Kansas State Energy Profile



Kansas Quick Facts

  • In 2015, Kansas ranked 10th in crude oil production among the 50 states, excluding the federal offshore areas.
  • The Hugoton Gas Area, one of the top-producing natural gas fields in the United States, extends from southwestern Kansas into the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles.
  • The Mid-Continent Center, located in south central Kansas, is a key natural gas supply hub that takes production from several states in the region and pipes it east to major consumption markets.  
  • In 2015, 54% of net electricity generation in Kansas came from six coal-fired electric power plants, and 19% came from the state's single nuclear power plant. 
  • In Kansas, wind energy has grown from less than 1% of net electricity generation in 2005 to 24% in 2015, making wind the state's second largest power provider, after coal. 

Last Updated: February 16, 2017



Data

Last Update: September 21, 2017 | Next Update: October 19, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Population 2.9 million 0.9% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 1.5 million 0.9% Jul-17  
Economy Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 153.3 billion 32 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 23,792 million 28 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 48,537 23 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 31,379 million miles 33 2015  
Land in Farms 46.1 million acres 3 2012  
Climate Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit 16 2016  
Precipitation 31.4 inches 35 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 40.38 /barrel $ 42.19 /barrel Jun-17  
Natural Gas Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.24 /thousand cu ft $ 4.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Residential $ 19.78 /thousand cu ft $ 15.98 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Coal Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.75 /million Btu $ 2.10 /million Btu Jun-17  
Electricity Kansas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.56 cents/kWh 13.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Commercial 10.99 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Industrial 7.37 cents/kWh 7.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 337 million barrels 1.0% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 3,183 billion cu ft 1.0% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 122 million barrels 1.0% 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines * * 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 3 rigs 0.6% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 24,451 wells 4.4% 2015 find more
Production Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 856 trillion Btu 1.0% 2015 find more
Crude Oil 2,984 thousand barrels 1.1% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 285,236 million cu ft 1.0% 2015 find more
Coal 199 thousand short tons * 2015 find more
Capacity Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 361,000 barrels/calendar day 1.9% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 16,088 MW 1.5% Jun-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,625 thousand MWh 1.3% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Kansas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 5.9 % 32.1 % Jun-17 find more
Coal-Fired 43.4 % 30.4 % Jun-17 find more
Nuclear 18.8 % 18.8 % Jun-17 find more
Renewables 31.8 % 17.7 % Jun-17  
Stocks Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 316 thousand barrels 2.0% Jun-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,469 thousand barrels 2.0% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 253,799 million cu ft 3.5% Jun-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 112 thousand barrels 0.4% Jun-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 4,369 thousand tons 2.7% Jun-17 find more
Production Facilities Kansas
Major Coal Mines None find more
Petroleum Refineries CHS Mcpherson Refinery (McPherson), Coffeyville Resources (Coffeyville), Hollyfrontier El Dorado Refining (El Dorado) find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Jeffrey Energy Center (Westar Energy Inc) ; La Cygne (Kansas City Power & Light Co) ; Gordon Evans Energy Center (Kansas Gas & Electric Co) ; Emporia Energy Center (Westar Energy Inc) ; Osawatomie (Kansas City Power & Light Co)  
Nuclear Power Plants Wolf Creek Generating Station (Wolf Creek Nuclear Optg Corp) find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers Kansas
Petroleum Ports None find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs Mid-Continent Center (Market Center)  
Major Pipelines Kansas find more
Crude Oil Enbridge, Magellan, Spectra, TransCanada, Western Gas, BP Pipelines, Plains Pipeline  
Petroleum Product Midstream Partners, Nustar, Phillips 66 Pipeline  
Natural Gas Liquids Conoco Phillips, DCP Midstream, Enterprise Products, ONEOK, Nustar  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines ANR Pipeline Company, Cheyenne Plains Gas Pipeline Company, Colorado Interstate Gas Company LLC, DCP Midstream LP, Enable Gas Transmission LLC, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, Northern Natural Gas, Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company, Postrock KPC Pipeline LLC, Postrock Midcontinent Production LLC, Rockies Express Pipeline LLC, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline  
Fueling Stations Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,131 stations 1.0% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 41 stations 1.3% 2017  
Electricity 176 stations 1.1% 2017  
Ethanol 18 stations 0.6% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 16 stations 1.3% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Kansas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,083 trillion Btu 30 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 372 million Btu 16 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 11,299 million 32 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,887 20 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 220 trillion Btu 1.1% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 213 trillion Btu 1.2% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 372 trillion Btu 1.2% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 279 trillion Btu 1.0% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,390 million 1.0% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,952 million 1.0% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,971 million 1.1% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,986 million 1.0% 2015 find more
by Source Kansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 65.7 million barrels 0.9% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 251.0 billion cu ft 0.9% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 16.0 million short tons 2.0% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 6,077 million 1.0% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,308 million 0.9% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 468 million 1.3% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 8 thousand barrels 0.5% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas 2,586 million cu ft 0.3% Jun-17 find more
Coal 1,286 thousand short tons 2.2% Jun-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Kansas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 66.9 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 22.8 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7.7 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 2.5 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 5,130 MW 2.5% Jun-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 502 million gal/year 3.2% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 3 thousand MWh * Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,464 thousand MWh 5.4% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 5 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 1 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-17  
Ethanol Production 12,209 Thousand Barrels 3.5% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Kansas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 13.7 % 14 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 2,872 thousand barrels 33 2015  
Total Emissions Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 70.0 million metric tons 1.3% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Kansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 27,341 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 13 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 19 thousand metric tons 1.0% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: February 16, 2017

Overview

Kansas stretches more than 400 miles from east to west and has considerable crude oil, natural gas, and renewable energy resources. The state's broad plains rise gradually from about 600 feet above sea level at the Missouri River on the east to more than 3,000 feet higher on the western High Plains.1 Crude oil and natural gas reserves are found in several basins across the state.2 Strong winds blow across the open prairie, creating significant wind energy resources.3 Major river systems, including the Arkansas, Kansas, Republican, and Smoky Hill Rivers, flow from the High Plains eastward across Kansas, offering hydropower potential.4,5

Kansas typically produces about 1.5% of total U.S. crude oil production.

With its midcontinent location, Kansas has hot summers, often-frigid winters, and occasional severe weather, including tornados.6 But Kansas averages more than 200 days of full or partial sunshine each year,7 giving the state significant solar energy resources8,9 and making it, with its fertile prairie soils, an important agricultural state.10,11 Kansas ranks third in the nation in the amount of land devoted to farming.12 The state's grain sorghum and corn crops are major feedstocks for ethanol production,13 and agricultural wastes provide substantial biomass resources.14

Total end-use energy consumption in Kansas is highest in the industrial sector,15 which includes manufacturing, particularly aviation and aerospace manufacturing, as well as agriculture and the energy-intensive petroleum industry.16 The industrial sector uses one-third of the energy consumed in Kansas. Transportation, the second-largest energy-consuming sector, uses a little more than one-fourth, and the residential sector and commercial sector each use about one-fifth.17

Petroleum

Oil fields span Kansas in a broad arc that includes all but a few counties in the north central portion of the state.18 The state holds about 1% of proved U.S. crude oil reserves.19,20 The 1892 crude oil discovery near Neodesha, Kansas, is considered the first significant oil find west of the Mississippi River and was the first to indicate the vast oil potential of the Mid-Continent region.21 Kansas typically produces about 1.5% of total U.S. crude oil, and the state is one of the nation's top 10 crude oil-producing states.22 However, production declined in 2015 and 2016 along with crude oil prices.23

Kansas is also an oil-refining state. A network of pipelines delivers crude oil to the state's three refineries, which have a combined capacity of about 340,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.24 The refineries produce a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel and motor gasoline.25 Kansas is among the 10 largest corn-producing states,26 and, in wet years, state consumption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rises because farmers use LPG to dry corn at harvest.27,28 Kansas produces a substantial amount of ethanol from corn at more than a dozen production plants,29,30 but the state consumes only about one-fourth of the ethanol produced.31 Motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone is required only in the Kansas City metropolitan area.32

Natural gas

The Hugoton Gas Field, one of the nation's largest natural gas fields, covers much of southeastern Kansas.

At the end of 2015, total Kansas natural gas reserves were estimated at about 1% of U.S. proved reserves.33 Natural gas was first found in Kansas in 1882, and cumulative production from all Kansas natural gas wells through 2013 exceeded 42.6 trillion cubic feet.34 The 12,000-square-mile Hugoton Gas Area, one of the largest natural gas fields in United States, covers much of southwestern Kansas.35,36 Natural gas was of little interest until 1929, when the first pipeline to deliver natural gas to nearby markets was built.37 Kansas produces about 1% of the nation's natural gas,38 all of it from conventional natural gas reservoirs.39 The state's natural gas marketed production has declined since 1995,40 and its share of U.S. marketed production has also decreased as production from shale resources rose in other states.41 Coalbed methane produced from coal seams in the eastern part of the state42 has offset some of the decline.43

In addition to natural gas and crude oil, the Hugoton Field contains unusually high concentrations of helium and has the largest reserves of helium in the United States. The helium is separated from the natural gas and is piped to the National Helium Reserve in Amarillo, Texas, where it is stored in underground geologic formations.44

Thirteen interstate natural gas pipelines cross Kansas.45 Natural gas enters the state via pipelines from Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Colorado, and pipelines ship natural gas out of state, primarily to Missouri and Nebraska.46 Kansas consumes most of the natural gas it produces.47,48 The Mid-Continent Center, a 204-mile pipeline system in south-central Kansas, is a key natural gas interconnect, merging production from several states in the region and piping it east toward major natural gas-consuming markets.49,50 Kansas also has 17 natural gas storage fields,51 which account for 3% of U.S. storage capacity.52

The industrial sector in Kansas consumes half of the natural gas used in the state, more than any other sector. Although two-thirds of Kansas households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating, the residential sector accounts for only a little over one-fourth of the state's natural gas consumption.53,54

Coal

Kansas coal mining began in the 1850s with shallow mines in the eastern part of the state. Significant amounts of coal were produced from both surface and underground mines in Kansas in the late 19th century, primarily to power railroad locomotives.55 Currently, the state holds less than 1% of the demonstrated reserve base of U.S. coal56 and has only one producing mine, which yields small amounts of bituminous coal.57,58,59 That coal is shipped to industrial users or blended with coal from Wyoming at the La Cygne Generating Station,60,61,62 the state's second largest electricity generating plant.63 Coal is the largest single fuel source for electricity generation in Kansas,64 and nearly all of the coal used in the state's six coal-fired generating stations65 is low-sulfur subbituminous coal shipped by rail from Wyoming. Minor amounts of coal come from Missouri and Oklahoma.66,67

Electricity

In 2015, wind energy provided nearly one-fourth of net electricity generation in Kansas.

Coal-fired power plants supply more than half of the net electricity generated in Kansas.68 Coal's share of net generation has been gradually declining as wind energy's share has increased;69 in 2015, wind was the second largest source of net generation, producing nearly one-fourth of the electricity generated in Kansas.70 The state's single nuclear power station was the third largest generator, supplying more than one-sixth of net electricity generation.71 The state's electricity prices are slightly below the national average,72 in part because of the proximity of Kansas to the coalfields of Wyoming, which provide almost all of the coal used for generation.73,74,75 Although the state has abundant natural gas reserves, natural gas-fired power plants typically contribute less than 5% of the state's net electricity generation.76 Fewer than one-fourth of Kansas households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.77

Renewable energy

Kansas, with its wide plains, is among the leading states in both wind energy generation and wind energy potential. Almost all of Kansas's renewable net electricity generation comes from wind,78 and, in 2015, the state ranked among the top five states in the nation in generation from wind energy.79 Kansas is also among the five states with the highest wind energy potential.80,81 In addition, Kansas has solar and hydroelectric power resources. Kansas is among the 10 sunniest states in the country, with the same solar power potential as Florida,82,83 and some solar photovoltaic capacity is being built.84,85 Kansas is crossed by several major rivers that give it substantial hydropower resources, but most dams were built for flood control or drinking water supply.86 The state has only one hydroelectric generating facility, located on the Kaw River.87

Kansas is one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states.88 Corn and grain sorghum are the primary feedstocks for the ethanol produced in Kansas. There are 14 ethanol plants in the state with a combined capacity of more than 500 million gallons.89 One cellulosic ethanol plant that began operation in 2014 uses agricultural waste such as corn stalks and cobs, wheat straw, milo stubble, and switchgrass.90

In 2015, the Kansas legislature converted the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS), enacted in May 2009, into a voluntary goal for the state's investor-owned and cooperative electric utilities. The RPS originally required electricity providers to obtain 10% of their peak demand capacity from eligible renewable resources from 2011 through 2015, 15% from 2016 through 2019, and 20% each year from 2020 onward.91 The Kansas RPS is based on generating capacity rather than retail electric sales. Technologies that meet the goal include wind, solar thermal and photovoltaic applications; generation fueled by crops grown for energy production and some agricultural wastes; and hydroelectric facilities of less than 10 megawatts. Additional legislation has established net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities. In 2014, Kansas legislators reduced the sizes of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities that are eligible for net metering and limited net-metered connections to 1% of peak load. Grid-connected distributed facilities may be counted by electricity providers in meeting the providers' RPS goal.92

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Kansas, The Geography of Kansas, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Kansas Geological Survey, KGS Special Map 6, Oil and Gas Fields of Kansas (2009).
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Kansas Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
4 Hart, Megan, "Report Shows High Hydropower Potential, Some Kansans Skeptical," The Topeka Capital-Journal (May 17, 2014).
5 Maps of the World, Kansas River Map, accessed January 5, 2017.
6 Knapp, Mary, The Climate of Kansas, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed January 5, 2017.
7 Current Results, Days of Sunshine Per Year in Kansas, accessed January 5, 2017.
8 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Photovoltaic Solar Resource of the United States (September 19, 2012).
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Resource of the United States (September 19, 2012).
10 National Park Service, Tallgrass Prairie, A Complex Prairies Ecosystem, accessed January 17, 2017.
11 NETSTATE, Kansas, Kansas Economy, updated February 25, 2016.
12 U.S. EIA, Kansas, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Profile Data, Energy Indicators, Land in Farms, accessed January 5, 2017.
13 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, updated January 23, 2016.
14 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biopower Atlas, Crop Residues, accessed January 5, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
16 Kansas Department of Commerce, Economy, accessed January 5, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
18 Kansas Geological Survey, KGS Special Map 6, Oil and Gas Fields of Kansas (2009).
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Kansas, 2010-15.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, U.S. Total, 2010-15.
21 American Oil & Gas Historical Society, Oil Discovery in Neodesha, Kansas, accessed January 19, 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2010-15.
23 Cross, Edward P., State of the Oil and Gas Industry, Kansas Independent Oil & Gas Association (June 2016).
24 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2016 (June 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016, p. 8-13.
25 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Kansas, Annual (as of January 1), 2011-16.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012, Section 17, Agriculture, Table 859, Corn-Acreage, Production, and Value by Leading States, 2005-10.
27 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014), (June 2016), Kansas, Table C2, p. 194.
29 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities, Capacity by State and Plant (September 2016).
30 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2014.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F4, Fuel Ethanol Consumption Estimates, 2015.
32 Gardner, K.S., "U.S. Gasoline Requirements," ExxonMobil (June 2015).
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, Annual, 2010-15.
34 Independent Petroleum Association of America, 2014-2015 Oil & Gas Producing Industry in Your State (November 2015), p. 64.
35 Kansas Geological Survey, The Hugoton Project, Background (January 2001).
36 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2.
37 Kansas Geological Survey, Public Information Circular 5, History (December 1996).
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Cubic Feet, 2010-15.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Shale Wells, Annual-Cubic Feet, 2010-15.
40 U.S. EIA, Kansas Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet), 1967-2015.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Cubic Feet, 2010-15.
42 Carr, Timothy, Coalbed Methane in Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey (March 4, 2004), p 8.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Kansas, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2010-15.
44 Kammerzell, Jaime, "Helium to Move from Byproduct to Primary Drilling Target," Rigzone (November 18, 2011).
45 U.S. EIA, Kansas, Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed January 16, 2017.
46 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kansas, Annual, 2010-15.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2010-15.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Dry Production, Annual, 2010-15.
49 ONEOK Partners, Mid Continent Market Center, accessed January 16, 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Market Centers: A 2008 Update (April 2009).
51 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2010-15.
52 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2010-15.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Kansas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kansas, Annual, 2010-15.
55 Kansas Geological Survey, GeoKansas, Coal Mining in Kansas, updated May 4, 2005.
56 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 3, 2016), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method.
57 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Number of Mines for all coal, total, all mines, Kansas, all mine statuses, accessed January 16, 2017.
58 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (December 22, 2016), Table 2, Coal Production by State.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 3, 2016), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2015.
60 Westar Energy, Company Profile, 2015 Annual Report on Form 10K, p. 9.
61 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 14, 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas, and by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive (2014, 2013, 2012), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas, and by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas.
63 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Kansas Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2015.
64 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Kansas Electricity Profile 2015.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data (October 6, 2016), 2015, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 14, 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas.
67 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive (2014, 2013, 2012), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990-2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923) (October 12, 2016).
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 5.6.B.
73 Kansas Department of Commerce, Utilities, accessed January 17, 2017.
74 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 14, 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas.
75 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive (2014, 2013, 2012), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kansas.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
77 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Kansas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
78 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 1.14.B.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Kansas Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity (September 24, 2015), see link to table, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Estimates of Land Area and Wind Potential by State (February 2015).
81 American Wind Energy Association, Kansas Wind Energy, accessed January 17, 2017.
82 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State (2006).
83 U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools, Solar Maps, updated July 18, 2016.
84 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Kansas Solar, accessed January 17, 2017.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (December 2016), Table 1.17.B.
86 Hart, Megan, "Report Shows High Hydropower Potential, Some Kansans Skeptical," The Topeka Capital-Journal (May 17, 2014).
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
88 Nebraska Government Website, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, updated October 20, 2016.
89 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, updated January 23, 2016.
90 Abengoa Bioenergy, "Abengoa Celebrates Grand Opening of its First Commercial-Scale Next Generation Biofuels Plant," Press Release (October 17, 2014).
91 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy Standard, Kansas, Overview, updated June 8, 2015.
92 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, Kansas, Program Overview, updated August 12, 2015.


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