Louisiana State Energy Profile



Louisiana Quick Facts

  • Louisiana is one of the top five states in both natural gas production and proved reserves. The state accounted for 9% of U.S. total marketed gas production in 2020 and has about 8% of the nation's gas reserves.
  • Louisiana’s 17 oil refineries account for nearly one-fifth of the nation’s refining capacity and can process about 3.4 million barrels of crude oil per day. 
  • In 2020, Louisiana's two liquefied natural gas (LNG) export terminals shipped out about 55% of U.S. total LNG exports.
  • Louisiana’s total energy consumption and per capita energy consumption both rank among the top three states in the nation, largely because of its energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries.
  • Louisiana has the highest per capita residential sector electricity consumption in the nation. More than 6 in 10 Louisiana households rely on electric heating and almost all households have air conditioning.

Last Updated: April 15, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.6 million 1.4% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 2.1 million 1.3% Jul-21  
Economy Louisiana U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 242.0 billion 25 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 47,961 million 18 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 50,037 41 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 51,360 million miles 25 2019  
Land in Farms 8.0 million acres 33 2017  
Climate Louisiana U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 68.1 degrees Fahrenheit 2 2020  
Precipitation 66.5 inches 3 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 70.18 /barrel $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential NA $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Louisiana U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.36 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 10.21 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 6.39 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 389 million barrels 0.9% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 36,497 billion cu ft 7.8% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 331 million barrels 1.5% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 30 million short tons 0.2% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2019 find more
Capacity Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 3,366,666 barrels/calendar day 17.7% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 25,622 MW 2.3% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,938 trillion Btu 3.9% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 95 thousand barrels per day 0.8% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 3,223,642 million cu ft 8.8% 2019 find more
Coal 1,538 thousand short tons 0.2% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 8,842 thousand MWh 2.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Louisiana U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 69.0 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 6.5 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 17.5 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 3.3 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 1,391 thousand barrels 11.1% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 6,332 thousand barrels 5.9% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 566,769 million cu ft 8.1% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 206 thousand barrels 0.9% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,775 thousand tons 3.4% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,408 stations 2.1% 2019  
Propane 39 stations 1.4% 2021  
Electricity 136 stations 0.3% 2021  
E85 14 stations 0.4% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 14 stations 1.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Louisiana U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 4,295 trillion Btu 4 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 922 million Btu 2 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 29,842 million 13 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 6,406 4 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 318 trillion Btu 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 260 trillion Btu 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 3,100 trillion Btu 9.5% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 616 trillion Btu 2.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 3,503 million 1.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,588 million 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 15,115 million 7.6% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 8,636 million 1.5% 2019 find more
by Source Louisiana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 377 million barrels 5.0% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,935 billion cu ft 6.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 5 million short tons 0.9% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 18,898 million 2.7% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 5,028 million 3.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 290 million 1.1% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 44,382 million cu ft 4.0% Jun-21 find more
Coal 437 thousand short tons 0.9% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Louisiana U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 33.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil * 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 64.0 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 1.8 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 0.9 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 689 MW 0.3% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 103 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 18 thousand MWh * Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 168 thousand MWh 3.6% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 26 thousand MWh 0.5% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Louisiana U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 3.5 % 49 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 5,006 thousand barrels 26 2019  
Total Emissions Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 211.0 million metric tons 4.0% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Louisiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 48,116 thousand metric tons 2.8% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 37 thousand metric tons 3.0% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 59 thousand metric tons 4.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: April 15, 2021

Overview

Situated at the mouth of the Mississippi River, Louisiana has abundant crude oil and natural gas reserves both onshore and offshore, buried beneath the thick sediments of the Mississippi Delta.1,2 Freshwater and saltwater wetlands cover about one-third of Louisiana's area. The state rises gradually from the marshes, bayous, and estuaries along its extensive Gulf of Mexico coastline to the prairie in the state's north and west. On average, Louisiana is only 100 feet above sea level.3,4

In addition to crude oil and natural gas, Louisiana's energy resources include substantial biomass resources from agricultural byproducts, wood, and wood waste and minor deposits of coal.5,6,7 Louisiana's subtropical climate—with the highest annual rainfall in the lower 48 states—and rich soils create a diverse agricultural economy that includes sugarcane, rice, and livestock, as well as forest products from upland pine and hardwood forests.8,9

Louisiana ranks among the top three states in both total and per capita energy consumption.

Louisiana's total energy consumption and per capita energy consumption both rank among the top three states in the nation, largely because of the energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries in the state's industrial sector.10,11,12,13 Energy consumption in Louisiana's industrial sector is second only to that of Texas.14 Louisiana's demand for air conditioning is high during the hot, humid summer months, while its demand for heating is limited during the mild winter months. The state's residential sector total and per capita energy consumption are both near the middle of the states.15,16,17,18

Natural gas

Louisiana is one of the top five states in both natural gas production and reserves. The state accounts for about 9% of U.S. marketed gas production and holds about 8% of U.S. natural gas proved reserves.19,20 Among its many productive areas is the Haynesville Shale formation, which is located mainly in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas. Haynesville is one of seven key U.S. natural gas-producing regions.21 In 2020, increases in well production rates raised monthly natural gas production from the Haynesville Shale to a record 12 billion cubic feet per day.22

Louisiana is the third-largest natural gas-consuming state, after Texas and California, and the second-largest natural gas consumer on a per capita basis, after Alaska.23,24 The industrial sector accounts for almost three-fifths of the natural gas consumed in Louisiana, and the electric power sector uses about one-fifth. About one-sixth of the state's natural gas consumption is used in the production and distribution of the state's oil and gas resources. About one out of three Louisiana households rely on natural gas for home heating, but the share of gas consumed by the residential sector is small—about 2% of the state's total consumption—because of the state's mild winters. The commercial sector accounts for slightly less state gas use at under 2%.25,26

Louisiana receives natural gas from and delivers gas supplies to other states via a vast network of interstate pipelines.27,28 In 2019, Louisiana used more natural gas to maintain pressure in its many pipelines than any other state in the nation.29 Nearly one-half of the natural gas that enters Louisiana comes from Texas and close to one-fifth comes from Mississippi. Almost one-fifth of the natural gas that enters the state arrives onshore from federal leases in the Gulf of Mexico. Domestically, Louisiana plays an essential role in the movement of natural gas from the U.S. Gulf Coast region to markets throughout the country. The state has the most active natural gas market center in North America-the Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana-where nine interstate and three intrastate pipelines interconnect. The pipelines carry natural gas to major markets throughout the country. The Henry Hub is the benchmark price location for natural gas physical and futures trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. About 1.8 billion cubic feet of natural gas can be transported through the hub each day.30,31 About 75% of the natural gas that leaves Louisiana goes to other states. The other 25% is exported to nearly 35 countries through the state's LNG export terminals. South Korea, Mexico, Spain, and Japan received more two-fifths of those natural gas exports in 2019.32

In 2020, Louisiana’s two LNG terminals handled about 55% of U.S. LNG exports.

U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports are rising, growing 31% in 2020, and Louisiana handles more than half of those shipments at its two LNG export terminals. Sabine Pass began operating in early 2016 and Cameron LNG came online in mid-2019. Sabine Pass handled about 2.5 billion cubic feet per day in natural gas exports—or 39% of the U.S. total—in 2020, and Cameron LNG handled about 1 billion cubic feet per day, or 16% of the U.S. total. Sabine Pass had five liquefaction units at the beginning of 2021, but when the terminal is fully operational with six liquefaction units in 2022 it will be able to process more than 4.7 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day. Cameron LNG had three liquefaction units operating at the start of 2021, but if its planned five units come online the facility will have an LNG export capacity of 3.5 billion cubic feet per day.33,34,35,36 Operations at both LNG terminals were temporarily disrupted in 2020 by hurricanes.37

Louisiana has 19 underground natural gas storage sites located in salt caverns and depleted fields, accounting for 8% of total U.S. underground storage capacity.38,39 Those facilities allow Louisiana to store natural gas when national demand is low and to ramp up delivery when markets across the country require larger volumes of gas. Historically, U.S. natural gas demand is highest in the winter, when homes need it for heating. With the growing use of natural gas for U.S. electricity generation, Louisiana withdraws natural gas from storage during the summer months as well, when electricity demand rises for air conditioning.40,41,42

Petroleum

Louisiana ranks among the top 10 states in both crude oil reserves and crude oil production and accounts for about 1% of both U.S. oil reserves and production.43,44 However, in 2020 the state's annual production of crude oil fell to about half its 2010 level, and output was the lowest in more than six decades, due in part to a decline in oil prices and petroleum demand during the COVID-19 global pandemic.45,46

Commercial crude oil production in Louisiana started early in the 20th century, soon after the 1901 discovery of the Spindletop oil field just across the border in Texas.47 In 1947, the first offshore U.S. commercial crude oil well that was out of sight of land was completed 10 miles off the Louisiana coast. Although the water was only 18 feet deep, the well was a significant achievement in opening the Gulf of Mexico to crude oil production.48 Today, the Gulf of Mexico is one of the largest U.S. crude oil-producing regions and holds substantial oil reserves.49,50 Many of the nation's largest oil fields are found off the Louisiana coast in federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters, and a large share of federal OCS production in the Gulf of Mexico is piped onshore in Louisiana.51,52

Louisiana's offshore petroleum industry experienced a serious setback in April 2010, when an explosion and fire sank the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform 40 miles off the Louisiana coast, killing 11 workers and resulting in the largest crude oil spill in U.S. history. In less than three months, an estimated 4.9 million barrels of crude oil were released into the Gulf of Mexico.53 The spill resulted in a temporary moratorium on new deep water drilling in the Gulf. The drilling ban ended in October 2010 after new safety rules for offshore drilling and new requirements for oil spill response and containment were implemented. The federal agencies that oversee offshore drilling were also restructured.54,55

Louisiana is among the top four states that receive U.S. waterborne foreign crude oil imports.56 Crude oil arrives at several state ports, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP). The LOOP, which began receiving foreign crude oil in 1981, is the nation's first and only deepwater oil port. It provides offloading for some of the largest tankers in the world and can receive up to 100,000 barrels per hour.57,58 It is the single largest point of entry for waterborne crude oil shipped to the United States.59 The LOOP's onshore facilities include the Clovelly Dome Storage Terminal, where nearly 60 million barrels of crude oil can be stored in 8 underground salt caverns.60 Aboveground storage was recently expanded to about 12 million barrels.61 Through a network of crude oil pipelines, the LOOP connects to more than half of the refining capacity in the United States.62 With the growth in U.S. oil production, the Clovelly Dome storage facilities are used for domestic as well as imported crude oil. The LOOP added loading capability for U.S. crude oil exports and sent out its first crude oil shipments in early 2018.63,64,65

Louisiana is home to two of the four storage sites that make up the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), which is capable of holding an emergency stockpile of 714 million barrels of crude oil. The two Louisiana SPR sites-Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry-store crude oil in 27 underground salt caverns with a combined storage capacity of about 296 million barrels.66 In March 2021, the U.S. Department of Energy sold 3.3 million barrels of crude oil from the West Hackberry site, as mandated by Congress.67

Louisiana’s 17 oil refineries account for nearly one-fifth of U.S. crude oil refining capacity.

Louisiana's 17 oil refineries account for nearly one-fifth of the nation's refining capacity and can process about 3.4 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day.68,69 Many of the state's refineries use advanced technology that enable refining processes to yield larger quantities of lighter, higher-value petroleum products such as motor gasoline and jet fuel.70 Louisiana refineries can process a wide variety of crude oil types from around the world, although the state's refineries use less foreign oil than in the past. Slightly more than half of the oil processed by the state's refineries was produced from the Gulf of Mexico, where federal offshore production reached a record high in 2019 of nearly 1.9 million barrels per day, but declined by 13% in 2020 in part because of the economic impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic.71,72

Louisiana sends about three-fourths of its refined petroleum products out of state.73 The 3,100-mile PPL Pipeline, formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline, is one of the nation's largest refined petroleum product pipelines. It runs from near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, through several southern states and terminates in the suburbs of Washington, DC. The pipeline distributes about 720,000 barrels per day of motor gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and biodiesel throughout much of the South.74,75 The 5,500-mile Colonial Pipeline, which begins in Houston, Texas, also passes through Louisiana and carries about 2.5 million barrels per day of petroleum products to 11 other states before it ends in Linden, New Jersey.76,77 Louisiana's refineries also supply the state's industrial sector with petroleum product feedstocks, particularly the petrochemical industry.78 Louisiana has one of the largest concentrations of petrochemical manufacturing facilities in the United States, which contributes to the state being third in total petroleum use and first in per capita consumption of petroleum.79 About 2 out of 100 state households rely on propane, fuel oil, or kerosene for home heating.80

Coal

New Orleans is the nation’s fifth-largest coal exporting port.

Louisiana's recoverable coal reserves are small, and account for just 0.1% of the U.S. total.81 The state's coal production is also small and consists of only low-grade lignite from two surface mines that contribute 0.2% of total U.S. coal output.82 Louisiana plays a much bigger role in transporting U.S. coal, as New Orleans is the nation's fifth-largest coal exporting port. In 2020, the port of New Orleans shipped about 6% of U.S. coal exports.83 Coal for export arrives from out of state. Louisiana's two coal mines supply the nearby 650-megawatt Dolet Hills power plant with coal delivered by truck from one mine and by a 12-mile-long conveyor belt from the other mine.84 Most of the coal consumed in Louisiana is used for power generation, and about 80% of that coal comes from out of state. Almost all the out-of-state coal delivered to Louisiana's coal-fired power plants is shipped by rail from Wyoming. A small amount of the coal consumed in Louisiana also comes by barge down the Mississippi River from Illinois and Indiana.85

Electricity

In 2020, natural gas was the primary fuel used for electricity generation in Louisiana, accounting for about 70% of the state's electricity net generation, nearly twice the national rate.86 Natural gas fuels 7 of the 10 largest power plants in Louisiana, based on generation.87 Coal was Louisiana's second-leading source for electricity generation for decades, but now fuels about 4% of generation, which is much less than the state's two nuclear power plants. Both of those nuclear power plants are located along the Mississippi River and accounted for about 17% of the state's net generation in 2020.88,89 The two nuclear plants are the second- and third-largest power plants in the state by actual generation.90 Biomass, other industrial gases, hydropower, and solar power provided nearly all the rest of Louisiana's electricity generation.91

Louisiana has the highest per capita residential sector electricity consumption of any state.

Louisiana does not generate enough electricity to meet in-state demand and receives almost one-fifth of its needed power supplies from other states by way of the interstate grid.92 Louisiana ranks third-highest among the states in total electricity consumption on a per capita basis.93 In 2020, the industrial sector consumed the most electricity in the state, accounting for about 38% of the state total, followed closely by the residential sector at 35% and the commercial sector at 27%.94 Louisiana has the highest per capita residential sector electricity consumption in the nation.95 More than 6 in 10 state households rely on electricity for home heating and almost all households have air conditioning.96,97

Renewable energy

In 2020, renewable sources provided about 4% of Louisiana's electricity net generation. Biomass resources are abundant in Louisiana, and wood and wood waste accounted for about three-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation.98 The state's wood waste and sugarcane residues also provide ample feedstock for the state's two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 925,000 tons per year. Most of those wood pellets are exported to other countries, where they are burned at power plants to generate electricity.99,100,101

Hydroelectric power accounted for slightly more than one-third of Louisiana's in-state renewable electricity in 2020.102 The state's one hydropower plant—the 192-megawatt Sidney A. Murray Jr. Hydroelectric Station—was also the world's largest prefabricated power plant when it came online in 1990. Located on the Mississippi River, the plant has eight turbines. The plant structure was prefabricated in New Orleans and floated about 200 miles north to its final location.103,104

Solar power generated about one-tenth of Louisiana's renewable generation in 2020. Louisiana's utility-scale (facilities 1 megawatt or larger) solar generation was 40 times greater in 2020 than in 2019 after the state's largest solar farm, which has 50 megawatts in generating capacity from 197,000 solar panels, came online near Baton Rouge. Two more utility-scale solar power projects with a combined generating capacity of 70 megawatts are scheduled to come online during the fourth quarter of 2021.105,106,107,108 Louisiana has little wind power resource potential and no utility-scale wind power generating facilities.109,110

The Louisiana Public Service Commission initiated a renewable energy pilot program in 2010 to determine whether a renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which would require a certain amount of electricity come from renewables, was suitable for the state. In 2013, the commission concluded that Louisiana did not need a mandatory RPS.111 However, Louisiana has other policies designed to encourage the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency, including voluntary electric utility efficiency programs, energy standards for public buildings, net metering, and home energy loans.112,113,114,115 Small-scale distributed generation installations of up to 25 kilowatts for residential systems, and up to 300 kilowatts for commercial and agricultural systems that use solar PV, wind, biomass, and other renewable technologies, are eligible for utility net metering. Total consumer net metering capacity connected to the grid is limited to 0.5% of each utility's monthly retail peak power demand load, and several large electric utilities in the state have already reached their net metering cap.116 Beginning in 2020, Louisiana's Public Service Commission cut by two-thirds the rate that utilities have to pay new customers for excess electricity they put on the grid from their rooftop solar panels.117

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2014-19.
2 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2014-19.
3 NETSTATE, Louisiana, The Geography of Louisiana, accessed March 19, 2021.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Summary on Wetland Resources, State Summary Highlights, Louisiana, accessed March 19, 2021.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
6 Gilliam, Bobby, "Louisiana Lignite Mining in the Wake of the Haynesville Shale," LSU Journal of Energy Law and Resources (Fall 2013).
7 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps (January 15, 2014).
8 Keim, Barry, "Louisiana-The Wettest State in the Contiguous United States," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, accessed March 19, 2021.
9 NETSTATE, Louisiana, Louisiana Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
12 NETSTATE, Louisiana, Louisiana Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
13 U.S. EIA, "Louisiana and Wyoming consume the most energy per capita; Rhode Island, New York the least," Today in Energy (September 4, 2108).
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 Current Results, Winter Temperature Averages for Every State, accessed March 19, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (2009), Space Heating, Table HC6.10, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
20 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas Contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2014-19.
21 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report (March 15, 2021), Production by Region.
22 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report (March 15, 2021), Contents, Haynesville, Haynesville Region Drilling Productivity Report.
23 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2015-20.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
25 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Louisiana, Annual, 2015-20.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Louisiana.
27 U.S. EIA, Energy Atlas, Natural Gas Infrastructure and Resources, National Gas Pipelines, accessed April 6, 2021.
28 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed March 20, 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pipeline and Distribution Use, Annual, 2015-20.
30 Sabine Pipe Line LLC, About Sabine Pipe Line LLC, Assets, accessed March 24, 2021.
31 S&P Global Platts, Henry Hub Gas Price Assessment, What is Henry Hub?, accessed March 24, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Louisiana, Annual, 2014-19.
33 U.S. EIA, "Asia became the main export destination for growing U.S. LNG exports in 2020," Today in Energy (March 15, 2021).
34 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Point of Exit, Area, Sabine Pass, LA and Cameron, LA, annual, 2020.
35 Cheniere, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, accessed March 20, 2021.
36 Cameron LNG, A small local company with a large global impacts, accessed March 20, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, "LNG exports resume from Sabine Pass and Cameron terminals as another hurricane approaches," Today in Energy (October 8, 2020).
38 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
39 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
40 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas consumption has both winter and summer peaks," Today in Energy (February 13, 2020).
41 U.S. EIA, "Natural gas-fired generation has increased in most U.S. regions since 2015," Today in Energy (December 4, 2020).
42 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990-2020.
43 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11 2021), Table 7, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2019.
44 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2015-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2020.
46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Louisiana, 1960-2018.
47 Louisiana Oil & Gas Association, The History of Louisiana's Oil & Gas Industry, Jennings Field, accessed March 21, 2021.
48 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, Staff Working Paper No. 1, Draft, A Brief History of Offshore Oil Drilling, p. 2.
49 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, PADD 3, Federal Offshore, 2015-20.
50 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama), 2014-19.
51 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-7.
52 U.S. EIA, Gulf of Mexico Fact Sheet, Energy Infrastructure with Real-time Storm Information, Layers/Legend: crude oil pipelines, accessed March 21, 2021.
53 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, Deep Water, The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling (January 2011), p. 17, 167-169.
54 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Reforms Since the Deepwater Horizon Tragedy, accessed March 21, 2021.
55 Cohen, Tom, "Obama administration lifts deep-water drilling moratorium," CNN (October 13, 2010).
56 U.S. EIA, Crude Imports, Import of all grades to total U.S. 2020, Origin by Count, Destination by State.
57 Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, All About LOOP, accessed March 21, 2021.
58 LOOP, LLC, Tanker Offloading, accessed March 24, 2021.
59 LOOP, LLC, History, accessed March 21, 2021.
60 LOOP, LLC, Cavern Storage, accessed March 21, 2021.
61 LOOP, LLC, Tank Storage, accessed March 21, 2021.
62 LOOP, LLC, LOOP Connectivity, accessed March 21, 2021.
63 Kearney, Laila, "Thrown for a LOOP: Big U.S. offshore port's crude exports in surprising surge," Reuters (July 1, 2020).
64 Moore, Kirk, "Louisiana Offshore Oil Port loads first oil for export," WorkBoat (February 21, 2018).
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