Minnesota State Energy Profile



Minnesota Quick Facts

  • Minnesota is among the nation's top five fuel ethanol producers, and has more E85 fueling stations than any other state.
  • About 30% of all U.S. crude oil imports flow through Minnesota. Some of the crude oil from Canada and North Dakota is processed at Minnesota's Pine Bend Refinery, the largest crude oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state.
  • About 31% of utility-scale electricity generation in Minnesota came from coal-fired electric power plants in 2019, down from 53% in 2011.
  • Minnesota's two nuclear power plants, Monticello and Prairie Island, accounted for 24% of the state's electricity net generation in 2019.
  • In 2019, Minnesota ranked seventh in the nation in electricity generating capacity and total generation from wind energy. The state's wind farms generated 11 million megawatthours of electricity that year, 19% of the state's total net generation.

Last Updated: May 21, 2020



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.7 million 1.7% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.0 million 1.9% Feb-21  
Economy Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 380.9 billion 17 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 52,669 million 17 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,540 16 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 60,731 million miles 21 2019  
Land in Farms 25.5 million acres 14 2017  
Climate Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 42.4 degrees Fahrenheit 47 2020  
Precipitation 24.3 inches 36 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.08 /thousand cu ft $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 7.37 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.00 /million Btu $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.48 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 9.69 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 7.32 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 438,000 barrels/calendar day 2.3% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 18,155 MW 1.6% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 525 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,844 thousand MWh 1.4% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 15.1 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 29.3 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 27.0 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 28.0 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 360 thousand barrels 2.2% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,864 thousand barrels 1.4% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 6,680 million cu ft 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 100 thousand barrels 0.4% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,919 thousand tons 2.3% Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,134 stations 1.9% 2018  
Propane 51 stations 1.9% 2021  
Electricity 524 stations 1.3% 2021  
E85 410 stations 11.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 159 stations 12.6% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,914 trillion Btu 18 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 341 million Btu 18 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 22,237 million 21 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,966 24 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 432 trillion Btu 2.0% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 378 trillion Btu 2.1% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 641 trillion Btu 2.0% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 464 trillion Btu 1.6% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,868 million 1.8% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,529 million 1.8% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,854 million 1.8% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,987 million 1.7% 2018 find more
by Source Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 119 million barrels 1.6% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 520 billion cu ft 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 12 million short tons 2.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 12,316 million 1.7% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,844 million 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 425 million 1.7% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.3% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 5,650 million cu ft 0.6% Jan-21 find more
Coal 849 thousand short tons 1.9% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 66.2 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 1.5 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 17.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 11.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.7 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,086 MW 2.3% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,354 million gal/year 7.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 110 thousand MWh 0.4% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,135 thousand MWh 3.0% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 110 thousand MWh 2.3% Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 7 thousand MWh 0.3% Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 29,443 thousand barrels 7.7% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Minnesota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 16.0 % 15 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 7,788 thousand barrels 14 2019  
Total Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 88.0 million metric tons 1.7% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 25,291 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 16 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 21 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 21, 2020

Overview

Minnesota plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets across the Midwest and beyond.

Located in the upper Midwest, Minnesota is one of the largest Midwestern states and extends further north than any of the other Lower 48.1,2 Although Minnesota has no fossil fuel reserves or production, the state plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets throughout the Midwest and beyond.3,4,5,6 The Mississippi River's headwaters are in Minnesota, and about 200 miles of the upper reaches of the river flow through the state.7 Ports along the river handle dry and liquid commodities including coal and petroleum, as well as half of the state's agricultural exports.8 Lake Superior, the world's largest fresh water lake by surface area, forms Minnesota's northeastern border and is the waterway that plays the most significant role in energy transport.9,10 Duluth-Superior, Minnesota's largest port on Lake Superior, is at the western end of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System, which connects the Port of Duluth to worldwide shipping. Coal from Wyoming and Montana is transferred from rail to ship at Duluth to move east.11,12 Most of the crude oil that is shipped east by rail from North Dakota also travels through Minnesota.13 Additionally, several pipelines bring North Dakota crude oil into the state, and other pipelines move Canadian supplies of crude oil from the north to Minnesota's refineries and on to other U.S. markets.14

Minnesota has significant renewable resources. Winds that move unobstructed across the state's broad southern prairies provide energy for electricity generation.15 Minnesota's rolling plains are covered by fertile topsoil, giving the state some of the nation's richest farmland, which, along with the 17 million acres of forest that cover about one-third of the state's land area, provide Minnesota with ample biomass resources.16,17,18 The state's abundant cornfields produce Minnesota's most valuable crop and provide feedstock for the state's many fuel ethanol production plants.19,20,21 With almost 70,000 miles of natural streams and rivers, the state's waterways are a hydropower resource.22,23,24

Minnesota's climate is known for Arctic chills in the winter. While the northern part of the state has reported freezing temperatures in every month of the year, southern Minnesota can experience prolonged hot weather in the summer when warm air pushes up from the Gulf of Mexico. Even so, Minnesota's per capita energy consumption is less than nearly two-fifths of the states.25,26 The industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive food processing, chemical products manufacturing, petroleum refining, agriculture, mining, and paper manufacturing industries, leads the state in end-use energy consumption, accounting for more than one-third of state use. The transportation sector is second, consuming about one-fourth, followed by the residential sector, which accounts for more than one-fifth. The commercial sector is the least energy-intensive sector in the state, but consumes almost one-fifth, slightly less energy than the residential sector.27,28,29

Electricity

Although coal-fired power plants provide the largest share of Minnesota's electricity net generation, their contribution fell below half for the first time in at least three decades in 2012 and declined to less than one-third in 2019.30 The state's largest power plant by capacity and generation is a coal-fired plant, which has a generating capacity more than twice that of the next largest power plant, a nuclear generating station.31 The state's two nuclear power plants, located on the Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota, typically provide about one-fourth of state generation.32,33,34 Almost all the rest of Minnesota's electricity generation comes from wind, which supplied 19% of the state's electricity net generation in 2019, and natural gas, which fueled 18%. Smaller amounts of electricity are generated from solar energy, biomass, and conventional hydropower.35

Electricity generated by Minnesota’s independent power producers has increased markedly since 2001.

Most of the electricity generated in Minnesota is produced by electric utilities; however, the amount provided by independent power producers has increased markedly in the past two decades.36 In 2019, independent power producers accounted for more than one-fifth of Minnesota's net generation.37 Most of that electricity was generated using wind energy, and the rest was primarily fueled by solar energy and natural gas. Independent power producers also generate electricity using biomass and conventional hydroelectric power.38

Minnesotans consume more electricity than is generated in the state, and during the past decade they have received as much as one-fifth of the electricity they use each year from other states via the regional grid.39 Electricity retail sales are nearly equally divided among the residential, industrial, and commercial end-use sectors.40 Almost one-fifth of Minnesota households use electricity for home heating. Per capita electricity retail sales to the residential sector are lower than in almost two-thirds of the states.41,42

Renewable energy

Renewable energy resources provided one-fourth of Minnesota's in-state electricity generation in 2019. Wind power provided most of the renewable generation and accounted for about one-fifth of the state's generation from all sources.43 Minnesota is among the top 10 states in the nation in installed generating capacity and net generation from wind. The state is also among the 10 with the largest share of total generation from wind.44 Most of Minnesota's numerous wind farms are located on the gently rolling prairie in the southwestern part of the state.45

The amount of power generated from solar energy in Minnesota has increased markedly since 2013 when the state set a goal of 10% of electricity retail sales from solar by 2030. In 2019, solar energy provided almost 3% of the state's net generation, most of it from utility-scale facilities with at least 1 megawatt of generating capacity.46 Biomass fueled slightly more than 2% of Minnesota's electricity generation.47 Most of the state's landfill gas and municipal solid waste generating plants are located in more densely populated areas in southern Minnesota, and most of the generating plants that use wood waste are found in the more heavily forested areas in northern Minnesota.48,49 About 2% of the state's households heat with wood.50 Minnesota has additional biomass resources from agricultural crop residues.51 Additionally, more than two dozen small hydroelectric power plants in central and eastern Minnesota generate about 2% of the state's electricity.52,53,54

Minnesota is one of the top five ethanol-producing states and accounts for about 8% of U.S. total fuel ethanol production.

Minnesota is among the nation's top five ethanol-producing states and accounts for about 8% of U.S. total fuel ethanol production.55 There are 19 fuel ethanol production plants in Minnesota, all of which use corn as a feedstock.56,57 All of the state's ethanol plants are located in agriculturally rich southwestern Minnesota, where most of the state's farmland is located.58,59 In addition, Minnesota has three biodiesel plants with a combined capacity of about 85 million gallons per year, which is 3.4% of the nation's total.60 The state has a biodiesel mandate that requires that diesel fuel sold in Minnesota contain at least 20% biodiesel from April through September. Diesel fuel can contain less than 20% biodiesel from April 1 to April 14 but not less than 10%, and must be at least 5% biodiesel during the rest of the year.61 Minnesota is one of the top five biodiesel consumers in the nation.62

Minnesota's renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) applies to all electricity providers in the state. It requires that the state's utilities, with the exception of the state's largest utility, generate or procure at least 25% of electricity retail sales from eligible renewable sources by 2025. The state's largest utility had to obtain 30% of its retail electricity sales from renewable energy by the end of 2020. All public utilities in the state had a further obligation to acquire 1.5% of all retail electricity sales from solar energy by 2020. In addition to the requirements of the RPS, Minnesota has a statewide goal of 10% solar by 2030 for all public utilities.63 Minnesota utilities have already reached the 25% by 2025 requirement.64

Minnesota adopted an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) in 2007. Beginning in 2010, Minnesota's EERS required that investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities reduce retail energy sales by 1.5% each year, based on the most recent three-year weather-normalized average. The natural gas and electric utilities are also required to spend a percentage of their annual operating revenues on advancing energy efficiency, demand-side management, and certain types of renewable energy. The utilities are given financial performance incentives to reward their progress toward energy savings.65

Petroleum

Minnesota has the largest oil refinery in any of the non-oil-producing states.

Minnesota does not have any crude oil reserves or production.66,67 However, about three-tenths of all U.S. crude oil imports enter through Minnesota.68 Those imports come from Canada. Some of the crude oil from Canada, along with some from North Dakota, is processed at Minnesota's two oil refineries.69 The Pine Bend refinery, located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul suburbs, is the nation's largest oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state. It can process about 320,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces transportation fuels for markets throughout Minnesota and the Upper Midwest.70,71,72 Minnesota's other refinery, St. Paul Park, is located along the Mississippi River. St. Paul Park, built in 1939, has expanded over the years and now processes about 98,000 barrels per calendar day. The refinery produces a variety of refined products from U.S. and Canadian sweet and sour crude oils, including motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, propane, and refinery-grade propylene.73,74

Two major pipeline systems bring crude oil from Canada and the western United States into Minnesota.75 Pipelines that carry a significant share of the crude oil used in the United States converge at the Clearbrook terminal in northwestern Minnesota, a key distribution point supplying crude oil to refineries in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and beyond.76 Almost all of the crude oil transported by rail across Minnesota comes from North Dakota and continues on to East Coast refineries.77 Additional pipelines cross the state, distributing petroleum products from refineries in Minnesota and other states.78

Minnesota has more E85 fueling stations than any other state and has about one-ninth of the nation’s total.

The transportation sector consumes nearly three-fourths of the petroleum used in Minnesota, and motor gasoline accounts for half of all petroleum consumed in the state.79,80 A major ethanol producer, Minnesota was the first state to require the use of ethanol in motor gasoline and is one of only two Midwestern states (Missouri is the other) that requires the statewide use of oxygenated motor gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.81,82,83 Minnesota also has more than 400 public-access fueling stations that sell a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol (E85), which is more than any other state and about one-ninth of the nation's total.84 The industrial sector accounts for most of the rest of the petroleum consumed in Minnesota, more than one-sixth of state use. The residential sector accounts for 6% of petroleum use, where less than 2% of the state's households heat with fuel oil or kerosene, and 1 in 10 heat with hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane. The commercial sector uses 3% of the petroleum consumed in the state.85,86 Overall, Minnesota's per capita petroleum consumption is slightly less than the national average.87

Natural gas

Minnesota does not have any natural gas reserves or production.88,89 Although the state is crossed by several natural gas pipelines and has four U.S.-Canada border crossings that handle hundreds of billions of cubic feet of natural gas each year, the state has no natural gas market centers.90,91 Minnesota's natural gas supplies come from producing areas in Canada, North Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico.92 Interstate natural gas pipelines that enter Minnesota deliver nearly five times as much natural gas as is consumed in the state, and three-fourths of the natural gas that enters Minnesota continues on to Iowa and Wisconsin on its way to markets in the Midwest and beyond. A small amount is delivered to North Dakota.93,94

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to end users in Minnesota, followed closely by the residential sector. In 2018, industrial use accounted for about one-third of the state's end-use consumption. The residential sector, where two out of three Minnesota households heat with natural gas, used about three-tenths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state, and the commercial sector accounted for almost one-fourth of state end-use natural gas consumption in 2018.95,96 The amount of natural gas used to fuel electricity generation in Minnesota has more than doubled in the past decade. In 2018, more than one-eighth of the natural gas delivered to Minnesota consumers went to the electric power sector, and deliveries to the electric power sector in 2019 were 20% higher than in 2018.97,98

Coal

About 8 million tons of low-sulfur coal from Montana and Wyoming are shipped from the Port of Duluth each year.

Minnesota has no coal reserves or production.99,100 Wyoming and Montana supply the coal consumed in Minnesota, and more than nine-tenths of the nearly 14 million tons of coal consumed in the state was used for electric power generation in 2018.101,102 Coal from the Powder River Basin also is transported by rail to the port at Duluth, Minnesota, where it is transferred to vessels for shipment on the Great Lakes. Coal accounts for about one-fifth of the tonnage shipped from the Port of Duluth.103,104 About 8 million tons of low-sulfur coal from Montana and Wyoming are shipped from the port each year to supply utilities and manufacturing plants along the Great Lakes in both the United States and Canada.105

Endnotes

1 U.S. Geological Survey, How much of your state is wet?, The Water Area of Each State, accessed April 18, 2020.
2 Infoplease, Minnesota Overview: Geography, accessed April 18, 2020.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31 and Estimated Production, 2018.
4 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals and Dry Production, Annual, 2014-19.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
6 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission and Other Transport and Storage Map Layers, accessed April 20, 2020.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota, Mississippi River Facts, accessed April 20, 2020.
8 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports and Waterways, Commercial waterways, The Mississippi River System, accessed April 20, 2020.
9 Minnesota Sea Grant, Lake Superior, accessed April 20, 2020.
10 NETSTATE, Minnesota, Minnesota Base and Elevation Maps, updated February 25, 2016.
11 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports and Waterways, Commercial waterways, Lake Superior / Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway, accessed April 20, 2020.
12 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Port stats and facts at a glance, accessed April 20, 2020.
13 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Crude by Rail/Rail Safety Improvement Study, What is Crude by Rail?, accessed April 20, 2020.
14 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
15 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Minnesota, accessed April 20, 2020.
16 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
17 Becker, Dennis R., et al., 2010 Outlook for Forest Biomass Availability in Minnesota: Physical, Environmental, Economic and Social Availability, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources (October 2010), p. 1.
18 Minnesota Department of Commerce, Bioenergy Industry, accessed April 20, 2020.
19 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Cash receipts by state, commodity ranking and share of U.S. total, 2018, Nominal (current dollars), select Minnesota.
20 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019 (Excel File).
21 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
22 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota, Mississippi River Facts, accessed April 20, 2020.
23 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Lakes, rivers, and wetlands facts, updated 2013.
24 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed April 20, 2020.
25 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Climate of Minnesota, accessed April 20, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, International Energy Outlook 2016, DOE/EIA-0484(2016) (May 2016), Chapter 7, Industrial sector energy consumption, Table 7.1.
28 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), Minnesota, All statistics in table, 2017.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2000-19.
31 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018.
33 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, updated April 30, 2018.
34 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1 and Unit 2, updated April 30, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2000-19.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Wind, Natural gas, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Biomass, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for independent power producers, All fuels, Annual, 2001-19.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for independent power producers, All fuels, Natural gas, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, All solar, Annual, 2019.
40 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables Wind, Annual, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
46 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed April 21, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-19.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Biomass, Annual, 2019.
49 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layers, accessed April 23, 2020
50 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Minnesota Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
52 "Biomass Production in Minnesota and Potential Demand," AURI Energy Roundtable (March 16, 2012).
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed April 21, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
57 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019 (XLS File).
58 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant Map layer, accessed April 21, 2020.
60 American Farmland Trust, Farming on the Edge, Sprawling Development Threatens America's Best Farmland, Minnesota (September 20, 2002).
61 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for January 2020 (March 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, January 2020.
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Laws and Incentives, Minnesota, Biodiesel Blend Mandate, accessed April 24, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
64 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Minnesota Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 15, 2018.
65 Kagubare, Ines, "Minnesota Is on Track to Meet Its Renewable Energy Goals," Scientific American E&E News (November 19, 2018).
66 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, updated February 4, 2015.
67 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2018.
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Estimated Production, Annual, 2018.
69 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
70 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, as of January 1, 2019.
71 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2019), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2019.
72 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2014-19.
73 Flint Hills Resources, Fuels and Aromatics, accessed April 22, 2020.
74 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2019), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2019.
75 Marathon, St. Paul Park Refinery, accessed April 23, 2020.
76 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 23, 2020.
77 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 3-5.
78 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 7.
79 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 9-10.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2017.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
83 Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Ethanol in Minnesota, accessed April 24, 2020.
84 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, American Petroleum Institute, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, United States and Minnesota, Ethanol 85, Public Stations, accessed April 24, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
89 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013-18.
90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014-19.
91 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline and Natural Gas Market Hub Map Layers, accessed April 24, 2020.
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, 2014-19.
93 Eleff, Bob, Natural Gas in Minnesota, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (November 2018), p. 2.
94 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, 2013-18.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Minnesota, Annual, 2014-19.
96 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Minnesota, Annual, 2014-19.
98 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2019.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Minnesota, Annual, 2014-19.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
101 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State, Minnesota, Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
104 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Port stats and facts at a glance, accessed April 24, 2020.
105 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Moving the earth, All over the world, Coal, accessed April 24, 2020.
106 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, We are the heavy hitters in bulk cargo. And we can prove it, accessed April 24, 2020.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map