Kansas State Energy Profile



Kansas Quick Facts

  • In 2021, Kansas accounted for about 1% of both U.S. proved crude oil reserves and U.S. total oil production. The state's three petroleum refineries provide 2% of U.S. refining capacity and can process a combined 404,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.
  • Kansas is the 9th-largest ethanol-producing state, and its 13 ethanol plants have a combined production capacity of about 603 million gallons a year.
  • In 2021, wind energy accounted for 45% of Kansas's electricity net generation, which was the third-highest share of wind power for any state after Iowa and South Dakota.
  • Conway, Kansas, is a major hydrocarbon gas liquid products storage and pricing hub for propane and ethane.
  • Kansas consumes more natural gas than it produces, and the state has 16 natural gas underground storage fields that can hold 283 billion cubic feet of natural gas, equal to about 3% of U.S. storage capacity.

Last Updated: June 16, 2022



Data

Last Update: August 18, 2022 | Next Update: September 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Population 2.9 million 0.9% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 1.5 million 0.9% Jun-22  
Economy Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 192.3 billion 33 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 28,922 million 28 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 59,324 26 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 27,854 million miles 34 2020  
Land in Farms 45.8 million acres 3 2017  
Climate Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 56.1 degrees Fahrenheit 19 2021  
Precipitation 27.2 inches 36 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 106.42 /barrel $ 108.29 /barrel May-22  
Natural Gas Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 9.71 /thousand cu ft $ 8.41 /thousand cu ft May-22 find more
Residential $ 21.81 /thousand cu ft $ 17.55 /thousand cu ft May-22 find more
Coal Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.90 /million Btu $ 2.23 /million Btu May-22  
Electricity Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.12 cents/kWh 14.92 cents/kWh May-22 find more
Commercial 11.41 cents/kWh 12.14 cents/kWh May-22 find more
Industrial 8.17 cents/kWh 8.35 cents/kWh May-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 277 million barrels 0.8% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 1,989 billion cu ft 0.4% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 130 million barrels 0.6% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 17,362 wells 3.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 403,800 barrels/calendar day 2.1% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 18,417 MW 1.6% May-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 760 trillion Btu 0.8% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 79 thousand barrels per day 0.7% May-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 163,356 million cu ft 0.5% 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,510 thousand MWh 1.6% May-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Kansas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % May-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 6.3 % 37.2 % May-22 find more
Coal-Fired 26.3 % 18.1 % May-22 find more
Nuclear 16.3 % 18.5 % May-22 find more
Renewables 50.9 % 25.3 % May-22  
Stocks Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 212 thousand barrels 1.7% May-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,099 thousand barrels 2.6% May-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 215,556 million cu ft 3.3% May-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 154 thousand barrels 0.7% May-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,752 thousand tons 4.0% May-22 find more
Fueling Stations Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,065 stations 0.9% 2019  
Propane 34 stations 1.4% 2022  
Electricity 460 stations 1.0% 2022  
E85 61 stations 1.5% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 19 stations 1.5% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,070 trillion Btu 29 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 364 million Btu 14 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 10,263 million 33 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,496 16 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 218 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 203 trillion Btu 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 390 trillion Btu 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 258 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,463 million 0.9% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,937 million 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,810 million 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,054 million 1.0% 2020 find more
by Source Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 64 million barrels 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 292 billion cu ft 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 11 million short tons 2.4% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 4,976 million 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,332 million 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 303 million 1.5% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 17 thousand barrels 1.2% May-22 find more
Natural Gas 2,698 million cu ft 0.3% May-22 find more
Coal 950 thousand short tons 2.7% May-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Kansas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 64.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 25.5 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 8.0 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.0 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 8,291 MW 2.8% May-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 603 million gal/year 3.4% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 4 thousand MWh * May-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 2,795 thousand MWh 4.8% May-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 5 thousand MWh 0.1% May-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 8 thousand MWh 0.1% May-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 12,721 thousand barrels 3.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Kansas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 24.4 % 10 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,848 thousand barrels 34 2020  
Total Emissions Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 60.5 million metric tons 1.2% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 20,346 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 13 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: June 16, 2022

Overview

Kansas stretches more than 400 miles from east to west and has considerable crude oil, natural gas, and renewable energy resources. The state’s broad plains rise gradually from about 600 feet above sea level at the Missouri River in the east to more than 3,000 feet higher on the state’s western High Plains.1 Crude oil and natural gas fields are found in several areas across the state.2,3 Strong winds blow across the open prairie, creating significant wind energy resources.4 Major river systems, including the Arkansas, Kansas, Republican, and Smoky Hill Rivers, flow from the High Plains eastward across Kansas, offering hydropower potential.5,6

With its Mid-Continent location far from the moderating effects of large bodies of water, Kansas has hot summers, frigid winters, and occasional severe weather, including tornados.7 Kansas averages more than 200 days of full or partial sunshine each year, and the western half of the state has significant solar energy resources that, along with fertile prairie soils, help make it a major agricultural state.8,9,10,11Kansas ranks third in the nation in the amount of farmland and is the number one producer of wheat and sorghum. It is also ranks third in cattle production and beef processing.12,13 The state’s grain sorghum and corn crops are major feedstocks for ethanol production, and agricultural wastes provide substantial biomass resources.14,15

Kansas’s industrial sector consumes the most energy in the state. It includes manufacturing—particularly aviation and aerospace manufacturing—as well as agriculture and livestock processing, and the energy-intensive petroleum and natural gas industries.16,17 The industrial sector uses slightly more than one-third of the energy consumed in Kansas. Transportation—the second-largest energy-consuming sector—uses one-fourth. The residential and commercial sectors each account for around one-fifth of state energy consumption.18

Petroleum

Kansas accounts for about 2% of U.S. crude oil refining capacity.

Kansas holds nearly 1% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves and accounts for about 1% of the nation’s oil production.19,20 The 1892 discovery of crude oil near Neodesha, Kansas, is considered the first significant oil find west of the Mississippi River and it was the first to indicate the vast oil potential of the Mid-Continent region.21 Today, oil fields are found throughout Kansas and are in all but a few counties in the north-central portion of the state.22 Since 2015, the state’s crude oil production steadily declined and annual oil output in 2021 was at its lowest level in more than four decades, due in part to lower petroleum demand during the COVID-19 global pandemic.23,24

Kansas is also a crude oil-refining state. A network of pipelines delivers crude oil to the state’s three refineries, which combined can process about 404,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and accounted for about 2% of the nation’s refining capacity in 2021. The refineries produce a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, motor gasoline, and jet fuel.25 The transportation sector is the largest consumer of petroleum in Kansas, using 7 out of 10 barrels. The industrial sector accounts for about 24% the state’s petroleum consumption, while the residential and commercial sectors combined account for 6%. The electric power sector uses a minor amount of petroleum.26 Conway, Kansas, is a major hydrocarbon gas liquid products storage and pricing hub for propane and ethane.27,28,29Kansas is among the 10 largest corn-producing states, and, in very wet years, state consumption of propane rises because farmers use it to dry the harvested crop.30,31

Kansas is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states.

Kansas uses part of its corn crop as the feedstock to make fuel ethanol at 13 production plants, which have a combined production capacity of 603 million gallons a year. Kansas is the 9th-largest ethanol-producing state.32,33,34The state produces much more ethanol than it consumes, and the surplus ethanol is sent to blenders at fuel terminals in other states or exported to other countries.35 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, except in the Kansas City metropolitan area, where gasoline must be blended with ethanol to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone.36 The state also has about 70 public fueling stations that sell E-85 ethanol, which is a motor fuel blend that is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.37 Kansas’s one biodiesel plant has a production capacity of 60 million gallons per year.38

Natural gas

In 2021, Kansas’s economically recoverable natural gas reserves and natural gas production were the lowest on record. The state’s annual marketed natural gas production accounted for 0.4% of the U.S. total.39,40 The 12,000-square-mile Hugoton Gas Area, one of the largest natural gas fields in the United States, covers much of southwestern Kansas and parts of Oklahoma and Texas.41,42 Since 1996, Kansas’s marketed natural gas production declined nearly every year, and its share of the U.S. total also decreased as natural gas production from shale resources grew in other states.43,44,45

Kansas’s 16 underground natural gas storage fields account for 3% of U.S. storage capacity.

Kansas consumes more natural gas than it produces.46,47 Natural gas enters the state via pipelines primarily from Oklahoma, Colorado, and Nebraska, and natural gas is shipped out of the state, mainly to Nebraska and Missouri.48 The Mid-Continent Center pipeline system in south-central Kansas is a key natural gas interconnection, merging production from several states in the region and piping it east toward major natural gas-consuming markets.49,50 Kansas also has 16 natural gas storage fields that together can hold up to 283 billion cubic feet of gas, which accounts for 3% of U.S. storage capacity.51,52

Kansas’s industrial sector, which includes agriculture, manufacturing, and crude oil and natural gas production, accounts for about half of the state’s end-use natural gas consumption. The residential sector accounts for almost one-fourth of the state’s natural gas use, and about 6 out of 10 Kansas households rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.53,54 The commercial sector, which includes government buildings, businesses, hospitals, and schools, is the third-largest natural gas consumer, making up one-sixth of the state’s gas use. Kansas’s electric power sector accounts for nearly one-tenth of the state’s natural gas consumption.55,56

Electricity

Wind surpassed coal in 2019 for the first time to become the largest energy source for generating electricity in Kansas. That trend continued through 2021, when wind accounted for 45% of the state’s total net generation. Coal supplied 34% of Kansas’s generation, with the amount of coal-fired electricity down by about one-third from a decade earlier. The state’s one nuclear power plant, Wolf Creek Generating Station, accounted for 15% of electricity net generation in 2021. Natural gas-fired power plants contributed 5% of the state's generation. The rest of Kansas’s electricity generation came from solar energy, petroleum liquids, biomass, and hydroelectric power.1,58 Kansas’s per capita electricity demand in its residential sector is near the midpoint of the states.59 One in four Kansas households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for heating.60 Kansas’s average electricity retail price is near the national average.61

Renewable energy

In 2021, Kansas had the third-largest share of electricity generation from wind power of any state.

In 2021, renewable resources provided 45% of Kansas’s in-state electricity net generation, almost all from wind power.62 Kansas, with its wide plains, is among the states with the best wind power potential.63 The state ranked among the top five states in total wind energy generation, and Kansas had the third-largest share of electricity generated from wind—following closely behind Iowa and South Dakota.64 At the beginning of 2022, the state had nearly 8,250 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity.65

Kansas also generates small amounts of electricity from solar, biomass, and hydropower sources.66,67,68Kansas is among the 10 sunniest states in the country.69 The state has a small but growing amount of utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger capacity) solar generation, which was nearly six times larger in 2021 than in 2019. The amount of generation from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt capacity), mostly rooftop solar panels, was about equal to the amount of solar power from the state’s six utility-scale solar farms in 2021.70,71 Kansas’s renewable generation from biomass comes from two power facilities that use landfill gas and have a total generation capacity of 9 megawatts.72 Kansas is crossed by several major rivers that give it substantial hydropower resources, but most of the state’s dams were built for flood control or to supply drinking water.73 The state has one hydroelectric generating facility, located on the Kaw River, with 11 turbines that together have 7 megawatts of generating capacity.74

In 2015, the Kansas legislature converted the state’s mandatory renewable portfolio standard (RPS) into a voluntary Renewable Energy Standard (RES) goal for the state’s investor-owned and cooperative electric utilities. Under the RES goal, which was met, electricity providers were to obtain 20% of their annual peak power demand from in-state generating capacity fueled by eligible renewable resources by 2020. Unlike other states, the Kansas RES is based on generating capacity rather than electricity retail sales. Renewables that meet the goal include wind, solar, biomass, and hydropower.75,76 Customer-sited, small-scale generating facilities connected to the grid may be counted by utilities to meet the RES goal. Separate legislation established net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities in 2009.77

Coal

The coal-fired Jeffrey Energy Center generating station is the largest power plant by capacity in Kansas.

Kansas has about 0.3% of U.S. estimated recoverable coal reserves, but the state no longer produces coal. Its last coal mine ceased operations in 2016.78,79,80Coal had been mined in Kansas since the 1850s from shallow mines in the eastern part of the state. Significant amounts of coal were produced from both surface and underground mines in Kansas in the late 19th century and were used primarily by railroad locomotives.81 To meet current coal demand, Kansas receives coal from other states and most of it is used in the electric power sector. Nearly all of the coal used in the state’s coal-fired power plants is shipped by rail from Wyoming. The coal-fired Jeffrey Energy Center generation station is the state’s largest power plant by generating capacity (almost 2,000 megawatts) and second-largest in annual generation (about 6.7 million megawatthours). Small amounts of coal are also transported by truck and rail from Missouri and Colorado for use at Kansas industrial plants.82,83

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Kansas, The Geography of Kansas, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Kansas Geological Survey, KGS Special Map 6, Oil and Gas Fields of Kansas (2019).
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Profile Kansas, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed May 12, 2022.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kansas, Maps & Data, accessed May 12, 2022.
5 Hart, Megan, “Report Shows High Hydropower Potential, Some Kansans Skeptical,” The Topeka Capital-Journal (May 17, 2014).
6 Maps of the World, Kansas River Map, accessed May 12, 2022.
7 Knapp, Mary, The Climate of Kansas, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed May 12, 2022.
8 Current Results, Days of Sunshine Per Year in Kansas, accessed May 12, 2022.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Map, U.S. Annual Solar GHI, Kansas, February 22, 2018.
10 National Park Service, Tallgrass Prairie, A Complex Prairie Ecosystem, updated March 5, 2022.
11 Kansas Department of Agriculture, Kansas Agriculture, accessed May 12, 2022.
12 U.S. EIA, Kansas, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Profile Data, Energy Indicators, Land in Farms, accessed May 12, 2022.
13 Kansas Department of Commerce, Agriculture, accessed May 12, 2022.
14 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, updated December 13, 2021.
15 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, Kansas, accessed May 12, 2022.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
17 Kansas Department of Commerce, Kansas Industry, accessed May 13, 2022.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, U.S. Total, Kansas, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2015–20.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016–21.
21 American Oil & Gas Historical Society, Oil Discovery in Neodesha, Kansas, accessed May 13, 2022.
22 Kansas Geological Survey, KGS Special Map 6, Oil and Gas Fields of Kansas (2019).
23 U.S. EIA, Kansas Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981–2021.
24 U.S. EIA, “COVID-19 mitigation efforts result in the lowest U.S. petroleum consumption in decades,” Today in Energy (December 20, 2020).
25 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
27 “Welcome to Conway, KS, #2 in Propane storage,” Propane.pro (February 11, 2011).
28 Anderson, Marissa, “Growing Apart: The Mount Belvieu/Conway NGL Price Differential,” BTU Analytics (July 10, 2018).
29 U.S. Department of Energy, Ethane Storage and Distribution Hub in the United States (November 2018), p. 5, 42–43.
30 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kansas Rank in U.S. Agriculture, accessed May 14, 2022.
31 U.S. EIA, “Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size,” Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
32 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, updated December 13, 2021.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
36 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, (January 2018).
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Kansas, accessed May 14, 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, Annual, 2015–20.
40 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016–21.
41 Kansas Geological Survey, The Hugoton Project, Background, accessed May 14, 2022.
42 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2.
43 U.S. EIA, Kansas Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet), 1967–2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Marketed Production, Annual-Cubic Feet, 2016–21.
45 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Production by region (May 16, 2022).
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2016–21.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Kansas, Annual, 2015–20.
48 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kansas, Annual, 2015–20.
49 ONEOK, Investor Update (November 2019), Mid-Continent Region, p. 45.
50 ONEOK, Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed May 14, 2022.
51 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2015–20.
52 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015–20.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kansas.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2016–21.
55 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, How the United States uses energy, updated May 14, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2016–21.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2001–21.
58 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nuclear Generation and Generating Capacity, Capacity and Generation by State and Reactor, 2022P.
59 U.S. EIA, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
60 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kansas.
61 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2015–20.
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kansas, Maps & Data, accessed May 16, 2022.
64 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
65 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (March 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2022, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine; Inventory of Planned Generators as of March 2022, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2016–21.
67 U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Annual Solar GHI, Kansas, (February 22, 2018).
68 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2022, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Landfill Gas.
69 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State (2006).
70 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar State by State, Kansas Solar, accessed May 16, 2022.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2016–22.
72 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2022, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Landfill Gas.
73 Hart, Megan, “Report Shows High Hydropower Potential, Some Kansans Skeptical,” The Topeka Capital-Journal (May 17, 2014).
74 Bowersock Hydropower, About Bowersock, accessed May 16, 2022.
75 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy Standard, Kansas, Overview, updated June 14, 2018.
76 Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Renewable Energy Standard, accessed May 16, 2022.
77 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, Kansas, Program Overview, updated November 30, 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
79 University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey, Coal mining, accessed May 16, 2022.
80 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by States and Coal Rank, 2020.
81 University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey, Coal mining, accessed May 16 2022.
82 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas, Table DS-13, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
83 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Kansas Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A , Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.


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