Maryland State Energy Profile



Maryland Quick Facts

  • Maryland's per capita petroleum consumption is the third lowest among the states, and the transportation sector uses almost 9 out of every 10 barrels of petroleum consumed in Maryland.
  • Baltimore is the nation’s second-largest coal exporting port after Norfolk, Virginia. In 2020, almost one-fourth of U.S. coal exports left through Baltimore.
  • In 2020, Maryland’s only nuclear power plant--the Calvert Cliffs power station--accounted for 41% of the state's total electricity net generation.
  • Maryland ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita natural gas use. The electric power sector is the state's top natural gas-consuming sector as natural gas-fired generation has more than tripled since 2015.
  • Maryland increased its Renewable Portfolio Standard in 2019 to require that 50% of the state's electricity sales be generated from renewable sources by 2030. About 11% of the state's total electricity generation came from renewables in 2020.

Last Updated: November 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: November 18, 2021 | Next Update: December 16, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Maryland Share of U.S. Period
Population 6.1 million 1.8% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.1 million 1.9% Sep-21  
Economy Maryland U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 422.7 billion 15 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 25,423 million 30 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 68,258 8 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 60,216 million miles 22 2019  
Land in Farms 2.0 million acres 40 2017  
Climate Maryland U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit 16 2020  
Precipitation 52.8 inches 14 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Maryland U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 65.67 /barrel Aug-21  
Natural Gas Maryland U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 5.67 /thousand cu ft Aug-21 find more
Residential $ 23.57 /thousand cu ft $ 20.96 /thousand cu ft Aug-21 find more
Coal Maryland U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 62.40 /short ton $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.53 /million Btu $ 2.06 /million Btu Aug-21  
Electricity Maryland U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.91 cents/kWh 13.99 cents/kWh Aug-21 find more
Commercial 10.09 cents/kWh 11.60 cents/kWh Aug-21 find more
Industrial 8.52 cents/kWh 7.65 cents/kWh Aug-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 7 million short tons 0.1% 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2020 find more
Capacity Maryland Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 13,167 MW 1.2% Aug-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 247 trillion Btu 0.2% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 10 million cu ft * 2020 find more
Coal 1,154 thousand short tons 0.2% 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,885 thousand MWh 0.9% Aug-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Maryland U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.3 % 0.3 % Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 40.7 % 41.6 % Aug-21 find more
Coal-Fired 18.6 % 24.6 % Aug-21 find more
Nuclear 33.2 % 16.8 % Aug-21 find more
Renewables 6.4 % 15.9 % Aug-21  
Stocks Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Aug-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,385 thousand barrels 1.3% Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 57,082 million cu ft 0.8% Aug-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 654 thousand barrels 2.9% Aug-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 461 thousand tons 0.5% Aug-21 find more
Fueling Stations Maryland Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,469 stations 1.3% 2019  
Propane 26 stations 1.0% 2021  
Electricity 960 stations 2.4% 2021  
E85 27 stations 0.7% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 8 stations 0.6% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Maryland U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,353 trillion Btu 28 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 223 million Btu 42 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 19,442 million 24 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,211 47 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Maryland Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 394 trillion Btu 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 397 trillion Btu 2.2% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 99 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 463 trillion Btu 1.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,102 million 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 4,032 million 2.1% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,004 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,304 million 1.6% 2019 find more
by Source Maryland Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 95 million barrels 1.3% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 298 billion cu ft 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 3 million short tons 0.5% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,584 million 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,300 million 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 205 million 0.8% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 31 thousand barrels 1.5% Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas 11,453 million cu ft 0.9% Aug-21 find more
Coal 314 thousand short tons 0.6% Aug-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Maryland U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 43.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 7.9 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 42.2 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.5 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,306 MW 0.5% Aug-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 129 thousand MWh 0.6% Aug-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 92 thousand MWh 0.2% Aug-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 30 thousand MWh 0.6% Aug-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 104 thousand MWh 2.1% Aug-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Maryland U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 5.9 % 44 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,692 thousand barrels 20 2019  
Total Emissions Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 59.5 million metric tons 1.1% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Maryland Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 10,219 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 5 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 18, 2021

Overview

Maryland wraps around the Chesapeake Bay and extends west into the Appalachian region, where the state's only fossil fuel reserves—coal and natural gas—are found.1 Baltimore, the state's largest city and one of the 20 largest ports in the nation, moves both coal and petroleum products.2,3 Maryland's renewable energy resources—hydropower, solar, wind, and biomass—are distributed widely across the state.4 Maryland is the seventh most densely populated state in the nation with 636 people per square mile. The state's population is concentrated in the center of the state in an area that stretches from the northeastern Baltimore suburbs southwest to the suburbs of Washington, DC.5,6 Maryland's western mountains and low-lying southern and eastern plains are largely rural and lightly populated.7 East of the Chesapeake Bay, in an area known as the Eastern Shore, the land is flat with many wetlands, and the nearby Atlantic Ocean adds humidity and moderates the weather year-round. On the western side of the Bay, the land rises from the coastal plain through rolling foothills to the mountain ranges of the Appalachians.8 Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and across the state, but, as the land rises heading west, temperatures vary widely and annual snowfall levels increase during the winter.9 The state's coastal areas average less than 4 inches of snow annually, while parts of the western mountains average more than 100 inches.10

Maryland consumes more than five times as much energy as it produces.

Maryland consumes more than five times as much energy as it produces.11 The transportation sector accounts for slightly more than one-third of the state's energy consumption, while the commercial and residential sectors each consume about three-tenths of the energy used in the state. The industrial sector consumes less than one-tenth.12 Maryland ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita energy consumption.13 Maryland's economy is among the 10 states that use the least amount of energy to produce one dollar of GDP.14 Major contributors to the state's GDP include: government; finance, insurance, and real estate; professional and business services; education and healthcare; and manufacturing.15

Petroleum

Maryland has no economically recoverable crude oil reserves or production, and there are no petroleum refineries in the state.16,17,18 Some petroleum products arrive in Maryland by pipeline from other states and by ship from abroad. The Colonial Pipeline runs through Maryland on its way from the Gulf Coast to the New York City metropolitan area and delivers refined products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, home heating oil, and jet fuel.19 Baltimore's deep-water port receives tankers carrying petroleum products.20,21,22,23

Maryland's per capita petroleum consumption is the third lowest among the states, after New York and Rhode Island.24 Almost 9 out of every 10 barrels of petroleum used in Maryland are consumed by the transportation sector.25 The state requires the use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming pollutants across the densely populated Baltimore-Washington corridor in the center of the state. Counties in the mountain west and much of the rural Eastern Shore are not required to use reformulated motor gasoline, although two counties on Maryland's Eastern Shore have opted to require the fuel.26,27 The industrial sector accounts for about 5% of the state's petroleum consumption, and the commercial and residential sectors each use about 4%.28 About 1 in 9 Maryland households use fuel oil, propane, or kerosene for heating.29

Natural gas

Maryland has few economically recoverable natural gas reserves, and the state produces very little natural gas.30,31 There are a few low-production wells in far western Maryland that collectively produce about 10 million cubic feet of natural gas annually.32,33 The state's two westernmost counties—Garrett and Allegany—overlie part of the natural gas-rich Marcellus Shale and have some recoverable natural gas reserves.34 However, in 2017, Maryland became the third state, after New York and Vermont, to enact a permanent ban on the use of hydraulic fracturing in natural gas and crude oil production35

Maryland's natural gas needs are met by supplies that enter the state by way of several interstate pipelines and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port. Major pipelines transport natural gas to the state from the nation's Gulf Coast and Southwest. Increasing amounts of natural gas enter the state from the north as Pennsylvania's shale gas production continues to grow. Maryland's Eastern Shore receives natural gas from Pennsylvania by pipeline through Delaware.36,37 Almost one-fifth of the natural gas that enters Maryland is consumed in the state. The rest continues on to Virginia, the District of Columbia, or is liquefied for export to other countries.38

Maryland’s Cove Point became the second operating U.S. liquefied natural gas export terminal when it came online in early 2018.

A small amount of natural gas enters the state at the LNG import terminal at Cove Point, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay's western shore. Cove Point is one of a dozen operating LNG import facilities in the United States.39,40 The terminal is connected by pipeline to several major interstate natural gas pipeline systems.41 Maryland's LNG imports from other countries decreased substantially during the past decade in response to increased U.S. natural gas production and lower domestic natural gas prices compared to international prices.42,43,44 With U.S. natural gas production rising, in early 2018 Cove Point became the second LNG export terminal operating in the United States. As of mid-2021, it was one of seven LNG export terminals in the country.45,46 U.S. LNG exports fell through mid-2020 as a result of the global economic slowdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. LNG exports rebounded at the end of 2020 to record high monthly volumes and that trend continued through the first half of 2021 in response to higher natural gas prices in foreign markets.47,48,49

Maryland ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita natural gas use.50 The electric power sector became Maryland's top natural gas-consuming sector for the first time in 2018, and in 2020 the sector accounted for about 37% of the state's natural gas use. Natural gas-fired generation in the state has more than tripled since 2015.51,52 The residential sector made up 28% of Maryland's natural gas consumption in 2020, followed by the commercial sector at 27% and the industrial sector at about 7%. A minor amount of natural gas is used in the state's transportation sector.53 Natural gas is the most common home heating fuel in the state, and more than 4 out of 10 Maryland households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.54

Coal

Maryland holds about 0.1% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and accounts for about 0.2% of U.S. coal production.55,56 The state has 10 surface and 1 underground coal mines, all of them located in the Appalachian Basin in the state's western counties.57,58 Slightly more than half of Maryland's coal that is distributed domestically is sent to West Virginia, with most of that coal used at electric power plants. Slightly less than half of Maryland's domestically distributed coal stays in the state and most of it is consumed at power plants. A small amount of Maryland coal is sent to Pennsylvania, where it is used in steelmaking.59 About one-fifth of Maryland's coal is exported to other countries.60

Overall, coal-fired power plants use about three-fourths of the coal consumed in Maryland, and industrial plants use about one-fourth. Pennsylvania provides about 66% of the coal consumed in Maryland, and the rest comes from Maryland's coal mines. Most of Pennsylvania's coal arrives in Maryland by rail and barge, and Maryland coal is delivered within the state by truck.61

Baltimore is the second-largest U.S. coal exporting port.

Coal is the leading export commodity by tonnage at the Port of Baltimore, the nation's second-largest coal export center after Norfolk, Virginia. In 2020, almost one-fourth of the nation's coal exports left through Baltimore. Total coal exports from Baltimore declined 24% compared with 2019, as the COVID-19 pandemic slowed global demand for coal.62,63,64 Steam coal, which is burned to generate electricity, accounted for slightly more than three-fifths of Baltimore's coal exports, and metallurgical coal, which is used in steelmaking, made up the rest.65 The Port of Baltimore also receives a small amount of imported coal.66

Electricity

Nuclear energy and natural gas supplied 79% of Maryland’s total electricity net generation in 2020.

In 2020, nuclear energy and natural gas provided 79% of Maryland's total in-state electricity net generation, with each supplying almost equal amounts of electricity. Maryland's only nuclear power plant—the two-reactor Calvert Cliffs power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay—accounted for 41% of the state's total net generation.67,68 Natural gas-fired generation has more than tripled since 2015 with nearly 2,700 megawatts of new natural gas-fired generating capacity coming online. Natural gas accounted for 38% of in-state electricity in 2020.69,70

Coal-fired generating plants historically supplied more than half the state's net generation, but coal's share has been below 50% since 2012 and fell to 9% in 2020 as natural gas-fired generation increased.71 As of mid-2021, all but two of the six generating units at Maryland's four remaining coal-fired power plants were more than 35 years old. Two of those older units, with a combined 1,205 megawatts in generating capacity, are scheduled to shut down in 2022. Two other coal-fired generating units in the state, with 670 megawatts of capacity, were retired in mid-2021.72 Hydropower, solar energy, and other renewable energy sources accounted for most of the state's remaining net generation.73 Since 2015, almost all the state's new generating capacity has been natural gas-fired or solar-powered.74

Maryland uses less electricity per capita than three-fourths of the states, but the state does not generate enough power to meet in-state demand.75 Maryland uses about 60% more electricity than it generates. About two-fifths of the power used in the state is delivered from the PJM Interconnection, which operates the Mid-Atlantic regional electricity transmission grid in all or parts of 13 states and the District of Columbia.76,77 The residential sector accounted for about 47% of Maryland's electricity use in 2020, followed closely by the commercial sector at 46%. The industrial sector accounted for 6% of the state's electricity consumption, and the transportation sector made up 1%.78 About 4 in 10 Maryland households use electricity as their primary heating source.79

Renewable energy

Renewable energy, including both small-scale generating installations (less than 1 megawatt) and utility-scale generating facilities (1 megawatt or larger), provided about 11% of Maryland's total in-state electricity in 2020. Hydropower accounted for the largest share, about two-fifths, of the state's renewable electricity generation.80 The Conowingo hydroelectric generating station, located in northern Maryland on the Susquehanna River, was the second-largest hydroelectric power plant ever built, after the Niagara Falls generating station, when it began operating in 1928. The 11 turbines at the station have a combined generating capacity of 572 megawatts.81,82 Conowingo provides almost all of Maryland's generation from hydroelectricity and it is one of the state's top 10 power plants based on both generating capacity and actual annual generation.83

Solar energy provided almost two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation in 2020, and solar's share has increased significantly in recent years, almost quadrupling from 2015 to 2020. About 65% of the state's solar generation came from small-scale, customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV), such as rooftop solar panels, and the rest of the generation was at larger utility-scale solar farms.84 By mid-2021, Maryland had 1,250 megawatts of total solar generating capacity installed.85 The state's largest solar facility—located on the Eastern Shore—came online in 2018 with a generating capacity of 75 megawatts. An 80-megawatt solar project, also located on the Eastern Shore, is scheduled to be operating in mid-2022.86

Wind energy provided about one-eighth of Maryland's renewable electricity generation in 2020.87 The state's best onshore wind potential is in its western mountains and along its southern Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean shorelines.88 The state's only operating utility-scale wind farms are along Maryland's western Appalachian Mountain crests, where 190 megawatts of generating capacity is installed.89,90 Maryland's greatest wind energy potential is offshore.91 Two major wind projects are in development off Maryland's Atlantic coastline. One wind project, located about 17 miles offshore in federal waters, will consist of 22 turbines that are each taller than the Washington Monument and collectively can generate up to 270 megawatts of electricity. That project is scheduled to come online in early 2024.92,93 A second wind project, expected to come online in 2026, will be located about 19 miles offshore and have 12 turbines with a generating capacity of 120 megawatts.94,95,96

Biomass generated almost one-tenth of Maryland's renewable electricity in 2020, including at facilities that use landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and wood and wood waste.97 There are many small landfill gas-to-energy facilities in cities around the state. Maryland's largest biomass-fueled electricity-generating plants—accounting for about 80% of the state's total biomass generating capacity—are found at two facilities that use municipal solid waste: a 61-megawatt facility in Baltimore and a 54-megawatt facility in Montgomery County in the suburbs of Washington, DC.98 The Baltimore facility also produces steam for a downtown piping system that supplies steam heat to more than 250 businesses.99

In 2019, Maryland increased its renewable portfolio standard to require that 50% of the state’s electricity retail sales come from renewables by 2030.

Maryland's legislature enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004 and has amended it several times.100 The latest update came in May 2019, when the Maryland legislature required that 50% of the state's electricity retail sales come from renewable sources by 2030.101,102 As part of the updated RPS, 14.5% of a supplier's electricity retail sales must come from solar power by 2030. The RPS also requires that the state's offshore wind generating capacity reach 400 megawatts in 2026 and increase to at least 1,200 megawatts in 2030.103,104

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells and All Coal, accessed October 7, 2021.
2 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-57, Tonnage of Top 50 U.S. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons, accessed October 7, 2021.
3 Maryland.gov, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Terminals, Cargo, accessed October 7, 2021.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Marine & Hydrokinetic, Solar, Wind, accessed October 7, 2021.
5 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Maryland Profile, Population Density by Census Tract, accessed October 7, 2021.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020), updated April 26, 2021.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Maryland, Three rural definitions based on Census Places, accessed October 7, 2021.
8 World Atlas, Maryland, Maryland Geography, accessed October 7, 2021.
9 University of Washington, Maryland Observed Climate Normals (1981-2010), accessed October 7, 2021.
10 Current Results, Average Annual Snowfall in Maryland, accessed October 7, 2021.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Maryland, All statistics in table, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-19.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per day, 2015-20.
18 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2016-21.
19 Colonial Pipeline, System Map and Frequently Asked Questions, Who is Colonial Pipeline?, accessed October 8, 2021.
20 Maryland Department of Transportation, Maryland Port Administration, Port of Baltimore, 2019 Foreign Commerce Statistical Report, Top Commodities - Tons, p. 8, 2019 Bulk Cargo Summary - Tons, p. 10.
21 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, July 2020 to July 2021, accessed October 8, 2021.
22 BWC Terminals, Baltimore, MD, accessed October 8, 2021.
23 WorldCity, Inc., U.S. Trade Numbers, Port of Baltimore, MD, accessed October 8, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
26 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed October 8, 2021.
27 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, updated January 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
29 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
30 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2014-19.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
32 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Gas Wells, accessed October 8, 2021.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
34 U.S. EIA, Structure map of the Marcellus Formation, accessed October 8, 2021.
35 Hurdle, Joh, "With governor's signature, Maryland becomes third state to ban fracking," StateImpact Pennsylvania (April 4, 2017).
36 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed October 8, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2015-20.
38 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2015-20.
39 BHE GT&S, Cove Point LNG, accessed October 8, 2021.
40 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals Existing (April 16, 2021).
41 BHE GT&S, Cove Point LNG, accessed October 8, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, Maryland Natural Gas International Receipts, 1967-2020.
43 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas production grew again in 2019, increasing by 10%," Today in Energy (March 10, 2020).
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Prices, U.S., Annual, 2015-20.
45 Dominion Energy, "First LNG Commissioning Cargo Departs From Dominion Energy Cove Point Terminal," Press Release (March 2, 2018).
46 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals Existing (April 16, 2021).
47 U.S. EIA, "U.S. liquefied natural gas exports have declined by more than half so far in 2020," Today in Energy (June 23, 2020).
48 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas exports have been declining since April," Today in Energy (September 15, 2020).
49 U.S. EIA, "U.S. liquefied natural gas exports grew to record highs in the first half of 2021," Today in Energy (July 27, 2021).
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), 2015-20.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-20.
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), 2015-20.
54 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
56 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
58 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: All Coal Mines, accessed October 9, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Maryland, Table OS-10, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, Maryland, Table DS-16, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
63 Maryland.gov, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Terminals, Cargo, accessed October 9, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. coal exports drop 26% between 2019 and 2020," Today in Energy (March 11, 2021).
65 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 14, Steam Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 15, Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District.
66 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 20, Coal imports by Customs District.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-20.
68 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Maryland, updated March 19, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-20.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2021, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal; Inventory of Retired Generators as of July 2021, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-20.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2021, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal; Inventory of Retired Generators as of July 2021, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-20.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2021, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: All.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
76 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
77 PJM, About PJM, Territory Served, accessed October 9, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), annual 2001-20.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
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