Maine State Energy Profile



Maine Quick Facts

  • Nearly two-thirds of Maine households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a larger share than any other state.
  • In 2019, 80% of Maine's electricity net generation came from renewable energy resources, and hydroelectric power provided the largest share at 31%.
  • Maine leads New England in wind-powered generation and ranks sixth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind. In 2019, wind provided about 24% of Maine's in-state net generation.
  • Biomass supplies one-fourth of Maine’s net generation, the largest share of any state, and most of the biomass Maine uses for electricity generation is wood and wood waste-derived fuels.
  • Maine was 1 of fewer than 10 states that produced more electricity from petroleum than from coal until 2019, when petroleum’s contribution to Maine's net generation fell below that of coal for the first time.

Last Updated: July 16, 2020



Data

Last Update: July 15, 2021 | Next Update: August 19, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Maine Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.7 million 0.4% May-21  
Economy Maine U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 66.2 billion 44 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 6,235 million 40 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 54,225 30 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 14,871 million miles 40 2019  
Land in Farms 1.3 million acres 41 2017  
Climate Maine U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 43.5 degrees Fahrenheit 44 2020  
Precipitation 40.6 inches 26 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Maine U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 60.08 /barrel Apr-21  
Natural Gas Maine U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 5.87 /thousand cu ft $ 3.82 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Residential $ 15.63 /thousand cu ft $ 12.21 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Coal Maine U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.89 /million Btu Apr-21  
Electricity Maine U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 16.46 cents/kWh 13.76 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Commercial 12.31 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Industrial 8.75 cents/kWh 6.77 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Maine Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 4,865 MW 0.4% Apr-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 148 trillion Btu 0.1% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 833 thousand MWh 0.3% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Maine U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 18.0 % 36.6 % Apr-21 find more
Coal-Fired NM 18.4 % Apr-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 19.5 % Apr-21 find more
Renewables 80.8 % 24.5 % Apr-21  
Stocks Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Apr-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,151 thousand barrels 2.1% Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 285 thousand barrels 1.2% Apr-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Apr-21 find more
Fueling Stations Maine Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 746 stations 0.7% 2019  
Propane 7 stations 0.3% 2021  
Electricity 234 stations 0.6% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Maine U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 384 trillion Btu 45 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 285 million Btu 30 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,867 million 42 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,359 13 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Maine Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 106 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 68 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 103 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 106 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,838 million 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 979 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 716 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,334 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source Maine Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 33 million barrels 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 45 billion cu ft 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,651 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 402 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 9 million * 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 1 thousand barrels 0.1% Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas 994 million cu ft 0.1% Apr-21 find more
Coal * * Apr-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Maine U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 7.8 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 60.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 8.4 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 12.1 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 11.6 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,354 MW 0.9% Apr-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 278 thousand MWh 1.4% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 268 thousand MWh 0.6% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 127 thousand MWh 3.0% Apr-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 11 thousand MWh 0.2% Apr-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Maine U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 40.3 % 3 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,582 thousand barrels 41 2019  
Total Emissions Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 15.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Maine Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 1,823 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 5 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 16, 2020

Overview

Maine is largely rural and forested and has the most energy-intensive economy in New England.

Maine is the easternmost state in the nation and rises from a jagged Atlantic coastline in the east to the northern terminus of the 2,200-mile long Appalachian Trail at Mount Katahdin in the center of the state.1,2 Maine’s rivers, winds, and forests supply the state with substantial renewable energy resources. Rivers that flow from Maine’s interior highlands to the sea provide hydroelectricity resources, while winds that sweep along the coast and across the state’s uplands and Appalachian mountain crests make Maine New England’s leader in wind-powered electricity generation.3,4,5 Known as the Pine Tree State, Maine has forests covering about nine-tenths of its land, the largest share of any state, and forest products are both a major energy-intensive industry and an important biomass resource, supplying wood-derived fuels such as wood pellets.6,7 Although Maine has no fossil energy reserves or production, the state’s ports handle shipments of coal and petroleum products that enter the region.8,9,10,11

Maine’s weather varies significantly across the state with temperatures that range from the triple digits in the south in summer to minus 50°F in the far north in winter. Coastal areas have more rain and inland areas more snow, but average precipitation is evenly distributed across the state throughout the year.12 Heating needs during the frigid winters, along with the energy consumption in the state’s transportation and industrial sectors, give Maine the highest per capita energy use in New England.13,14 The least densely populated state east of the Mississippi River, Maine is home to both coastal cities and Northwest Aroostook, a 2,600 square mile area with less than one resident per 250 square miles.15,16 Overall, Maine is the largest of the New England states, and more than three-fifths of the state's population lives in rural areas.17,18

Maine’s residential, industrial, and transportation sectors each account for about the same amount of the state’s energy consumption (between 27% and 28%), while the commercial sector uses only 18% of all energy consumed in the state. The industrial sector’s share of Maine’s energy consumption is greater than that of any other New England state.19 Traditional industries such as forestry, forest products, and energy-intensive paper manufacturing have contributed to Maine’s economy for decades, but service industries like finance, insurance, real estate, health care, and tourism have grown in importance and now contribute the largest share to the state’s gross domestic product (GDP).20 Even so, Maine has New England’s most energy-intensive economy, and the state’s energy consumption per dollar of GDP is significantly above the national average.21

Electricity

In 2019, about four-fifths of Maine's electricity net generation came from renewable sources. About three-tenths of the state’s total net generation came from hydroelectric dams, one-fourth was fueled by biomass, and nearly one-fourth was provided by wind turbines. Natural gas-fired power plants fueled less than one-sixth of state generation in 2019, its smallest share in at least two decades. A small amount of Maine’s net generation, a total of about 2%, came from solar power, petroleum-fueled, and coal-fired power plants. Another 3% of Maine’s net generation is from facilities that primarily burn black liquor waste from pulp mills or municipal and other solid waste materials.22 Although most of the state’s power is supplied by the electric power sector, Maine’s industrial sector supplies almost one-fifth of the state's net generation, the highest proportion of any New England state and the third-largest share of any state in the nation.23

Renewables produce about four-fifths of Maine’s electricity net generation.

Maine's power supply has undergone a substantial shift since the early 1990s, when more than three-tenths of the state’s net generation typically came from the Maine Yankee nuclear power station and another one-fifth, on average, from petroleum-fired facilities. The Maine Yankee nuclear plant was decommissioned in 1997, and petroleum-fueled generation has decreased from as much as 37% of net generation in the late 1990s to less than 1% in 2019.24,25,26 Maine’s largest electricity generating plant by capacity, the 827-megawatt William F. Wyman station, burns No. 2 fuel oil, but it does not provide much generation because the plant is now used only to meet peak electricity demand in the winter.27,28 Even so, Maine was 1 of fewer than 10 states that produced more electricity from petroleum than from coal until 2019, when petroleum’s contribution fell below that of coal for the first time.29 Overall, the state’s net generation does not meet demand, and Maine imports more than one-fourth of its electricity supply from the Canadian grid.30

Total electricity consumption in Maine is less than in all but a few states, and per capita retail sales of electricity are less than in four-fifths of the states. Maine’s residential sector accounts for the largest share of the state’s electricity retail sales at more than two-fifths, but per capita use is less than in three-fourths of the states.31,32 Only about 1 in 14 households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.33 Summers can be hot and humid but are generally mild, so many New England households do not use air conditioning, and electricity use in the long mid-summer days is much less than winter use.34,35 The commercial sector accounts for more than one-third of state electricity purchases and the industrial sector accounts for nearly one-fourth.36 Maine has the lowest average electricity price in New England, in part because of the state’s low industrial sector power prices, which reflect the use of less costly wood and wood waste to fuel generation.37,38

Most of Maine is part of the regional transmission grid operated by Independent System Operator New England (ISO-NE). An exception is in the northern part of the state, where Maine’s power system is connected to transmission lines that run into Canada.39,40 Maine is also a member of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a group of nine states committed to the reduction of carbon emissions from power generation.41 With its limited use of both coal and petroleum for electricity generation, Maine ranks among the states with the lowest carbon emissions.42

Renewable energy

More than half of Maine’s electricity net generation comes from hydroelectric dams and wood-based biomass.

Most of Maine’s in-state electricity net generation came from renewable resources in 2019. Almost all of that was from hydroelectric dams, wind turbines, and wood and wood-derived fuels.43 Although Maine’s hydroelectric generation ranks 15th in the nation, hydropower’s share of nearly one-third of state generation is second only to Vermont’s among the states east of the Mississippi River.44 Maine's many rivers drove the mills that powered the state’s early lumber industry. When electric turbines were developed in the late 1800s, small hydroelectric dams were built all over the state. By the mid-1980s, the state was home to nearly 800 dams, many of which were capable of generating electricity. Since then, Maine hydroelectric dam owners and conservationists have reached agreements to increase turbine generating capacity at some dams while other dams have been removed to restore natural river flows and fish migrations.45,46 There are more than 50 licensed hydroelectric projects in the state, and Maine has further undeveloped hydroelectric potential.47,48

Biomass supplies one-fourth of Maine’s net generation, the largest share of any state.49 Most of the biomass Maine uses for electricity generation is wood and wood waste-derived fuels, such as wood pellets.50 Maine has 3 wood pellet manufacturing plants, and those plants can produce more than 230,000 tons of pellets annually.51 About 1 in 10 Maine households use wood as their primary heating fuel.52 The state has no ethanol plants, but it does have one biodiesel manufacturer that can produce about 1 million gallons per year from recycled cooking oils.53,54,55,56 Almost 8 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in Maine in 2018.57

Maine leads New England in wind-powered generation and ranks sixth in the nation in the share of its electricity generated from wind.58 In 2019, Maine’s wind turbines produced about one-fourth of the state’s total net generation and accounted for two-thirds of all wind-powered generation in New England.59 Maine has more than 900 megawatts of installed generating capacity from nearly 400 wind turbines.60,61 The state’s largest wind facility, the 185-megawatt, 56-turbine Bingham Wind project, began operating in late 2016.62,63 Most of the proposed onshore wind-powered generating capacity planned in New England is located in Maine.64 The state’s best wind resources are on the ridge crests along the state's western border and on Maine’s Atlantic coastline.65

In 2009, the Maine legislature established a series of goals for the installation of wind-powered capacity. Those targets were 2,000 megawatts of wind capacity by 2015, followed by 3,000 megawatts by 2020 (with at least 300 megawatts coming from offshore turbines), and 8,000 megawatts by 2030 (with at least 5,000 megawatts offshore).66 The goals have not been met.67 Concerns about the impact of wind turbines on tourism, property values, and the environment resulted in a moratorium on commercial wind development in 2018. The moratorium was later ended in early 2019.68 There are currently no active offshore wind projects along the Maine coast.69 However, in 2012, the first tidal-generated power delivered to the U.S. electricity grid came from a pilot project in Maine’s Cobscook Bay.70

Maine’s solar resources are modest.71 The state’s two utility-scale (1-megawatt or larger) solar photovoltaic (PV) generation facilities came online in 2017.72 However, most of the state’s solar power comes from customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) solar PV panels installed on homes and businesses. In 2019, solar generation from both utility-scale and small-scale facilities produced less than 1% of the state’s electricity.73

As part of the restructuring of the state’s electricity market, Maine regulators established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 1999. The RPS required that at least 30% of each utility’s electricity retail sales come from renewable sources, a standard that state electricity distributors had already surpassed with the state’s biomass and hydroelectric resources. The RPS has been amended and expanded several times since 1999.74 In 2019, Maine passed new laws that updated the RPS, increasing the amount of electricity retail sales from renewable sources to 80% by 2030, and set a goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2050.75,76

Petroleum

Maine does not have any crude oil reserves or production, nor does it have any oil refineries.77,78 Refined petroleum products arrive in the state at several marine points of entry, including Maine’s largest—the Port of Portland on Casco Bay—where terminals are operated by major product suppliers. Portland is a natural deep-water harbor and is ice-free year-round.79 Although there are no interstate petroleum product pipelines that enter Maine, one intrastate product pipeline runs between Portland and Bangor.80 Most of the rest of the state’s refined products are received farther north at Searsport and Belfast, Maine, or at several border crossings from Canada. Heating oil and propane are also shipped through the Port of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on Maine's southern border, and some of those products are distributed regionally, including into Maine. Canada is the dominant supplier of petroleum product imports to all of Maine’s ports.81,82

There is one crude oil pipeline in Maine.83 Beginning in 1941, crude oil shipments that arrived at the Port of Portland were sent via a dedicated pipeline system to refineries in Quebec and Ontario.84 However, those Canadian refineries are now supplied with crude oil from western Canada, and shipments from Portland have mostly stopped.85 There have been proposals to reverse the flow in the two parallel pipelines and bring crude oil from Alberta, Canada, and North Dakota to Portland for export, but the idea has encountered environmental opposition and legal challenges in both Canada and the United States.86

Maine is home to one of three storage sites that make up the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, which was created to counter motor fuel supply disruptions caused by hurricanes, winter storms, and other natural events. The storage site in South Portland, Maine, holds 100,000 barrels of motor gasoline.87 Most motor gasoline sold in Maine is blended with ethanol. However, the state’s reformulated motor gasoline requirement is in effect only until November 1, 2020.88,89

Petroleum accounts for the largest share of energy consumed in Maine and provides more than two-fifths of the state’s energy needs.90 Three-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Maine is used in the transportation sector.91 In addition to the wide use of petroleum in the state’s transportation sector, almost one-fourth is used in the residential sector, where nearly two-thirds of Maine households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a larger share than in any other state.92 Maine's heavy reliance on fuel oil for home heating makes the state particularly vulnerable to fuel oil supply disruptions and price spikes during the winter months.93 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, created in 2000 to protect consumers in the northeastern United States from supply disruptions, holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) at storage sites in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.94 Starting in 2018, Maine, like most northeastern states, required the use of ULSD with sulfur levels of less than 15 parts per million.95

Nearly two-thirds of Maine households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a larger share than in any other state.

Home heating and transportation fuel consumption make Maine one of the most petroleum-dependent states in the nation, and the state has the highest per capita petroleum consumption in New England.96 Maine’s legislature has set goals to reduce petroleum use by 30% below the 2007 consumption level by 2030 and 50% by 2050.97 By 2018, petroleum consumption in Maine had decreased by almost 20% from 2007 levels.98

Natural gas

Maine does not have any natural gas reserves and does not produce natural gas.99,100 The state depends on natural gas deliveries from other states and countries. Natural gas enters Maine via pipelines from New Hampshire and Canada. In 2016, more natural gas entered the state from New Hampshire than from Canada for the first time.101 However, Canada is the source of much of the natural gas that arrives through New Hampshire.102 The Canaport liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, which began operations in 2009, also sends natural gas from overseas by pipeline to Canadian markets and to U.S. markets in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts.103,104

Because of its small population and lack of distribution infrastructure, Maine's natural gas consumption is among the lowest in the nation, and in 2018 it was the third-lowest, after Hawaii and Vermont, among the states on a per capita basis.105 Nearly half of the natural gas consumed in Maine is used in industry, and the electric power sector uses much of the rest.106 Four of Maine’s 10 largest electricity generating stations by capacity are fueled with natural gas, but only 2 of the largest ranked by generation are natural gas-fired.107 Most of Maine lacks natural gas distribution systems, and only about 1 in 13 Maine households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.108,109 Where natural gas service is available, constraints on interstate pipeline delivery capacity force residents and businesses to compete with electricity generators for available natural gas supply during winter demand peaks. Natural gas and electricity prices have both spiked as a result.110

Coal

There are no coal mines in Maine, and the state has no recoverable coal reserves.111 The Portland customs district is the largest recipient of imported coal in the Northeast, but the state is among the five states that use the least coal in the nation.112,113 In 2017, a very small amount of domestically produced coal was delivered from Pennsylvania to Maine's electric power sector, and in 2018, there were no deliveries.114 The only coal-burning generation in the state comes from independent power producers or industrial facilities. Two wood- and wood waste-fueled generating units at an industrial combined heat and power plant have a combined capacity of 56 megawatts and those units use coal as a backup. An independent power producer’s combined heat and power plant with a capacity of 85 megawatts uses wood for power generation, but it can also burn coal.115 Very few Maine households burn coal for heat.116

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The Geography of Maine, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
2 The Appalachian Trail Conservancy, Explore, Maine, accessed June 1, 2020.
3 Brakeley, Samuel, and Zachary Ezor, The State of Rivers and Dams in Maine, The State of Maine's Environment (2009).
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maine, accessed June 1, 2020.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New England, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wind, Annual, 2019.
6 Maine Forest Products Council, Maine’s Forest Economy, accessed June 3, 2020.
7 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (June 2020), Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, March 2020, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2019.
8 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
9 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production, and Proved Reserves, Annual, 2013–18.
10 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Estimated Production, and Proved Reserves, Annual, 2013–18.
11 World Port Source, Searsport, Port Commerce, and Port of Portland, Port Commerce, accessed June 2, 2020.
12 Jacobsen, George, “Maine’s Moist Climate: Strongly Variable Seasonal Temperatures with Even Precipitation,” Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed June 2, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, Rankings, Total Energy Consumed Per Capita, 2017.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Population Density Data (Text Version), Population Density, revised May 4, 2018.
16 USboundary.com, Northwest Aroostook UT, Aroostook County, Maine, accessed June 2, 2020.
17 NETSTATE, Maine, The Geography of Maine, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
18 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, Maine Energy Fast Facts (2014), p. 2.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Maine, All statistics in table, 2000–17.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Maine, All fuels, Coal, Petroleum liquids, Natural gas, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Other, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001–19.
23 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
24 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
25 Maine Yankee, Maine Yankee Decommissioning Overview, accessed June 9, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Maine, All fuels, Petroleum liquids, Annual, 2001–19.
27 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
28 NextEra Energy Resources, Wyman Energy Center, accessed June 9, 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Coal, Petroleum liquids, Annual, 2001–19.
30 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Maine, All sectors, Annual, 2019.
33 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
34 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.7 Air conditioning in homes in the Northeast and Midwest regions, 2015.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Maine, Monthly, January 2015–April 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Sales of Electricity, Maine, All sectors, Annual, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average Retail Price of Electricity, All sectors, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Annual, 2001–19.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E5, Industrial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2018.
39 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO)/Independent System Operators (ISO), updated June 17, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, “Northern Maine Considers Options to Gain Direct Access to New England Electric Grid,” Today in Energy (January 22, 2015).
41 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, RGGI Inc., accessed June 11, 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2017.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maine, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Wood and wood-derived fuels, 2019.
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
45 Brakeley, Samuel, and Zachary Ezor, The State of Rivers and Dams in Maine, The State of Maine's Environment (2009).
46 McCarthy, James, “More Energy, Fewer Dams: A New Approach to Hydropower,” Mainebiz (September 3, 2012).
47 Fishell, Darren, “Maine dam survey shows wide gulf between hydropower potential and delivery,” Bangor Daily News (February 9, 2015).
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, All fuels, Biomass, Annual, 2001–19.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Maine, Biomass, Wood and Wood-derived fuels, Annual, 2001–19.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2020.
52 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
53 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019.
54 U.S. EIA, Maine Number of Producers for Biodiesel Production, 2011–20.
55 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, March 2020.
56 Maine Standard Biofuels, About Us, accessed June 15, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
58 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Maine, New England, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2001–19.
60 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Maine, accessed June 15, 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (May 2020), Table 6.2.B.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
63 Novatus Energy, Bingham Wind Project, accessed June 15, 2020.
64 ISO New England, 2019 Regional Electricity Outlook (March 2019), p. 22.
65 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maine, accessed June 15, 2020.
66 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Maine Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 12, 2018.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
68 Acquisto, Alex, “Janet Mills lifts LePage ban on new wind power permits in Maine,” Bangor Daily News (February 15, 2019, updated February 24, 2019).
69 Offshore Wind Hub, Maine, accessed May 21, 2019.
70 “First Tidal Power Delivered to U.S. Power Grid Off Maine," Fox News (September 14, 2012).
71 Roberts, Billy J., U.S. Annual Direct Normal Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
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74 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Maine Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 12, 2018.
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76 State of Maine Office of Governor Janet T. Mills, “Governor Mills Signs Major Renewable Energy and Climate Change Bills into Law,” Press Release (June 26, 2019).
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78 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
79 World Port Source, Port of Portland, Port Commerce, accessed June 16, 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, Maine Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layer, accessed June 17, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, all months, 2020, 2019, 2018.
82 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 6, 8, 15–17.
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85 National Energy Board of Canada, Pipeline Profiles: Montreal, updated June 11, 2020.
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91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, All states, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
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96 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
97 LaCapra Associates, Oil Dependence Reduction Assessment (April 2013), Executive Summary, p. 1.
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99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2013–18.
100 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, 2014–19.
101 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maine, 2013–18.
102 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Hampshire, 2013–18.
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106 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Maine, Annual, 2014–19.
107 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
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109 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
110 ISO New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed June 18, 2020.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Tables 1, 15.
112 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October–December 2019 (April 2020), Table 20, Coal imports by customs district, 2019.
113 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
114 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2017 (November 2018) and 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State.
115 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
116 U.S. Census Bureau, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.


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