Kansas State Energy Profile



Kansas Quick Facts

  • In 2020, Kansas accounted for about 1% of both U.S. proved crude oil reserves and U.S. total oil production. The state's three petroleum refineries account for 2% of U.S. refining capacity and can process a combined 401,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.
  • Kansas is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, and its 13 ethanol plants have a combined production capacity of about 609 million gallons a year.
  • In 2020, wind energy accounted for 43% of Kansas's electricity net generation, which was the second-highest share of wind power for any state after Iowa.
  • Conway, Kansas, is a major hydrocarbon gas liquid products storage and pricing hub for propane and ethane.
  • Kansas consumes more natural gas than it produces, and the state has 16 natural gas underground storage fields that equal about 3% of U.S. storage capacity.

Last Updated: May 20, 2021



Data

Last Update: June 17, 2021 | Next Update: July 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Population 2.9 million 0.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 1.5 million 0.9% Apr-21  
Economy Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 173.3 billion 32 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 27,500 million 28 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 56,073 25 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 31,843 million miles 33 2019  
Land in Farms 45.8 million acres 3 2017  
Climate Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 55.6 degrees Fahrenheit 20 2020  
Precipitation 25.8 inches 35 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 58.48 /barrel $ 60.67 /barrel Mar-21  
Natural Gas Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 5.00 /thousand cu ft $ 4.09 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Residential $ 9.37 /thousand cu ft $ 10.55 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Coal Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.30 /million Btu $ 1.89 /million Btu Mar-21  
Electricity Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.85 cents/kWh 13.29 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Commercial 10.48 cents/kWh 11.13 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Industrial 7.40 cents/kWh 7.01 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 313 million barrels 0.7% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 2,125 billion cu ft 0.5% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 142 million barrels 0.7% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 17,944 wells 3.7% 2019 find more
Capacity Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 403,800 barrels/calendar day 2.1% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,295 MW 1.5% Mar-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 780 trillion Btu 0.8% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 77 thousand barrels per day 0.7% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 183,097 million cu ft 0.5% 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,919 thousand MWh 1.6% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Kansas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.2 % 0.3 % Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 4.6 % 33.9 % Mar-21 find more
Coal-Fired 27.9 % 20.0 % Mar-21 find more
Nuclear 13.8 % 20.5 % Mar-21 find more
Renewables 53.5 % 24.6 % Mar-21  
Stocks Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 227 thousand barrels 1.6% Mar-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,648 thousand barrels 1.5% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 214,638 million cu ft 3.5% Mar-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 106 thousand barrels 0.4% Mar-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,222 thousand tons 2.9% Mar-21 find more
Fueling Stations Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,065 stations 0.9% 2019  
Propane 37 stations 1.4% 2021  
Electricity 431 stations 1.1% 2021  
E85 54 stations 1.5% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 13 stations 1.0% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,123 trillion Btu 29 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 390 million Btu 16 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 11,969 million 33 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,328 19 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 229 trillion Btu 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 219 trillion Btu 1.2% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 391 trillion Btu 1.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 284 trillion Btu 1.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,526 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,063 million 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,989 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 5,392 million 0.9% 2019 find more
by Source Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 68 million barrels 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 304 billion cu ft 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 12 million short tons 2.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 6,439 million 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,470 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 321 million 1.3% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 20 thousand barrels 1.4% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,847 million cu ft 0.2% Mar-21 find more
Coal 908 thousand short tons 2.6% Mar-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Kansas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 64.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 25.5 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 8.0 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.0 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 7,069 MW 2.6% Mar-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 609 million gal/year 3.5% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 2 thousand MWh * Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 2,625 thousand MWh 5.2% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 5 thousand MWh 0.1% Mar-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 5 thousand MWh 0.1% Mar-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 11,814 thousand barrels 3.1% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Kansas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 19.0 % 12 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 3,101 thousand barrels 34 2019  
Total Emissions Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 62.4 million metric tons 1.2% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 20,884 thousand metric tons 1.2% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 15 thousand metric tons 1.2% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 20, 2021

Overview

Kansas stretches more than 400 miles from east to west and has considerable crude oil, natural gas, and renewable energy resources. The state's broad plains rise gradually from about 600 feet above sea level at the Missouri River in the east to more than 3,000 feet higher on the state's western High Plains.1 Crude oil and natural gas fields are found in several basins across the state.2,3 Strong winds blow across the open prairie, creating significant wind energy resources.4 Major river systems, including the Arkansas, Kansas, Republican, and Smoky Hill Rivers, flow from the High Plains eastward across Kansas, offering hydropower potential.5,6

With its Mid-Continent location far from large bodies of water, Kansas has hot summers, frigid winters, and occasional severe weather, including tornados.7 Kansas averages more than 200 days of full or partial sunshine each year, and the western half of the state has significant solar energy resources that, along with fertile prairie soils, help make it a major agricultural state.8,9,10,11 Kansas ranks third in the nation in the amount of land devoted to farming and is the number one producer of wheat and sorghum.12,13 The state's grain sorghum and corn crops are major feedstocks for ethanol production, and agricultural wastes provide substantial biomass resources.14,15

Energy consumption in Kansas is highest in the state's industrial sector, which includes manufacturing—particularly aviation and aerospace manufacturing—as well as agriculture and livestock processing, and the energy-intensive petroleum and natural gas industries.16,17 The industrial sector uses more than one-third of the energy consumed in Kansas. Transportation—the second-largest energy-consuming sector—uses about one-fourth. The residential and commercial sectors each account for around one-fifth of state energy consumption.18

Petroleum

Kansas is a major oil-producing state in the Mid-Continent region and accounts for about 1% of U.S. crude oil output.

Kansas holds nearly 1% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves and accounts for about 1% of the nation's oil production.19,20 The 1892 discovery of crude oil near Neodesha, Kansas, is considered the first significant oil find west of the Mississippi River and it was the first to indicate the vast oil potential of the Mid-Continent region.21 Today, oil fields are found throughout most of Kansas and are in all but a few counties in the north-central portion of the state.22 The state's oil production has steadily declined since 2015 and annual oil output in 2020 was at its lowest level in more than four decades, due in part to the decline in oil prices and petroleum demand caused by the COVID-19 global pandemic.23,24

Kansas is also an oil-refining state. A network of pipelines delivers crude oil to the state's three refineries, which combined can process about 401,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and accounted for about 2% of the nation's refining capacity in 2020. The refineries produce a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, motor gasoline, and jet fuel.25 The transportation sector is the largest consumer of petroleum in Kansas, using more than 7 out of 10 barrels. The industrial sector accounts for most of rest of the state's petroleum consumption.26 Conway, Kansas, is a major hydrocarbon gas liquid products storage and pricing hub for propane and ethane.27,28,29

Kansas is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states.

Kansas is among the 10 largest corn-producing states, and, in very wet years, state consumption of propane rises because farmers use it to dry the harvested crop.30,31 Kansas uses part of its corn crop as the feedstock to make fuel ethanol at 13 production plants, which have a combined production capacity of 609 million gallons a year. Kansas is a top 10 ethanol-producing state.32,33,34 The state consumes about one-fourth of the ethanol it produces, and the surplus ethanol is sent to blenders at fuel terminals in other states or exported to other countries.35 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol is allowed to be sold statewide, except for the Kansas City metropolitan area, where gasoline is required to be blended with ethanol to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone.36 The state also has 57 public fueling stations that sell E-85 ethanol, which is a motor fuel blend that is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.37 Kansas has one biodiesel plant with a production capacity of 60 million gallons per year.38

Natural gas

At the beginning of 2020, Kansas's economically recoverable natural gas reserves were the lowest in more than four decades, and the state's annual marketed natural gas production accounted for about 0.4% of the U.S. total.39,40 The 12,000-square-mile Hugoton Gas Area, one of the largest natural gas fields in the United States, covers much of southwestern Kansas and parts of Oklahoma and Texas.41,42 Since 1996, Kansas's marketed natural gas production has declined every year except for one, and its share of U.S. total marketed production has also decreased as natural gas production from shale resources in other states increased.43,44,45,46

Kansas’s 16 underground natural gas storage fields account for 3% of U.S. storage capacity.

Kansas consumes more natural gas than it produces.47,48 Natural gas enters the state via pipelines primarily from Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Colorado, and natural gas is shipped out of the state, mainly to Missouri and Nebraska.49 The Mid-Continent Center pipeline system in south-central Kansas is a key natural gas interconnect, merging production from several states in the region and piping it east toward major natural gas-consuming markets.50,51 Kansas also has 16 natural gas storage fields that together can hold up to 283 billion cubic feet of gas, which accounts for 3% of U.S. storage capacity.52,53

Kansas's industrial sector, which includes agriculture, manufacturing, and oil and natural gas production, accounts for about half of the state's natural gas consumption.54 The residential sector accounts for almost one-fourth of the state's natural gas use, and about 6 out of 10 Kansas households rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.55,56 The commercial sector, which includes government buildings, businesses, hospitals, and schools, is the third-largest natural gas consumer, making up one-seventh of the state's gas use. Kansas's electric power sector had record natural gas-fired generation in 2020 and accounts for about one-tenth of the state's natural gas consumption.57,58,59

Electricity

Wind surpassed coal in 2019 for the first time as the largest energy source for generating electricity in Kansas. That trend continued in 2020, when wind energy accounted for 43% of the state's net generation. Coal-fired power plants supplied 31% of Kansas's generation, with the amount of coal-fired electricity down by almost half from a decade earlier. The state's single reactor nuclear power plant, Wolf Creek Generating Station, accounted for 19% of electricity net generation in 2020. Natural gas-fired power plants contributed 6% of the state's generation. The rest of Kansas's electricity generation came from solar energy, petroleum liquids, biomass, and hydroelectric power.60,61 Kansas's per capita electricity demand in its residential sector is near the midpoint of the states.62 One in four Kansas households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for heating.63 Kansas's average electricity retail price is slightly below the national average.64

Renewable energy

In 2020, Kansas had the second-largest share of wind power of any state, after Iowa.

In 2020, renewables provided 44% of Kansas's in-state electricity net generation, and almost all of that renewable generation came from wind power.65 Kansas, with its wide plains, is among the states with the best wind power potential.66 The state ranked among the top five states in total wind energy generation, and Kansas had the second-largest share of electricity generated from wind—following closely behind Iowa.67 At the beginning of 2021, the state had nearly 6,900 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity. Four wind projects with a combined generating capacity of 1,027 megawatts are scheduled to come online in the state during 2021.68

Kansas also generates small amounts of renewable electricity from solar, biomass, and hydropower sources.69,70,71 Kansas is among the 10 sunniest states in the country.72 However, the state has little utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar generation, although that solar generation was five times larger in 2020 than in 2019. Generation from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), mostly rooftop solar panels, was slightly less than amount of solar power from the state's six utility-scale solar farms in 2020.73,74 Kansas's renewable generation from biomass comes from two power facilities that use landfill gas and have a total generation capacity of 9 megawatts.75 Kansas is crossed by several major rivers that give it substantial hydropower resources, but most dams were built for flood control or to supply drinking water.76 The state has one hydroelectric generating facility, located on the Kaw River, with 11 turbines that together have 7 megawatts of generating capacity.77

In 2015, the Kansas legislature converted the state's mandatory renewable portfolio standard (RPS), enacted in May 2009, into a voluntary Renewable Energy Standard (RES) goal for the state's investor-owned and cooperative electric utilities. Under the RES goal, electricity providers obtain 20% of their annual peak power demand from in-state generating capacity fueled by eligible renewable resources by 2020. Unlike other states, the Kansas RES is based on generating capacity rather than electricity retail sales. Renewables that meet the goal include wind, solar, biomass, and hydropower.78,79 Separate legislation established net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities in 2009. Customer-sited, small-scale generating facilities connected to the grid may be counted by utilities to meet the RES goal.80

Coal

The coal-fired Jeffrey Energy Center generating station is the largest power plant by capacity in Kansas.

Kansas holds about 0.3% of U.S. estimated recoverable coal reserves, but the state no longer produces coal. Its last coal mine ceased operations in 2016.81,82,83 Coal had been mined in Kansas since the 1850s from shallow mines in the eastern part of the state. Significant amounts of coal were produced from both surface and underground mines in Kansas in the late 19th century and were used primarily by railroad locomotives.84 To meet current coal demand, Kansas receives coal from other states and most of it is used in the electric power sector. Nearly all of the coal used in the state's coal-fired power plants is shipped by rail from Wyoming. The coal-fired Jeffrey Energy Center generation station is the state's largest power plant by generating capacity (almost 2,200 megawatts) and second-largest in annual generation (about 6.6 million megawatthours). Small amounts of coal are also transported by truck and rail from Missouri, Colorado, and Oklahoma for use at Kansas industrial plants.85,86,87

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Kansas, The Geography of Kansas, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Kansas Geological Survey, KGS Special Map 6, Oil and Gas Fields of Kansas (2019).
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Profile Kansas, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed March 29, 2021.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kansas, Maps & Data, accessed March 29, 2021.
5 Hart, Megan, "Report Shows High Hydropower Potential, Some Kansans Skeptical," The Topeka Capital-Journal (May 17, 2014).
6 Maps of the World, Kansas River Map, accessed March 29, 2021.
7 Knapp, Mary, The Climate of Kansas, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed March 29, 2021.
8 Current Results, Days of Sunshine Per Year in Kansas, accessed March 29, 2021.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Map, U.S. Annual Solar GHI, Kansas, February 22,. 2018.
10 National Park Service, Tallgrass Prairie, A Complex Prairie Ecosystem, updated December 10, 2020.
11 Kansas Department of Agriculture, Kansas Agriculture, updated September 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, Kansas, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Profile Data, Energy Indicators, Land in Farms, accessed March 29, 2021.
13 Kansas Department of Commerce, Agriculture, accessed March 29, 2021.
14 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, updated December 15, 2020.
15 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, Kansas, January 14, 2014.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
17 Kansas Department of Commerce, Kansas Industry, accessed March 29, 2021.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2014-19.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
21 American Oil & Gas Historical Society, Oil Discovery in Neodesha, Kansas, accessed March 30, 2021.
22 Kansas Geological Survey, KGS Special Map 6, Oil and Gas Fields of Kansas (2019).
23 U.S. EIA, Kansas Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
24 U.S. EIA, "COVID-19 mitigation efforts result in the lowest U.S. petroleum consumption in decades," Today in Energy (December 20, 2020).
25 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020, p. 8, 10.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
27 "Welcome to Conway, KS, #2 in Propane storage," Propane.pro (February 11, 2011).
28 Anderson, Marissa, "Growing Apart: The Mount Belvieu/Conway NGL Price Differential," BTU Analytics (July 10, 2018).
29 U.S. Department of Energy, Ethane Storage and Distribution Hub in the United States (November 2018), p. 5, 42-43.
30 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kansas Rank in U.S. Agriculture, accessed March 30, 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
32 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, updated December 15, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
36 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, (January 2018).
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Kansas, accessed April 27, 2021.
38 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, Annual, 2014-19.
40 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
41 Kansas Geological Survey, The Hugoton Project, Background, accessed March 31, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2.
43 U.S. EIA, Kansas Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet), 1967-2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Marketed Production, Annual-Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Production by region (March 15, 2021).
46 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. natural gas production decreased by 1% in 2020," Today in Energy (March 2, 2021).
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2015-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Kansas, Annual, 2015-20.
49 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kansas, Annual, 2014-19.
50 ONEOK, Investor Update (November 2019), Mid-Continent Region, p. 45.
51 ONEOK, Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed March 31, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
53 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2015-20.
55 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kansas.
56 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2015-20.
57 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, How the United States uses energy, updated June 18, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2015-20.
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2001-20.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2001-20.
61 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nuclear Generation and Generating Capacity, Capacity and Generation by State and Reactor, 2021P.
62 U.S. EIA, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
63 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kansas.
64 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2015-20.
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kansas, Maps & Data, accessed March 31, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
68 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (March 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine; Inventory of Planned Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2015-20.
70 U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Annual Solar GHI, Kansas, (February 22, 2018).
71 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Landfill Gas.
72 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State (2006).
73 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar State by State, Kansas Solar, accessed April 1, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kansas, Annual 2015-20.
75 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: Kansas, Technology: Landfill Gas.
76 Hart, Megan, "Report Shows High Hydropower Potential, Some Kansans Skeptical," The Topeka Capital-Journal (May 17, 2014).
77 Bowersock Hydropower, About Bowersock, accessed April 1, 2021.
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy Standard, Kansas, Overview, updated June 14, 2018.
79 Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Renewable Energy Standard, accessed April 1, 2021.
80 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, Kansas, Program Overview, updated November 30, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
82 University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey, Coal mining, accessed April 1, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by States and Coal Rank, 2019.
84 University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey, Coal mining, accessed April 1, 2021.
85 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas, Table DS-15, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
86 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Types of Coal, Subbituminous, accessed April 1, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Kansas Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A , Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.


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