Maine State Energy Profile



Maine Quick Facts

  • Three-fifths of Maine's households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a larger share than any other state.
  • In 2020, 79% of Maine's electricity net generation came from renewable energy, and hydroelectric power provided the largest share at 34%.
  • Maine ranks sixth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind. In 2020, wind provided about 24% of Maine's in-state net generation.
  • Maine forests cover about nine-tenths of its land, the largest share of any state, and wood and wood waste-derived fuels supply most of the biomass Maine uses for electricity generation. In 2020, biomass supplied one-fifth of Maine’s net generation, the largest share of any state. 
  • Maine’s largest electricity-generating plant by capacity is petroleum-fired, but it is used only intermittently to meet peak electricity demand in the winter.

Last Updated: August 19, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Maine Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.7 million 0.4% Jul-21  
Economy Maine U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 66.2 billion 44 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 6,235 million 40 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 54,225 30 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 14,871 million miles 40 2019  
Land in Farms 1.3 million acres 41 2017  
Climate Maine U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 43.5 degrees Fahrenheit 44 2020  
Precipitation 40.6 inches 26 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Maine U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Maine U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential NA $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Maine U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Maine U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 16.58 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 12.41 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 9.09 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Maine Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 4,910 MW 0.4% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 148 trillion Btu 0.1% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 913 thousand MWh 0.2% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Maine U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.8 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 23.6 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 0.5 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 72.9 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,775 thousand barrels 1.6% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 271 thousand barrels 1.2% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Maine Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 746 stations 0.7% 2019  
Propane 7 stations 0.3% 2021  
Electricity 234 stations 0.6% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Maine U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 384 trillion Btu 45 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 285 million Btu 30 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,867 million 42 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,359 13 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Maine Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 106 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 68 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 103 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 106 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,838 million 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 979 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 716 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,334 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source Maine Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 33 million barrels 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 45 billion cu ft 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,651 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 402 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 9 million * 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 14 thousand barrels 0.9% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,507 million cu ft 0.1% Jun-21 find more
Coal 1 thousand short tons * Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Maine U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 7.8 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 60.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 8.4 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 12.1 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 11.6 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,395 MW 0.9% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 261 thousand MWh 1.0% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 220 thousand MWh 0.6% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 185 thousand MWh 4.0% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 13 thousand MWh 0.3% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Maine U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 40.3 % 3 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,582 thousand barrels 41 2019  
Total Emissions Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 15.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 1,823 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 5 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 19, 2021

Overview

Maine is the most rural U.S. state and has the most energy-intensive economy in New England.

Maine is the nation's easternmost state. It rises from a jagged Atlantic coastline in the east to the highest point in Maine at Mount Katahdin in the center of the state.1 Although the state has no fossil energy reserves, Maine's rivers, winds, and forests supply the state with substantial renewable energy resources.2 Rivers that flow from Maine's interior highlands to the sea provide hydroelectricity resources, while winds that sweep along the coast and across the state's uplands and Appalachian mountain crests make Maine New England's leader in wind-powered electricity generation.3,4,5 Known as the Pine Tree State, Maine has forests covering about nine-tenths of its land, the largest share of any state. Forest products are both a major energy-intensive industry and an important biomass resource, powering electricity generation and supplying wood-derived fuels such as wood pellets.6,7 Although Maine has no coal or crude oil reserves, the state's ports handle shipments of coal and petroleum products that enter the region.8

Maine's weather varies significantly across the state with temperatures that range from the triple digits in the south in summer to minus 50°F in the far north in winter. Coastal areas have more rain and inland areas more snow, but average precipitation is evenly distributed across the state and throughout the year.9 The state is one of the nation's four coldest, and heating needs during the frigid winters contribute to Maine having the highest per capita energy use in New England.10,11 The least densely populated state east of the Mississippi River, Maine is home to both coastal cities and large rural areas, including Northwest Aroostook, a 2,600 square mile area with less than one resident per 250 square miles.12,13,14 Overall, Maine is the largest of the New England states and has the largest proportion of its population living in rural areas of any U.S. state. More than three-fifths of Maine's population lives in rural areas.15,16

Maine's residential, industrial, and transportation sectors each account for about the same amount of the state's end-use energy consumption (between 27% and 28%), and the commercial sector uses 18%. The industrial sector's share of energy consumption is greater in Maine than it is in any other New England state.17 Traditional Maine industries such as energy-intensive forestry, forest products, and paper manufacturing have contributed to the state's economy for decades, but service industries like finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing; professional and business services; and health care now contribute the largest share to Maine's gross domestic product (GDP).18 Even so, the Maine economy uses significantly more energy per dollar of GDP than any other New England state and also more than the national average.19

Renewable energy

Hydropower, wind, and wood generate most of Maine’s renewable electricity.

In 2020, 79% of Maine's in-state electricity net generation came from renewable resources, mostly from hydroelectric dams, wind turbines, and wood and wood-derived fuels. Solar also provided a small amount from both utility-scale (1 megawatt and larger) and customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) photovoltaic (PV) installations.20 Although Maine ranked 16th in the nation in total hydroelectric generation in 2020, hydropower's share of in-state generation, at more than one-third, was second only to Vermont's among the states east of the Mississippi River and eighth among all states.21 Maine's many rivers drove the mills that powered the state's early lumber industry. When electric turbines were developed in the late 1800s, small hydroelectric dams were built all over the state. By the mid-1980s, the state was home to nearly 800 dams, many of which were capable of generating electricity. Since then, Maine hydroelectric dam owners and conservationists have agreed to increase turbine generating capacity at some dams and to remove other dams to restore natural river flows and fish migrations.22,23 As of 2021, there are 51 licensed hydroelectric power plants in the state, and Maine has further undeveloped hydroelectric potential.24,25

Wind energy is the second-largest source of renewable electricity generation in Maine. In 2019, wind power surpassed biomass for the first time.26 The state leads New England in wind power and ranks sixth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind.27 In 2020, Maine's wind turbines produced almost one-fourth of the state's total net generation and accounted for nearly two-thirds of all wind-powered generation in New England.28 The state's best wind resources are on the ridge crests along the state's western border and on Maine's Atlantic coastline.29 As of mid-2021, Maine had nearly 1,000 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity.30 The state's largest wind facility, the 186-megawatt Bingham Wind project, began operating in late 2016. The most recent, a 15-megawatt onshore wind project, will come online in fall 2021.31 In 2009, the Maine legislature established a series of goals for the installation of both onshore and offshore wind-powered capacity.32 The goals were not met.33 There are currently no active offshore wind projects along the Maine coast.34

Biomass fuels one-fifth of Maine's net generation, the largest share of any state.35 Almost all of the biomass Maine uses for electricity generation is wood and wood waste-derived fuels, such as wood pellets.36 Maine has four wood pellet manufacturing plants, and those plants can produce about 235,000 tons of pellets annually.37 About 1 in 10 Maine households use wood as their primary fuel for space heating.38 Maine produces liquid biofuels as well. Although the state has no ethanol plants, it does have one biodiesel plant that can produce about 1 million gallons of biodiesel per year from recycled cooking oils.39,40,41 About 6 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in Maine in 2019.42

Maine's solar resources are modest.43 The state has four utility-scale solar-powered generating facilities that came online since 2017.44 However, most of the state's solar power comes from customer-sited, small-scale solar PV panels installed on homes and businesses. In 2020, solar generation from both utility-scale and small-scale facilities produced about 1% of Maine's in-state net generation.45

Maine law has supported ocean energy research for more than a decade. In 2012, the first tidal-generated power delivered to the U.S. electricity grid came from a pilot project in Maine's Cobscook Bay. More recently a microgrid project, primarily powered by tidal generation, is in development.46,47

Maine regulators established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 1999. The RPS required that at least 30% of each retail provider's electricity sales come from renewable sources, a standard that state electricity distributors had already surpassed with the state's biomass and hydroelectric resources. In 2019, Maine increased the RPS target to 80% of electricity retail sales from renewable sources by 2030, and 100% renewable electricity by 2050.48,49,50 Although almost 80% of Maine's in-state net generation came from renewable resources in 2020, a significant amount of the electricity sold in the state is generated elsewhere.51,52

Electricity

In 2020, renewable energy generated about four-fifths of Maine’s electricity.

Maine generates less electricity than all but five other states. In 2020, renewable resources provided about four-fifths of Maine's in-state net generation, a larger share than in all other states except Vermont and South Dakota.53 Hydroelectric power provided slightly more than one-third of in-state utility-scale net generation, wind turbines supplied nearly one-fourth, and biomass fueled one-fifth. Solar energy provides only a very small amount of Maine's renewable generation.54

Maine's energy mix has changed significantly since the early 1990s when more than three-tenths of the state's net generation came from the Maine Yankee nuclear power station and another one-fifth, on average, came from petroleum-fired facilities. The Maine Yankee nuclear plant was decommissioned in 1997, and petroleum-fueled generation has decreased from as much as 37% of net generation in the late 1990s to less than 0.5% in 2020.55,56 Maine's largest electricity-generating plant by capacity is petroleum-fired, but it does not provide much power because petroleum-fueled generation is now used only to meet peak electricity demand in the winter.57 In 2020, natural gas-fired power plants fueled about one-sixth of the state's net generation. An additional 3% was provided by facilities that can fuel switch between a variety of renewable and fossil fuel resources. Those fuels include natural gas; black liquor waste from pulp mills; municipal and other solid waste materials; fuel oil; and purchased steam. Coal-fired generators supplied less than 1% of Maine's power in 2020.58 The electric power sector supplies 81% of the state's power. Maine's industrial sector supplies 18% of the state's net generation, the highest proportion of any New England state and the third-largest share, after Louisiana and Delaware, of any state in the nation. The commercial sector contributes the rest.59

Overall, Maine does not generate enough electricity to meet demand, and in 2019, the state imported almost three-tenths of its electricity supply from Canada.60 Most of Maine is part of the regional transmission grid operated by Independent System Operator New England (ISO-NE). An exception is in the northern part of the state, where Maine's power system links to the rest of New England through Canada by way of Canada's New Brunswick Power Corporation.61,62 In part because of the small amount of power generated in-state and the state's limited use of both coal and petroleum for electricity generation, Maine ranks among the states with the lowest carbon dioxide emissions.63

Maine uses less electricity than all but a few states, and its total per capita retail sales of electricity are less than in four-fifths of the states. In 2020, Maine's residential sector accounted for the largest share of the state's total electricity retail sales at 44%, but per capita use in the residential sector was less than in about seven-tenths of the states.64,65 Only about 1 in 12 households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.66 Summers can be hot and humid but are generally mild, so many New England households do not use air conditioning.67 The commercial sector accounted for 34% of state electricity purchases and the industrial sector accounted for about 22%.68 Maine has the lowest average electricity retail price in New England, in part because of the state's low industrial sector power prices, which reflect the use of less costly wood and wood waste to fuel generation.69,70,71

Petroleum

Maine does not have any crude oil reserves or production, nor does it have any oil refineries.72,73 Refined petroleum products arrive in the state at several marine points of entry, including Maine's largest—the Port of Portland on Casco Bay. Portland is a natural deep-water harbor and is ice-free year-round.74 Although there are no interstate petroleum product pipelines that enter Maine, one intrastate product pipeline runs between Portland and Bangor.75 Most of the rest of the state's refined products enter farther north at Searsport and Belfast, Maine, or at several border crossings from Canada. Heating oil and propane also arrive at New Hampshire's Port of Portsmouth on Maine's southern border, and those products are distributed regionally, including into Maine. Canada is the dominant supplier of the petroleum products that arrive at all of Maine's ports.76,77

Three-fifths of Maine households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a larger share than in any other state.

There is one crude oil pipeline system in Maine.78 That pipeline, which started operations in 1941, transports crude oil from the Port of Portland to refineries in Quebec and Ontario. The pipeline has three separate pipes on the same right-of-way, but two are no longer in use and the third is used only intermittently. The Canadian refineries now process crude oil from western Canada, and shipments from Portland have mostly stopped.79,80 A proposal to reverse the flow in the pipeline and bring crude oil from Alberta, Canada, and North Dakota to Portland for export has encountered environmental and legal opposition.81,82

Petroleum accounts for the largest share of energy consumed in Maine and meets more than two-fifths of the state's energy needs.83 Three-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Maine is used in the transportation sector, and almost half of it is consumed as motor gasoline.84,85 In addition to the wide use of petroleum in the state's transportation sector, almost one-fourth is used in the residential sector, where nearly three out of every five Maine households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a larger share than in any other state.86 Transportation and home heating fuel consumption together help make Maine second, after Vermont, in per capita petroleum use among the New England states.87 In 2019, the commercial sector accounted for about 11% of Maine's petroleum consumption, and the industrial sector used about 5%. The electric power sector consumed a very small amount.88 In 2011, the Maine legislature enacted a law that set goals to decrease petroleum use across all sectors of the Maine economy. The targets were a reduction of 30% below the 2007 consumption level by 2030 and 50% by 2050.89 By 2019, petroleum consumption in Maine had decreased by almost 23% from the 2007 levels.90

Maine is home to one of three storage sites that make up the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, which was created to counter motor fuel supply disruptions caused by hurricanes, winter storms, and other natural events. The Maine storage site is in South Portland. It holds 100,000 barrels of motor gasoline.91 Similarly, Maine's heavy reliance on fuel oil for home heating makes the state particularly vulnerable to fuel oil supply disruptions and price spikes during the winter months.92 The U.S. Department of Energy's Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, created in 2000 to protect consumers in the northeastern United States from supply disruptions, holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) at storage sites in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.93 Starting in 2018, Maine, like most northeastern states, required the use of ULSD with sulfur levels of less than 15 parts per million.94

Natural gas

Maine does not have any natural gas reserves and does not produce natural gas.95,96 The state depends on natural gas deliveries from other states and countries. Natural gas enters Maine via pipelines from New Hampshire and Canada.97 Canaport LNG, a liquefied natural gas terminal at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, which began operations in 2009, receives natural gas from overseas and sends it by pipeline to Canadian markets and to U.S. markets in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts.98,99 Another interstate pipeline, the Portland Natural Gas Transmission System pipeline, delivers natural gas from Canada and the United States to southern Maine.100

Because of its small population and lack of distribution infrastructure, Maine's natural gas consumption is among the lowest in the nation. In 2019, Maine's natural gas use on a per capita basis was third-lowest in the nation, after Hawaii and Vermont.101 The industrial sector accounted for nearly half of the natural gas consumed in Maine, the commercial sector used almost one-fourth, the electric power sector consumed more than one-fifth, and the residential sector used the rest.102 In 2019, natural gas fueled 5 of Maine's 10 largest electricity generating stations by capacity, but only 2 of the 10 largest by generation. However, natural gas fueled the power plant that produced the most electricity in the state in 2019.103 Most of the state lacks natural gas distribution systems, and so, only about 1 in 13 Maine households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.104,105 Where natural gas service is available constraints on interstate pipeline delivery capacity force residents and businesses to compete with electricity generators for supply during the high-demand winter months.106

Coal

There are no coal mines in Maine, and the state has no recoverable coal reserves.107 The Portland customs district is the largest recipient of imported coal in the Northeast, but the state is among the six U.S. states that consume the least coal.108,109 In 2017, a very small amount of domestically produced coal was delivered from Pennsylvania to Maine's electric power sector, and in 2018 and 2019, there were no deliveries.110 The only generation from coal in the state occurs at two cogeneration plants at paper mills that burn waste from mill operations as well as some coal.111 About 1 in 500 Maine households burn coal for heat.112

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The Geography of Maine, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Maine Profile Data, Reserves and Environment, accessed June 28, 2021.
3 Brakeley, Samuel, and Zachary Ezor, The State of Rivers and Dams in Maine, The State of Maine's Environment (2009).
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maine, accessed June 28, 2021.
5 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New England, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wind, Annual, 2020.
6 Maine Forest Products Council, Maine's Forest Economy, accessed June 28, 2021.
7 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, March 2021, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, March 2021.
8 World Port Source, Searsport, Port Commerce, and Port of Portland, Port Commerce, accessed June 28, 2021.
9 Jacobsen, George, "Maine's Moist Climate: Strongly Variable Seasonal Temperatures with Even Precipitation," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed June 28, 2021.
10 Osborn, Liz, "Coldest States in America," Current Results, accessed August 11, 2021.
11 U.S. EIA, Rankings, Total Energy Consumed Per Capita, 2019.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020).
13 U.S. Census Bureau, City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2020, Subcounty Resident Population Estimates: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020 (SUB-EST2020).
14 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2010 Census of Population and Housing, CPH 2-21
(August 2012), Table 8, Population and Housing Units: 1990 to 2010; and Area Measurements and Density: 2010.
15 NETSTATE, Maine, The Geography of Maine, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
16 Lisa, Andrew, "States with the biggest rural populations," Stacker (April 8, 2019).
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Maine, All statistics in table, 2000-19.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Maine, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
22 Brakeley, Samuel, and Zachary Ezor, The State of Rivers and Dams in Maine, The State of Maine's Environment (2009).
23 McCarthy, James, "More Energy, Fewer Dams: A New Approach to Hydropower," Mainebiz (September 3, 2012).
24 Fishell, Darren, "Maine dam survey shows wide gulf between hydropower potential and delivery," Bangor Daily News (February 9, 2015).
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory as of May 2021, Operating.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Maine, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, 2019-20.
27 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Maine, New England, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
29 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maine, accessed June 30, 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2021), Table 6.2.B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory as of May 2021, Operating and Planned.
32 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Maine Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 12, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2021), Table 6.2.B.
34 Offshore Wind Hub, Maine, accessed July 1, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Maine, Biomass, Wood and Wood-derived fuels, Annual, 2001-20.
37 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2021.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
39 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
41 Maine Standard Biofuels, About Us, accessed June 30, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
43 Roberts, Billy J., U.S. Annual Direct Normal Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory as of May 2021, Operating.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Maine, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
46 "First Tidal Power Delivered to U.S. Power Grid Off Maine," Fox News (September 14, 2012).
47 Trill, David, "Maine company looks to tidal power as renewable energy's next generation," Energy News Network (September 23, 2020).
48 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Maine Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 12, 2018.
49 U.S. EIA, "Maine and New York become the 6th and 7th states to adopt 100% clean electricity targets," Today in Energy (September 26, 2019).
50 State of Maine Office of Governor Janet T. Mills, "Governor Mills Signs Major Renewable Energy and Climate Change Bills Into Law," Press Release (June 26, 2019).
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
52 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Maine, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All solar, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
55 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
56 Maine Yankee, Maine Yankee Decommissioning Overview, accessed June 29, 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Maine, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.3.B.
60 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
61 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric, ISO-NE, February 18, 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, "Northern Maine Considers Options to Gain Direct Access to New England Electric Grid," Today in Energy (January 22, 2015).
63 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2018.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Maine, End-Use Sector (Check all), Annual, 2020.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
67 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.7 Air conditioning in homes in the Northeast and Midwest regions, 2015.
68 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Maine, End-Use Sector (Check all), Annual, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average Retail Price of Electricity, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, All sectors, Industrial, Annual, 2020.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E5, Industrial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2019.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.15.B.
72 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2019, and Estimated Production, Annual, 2019.
73 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
74 World Port Source, Port of Portland, Port Commerce, accessed July 1, 2021.
75 U.S. EIA, Maine Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layer, accessed July 1, 2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, all months, 2021.
77 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 16.
78 U.S. EIA, Maine Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed July 1, 2021.
79 Canada Energy Regulator, Pipeline Profiles: Montreal, updated June 9, 2021.
80 Suncor, Refining, accessed July 2, 2021.
81 Tuttle, Robert, "Biden Backs Maine Town Saying No to WWII-Era Oil Pipeline," Bloomberg Green (June 29, 2021).
82 Gray, Megan, "Maine's top state court sides with South Portland in pipeline feud," Portland Press Herald (October 29, 2020).
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, All states, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
89 LaCapra Associates, Oil Dependence Reduction Assessment (April 2013), Executive Summary, p. 1.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2019, DOE/EIA-0214(2019) (June 2021), Maine, Table CT1, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, Selected Years, 1960-2019, Maine, p. 227.
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, accessed July 2, 2021.
92 Andrews, Anthony, The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve and the National Oilheat Research Alliance, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 (September 19, 2013), Summary.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed July 2, 2021.
94 U.S. EIA, "Sulfur content of heating oil to be reduced in northeastern states," Today in Energy (April 18, 2012).
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2014-19.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, 2015-20.
97 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maine, 2014-19.
98 Canaport LNG, About Canaport LNG, accessed July 3, 2021.
99 Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, accessed July 3, 2021.
100 TC Energy, Portland Natural Gas Transmission System, accessed July 4, 2021.
101 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
102 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Maine, Annual, 2015-20.
103 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
104 Maine Office of the Public Advocate, Natural Gas Service, accessed July 4, 2021.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
106 ISO New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed July 4, 2021.
107 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Tables 1, 15.
108 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 20, Coal imports by customs district, 2020.
109 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2017 (November 2018), 2018 (October 2019), and 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, Maine.
111 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
112 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.


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