Louisiana State Energy Profile



Louisiana Quick Facts

  • Louisiana ranks third in natural gas production and fifth in proved natural gas reserves among the states. Louisiana accounts for about 10% of U.S. total marketed natural gas production and holds about 7% of the nation's natural gas reserves.
  • Louisiana's 15 oil refineries account for nearly one-sixth of the nation's refining capacity and can process about 2.9 million barrels of crude oil per day.
  • In 2022, Louisiana shipped 63% of the nation's liquefied natural gas exports and about 14% of its coal exports. New Orleans is the third-largest U.S. coal exporting port.
  • Louisiana's total energy consumption ranks third among the states and its per capita energy consumption is the highest, largely because of its energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries.
  • Louisiana has the highest per capita residential sector electricity consumption in the nation. Almost 7 in 10 Louisiana households rely on electric heating and nearly all households have air conditioning.

Last Updated: June 15, 2023



Data

Last Update: February 15, 2024 | Next Update: March 21, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.6 million 1.4% 2022  
Civilian Labor Force 2.1 million 1.2% Dec-23  
Economy Louisiana U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 281.4 billion 26 2022  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 48,484 million 19 2022  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 54,622 43 2022  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 54,728 million miles 24 2021  
Land in Farms 8.0 million acres 33 2022  
Climate Louisiana U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 69.7 degrees Fahrenheit 2 2023  
Precipitation 43.4 inches 19 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 78.31 /barrel $ 77.46 /barrel Nov-23  
Natural Gas Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.31 /thousand cu ft $ 4.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Residential $ 16.01 /thousand cu ft $ 13.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Coal Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.32 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Nov-23  
Electricity Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.37 cents/kWh 16.19 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Commercial 10.50 cents/kWh 12.60 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Industrial 5.77 cents/kWh 7.90 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 365 million barrels 0.9% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 39,859 billion cu ft 6.8% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 176 million barrels 0.7% 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 12 million short tons 0.1% 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 14,867 wells 3.1% 2020 find more
Capacity Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 2,964,220 barrels/calendar day 16.4% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 24,767 MW 2.1% Nov-23  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 4,105 trillion Btu 4.2% 2021 find more
Crude Oil 89 thousand barrels per day 0.7% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 4,064,791 million cu ft 10.3% 2022 find more
Coal 307 thousand short tons 0.1% 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 7,639 thousand MWh 2.4% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Louisiana U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 84.6 % 42.0 % Nov-23 find more
Coal-Fired 7.0 % 15.9 % Nov-23 find more
Nuclear 2.8 % 19.3 % Nov-23 find more
Renewables 3.4 % 21.9 % Nov-23  
Stocks Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 976 thousand barrels 7.9% Nov-23  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 6,717 thousand barrels 7.9% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 623,397 million cu ft 7.6% Nov-23 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 199 thousand barrels 0.9% Nov-23 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,951 thousand tons 3.0% Nov-23 find more
Fueling Stations Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,304 stations 2.1% 2021  
Propane 35 stations 1.4% Jan-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 232 stations 0.4% Jan-24  
E85 18 stations 0.4% Jan-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 12 stations 0.4% Jan-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Louisiana U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 4,283 trillion Btu 4 2021 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 925 million Btu 2 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 36,273 million 11 2021 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 7,839 4 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 315 trillion Btu 1.5% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial 244 trillion Btu 1.4% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial 3,022 trillion Btu 9.3% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation 702 trillion Btu 2.6% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 3,883 million 1.4% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,797 million 1.4% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial $ 19,713 million 8.5% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,880 million 1.6% 2021 find more
by Source Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 425 million barrels 5.9% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas 2,035 billion cu ft 6.3% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 5,628 thousand short tons 1.1% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 24,088 million 3.2% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 10,675 million 4.0% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 279 million 1.0% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas 34,733 million cu ft 3.9% Apr-23 find more
Coal 368 thousand tons 1.2% Nov-23 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Louisiana U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 32.0 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 64.6 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 2.2 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 1.1 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 759 MW 0.2% Nov-23  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 74 thousand MWh 0.4% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 17 thousand MWh * Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 173 thousand MWh 4.5% Nov-23  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 22 thousand MWh 0.4% Nov-23  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Louisiana U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 3.4 % 49 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 4,986 thousand barrels 26 2021  
Total Emissions Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 188.6 million metric tons 3.8% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 48,266 thousand metric tons 2.9% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 33 thousand metric tons 3.1% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 52 thousand metric tons 4.2% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: June 15, 2023

Overview

Situated at the mouth of the Mississippi River, Louisiana has abundant crude oil and natural gas reserves both onshore and offshore, buried beneath the thick sediments of the Mississippi Delta.1,2 Freshwater and saltwater wetlands cover about one-third of Louisiana, down from more than one-half of the state's area 200 years ago. The state rises gradually from the marshes, bayous, and estuaries along its extensive Gulf of Mexico coastline to the prairie in the state's north and west. On average, Louisiana is only 100 feet above sea level.3,4

In addition to crude oil, natural gas, and minor deposits of coal, Louisiana's energy resources include substantial biomass resources from agricultural byproducts, wood, and wood waste.5,6 Louisiana's subtropical climate—with the highest annual rainfall in the lower 48 states at nearly 5 feet—and rich soils create a diverse agricultural economy that includes sugarcane, rice, and livestock, as well as forest products from upland pine and hardwood forests.7,8

Louisiana's total energy consumption ranks third among the states and its per capita energy consumption is the highest in the nation, largely because of the energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries in the state's industrial sector.9,10,11 Energy consumption in Louisiana's industrial sector, about 73% of the state total, is second only to that of Texas. The transportation sector accounts for about 14% of the state's total energy use and the residential sector makes up 7%.12,13 Louisiana's demand for air conditioning is high during the hot, humid summer months, while its demand for heating is limited during the mild winter months.14,15,16 The commercial sector accounts for 6% of the state's total energy consumption.17

Natural gas

Louisiana has the third-highest natural gas production and the fifth-highest natural gas reserves among the states. The state accounts for about 10% of U.S. marketed natural gas production and holds about 7% of U.S. natural gas proved reserves.18,19 Among its many productive formations is the Haynesville Shale, which is located mainly in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas. Haynesville is one of seven key U.S. natural gas-producing regions.20 In the first half of 2023, monthly natural gas production from the Haynesville Shale region reached a record high of more than 16 billion cubic feet per day.21

Louisiana is the fourth-largest total natural gas-consuming state, after Texas, California and Pennsylvania, and the second-largest natural gas consumer on a per capita basis, after Alaska.22,23 The industrial sector accounts for about three-fourths of the natural gas consumed in Louisiana, and the electric power sector uses slightly less than one-fifth. About 13% of the state's natural gas consumption is used in the production and distribution of the state's oil and gas resources. In 2021, Louisiana used more natural gas to maintain pressure in its many pipelines than any other state besides Texas. About one out of three Louisiana households rely on natural gas for home heating, but the share of gas consumed by the residential sector is small—about 2% of the state's total consumption—in part because of Louisiana's mild winters. The commercial sector accounts for slightly less than 2% of gas use, and the transportation sector uses a very minor amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.24,25,26

Louisiana receives natural gas from and delivers gas supplies to other states via a vast network of interstate pipelines.27,28 In 2021, Louisiana received a record 3.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and delivered a record 5.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Nearly half of the natural gas that enters Louisiana came from Texas and close to one-fourth came from Mississippi. About 8% of the natural gas that entered the state arrived onshore from federal leases in the Gulf of Mexico, 14% of the natural gas entered from Arkansas, and 5% came via a pipeline transporting Marcellus/Utica shale gas from Ohio. Domestically, Louisiana plays an essential role in the movement of natural gas from the U.S. Gulf Coast region to markets throughout the country. The state has the most active natural gas market center in North America-the Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana-where nine interstate and three intrastate pipelines interconnect. The pipelines carry natural gas to major markets throughout the country. The Henry Hub is the benchmark price location for natural gas physical and futures trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. About 1.8 billion cubic feet of natural gas can be transported through the hub each day.29,30,31,32 About two-thirds of the natural gas that leaves Louisiana goes through Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas to other regional markets. The other one-third is shipped to nearly three dozen countries through the state's LNG export terminals. China, South Korea, Japan, Brazil, and India were the largest recipients of those natural gas exports in 2021.33

In 2022, Louisiana’s two LNG terminals handled about 63% of U.S. LNG exports.

U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports continue to increase, more than doubling from 2020 levels to a record of nearly 3.9 trillion cubic feet in 2022. Louisiana handled almost two-thirds of those shipments at its two operating LNG export terminals. Sabine Pass began operating in early 2016 and Cameron LNG came online in mid-2019. Sabine Pass handled about 1.5 trillion cubic feet in natural gas exports, or 38% of the U.S. total, in 2022. Cameron LNG handled 978 billion cubic feet, or about 25% of the U.S. total.34,35,36,37 A new third LNG export terminal, Calcasieu Pass, which has an export capacity of 1.3 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, shipped its first LNG cargo in March 2022. The terminal is expected to begin full commercial export operations in the second half of 2023.38,39,40

Louisiana has 19 underground natural gas storage sites located in salt caverns and depleted oil and natural gas fields, accounting for 8% of total U.S. underground storage capacity.41,42 Those facilities allow Louisiana to store natural gas when national demand is low and to ramp up delivery when markets across the country require larger volumes of gas. Historically, U.S. natural gas demand is highest in the winter, when homes need it for heating. With the growing use of natural gas for U.S. electricity generation, Louisiana withdraws natural gas from storage during the summer months as well, when electricity demand rises for air conditioning.43,44,45

Petroleum

Louisiana ranks among the top 10 states in both crude oil reserves and crude oil production and accounts for about 1% of both U.S. total oil reserves and production.46,47 However, in 2022 the state's annual production of crude oil fell to about half its 2013 level, and output was the lowest in more than six decades at about 100,000 barrels per day.48,49

Commercial crude oil production in Louisiana started early in the 20th century, soon after the 1901 discovery of the Spindletop oil field just across the border in Texas.50 In 1947, the first U.S. offshore commercial crude oil well that was out of sight of land was completed 10 miles off the Louisiana coast. Although the water was only 18 feet deep, the well was a significant achievement in opening the Gulf of Mexico to crude oil production.51 Today, the Gulf of Mexico is one of the largest U.S. crude oil-producing regions and holds substantial oil reserves.52,53 Many of the nation's largest oil fields are found off the Louisiana coast in federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters, and a large share of federal OCS production in the Gulf of Mexico is piped onshore to Louisiana.54,55

Louisiana's offshore petroleum industry experienced a serious setback in April 2010, when an explosion and fire sank the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform 40 miles off the Louisiana coast, killing 11 workers and resulting in the largest crude oil spill in U.S. history. In less than three months, an estimated 4.9 million barrels of crude oil leaked into the Gulf of Mexico.56 The spill resulted in a temporary moratorium on new deep water drilling in the Gulf. The drilling ban ended in October 2010 after new safety rules for offshore drilling and new requirements for oil spill response and containment were implemented.57,58

The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the nation's first and only deepwater oil port.

Louisiana is among the top 10 states that receive the most foreign crude oil imports.59 Crude oil arrives at several state ports, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP). The LOOP, which began receiving foreign crude oil in 1981, is the nation's first and only deepwater oil port. It provides offloading for some of the largest tankers in the world and can receive up to 100,000 barrels of crude oil per hour.60,61 It is the single largest point of entry for waterborne crude oil shipped to the United States.62 The LOOP's onshore facilities include the Clovelly Dome Storage Terminal, where nearly 60 million barrels of crude oil can be stored in 8 underground salt caverns.63 The LOOP recently expanded its aboveground tank storage to about 12 million barrels.64 Through a network of crude oil pipelines, the LOOP connects to more than half of the refining capacity in the United States.65 With the growth in U.S. crude oil production, the Clovelly Dome facilities store both domestic and imported crude oil. The LOOP added loading capability for U.S. crude oil exports and sent out its first shipments in early 2018. The LOOP can load a very large tanker, which can hold around 2 million barrels of crude oil, in 2.5 days.66,67,68,69

Louisiana is home to two of the four storage sites that make up the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The emergency stockpile can hold up to 714 million barrels of crude oil. The two Louisiana SPR sites-Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry-store crude oil in 27 underground salt caverns that have a combined storage capacity of about 296 million barrels.70 Starting in April 2022, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sold 180 million barrels of SPR crude oil to energy companies to offset market supply disruptions.71 DOE announced in early 2023 that it would sell another 26 million barrels of SPR crude oil as previously mandated by Congress.72 In May 2023, DOE said it would start buying oil, initially 3 million barrels, to replenish the reserve.73

Louisiana's 15 oil refineries account for nearly one-sixth of the nation's refining capacity and can process about 2.9 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day.74,75 In January 2021, Shell Oil shut down its 211,000 barrel-per-day refinery, located halfway between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, in response to lower petroleum demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.76,77 Phillips 66 took similar action in December 2021, when the company closed its 256,000 barrel-per-day refinery in Belle Chasse to convert it to a terminal facility.78,79 Louisiana refineries can process a wide variety of crude oil types from around the world, although the state's refineries use less foreign oil than in the past. In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico produced the largest share of crude oil processed by the state's refineries.80

Louisiana sends most of its refined petroleum products out of state.81 The 3,100-mile PPL Pipeline, formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline, is one of the nation's largest refined petroleum product pipelines. It runs from near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, through several southern states and terminates in the suburbs of Washington, DC. The pipeline distributes about 720,000 barrels per day of motor gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and biodiesel throughout much of the South.82,83 The 5,500-mile Colonial Pipeline, which begins in Houston, Texas, also passes through Louisiana and carries about 2.5 million barrels per day of petroleum products to 11 other states before it ends in Linden, New Jersey.84,85 Louisiana's refineries also supply the state's industrial sector with petroleum product feedstocks, particularly to the petrochemical industry.86 The large concentration of petrochemical manufacturing facilities in the state contributes to Louisiana ranking third in total petroleum use and first in per capita consumption of petroleum among the states.87,88 About 2 out of 100 state households rely on propane, fuel oil, or kerosene for home heating.89

Coal

New Orleans is the nation’s third-largest coal exporting port.

Louisiana's recoverable coal reserves are small, and account for just 0.1% of the U.S. total.90 In 2021, the state's coal production was also small and consisted of only low-grade lignite from one mine that contributed 300,000 tons, or about 0.1%, of total U.S. coal output.91 Louisiana plays a much bigger role in transporting U.S. coal, as New Orleans is the nation's third-largest coal exporting port. Most of the exported coal comes from other states. In 2022, the port of New Orleans shipped about 14% of U.S. coal exports.92 Coal that is exported through New Orleans comes from other states. Almost all the coal consumed in Louisiana is used for power generation, and about 90% of that coal comes from out of state. Nearly all the out-of-state coal delivered to Louisiana's coal-fired power plants is shipped by rail from Wyoming. A small amount of the coal consumed in Louisiana also comes by barge down the Mississippi River from Illinois.93

Electricity

In 2022, natural gas was the primary fuel used to generate electricity in Louisiana, accounting for 68% of the state's electricity net generation. Natural gas fuels 6 of the 10 largest power plants in Louisiana, based on annual generation. Nuclear electric power surpassed coal as the state's second-largest source of in-state electricity generation in 2015. Louisiana's two nuclear power plants, which are both located along the Mississippi River, accounted for about 15% of the state's net generation in 2022. The two nuclear plants are the first- and third-largest power plants in the state by actual generation.94,95,96

Coal was Louisiana's second-leading source for electricity generation for decades, but in 2022 coal fueled about 8% of the state's generation. Louisiana has three coal-fired power plants.97,98 Biomass, hydropower, and solar energy together accounted for a little more than 3% of Louisiana's total electricity generation. Petroleum coke, which is a byproduct in crude oil refining, provided slightly less than 3% of the state's generation. Louisiana generates more electricity from petroleum coke than any other state. Two of the state's top 10 power plants based on generation are fueled by petroleum coke.99,100,101

Louisiana has the highest per capita residential sector electricity consumption of any state.

Louisiana does not generate enough electricity to meet in-state demand and receives about one-seventh of its power supplies from other states by way of the regional grid.102 Louisiana ranks third among the states with the highest total electricity consumption on a per capita basis.103 In 2022, the industrial sector consumed the most electricity in Louisiana, accounting for about 42% of the state total, followed by the residential sector at 33% and the commercial sector at 25%.104 Louisiana has the highest residential sector per capita electricity consumption in the nation.105 Almost 7 in 10 state households rely on electricity for home heating and almost all households have air conditioning.106,107

Renewable energy

In 2022, renewable energy sources provided about 3.5% % of Louisiana's total electricity net generation. Biomass resources are abundant in Louisiana, and wood and wood waste accounted for nearly three-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation.108 The state's wood waste and sugarcane residues also provide ample feedstock for the state's two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 1.3 million tons per year. Most of those wood pellets are exported to other countries, where they are burned at power plants to generate electricity.109,110

Hydroelectric power accounted for about three-tenths of Louisiana's in-state renewable electricity in 2022.111 The state's one hydropower plant—the 192-megawatt Sidney A. Murray Jr. Hydroelectric Station—was the world's largest prefabricated power plant when it came online in 1990. Located on the Mississippi River, the plant has eight turbines. The plant structure was prefabricated in New Orleans and floated about 200 miles north to its final location.112,113

Solar power provided slightly more than one-tenth of Louisiana's renewable generation in 2022. Louisiana's utility-scale (facilities 1 megawatt or larger) solar generation was nearly five times greater in 2022 than two years earlier after the state's largest solar farm came online in late 2020. The solar farm, which has 50 megawatts in generating capacity from 197,000 solar panels, is located near Baton Rouge. Another 50-megawatt solar farm, north New Orleans, began operating in late 2022. The state's two new largest solar farms, one north of Baton Rouge with 300 megawatts of capacity and one west of Monroe with 200 megawatts of capacity, are scheduled to come online at the end of 2023.114,115,116 Louisiana's small-scale, customer-sited solar panel electric generating systems (less than 1 megawatt) are growing at a slower rate. However, they account for a larger share, about three-fifths, of the state's total solar power generation. Louisiana has little onshore wind energy resource potential and no utility-scale wind power generating facilities.117,118 However, Louisiana has greater offshore wind potential, and a state government task proposed in 2022 that the state add 5,000 megawatts of offshore wind power capacity by 2035.119,120

The Louisiana Public Service Commission initiated a renewable energy pilot program in 2010 to determine whether a renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which would require a certain amount of electricity be generated from renewable energy, was suitable for the state. In 2013, the commission concluded that Louisiana did not need a mandatory RPS.121 However, Louisiana has other policies designed to encourage the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency, including voluntary electric utility efficiency programs, energy standards for public buildings, net metering, and energy loans for homeowners.122,123,124,125 Small-scale, customer-sited generating installations of up to 25 kilowatts for residential systems and up to 300 kilowatts for commercial and agricultural systems that use solar PV, wind, biomass, and other renewable technologies are eligible for utility net metering.126 Beginning in 2020, Louisiana's Public Service Commission cut by two-thirds the rate that utilities have to pay new net metering customers for excess electricity they put on the grid from their rooftop solar panels.127

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2016-21.
2 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2016-21.
3 NETSTATE, Louisiana, The Geography of Louisiana, accessed May 15, 2023.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Summary on Wetland Resources, State Summary Highlights, Louisiana, accessed May 15, 2023.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
6 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps (January 15, 2014).
7 Keim, Barry, "Louisiana-The Wettest State in the Contiguous United States," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, accessed May 15, 2023.
8 NETSTATE, Louisiana, Louisiana Economy, accessed May 15, 2023.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
11 NETSTATE, Louisiana, Louisiana Economy, accessed May 15, 2023.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
14 Current Results, Winter Temperature Averages for Every State, accessed May 15, 2023.
15 Weather Spark, Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Louisiana, accessed May 22, 2023.
16 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (2020), State Data, Housing Characteristics, Highlights for space heating in U.S. homes by state, 2020, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2017-22.
19 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas Contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2016-21.
20 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report (May 15, 2023), Production by Region.
21 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report (May 15, 2023), Contents, Haynesville, Haynesville Region Drilling Productivity Report.
22 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2021.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Louisiana, Annual, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pipeline and Distribution Use, Annual, 2021.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Louisiana.
27 U.S. EIA, Energy Atlas, Natural Gas Infrastructure and Resources, National Gas Pipelines, accessed May 16, 2023.
28 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed May 16, 2023.
29 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Louisiana, Annual, 2016-21.
30 Fisher, Joe, "Last Piece of Marcellus-Focused Ohio-Louisiana Access Approved for Service," Natural Gas Intelligence (May 31, 2016).
31 Sabine Pipe Line LLC, About Sabine Pipe Line LLC, Assets, accessed May 16, 2023.
32 S&P Global Platts, Henry Hub Gas Price Assessment, What is Henry Hub?, accessed May 16, 2023.
33 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Louisiana, Annual, 2016-21.
34 U.S. EIA, "The United States became the world's largest LNG exporter in the first half of 2022," Today in Energy (December 27, 2022).
35 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Point of Exit, Area, Sabine Pass, LA and Cameron, LA, annual, 2022.
36 Cheniere, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, accessed May 16, 2023.
37 Cameron LNG, A small local company with a large global impact, accessed May 16, 2023.
38 Venture Global LNG, "Venture Global LNG and Jera Announce Departure of Inaugural Commissioning Cargo from Calcasieu Pass," Press release (March 1, 2022).
39 U.S. EIA, "Calcasieu Pass, the seventh U.S. liquefied natural gas export terminal, begins production," Today in Energy (April 29, 2022).
40 "A year later, Calcasieu Pass still commissioning as expansions get boost, foundation customers wait," S&P Global (March 21, 2023).
41 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2016-21.
42 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2016-21.
43 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas consumption has both winter and summer peaks," Today in Energy (February 13, 2020).
44 U.S. EIA, "Natural gas-fired generation has increased in most U.S. regions since 2015," Today in Energy (December 4, 2020).
45 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990-2023.
46 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2021 (December 30, 2022), Table 7, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2017-22.
48 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2022.
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Louisiana, 1960-2020.
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51 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, Staff Working Paper No. 1, Draft, A Brief History of Offshore Oil Drilling, p. 2.
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