Minnesota State Energy Profile



Minnesota Quick Facts

  • Minnesota has about 420 E85 fueling stations, more than any other state. E85 is a blend of motor gasoline containing 85% ethanol. The state was the nation's fifth-largest fuel ethanol producer in 2021 and accounted for 9% of U.S. total production.
  • About three-tenths of all U.S. crude oil imports enter the country through Minnesota, and the state's Pine Bend Refinery is the largest crude oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state.
  • In 2022, coal-fired power plants provided about 27% of Minnesota's in-state electricity generation, second only to renewable resources. Coal-fired power plants provided the largest share of Minnesota’s electricity net generation until 2020.
  • In 2022, Minnesota's two nuclear power plants, Prairie Island and Monticello, fueled 24% of the state's electricity net generation. Prairie Island nuclear plant is the state's second-largest power plant of any type by both capacity and generation.
  • In 2022, renewable resources supplied 31% of Minnesota's total in-state electricity generation, three-fourths of it from wind. Minnesota ranks ninth in the nation in wind's share of state total generation.

Last Updated: August 17, 2023



Data

Last Update: February 15, 2024 | Next Update: March 21, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.7 million 1.7% 2022  
Civilian Labor Force 3.1 million 1.8% Dec-23  
Economy Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 446.5 billion 20 2022  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 58,695 million 17 2022  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 68,010 15 2022  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 57,171 million miles 22 2021  
Land in Farms 25.4 million acres 15 2022  
Climate Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 43.9 degrees Fahrenheit 46 2023  
Precipitation 24.1 inches 38 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 77.46 /barrel Nov-23  
Natural Gas Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.06 /thousand cu ft $ 4.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Residential $ 7.69 /thousand cu ft $ 13.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Coal Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.41 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Nov-23  
Electricity Minnesota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.39 cents/kWh 16.19 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Commercial 11.84 cents/kWh 12.60 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Industrial 8.61 cents/kWh 7.90 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 440,000 barrels/calendar day 2.4% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 18,499 MW 1.6% Nov-23  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 520 trillion Btu 0.5% 2021 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2022 find more
Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,549 thousand MWh 1.4% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 22.0 % 42.0 % Nov-23 find more
Coal-Fired 28.2 % 15.9 % Nov-23 find more
Nuclear 10.4 % 19.3 % Nov-23 find more
Renewables 38.7 % 21.9 % Nov-23  
Stocks Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 257 thousand barrels 2.1% Nov-23  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,688 thousand barrels 2.0% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 6,980 million cu ft 0.1% Nov-23 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 87 thousand barrels 0.4% Nov-23 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,779 thousand tons 2.1% Nov-23 find more
Fueling Stations Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,060 stations 1.9% 2021  
Propane 42 stations 1.7% Jan-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 731 stations 1.2% Jan-24  
E85 407 stations 9.4% Jan-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 285 stations 10.2% Jan-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Minnesota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,816 trillion Btu 18 2021 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 319 million Btu 19 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 22,680 million 22 2021 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,971 27 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 415 trillion Btu 2.0% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial 348 trillion Btu 2.0% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial 608 trillion Btu 1.9% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation 444 trillion Btu 1.6% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,104 million 1.8% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,611 million 1.8% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial $ 4,011 million 1.7% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,954 million 1.6% 2021 find more
by Source Minnesota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 115 million barrels 1.6% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas 507 billion cu ft 1.6% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 10,478 thousand short tons 2.0% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 12,508 million 1.6% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 4,767 million 1.8% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 439 million 1.6% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 8 thousand barrels 0.5% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas 7,728 million cu ft 0.9% Apr-23 find more
Coal 733 thousand tons 2.5% Nov-23 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Minnesota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 65.3 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 1.2 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 18.7 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 11.2 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 3.6 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,697 MW 2.1% Nov-23  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,418 million gal/year 8.0% 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 63 thousand MWh 0.3% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,596 thousand MWh 3.3% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 102 thousand MWh 2.6% Nov-23  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 19 thousand MWh 0.4% Nov-23  
Fuel Ethanol Production 30,446 thousand barrels 8.5% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Minnesota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 16.4 % 18 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 7,148 thousand barrels 18 2021  
Total Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 83.2 million metric tons 1.7% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Minnesota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 22,327 thousand metric tons 1.4% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 14 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 21 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 17, 2023

Overview

Minnesota plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets across the Midwest and beyond.

Minnesota is one of the largest Midwestern states, and it extends further north than any of the other Lower 48 states.1,2 Although Minnesota has no fossil fuel reserves or production, the state plays an important role in moving fossil fuels to markets throughout the Midwest and beyond.3,4,5,6 The Mississippi River's headwaters are in Minnesota, and the first 650 miles of the river's nearly 2,350-mile-length flows through the state.7,8 Ports along that river handle dry and liquid commodities including coal and petroleum, as well as half of the state's agricultural exports.9 Lake Superior, the nation's largest lake by volume and surface area, forms Minnesota's northeastern border, and that waterway plays a significant role in energy transport.10,11 Duluth-Superior, Minnesota's largest port, is on Lake Superior at the western end of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System, which connects the port to worldwide shipping. Coal from Wyoming and Montana enters Minnesota by rail and transfers to ships at Duluth-Superior.12,13 Most of the crude oil shipped east by rail from North Dakota also travels across Minnesota.14 Additionally, several pipelines bring North Dakota's crude oil into the state, and other pipelines move Canadian supplies of crude oil from the north to Minnesota's refineries and on to other U.S. refining centers.15

Minnesota has significant renewable resources. Winds that move unobstructed across the state's broad western and southern prairies provide energy for electricity generation.16 Minnesota's rolling plains are covered by fertile topsoil, giving the state some of the nation's richest farmland, which, along with the 17 million acres of forest that cover about one-third of the state's land area, provide Minnesota with ample biomass resources.17,18,19 The state's abundant cornfields produce Minnesota's most valuable crop and provide feedstock for the state's many fuel ethanol production plants.20,21,22 With almost 70,000 miles of natural streams and rivers, the state's waterways are a hydropower resource.23,24

Minnesota's climate is known for Arctic chills in the winter. However, while the northern part of the state has frigid winters, southern Minnesota can experience prolonged hot weather in the summer.25 Even so, Minnesota's per capita energy consumption is less than in almost two-fifths of the states.26 In 2021, the industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive construction, food processing, chemical products manufacturing, petroleum refining, agriculture, mining, and paper manufacturing industries, led the state in total energy consumption, and accounted for one-third of Minnesota's total energy use. The transportation sector is the second-largest energy user and consumed one-fourth. The residential sector followed closely and accounted for almost one-fourth of state energy use. The commercial sector consumed nearly one-fifth.27,28,29

Electricity

Renewable resources, including wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass, generated the largest share of Minnesota’s electricity in 2022.

Renewable resources, including wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass, generate the largest share of Minnesota's electricity. In 2022, renewables accounted for 31% of total in-state electricity net generation, coal fueled 27%, nuclear power supplied 24%, and natural gas contributed 18%.30 Coal-fired power plants provided the largest share of Minnesota's electricity net generation until 2020, when their contribution fell below that of renewables and nuclear power for the first time. Renewable generation, mostly from wind energy, has almost doubled over the past decade while nuclear generation has remained relatively flat. In 2021, coal once again supplied more power than nuclear energy, but it provided less power than the state's renewable resources. In 2022, wind provided 23% of Minnesota's total in-state electricity net generation.31,32

The state's largest power plant by capacity, Sherburne County Generating Station, is coal-fired, and it has a generating capacity more than twice that of the next largest power plant, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant. However, three-fifths of the capacity at the Sherburne plant will retire by 2025, and the rest is scheduled for retirement by 2034.33 The Prairie Island nuclear power plant, which is located on the Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota, provided almost as much of the state's electricity net generation as the Sherburne County plant did in 2021 and 2022.34,35

Minnesotans consume more electricity than the state generates, and Minnesota consistently receives a portion of its annual electricity supply from out of state.36 The residential, commercial, and industrial sectors use almost equal amounts of power.37 Minnesota's electricity sales are greater than in more than half the states, but per capita sales are less than in almost three-fifths of the states. Electricity sales to the residential sector, where about one in five Minnesota households use electricity for home heating, are also greater than in half the states.38 However, per capita residential sales are less than in almost two-thirds of the states.39

Renewable energy

Wind energy provides the largest share of Minnesota's electricity generation from renewable resources. In 2022, it accounted for more than three-fourths of the state's renewable generation and 23% of the state's total net generation.40 Minnesota ranks eighth in the nation in wind capacity and accounts for more than 3% of the U.S. total.41 In 2022, Minnesota was among the 10 states with the largest share of in-state generation from wind.42 Most of Minnesota's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) wind farms are located on the gently rolling prairie in the southwestern part of the state.43 However, the potential for small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) wind installations exists across the state and Minnesota is among the five states with the greatest potential for residential small-scale, customer-sited wind installations.44

In 2022, solar energy provided almost 4% of Minnesota's total electricity generation, which was about one-eighth of the state's renewable generation. About 90% of the state's solar power came from utility-scale installations.45 Biomass fueled 2% of Minnesota's total electricity generation, and about 7% of the state's renewable generation. Almost two-thirds of Minnesota's biomass-fueled generating capacity and nearly three-fourths of the state's actual generation from biomass uses wood or wood-derived fuels.46,47 Most of the state's landfill gas and municipal solid waste biomass power plants are located in more densely populated areas in southern Minnesota, while two of the largest wood-fueled plants are in the more heavily forested areas of northern Minnesota.48,49 Some biomass power plants also use agricultural crop residues.50 Minnesota does not manufacture wood pellets, which are often used for space heating, but almost 2% of the state's households heat with wood.51,52

Minnesota is one of the top five ethanol-producing states and accounts for about 9% of U.S. fuel ethanol production.

Although Minnesota is known as the land of 10,000 lakes, including Lake Itasca, the source of the Mississippi River, the state produces only modest amounts of hydroelectric power, in part because of its gently rolling terrain.53,54 There are nearly 30 utility-scale hydroelectric power plants in the state, the largest of which has a capacity of about 76 megawatts. Although most of the plants are small, they account for more than 1% of the state's total electricity net generation and 4% of the amount from renewable resources.55,56

Minnesota is the nation's fifth-largest fuel ethanol producer and accounts for about 9% of U.S. total production.57 There are 18 fuel ethanol production plants in the state, and all of them are in agriculturally rich southern and western Minnesota where most of the state's cropland is located.58,59,60 All of the state's ethanol plants use corn as a feedstock.61 Minnesota also has three biodiesel plants with a combined capacity of about 85 million gallons per year, which is 4% of the nation's total.62 The state's biodiesel mandate requires that diesel fuel sold in Minnesota contain at least 20% biodiesel from April through September when air quality is worst. Diesel fuel may contain less than 20% biodiesel from April 1 to April 14 but not less than 10%, and it must contain at least 5% biodiesel during the rest of the year.63 The state is third, after Illinois and Iowa, in its number of public-access biodiesel fueling stations.64 Minnesota also is among the top 5 biodiesel consumers in the nation and used about 125 million gallons in 2021.65

Minnesota's mandatory renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state's electricity providers, with the exception of the state's largest utility, generate or procure at least 25% of their electricity retail sales from eligible renewable sources by 2025. The state's largest utility, which also operates Minnesota's nuclear power plants, has to meet a higher standard. In 2018, the state's utilities had already met the 25% requirement.66 There is an additional goal that 10% of statewide electricity sales come from solar power by 2030.67 Minnesota also adopted an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) in 2007. The EERS requires that investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities reduce average retail energy sales and spend a portion of their annual operating revenues on advancing energy efficiency, demand-side management, and certain types of renewable energy.68

Petroleum

Minnesota does not have any crude oil reserves or production.69,70 However, pipelines that carry a significant share of the crude oil used in the United States converge at the Clearbrook terminal in northwestern Minnesota, a key distribution point in the transport of crude oil to refineries in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and other states. About three-tenths of all U.S. crude oil imports enter the country through Minnesota. Those imports come from Canada. Two major pipeline systems bring crude oil from Canada and the western United States into Minnesota. Most of the crude oil transported by rail across Minnesota comes from North Dakota and continues on to East Coast refineries.71,72

Minnesota has the largest crude oil refinery in any of the non-oil-producing states.

Minnesota has two crude oil refineries with a combined capacity of about 440,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.73 The Pine Bend refinery, located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul suburbs, is the nation's largest oil refinery located in a non-oil-producing state. It can process about 335,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. It produces transportation fuels that are delivered to markets throughout the Midwest.74,75 Minnesota's other refinery, St. Paul Park, is located along the Mississippi River. St. Paul Park, built in 1939, expanded over the years and now processes about 105,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. That refinery produces a variety of refined products from U.S. and Canadian sweet and sour crude oils, including motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, propane, and refinery-grade propylene.76,77 Petroleum product pipelines cross the state and distribute refined products from Minnesota's refineries and from refineries in other states to Minnesota markets.78

Minnesota has more E85 fueling stations than any other state and about one-tenth of the nation’s total.

Minnesota's per capita petroleum consumption is less than in about half the states.79 In 2021, the transportation sector consumed 71% of the petroleum used in Minnesota, and motor gasoline accounted for nearly half of that.80,81 Minnesota was the first state to require the use of ethanol in motor gasoline and is one of only two Midwestern states (Missouri is the other) that requires the statewide use of oxygenated motor gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.82,83 Minnesota also has about 420 public-access fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol. The state has more E85 fueling stations than any other state and 10% of the nation's total.84 In 2021, the industrial sector was the second-largest petroleum consumer in Minnesota and accounted for 19% of the petroleum used in the state. The residential sector accounted for about 7% of Minnesota's petroleum consumption. About one in eight Minnesota homes heat with petroleum products. More specifically, 1 in 9 use propane, and fewer than 1 in 70 households heat with fuel oil or kerosene.85 The commercial sector used about 3% of the petroleum consumed in the state. A small amount of petroleum was used by the electric power sector.86

Natural gas

Minnesota does not have any natural gas reserves or production.87,88 Although several natural gas pipelines cross the state, there are no natural gas market centers in Minnesota. The state does have four U.S.-Canada natural gas pipeline border crossings capable of handling hundreds of billions of cubic feet of natural gas each year, but import volumes have decreased as U.S. natural gas production has increased.89,90,91 Interstate pipelines deliver natural gas to Minnesota, primarily from South Dakota, Canada, North Dakota, and Iowa. Three-fourths of the natural gas that enters Minnesota continues on to other states. Almost all of it goes to Iowa and Wisconsin on its way to markets in the Midwest and beyond. A small amount is delivered back to North Dakota and Canada and some is placed in the state's only natural gas storage field, which has a storage capacity of 7 billion cubic feet.92,93

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to consumers in Minnesota and accounts for about one-third of state consumption. The residential sector, where two out of three Minnesota households heat with natural gas, uses more than one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. The commercial sector accounts for more than one-fifth, and almost one-fifth goes to the state's electric power sector.94,95 Natural gas use for power generation has substantially increased during the past decade. In 2022, Minnesota's electric power sector used about three times as much natural gas as it consumed in 2011.96

Coal

Minnesota does not have any coal mines or reserves.97,98 However, the state plays a key role in the nation's coal shipments. Coal from the Powder River Basin travels across Minnesota by rail to the Port of Duluth-Superior, where it is transferred to vessels for shipment on the Great Lakes and along the St. Lawrence Seaway. Coal accounts for about 15% of the tonnage shipped from the Port of Duluth.99 In 2022, about 6.6 million tons of U.S. coal were transferred to ships at Duluth-Superior for delivery to utilities and manufacturing plants along the Great Lakes in the United States and Canada, and some went overseas.100,101 Wyoming and Montana supply the coal Minnesota consumes.102 More than 90% of that coal is used for electric power generation, and the rest goes to industrial users.103 Minnesota had about 3,800 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity as of June 2023, but three-fifths of that capacity is scheduled for retirement by 2034.104

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, 50 State Rankings for Size, accessed July 19, 2023.
2 Infoplease, Minnesota: Geography, accessed July 19, 2023.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31 2021 and Estimated Production, 2016-2021.
4 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals and Dry Production, Annual, 2017-22.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 1, Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2021 and 2020.
6 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Pipelines, Terminals. Port, Waterway, and USA Rail Layers, accessed July 19, 2023.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota, Mississippi River Facts, updated February 10, 2022.
8 Explore Minnesota, Mississippi River, accessed July 19, 2023.
9 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports, and Waterways, Commercial waterways, The Mississippi River System, accessed July 19, 2023.
10 Geology.com, Largest Lake in the World & Largest Lake in the United States, accessed July 19, 2023.
11 NETSTATE, Minnesota, Minnesota Base and Elevation Maps, updated February 25, 2016.
12 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Ports and Waterways, Commercial waterways, Lake Superior / Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway, accessed July 19, 2023.
13 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Port Statistics, Port of Duluth-Superior Docks/Terminals, accessed July 19, 2023.
14 Minnesota Department of Transportation, Crude By Rail/Rail Safety Improvement Study, What is Crude by Rail?, accessed July 19, 2023.
15 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, updated October 2018, p. 2.
16 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Minnesota, Minnesota 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed July 19, 2023.
17 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
18 Becker, Dennis R., et al., 2010 Outlook for Forest Biomass Availability in Minnesota: Physical, Environmental, Economic and Social Availability, University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources (October 2010), 1.0 Introduction, p. 1.
19 Minnesota Department of Commerce, Bioenergy, Bioenergy Industry, accessed July 19, 2023.
20 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Cash receipts by commodity State ranking, Cash receipts by commodity, state ranking, 2021, Nominal (current dollars), select crops and corn.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. fuel ethanol plant count by state, 2022, interactive map.
22 Ethanol Producer Magazine, Plants List, accessed July 20, 2023.
23 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Lakes, rivers, and wetlands facts, updated 2013.
24 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Hydroelectric Power Plants Map Layer, accessed July 20, 2023.
25 NETSTATE, Minnesota, The Geography of Minnesota, Climate, updated February 25, 2016.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, Use of energy explained, Energy use in industry, Basics, accessed July 20, 2023.
28 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), Minnesota, All statistics in table, 2021-22.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2022.
31 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2021, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-22.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023.
34 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A, 2B.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Plant Level Date, Coal (Sherburne County), Nuclear (Prairie Island), Annual, 2021-22.
36 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Electricity Profile 2021, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Minnesota, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2001-22.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Minnesota.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales to Ultimate Customers, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Minnesota, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-22.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2023), Table 6.2.B.
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 1.17.B.
43 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 21, 2023.
44 McCabe, Kevin, et al., Distributed Wind Energy Futures Study, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-82519 (May 2022), Tables 10, 12.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2022.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Biomass (total), Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2022.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Minnesota Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
50 Koda Energy, Koda Energy, Clean, Renewable, Friendly, accessed July 21, 2023.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, May 2023.
52 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Minnesota.
53 NETSTATE, The State of Minnesota, updated July 28, 2017.
54 NETSTATE, The Geography of Minnesota, updated February 25, 2016.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023.
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Minnesota, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Biofuels, in Thousand Barrels, Ranked by State, 2021.
58 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 1, 2023 (Excel File).
59 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Ethanol Plant Map layer, accessed July 21, 2023.
60 Minnesota IT Services, Minnesota Land Use/Cover: Recent (1969-present), Minnesota 2013 Land Cover and Impervious Surface Area, accessed July 21, 2023.
61 Ethanol Producer Magazine, Plants List, accessed July 21, 2023.
62 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2023, Excel File.
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Laws and Incentives, Minnesota, Biodiesel Blend Mandate, accessed July 21, 2023.
64 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, updated July 27, 2023.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2021.
66 Kagubare, Ines, "Minnesota Is on Track to Meet Its Renewable Energy Goals," Scientific American E&E News (November 19, 2018).
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Minnesota Renewable Energy Standard, updated August 12, 2022.
68 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, updated December 8, 2021.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2021.
70 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Estimated Production, Annual, 2021.
71 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, Information Brief (October 2018), p. 2-7.
72 U.S. EIA, East Coast (PADD 1) Receipts by Rail from Midwest (PADD 2) of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels), 2010-22.
73 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, and Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2023.
74 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2023), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2023.
75 Flint Hills Resources, Fuels, accessed July 23, 2023.
76 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2023), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2023.
77 Marathon, St. Paul Park Refinery, accessed July 21, 2023.
78 Eleff, Bob, Minnesota's Petroleum Infrastructure: Pipelines, Refineries, Terminals, Minnesota House of Representatives, House Research Department, Information Brief (October 2018), p. 9-10.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption Estimates, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2021.
82 Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Ethanol in Minnesota, accessed July 21, 2023.
83 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, American Petroleum Institute, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
84 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, updated July 27, 2023.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Minnesota.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2016-21.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2017-22.
89 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Natural Gas Pipeline, Natural Gas Trading Hub, and Natural Gas Pipeline Border Crossing Map Layers, accessed July 21, 2023.
90 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Natural Gas International Receipts from Canada, 1999-2021.
91 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1900-2022.
92 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, 2016-21.
93 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Storage Fields and Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2016-21.
94 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Minnesota.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Minnesota, Annual, 2017-22.
96 U.S. EIA, Minnesota Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2022.
97 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2021.
99 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Port Statistics, accessed July 21, 2023.
100 Orenstein, Walker, "As energy use changes in the Great Lakes, so too does the Port of Duluth-Superior," MinnPost (April 28, 2020).
101 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port of Duluth-Superior, Navigation Season, Tonnage Reports, Port of Duluth-Superior Marine Tonnage Report, January 2023 & Season Final 2022.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 2022), By Coal Destination State, Minnesota, Table DS-19, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2021.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2021 and 2020.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023.


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