves or production, the state plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets throughout the Midwest and beyond.3,4,5,6 The Mississippi River's headwaters are in Minnesota, and the first 650 miles of the river's nearly 2,350-mile length flow through the state.7,8 Ports along the river handle dry and liquid commodities including coal and petroleum, as well as half of the state's agricultural exports.9 Lake Superior, the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, forms Minnesota's northeastern border and the waterway plays a significant role in energy transport.10,11 Duluth-Superior, Minnesota's largest port on Lake Superior, is at the western end of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System, which connects the port at Duluth to worldwide shipping. Coal from Wyoming and Montana enters Minnesota by rail and transfers to ships at Duluth-Superior.12,13 Most of the crude oil that is shipped east by rail from North Dakota also travels across Minnesota.14 Additionally, several pipelines bring North Dakota crude oil into the state, and other pipelines move Canadian supplies of crude oil from the north to Minnesota's refineries and on to other U.S. refining centers.15

Minnesota has significant renewable resources. Winds that move unobstructed across the state's broad southern prairies provide energy for electricity generation.16 Minnesota's rolling plains are covered by fertile topsoil, giving the state some of the nation's richest farmland, which, along with the 17 million acres of forest that cover about one-third of the state's land area, provide Minnesota with ample biomass resources.17,18,19 The state's abundant cornfields produce Minnesota's most valuable crop and provide feedstock for the state's many fuel ethanol production plants.20,21,22 With almost 70,000 miles of natural streams and rivers, the state's waterways are a hydropower resource.23,24

Minnesota's climate is known for Arctic chills in the winter. While the northern part of the state has reported record cold in winter, southern Minnesota can experience prolonged hot weather in the summer. Even so, Minnesota's per capita energy consumption is less than in one-third of the states.25,26 The industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive construction, food processing, chemical products manufacturing, petroleum refining, agriculture, mining, and paper manufacturing industries, leads the state in end-use energy consumption, accounting for one-third of Minnesota's total energy end-use. The transportation sector is second, consuming about one-fourth, followed by the residential sector, which accounts for less than one-fourth. The commercial sector consumes about one-fifth.27,28,29

Electricity

Renewable resources, including wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass, generated the largest share of Minnesota’s electricity in 2020.

Renewable resources, including wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass, generate the largest share of Minnesota's electricity. In 2020, renewables accounted for 29% of in-state electricity net generation, nuclear power supplied 26%, coal fueled 25%, and natural gas contributed 20%. Coal-fired power plants provided the largest share of Minnesota's electricity net generation until 2020, when their contribution fell below the amount supplied by renewables and nuclear power for the first time. Renewable generation, mostly from wind energy, has more than doubled over the past decade while nuclear generation has remained relatively flat. In 2020, wind provided 22% of Minnesota's total electricity generation.30,31 The state's largest power plant by capacity, Sherburne County Generating Station, is coal-fired and has a generating capacity more than twice that of the next largest power plant, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant.32 However, in combination, the state's two nuclear power plants, both located on the Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota, provide more of the state's electricity net generation.33

Minnesotans consume more electricity than is generated in the state, and, during the past decade, they received as much as one-fifth of their annual electricity supply from the regional grid.34 Electricity retail sales are fairly evenly distributed among the state's residential, commercial, and industrial sectors.35 Per capita electricity retail sales in Minnesota are greater than the national average, but per capita sales to the residential sector are less than the national average and are lower than in almost two-thirds of the states. About one in six Minnesota households use electricity for home heating.36,37

Renewable energy

Renewable energy provided about three-tenths of Minnesota's in-state electricity generation in 2020. Wind power provides most of the renewable generation and accounted for about three-fourths of the state's total renewable generation in 2020.38 Minnesota is among the top 10 states in the nation in wind-powered capacity and net generation. The state is also among the top 10 states with the largest share of total generation from wind.39 Most of Minnesota's numerous wind farms are located on the gently rolling prairie in the southwestern part of the state.40

Solar electricity generation in Minnesota has increased markedly since 2013 when the state set a goal of 10% of electricity retail sales from solar by 2030. In 2020, solar energy provided more than 3% of the state's net generation, most of it from utility-scale facilities with at least 1 megawatt of generating capacity.41 Biomass fueled slightly more than 2% of Minnesota's electricity generation, primarily from wood and wood-derived fuels.42 Most of the state's biomass power plants that use landfill gas and municipal solid waste are located in more densely populated areas in southern Minnesota, while most of the wood-fueled plants are in the more heavily forested areas of northern Minnesota.43,44 Some biomass power plants also use agricultural crop residues.45 Minnesota does not manufacture wood pellets used for electricity generation and space heating, but about 2% of the state's households heat with wood.46,47 Minnesota's nearly 30 hydroelectric power plants supply about 2% of the state's electricity.48,49

Minnesota is one of the top five ethanol-producing states and accounts for about 8% of U.S. fuel ethanol production.

Minnesota is among the nation's top five ethanol-producing states and accounts for about 8% of U.S. total fuel ethanol production.50 There are 19 fuel ethanol production plants in Minnesota, all of which use corn as a feedstock.51,52 All of the state's ethanol plants are in agriculturally rich southern and western Minnesota where most of the state's farmland is located.53,54 Minnesota also has three biodiesel plants with a combined capacity of about 85 million gallons per year, which is 3 % of the nation's total.55 The state's biodiesel mandate requires that diesel fuel sold in Minnesota contain at least 20% biodiesel from April through September when air quality is worst. Diesel fuel can contain less than 20% biodiesel from April 1 to April 14 but not less than 10%, and must be at least 5% biodiesel during the rest of the year.56 Minnesota is among the top five biodiesel consumers in the nation, and consumed more than 150 million gallons in 2019.57

Minnesota's renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state's utilities, with the exception of the state's nuclear utility, generate or procure at least 25% of electricity retail sales from eligible renewable sources by 2025. The nuclear utility had to obtain 30% of its retail electricity sales from renewable energy by the end of 2020. All public utilities in the state had to acquire an additional 1.5% of all electricity retail sales from solar energy by 2020.58 The state's utilities met the 25% of sales from renewable sources by 2025 requirement in 2018.59

Minnesota adopted an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) in 2007. Beginning in 2010, Minnesota's EERS required that investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities reduce retail energy sales by 1.5% each year, based on the most recent three-year weather-normalized average. The EERS also required natural gas and electric utilities to spend a percentage of their annual operating revenues on advancing energy efficiency, demand-side management, and certain types of renewable energy. The state offered the utilities financial performance incentives to reward their progress toward energy savings.60

Petroleum

Minnesota has the largest crude oil refinery in any of the non-oil-producing states.

Minnesota does not have any crude oil reserves or production.61,62 However, about three-tenths of all U.S. crude oil imports enter the country through Minnesota. Those imports come from Canada.63 Pipelines that carry a significant share of the crude oil used in the United States converge at the Clearbrook terminal in northwestern Minnesota, a key distribution point in the transport of crude oil to refineries in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and beyond.64 Two major pipeline systems bring crude oil from Canada and the western United States into Minnesota.65 Additionally, almost all of the crude oil transported by rail across Minnesota comes from North Dakota and continues on to East Coast refineries.66

Minnesota's two oil refineries process some of the crude oil from Canada and North Dakota.67 The Pine Bend refinery, located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul suburbs, is the nation's largest oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state. It can process about 335,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces transportation fuels for markets throughout the Midwest.68,69 Minnesota's other refinery, St. Paul Park, is located along the Mississippi River. St. Paul Park, built in 1939, expanded over the years and now processes about 103,000 barrels per calendar day. That refinery produces a variety of refined products from U.S. and Canadian sweet and sour crude oils, including motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, propane, and refinery-grade propylene.70,71 Petroleum product pipelines cross the state distributing products from refineries in Minnesota and other states to Minnesota markets.72

Minnesota has more E85 fueling stations than any other state and has more than one-tenth of the nation’s total.

Minnesota's per capita petroleum consumption is slightly less than the national average.73 The transportation sector consumes more than seven-tenths of the petroleum used in Minnesota, and motor gasoline accounts for half of all petroleum consumed in the state.74,75 A major ethanol producer, Minnesota was the first state to require the use of ethanol in motor gasoline and is one of only two Midwestern states (Missouri is the other) that requires the statewide use of oxygenated motor gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.76,77,78 Minnesota also has 431 public-access fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol. That is more E85 fueling stations than any other state and more than one-tenth of the nation's total.79 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer and accounts for almost one-fifth of the petroleum used in Minnesota. The residential sector accounts for 7% of the state's petroleum consumption. Fewer than 1 in 50 households heat with fuel oil or kerosene, and 1 in 9 heat with hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane.80 The commercial sector uses nearly 3% of the petroleum consumed in the state.81

Natural gas

Minnesota does not have any natural gas reserves or production.82,83 Although the state is crossed by several natural gas pipelines, it has no natural gas market centers.84 The state does have four U.S.-Canada natural gas pipeline border crossings capable of handling hundreds of billions of cubic feet of natural gas each year, but import volumes have decreased as U.S. natural gas production has increased.85,86,87 Interstate natural gas pipelines that enter Minnesota, primarily from South Dakota, North Dakota, Canada, and Iowa, deliver more than four times as much natural gas as is consumed in the state.88 Three-fourths of the natural gas that enters Minnesota continues on to Iowa and Wisconsin on its way to markets in the Midwest and beyond. A small amount is delivered back to North Dakota and Canada and some is put in the state's only natural gas storage field.89,90

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to consumers in Minnesota, followed closely by the residential sector. In 2019, industrial use accounted for about one-third of state consumption. The residential sector, where two out of three Minnesota households heat with natural gas, used about three-tenths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. The commercial sector accounted for almost one-fourth.91,92 Minnesota's natural gas use for electric power generation has nearly tripled in the past decade.93 About 15% of the natural gas delivered to Minnesota consumers went to the electric power sector in 2019.94

Coal

Minnesota has no coal reserves or production.95,96 Wyoming and Montana supply the coal consumed in Minnesota, and most of it is used for electric power generation.97,98 Minnesota had about 4,200 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity as of February 2021, but more than two-thirds of that capacity is scheduled for retirement by 2029.99

Trains also transport coal from the Powder River Basin to the Port of Duluth-Superior, where it is transferred to vessels for shipment on the Great Lakes and along the St. Lawrence Seaway. Coal accounts for about 15% of the tonnage shipped from the Port of Duluth.100 In 2019, about 8 million tons of low-sulfur coal from Montana and Wyoming traveled across Minnesota by rail to the Port of Duluth-Superior, where it was transferred to ships for delivery to utilities and manufacturing plants along the Great Lakes in the United States and Canada, as well as overseas.101,102

Endnotes

1 U.S. Geological Survey, How much of your state is wet?, The Water Area of Each State, accessed May 5, 2021.
2 Infoplease, Minnesota: Geography, accessed May 5, 2021.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31 and Estimated Production, 2014-2019.
4 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals and Dry Production, Annual, 2015-20.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
6 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layers and Other Transport and Storage Map Layers, accessed May 5, 2021.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota, Mississippi River Facts, accessed May 5, 2021.
8 Explore Minnesota, Mississippi River, accessed May 5, 2021.
9 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports, and Waterways, Commercial waterways, The Mississippi River System, accessed May 5, 2021.
10 Geology.com, Largest Lake in the World & Largest Lake in the United States, accessed May 5, 2021.
11 NETSTATE, Minnesota, Minnesota Base and Elevation Maps, updated February 25, 2016.
12 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports and Waterways, Commercial waterways, Lake Superior / Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway, accessed May 5, 2021.
13 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Port Statistics, Port of Duluth-Superior Docks/Terminals, accessed May 5, 2021.
14 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Crude By Rail/Rail Safety Improvement Study, What is Crude by Rail?, accessed May 5, 2021.
15 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
16 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Minnesota, Minnesota 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed May 5, 2021.
17 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
18 Becker, Dennis R., et al., 2010 Outlook for Forest Biomass Availability in Minnesota: Physical, Environmental, Economic and Social Availability, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources (October 2010), Introduction, p. 1.
19 Minnesota Department of Commerce, Bioenergy Industry, accessed May 5, 2021.
20 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Cash receipts by state, commodity ranking and share of U.S. total, 2019, Nominal (current dollars), select Minnesota.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 1, 2020 (Excel File).
22 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
23 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Lakes, rivers, and wetlands facts, updated 2013.
24 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 5, 2021.
25 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, Climate, updated February 25, 2016.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, Use of energy explained, Energy use in industry, Basics, updated July 28, 2020.
28 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), Minnesota, All statistics in table, 2019.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-20.
31 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
32 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, All fuels, Coal, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
34 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
36 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-20.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 11, 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Biomass (total), Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layers, accessed May 14, 2021.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Minnesota Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
45 Koda Energy, Koda Energy, Clean, Renewable, Friendly, accessed May 14, 2021.
46 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, February 2021.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Number of plants for conventional hydroelectric, Minnesota, all sectors, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2020.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
51 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020 (Excel File).
52 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant Map layer, accessed May 16, 2021.
54 Minnesota IT Services, Minnesota Land Use/Cover: Recent (1969-present), Minnesota 2013 Land Cover and Impervious Surface Area, accessed May 16, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2020 (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
56 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Laws and Incentives, Minnesota, Biodiesel Blend Mandate, accessed May 16, 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
58 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Minnesota Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 15, 2018.
59 Kagubare, Ines, "Minnesota Is on Track to Meet Its Renewable Energy Goals," Scientific American E&E News (November 19, 2018).
60 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, updated February 4, 2015.
61 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
62 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Estimated Production, Annual, 2019.
63 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
64 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 3-5.
65 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed May 17, 2021.
66 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 7.
67 U.S. EIA, Refinery Receipts of Crude Oil by Method of Transportation, Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail), 2019.
68 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, as of January 1, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
70 Flint Hills Resources, Fuels and Aromatics, accessed May 17, 2021.
71 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
72 Marathon, St. Paul Park Refinery, accessed May 17, 2021.
73 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 9-10.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
78 Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Ethanol in Minnesota, accessed May 17, 2021.
79 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, American Petroleum Institute, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, United States and Minnesota, Ethanol 85, Public Stations, accessed May 17, 2021.
81 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
85 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, and Natural Gas Trading Hub Map Layers, accessed May 17, 2021.
86 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Natural Gas Pipeline Border Crossing, accessed May 17, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Natural Gas International Receipts from Canada, 1999-2019.
88 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1900-2020.
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91 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Storage Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
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96 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
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98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, Minnesota, Table DS-21, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
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100 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021.
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