Minnesota State Energy Profile



Minnesota Quick Facts

  • Minnesota has 426 E85 (a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol) fueling stations, more than any other state, and it was the nation's fifth-largest fuel ethanol producer in 2020, accounting for 8% of U.S. total production.
  • About 30% of all U.S. crude oil imports flow through Minnesota, and Pine Bend Refinery in Minnesota is the largest crude oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state.
  • About 27% of utility-scale electricity generation in Minnesota came from coal-fired electric power plants in 2021, down from 53% in 2011.
  • In 2021, Minnesota's two nuclear power plants, Prairie Island and Monticello, fueled 24% of the state's electricity net generation.
  • In 2021, renewable resources supplied 29% of Minnesota's total in-state electricity generation. The state was ninth in the nation in total generation from wind, and wind accounted for 75% of the state's renewable generation.

Last Updated: July 21, 2022



Data

Last Update: November 17, 2022 | Next Update: December 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.7 million 1.7% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 3.1 million 1.9% Sep-22  
Economy Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 412.0 billion 19 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 56,135 million 17 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 65,486 15 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 51,619 million miles 22 2020  
Land in Farms 25.5 million acres 14 2017  
Climate Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 44.3 degrees Fahrenheit 44 2021  
Precipitation 23.7 inches 37 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 93.75 /barrel Aug-22  
Natural Gas Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 9.68 /thousand cu ft $ 10.49 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Residential $ 22.96 /thousand cu ft $ 25.61 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Coal Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.40 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Aug-22  
Electricity Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 15.12 cents/kWh 15.95 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Commercial 13.19 cents/kWh 13.45 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Industrial 10.68 cents/kWh 9.72 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 439,000 barrels/calendar day 2.4% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 18,305 MW 1.6% Aug-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 505 trillion Btu 0.5% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2021 find more
Coal -- -- 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,424 thousand MWh 1.3% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 20.9 % 45.7 % Aug-22 find more
Coal-Fired 32.9 % 20.5 % Aug-22 find more
Nuclear 23.3 % 16.6 % Aug-22 find more
Renewables 22.3 % 16.4 % Aug-22  
Stocks Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 318 thousand barrels 2.6% Aug-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,501 thousand barrels 1.8% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 6,193 million cu ft 0.1% Aug-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 76 thousand barrels 0.4% Aug-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,619 thousand tons 3.4% Aug-22 find more
Fueling Stations Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,117 stations 1.9% 2019  
Propane 48 stations 1.9% 2022  
Electricity 550 stations 1.2% 2022  
E85 442 stations 10.7% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 170 stations 13.1% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,731 trillion Btu 18 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 303 million Btu 19 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 17,647 million 22 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,092 29 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 411 trillion Btu 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 339 trillion Btu 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 577 trillion Btu 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 405 trillion Btu 1.7% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,579 million 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,095 million 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,281 million 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 6,692 million 1.7% 2020 find more
by Source Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 109 million barrels 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 469 billion cu ft 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 9 million short tons 1.9% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 8,662 million 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,430 million 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 326 million 1.7% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.3% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas 8,656 million cu ft 0.6% Aug-22 find more
Coal 1,033 thousand short tons 2.1% Aug-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 64.7 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 1.3 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 19.4 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 11.1 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 3.5 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,345 MW 2.1% Aug-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,424 million gal/year 8.2% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 99 thousand MWh 0.4% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 996 thousand MWh 2.5% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 114 thousand MWh 2.4% Aug-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 27 thousand MWh 0.5% Aug-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 27,284 thousand barrels 8.2% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Minnesota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 16.5 % 16 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,795 thousand barrels 15 2020  
Total Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 92.1 million metric tons 1.8% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 20,957 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 13 thousand metric tons 1.2% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 18 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 21, 2022

Overview

Minnesota plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets across the Midwest and beyond.

Minnesota is one of the largest Midwestern states and extends further north than any of the other Lower 48 states.1,2 Although Minnesota has no fossil fuel reserves or production, the state plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets throughout the Midwest and beyond.3,4,5,6 The Mississippi River's headwaters are in Minnesota, and the first 650 miles of the river's nearly 2,350-mile-length flows through the state.7,8 Ports along the river handle dry and liquid commodities including coal and petroleum, as well as half of the state's agricultural exports.9 Lake Superior, the nation's largest lake by volume and surface area, forms Minnesota's northeastern border, and the waterway plays a significant role in energy transport.10,11 Duluth-Superior, Minnesota's largest port, is on Lake Superior at the western end of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System, which connects the port to worldwide shipping. Coal from Wyoming and Montana enters Minnesota by rail and transfers to ships at Duluth-Superior.12,13 Most of the crude oil shipped east by rail from North Dakota also travels across Minnesota.14 Additionally, several pipelines bring North Dakota's crude oil into the state, and other pipelines move Canadian supplies of crude oil from the north to Minnesota's refineries and on to other U.S. refining centers.15

Minnesota has significant renewable resources. Winds that move unobstructed across the state's broad western and southern prairies provide energy for electricity generation.16 Minnesota's rolling plains are covered by fertile topsoil, giving the state some of the nation's richest farmland, which, along with the 17 million acres of forest that cover about one-third of the state's land area, provide Minnesota with ample biomass resources.17,18,19 The state's abundant cornfields produce Minnesota's most valuable crop and provide feedstock for the state's many fuel ethanol production plants.20,21,22 With almost 70,000 miles of natural streams and rivers, the state's waterways are a hydropower resource.23,24

Minnesota's climate is known for Arctic chills in the winter. While the northern part of the state has frigid winters, southern Minnesota can experience prolonged hot weather in the summer. Even so, Minnesota's per capita energy consumption is less than in one-third of the states.25,26 The industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive construction, food processing, chemical products manufacturing, petroleum refining, agriculture, mining, and paper manufacturing industries, leads the state in total energy consumption, and accounts for more than one-third of Minnesota's total energy end use. The transportation sector is second and consumes about one-third, followed by the residential sector, which accounts for almost one-fifth of state energy use. The commercial sector consumes the rest.27,28,29

Electricity

Renewable resources, including wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass, generated the largest share of Minnesota’s electricity in 2021.

Renewable resources, including wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass, generate the largest share of Minnesota's electricity. In 2021, renewables accounted for 29% of total in-state electricity net generation, coal fueled 26%, nuclear power supplied 24%, and natural gas contributed 21%. Coal-fired power plants provided the largest share of Minnesota's electricity net generation until 2020, when their contribution fell below the amount supplied by renewables and nuclear power for the first time. In 2021, although coal once again supplied more power than nuclear energy, it provided less power than the state's renewable resources. Renewable generation, mostly from wind energy, has almost doubled over the past decade while nuclear generation has remained relatively flat. In 2021, wind provided 22% of Minnesota's total in-state electricity net generation.30,31 The state's largest power plant by capacity, Sherburne County Generating Station, is coal-fired and has a generating capacity more than twice that of the next largest power plant, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant. However, three-fifths of the capacity at the Sherburne plant will retire by 2025, and the rest is scheduled for retirement by 2034.32 The Prairie Island nuclear power plant, which is located on the Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota, already provides more of the state's electricity net generation than the Sherburne County plant.33

Minnesotans consume more electricity than the state generates, and during the past decade they received between 18% and 31% of their annual electricity supply from out of state.34 The residential, commercial, and industrial sectors purchase almost equal amounts of electricity.35 Minnesota's electricity retail sales are greater than in more than half the states, but per capita sales are less than in almost two-thirds of the states. Residential electricity retail sales are also greater than in half the states but residential per capita sales are less than in almost two-thirds of the states.36 Almost one in six Minnesota households use electricity for home heating.37

Renewable energy

Wind energy provides most of Minnesota's renewable electricity generation. In 2021, it accounted for three-fourths of the state's total renewable generation.38 Minnesota ranks eighth in the nation in wind capacity and accounts for more than 3% of the U.S. total.39 In 2021, Minnesota was also among the top 10 states with the largest share of total generation from wind.40 Most of Minnesota's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) wind farms are located on the gently rolling prairie in the southwestern part of the state.41 However, the potential for small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) wind installations exists across the state and Minnesota is among the top five states with the greatest potential for residential small-scale, customer-sited wind installations.42

Minnesota is one of the top five ethanol-producing states and accounts for about 8% of U.S. fuel ethanol production.

In 2021, solar energy provided almost 4% of Minnesota's total electricity generation. More than 90% of that was from utility-scale installations.43 Biomass fueled more than 2% of Minnesota's electricity generation, primarily from the state's wood or wood-derived fuels.44 Those plants account for almost two-thirds of Minnesota's biomass-fueled generating capacity.45 Most of the state's landfill gas and municipal solid waste biomass power plants are located in more densely populated areas in southern Minnesota, while two of the largest wood-fueled plants are in the more heavily forested areas of northern Minnesota.46,47 Some biomass power plants also use agricultural crop residues.48 Minnesota does not manufacture wood pellets, which are often used for space heating, but about 2% of the state's households heat with wood.49,50

Although Minnesota is known as the land of 10,000 lakes, including one that is the source of the Mississippi River, the state produces only modest amounts of hydroelectric power, in part because of its gently rolling terrain.51,52 There are nearly 30 hydroelectric power plants in the state, the largest of which has a capacity of about 76 megawatts. Although most of the plants are small, they account for almost 2% of the state's total electricity net generation.53,54

Minnesota is the nation's fifth-largest fuel ethanol producer and accounts for 8% of U.S. total production.55 There are 19 fuel ethanol production plants in Minnesota, all of which use corn as a feedstock.56,57 All of the state's ethanol plants are in agriculturally rich southern and western Minnesota where most of the state's farmland is located.58,59 Minnesota also has two biodiesel plants with a combined capacity of about 71 million gallons per year, which is 3% of the nation's total.60 The state's biodiesel mandate requires that diesel fuel sold in Minnesota contain at least 20% biodiesel from April through September when air quality is worst. Diesel fuel can contain less than 20% biodiesel from April 1 to April 14 but not less than 10%, and must be at least 5% biodiesel during the rest of the year.61 Minnesota is among the top five biodiesel consumers in the nation and used about 130 million gallons in 2020.62

Minnesota's mandatory renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state's electricity providers, with the exception of the state's largest utility, generate or procure at least 25% of their electricity retail sales from eligible renewable sources by 2025. The largest utility, which also operates the state's nuclear power plants, has to meet a higher standard. There is also a goal that solar energy account for 10% of statewide electricity retail sales by 2030.63 In 2018, the state's utilities already met the 25% requirement.64

Minnesota first adopted an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) in 2007. Beginning in 2021, Minnesota's EERS requires that investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities reduce average retail energy sales by 2.5% each year, based on the most recent three-year weather-normalized average. The EERS also requires natural gas and electric utilities to spend a portion of their annual operating revenues on advancing energy efficiency, demand-side management, and certain types of renewable energy.65

Petroleum

Minnesota does not have any crude oil reserves or production.66,67 However, pipelines that carry a significant share of the crude oil used in the United States converge at the Clearbrook terminal in northwestern Minnesota, a key distribution point in the transport of crude oil to refineries in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and other states.68 About three-tenths of all U.S. crude oil imports enter the country through Minnesota. Those imports come from Canada.69 Two major pipeline systems bring crude oil from Canada and the western United States into Minnesota.70 Most of the crude oil transported by rail across Minnesota comes from North Dakota and continues on to East Coast refineries.71,72

Minnesota has the largest crude oil refinery in any of the non-oil-producing states.

Minnesota has two crude oil refineries with a combined capacity of almost 440,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.73 The Pine Bend refinery, located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul suburbs, is the nation's largest oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state. It can process about 335,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. Its refined products include transportation fuels delivered to markets throughout the Midwest.74,75 Minnesota's other refinery, St. Paul Park, is located along the Mississippi River. St. Paul Park, built in 1939, expanded over the years and now processes about 104,000 barrels per calendar day. That refinery produces a variety of refined products from U.S. and Canadian sweet and sour crude oils, including motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, propane, and refinery-grade propylene.76,77 Petroleum product pipelines cross the state, distributing refined products from Minnesota's refineries and those in other states to Minnesota markets.78

Minnesota has more E85 fueling stations than any other state and about one-tenth of the nation’s total.

Minnesota's per capita petroleum consumption is less than in almost half the states.79 The transportation sector consumes more than two-thirds of the petroleum used in Minnesota, and motor gasoline accounts for nearly half of all petroleum consumed in the state.80,81 Minnesota was the first state to require the use of ethanol in motor gasoline and is one of only two Midwestern states (Missouri is the other) that requires the statewide use of oxygenated motor gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.82,83 Minnesota also has 426 public-access fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol. The state has more E85 fueling stations than any other state and about one-tenth of the nation's total.84 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in Minnesota and accounts for almost one-fourth of the petroleum used in the state. The residential sector accounts for about 5% of Minnesota's petroleum consumption. About one in eight Minnesota homes heat with petroleum products. One in nine households use hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane, and fewer than 1 in 50 households heat with fuel oil or kerosene.85 The commercial sector uses less than 3% of the petroleum consumed in the state.86

Natural gas

Minnesota does not have any natural gas reserves or production.87,88 Although several natural gas pipelines cross the state, there are no natural gas market centers in Minnesota. The state does have four U.S.-Canada natural gas pipeline border crossings capable of handling hundreds of billions of cubic feet of natural gas each year, but import volumes have decreased as U.S. natural gas production has increased.89,90,91 Interstate pipelines deliver natural gas to Minnesota, primarily from South Dakota, Canada, North Dakota, and Iowa. Three-fourths of the natural gas that enters Minnesota continues on to Iowa and Wisconsin on its way to markets in the Midwest and beyond. A small amount is delivered back to North Dakota and Canada and some is placed in the state's only natural gas storage field, which has a storage capacity of 7 billion cubic feet.92,93

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to consumers in Minnesota and accounts for almost one-third of state consumption. The residential sector, where two out of three Minnesota households heat with natural gas, uses about three-tenths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. The commercial sector accounts for more than one-fifth.94,95 About 18% of the natural gas delivered to consumers went to the state's electric power sector in 2020.96 In 2021, Minnesota's electric power sector consumed more than triple the amount of natural gas it used in 2011.97

Coal

Minnesota has no coal reserves or production.98,99 However, coal from the Powder River Basin travels across Minnesota by rail to the Port of Duluth-Superior, where it is transferred to vessels for shipment on the Great Lakes and along the St. Lawrence Seaway. Coal accounts for about 15% of the tonnage shipped from the Port of Duluth.100 In 2021, about 7.5 million tons of U.S coal was transferred to ships at Duluth-Superior for delivery to utilities and manufacturing plants along the Great Lakes in the United States and Canada, and some goes overseas.101,102 Wyoming and Montana also supply the coal Minnesota consumes.103 About 90% of that coal is used for electric power generation, and the rest goes to industrial users.104 Minnesota had about 4,000 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity as of April 2022, but more than two-thirds of that capacity is scheduled for retirement by 2034.105

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, 50 State Rankings for Size, accessed June 12, 2022.
2 Infoplease, Minnesota: Geography, accessed June 12, 2022.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31 and Estimated Production, 2015-2020.
4 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals and Dry Production, Annual, 2016-21.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
6 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layers and Other Transport and Storage Map Layers, accessed June 13, 2022.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota, Mississippi River Facts, accessed June 13, 2022.
8 Explore Minnesota, Mississippi River, accessed June 13, 2022.
9 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports, and Waterways, Commercial waterways, The Mississippi River System, accessed June 13, 2022.
10 Geology.com, Largest Lake in the World & Largest Lake in the United States, accessed June 13, 2022.
11 NETSTATE, Minnesota, Minnesota Base and Elevation Maps, updated February 25, 2016.
12 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports and Waterways, Commercial waterways, Lake Superior / Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway, accessed June 13, 2022.
13 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Port Statistics, Port of Duluth-Superior Docks/Terminals, accessed June 13, 2022.
14 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Crude By Rail/Rail Safety Improvement Study, What is Crude by Rail?, accessed June 13, 2022.
15 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
16 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Minnesota, Minnesota 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed June 13, 2022.
17 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
18 Becker, Dennis R., et al., 2010 Outlook for Forest Biomass Availability in Minnesota: Physical, Environmental, Economic and Social Availability, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources (October 2010), 1.0 Introduction, p. 1.
19 Minnesota Department of Commerce, Bioenergy Industry, accessed June 13, 2022.
20 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Cash receipts by state, commodity ranking and share of U.S. total, 2020, Nominal (current dollars), select crops and corn.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 1, 2021 (Excel File).
22 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 06, 2022.
23 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Lakes, rivers, and wetlands facts, updated 2013.
24 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 13, 2022.
25 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, Climate, updated February 25, 2016.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, Use of energy explained, Energy use in industry, Basics, updated August 2 2021.
28 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), Minnesota, All statistics in table, 2020-21.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-21.
31 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2020, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022.
33 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
34 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Minnesota, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2001-21.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-21.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2022), Table 6.2.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
41 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 14, 2022.
42 McCabe, Kevin, et al., Distributed Wind Energy Futures Study, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-82519 (May 2022), Table 10.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-21.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Biomass (total), Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2021.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022.
46 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layers, accessed June 14, 2022.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Minnesota Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
48 Koda Energy, Koda Energy, Clean, Renewable, Friendly, accessed June 16, 2022.
49 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, March 2022.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
51 NETSTATE, The State of Minnesota, updated July 28, 2017.
52 NETSTATE, The Geography of Minnesota, updated February 25, 2016.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Number of plants for conventional hydroelectric, Minnesota, all sectors, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2020, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2021 (Excel File).
57 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 6, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant Map layer, accessed June 17, 2022.
59 Minnesota IT Services, Minnesota Land Use/Cover: Recent (1969-present), Minnesota 2013 Land Cover and Impervious Surface Area, accessed June 17, 2022.
60 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated January 24, 2022.
61 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Laws and Incentives, Minnesota, Biodiesel Blend Mandate, accessed June 17, 2022.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Minnesota Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 15, 2018.
64 Kagubare, Ines, "Minnesota Is on Track to Meet Its Renewable Energy Goals," Scientific American E&E News (November 19, 2018).
65 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, updated December 8, 2021.
66 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Estimated Production, Annual, 2020.
68 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 3-5.
69 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
70 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed June 17, 2022.
71 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 7.
72 U.S. EIA, Refinery Receipts of Crude Oil by Method of Transportation, Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail), 2021.
73 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, and Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2022.
74 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
75 Flint Hills Resources, Fuels and Aromatics, accessed June 18, 2022.
76 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
77 Marathon, St. Paul Park Refinery, accessed June 18, 2022.
78 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department (October 2018), p. 9-10.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
82 Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Ethanol in Minnesota, accessed June 18, 2022.
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85 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Minnesota, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016-21.
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91 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1900-2021.
92 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, 2015-20.
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97 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2021.
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