Illinois State Energy Profile



Illinois Quick Facts

  • Illinois is the fifth-largest energy-consuming state in the nation, and its industrial sector, which includes petroleum refining and coal mining, uses the most energy of any end-use sector in the state.
  • Illinois ranks fourth in the nation in crude oil refining capacity and leads the Midwest states with a refining capacity of nearly 1 million barrels per calendar day.
  • The estimated recoverable coal reserves in Illinois are the second-largest after Montana in the nation, and the state's coal mines account for 7% of U.S. coal production.
  • Illinois has the third-largest annual ethanol production capacity (1.9 billion gallons) and the fourth-largest annual biodiesel fuel production capacity (162 million gallons) in the nation. 
  • In 2019, Illinois generated the most electricity from nuclear energy, and the state's six nuclear plants accounted for 12% of U.S. nuclear power net generation. 

Last Updated: May 21, 2020



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Population 12.6 million 3.8% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 6.1 million 3.8% Feb-21  
Economy Illinois U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 897.1 billion 5 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 108,554 million 4 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 62,977 13 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 107,525 million miles 8 2019  
Land in Farms 27.0 million acres 13 2017  
Climate Illinois U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 53.3 degrees Fahrenheit 23 2020  
Precipitation 41.9 inches 24 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 48.58 /barrel $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.17 /thousand cu ft $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 6.63 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 36.84 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.30 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 8.96 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 6.84 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) W W 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 1,900 million short tons 13.4% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2019 find more
Capacity Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 1,026,865 barrels/calendar day 5.4% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 45,126 MW 4.0% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 2,555 trillion Btu 2.7% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 19 thousand barrels per day 0.2% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 2,210 million cu ft * 2019 find more
Coal 45,853 thousand short tons 6.5% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 16,194 thousand MWh 4.6% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Illinois U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 10.5 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 24.6 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 54.3 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 10.3 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 149 thousand barrels 0.9% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 3,655 thousand barrels 2.8% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 868,446 million cu ft 12.4% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 72 thousand barrels 0.3% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 5,638 thousand tons 4.5% Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,816 stations 3.4% 2018  
Propane 89 stations 3.3% 2021  
Electricity 843 stations 2.1% 2021  
E85 267 stations 7.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 31 stations 2.5% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Illinois U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 4,012 trillion Btu 5 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 315 million Btu 25 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 44,808 million 6 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,522 39 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 990 trillion Btu 4.6% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 823 trillion Btu 4.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 1,185 trillion Btu 3.6% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 1,014 trillion Btu 3.6% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 10,044 million 3.8% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 6,834 million 3.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 6,671 million 3.1% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 21,260 million 3.6% 2018 find more
by Source Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 246 million barrels 3.3% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,152 billion cu ft 3.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 33 million short tons 5.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 24,489 million 3.3% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 6,981 million 4.6% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,276 million 5.0% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 7 thousand barrels 0.4% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 13,530 million cu ft 1.5% Jan-21 find more
Coal 2,359 thousand short tons 5.2% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Illinois U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 77.1 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 17.0 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,574 MW 2.5% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,770 million gal/year 10.2% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 12 thousand MWh * Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,614 thousand MWh 4.3% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 38 thousand MWh 0.8% Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 36 thousand MWh 1.3% Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 41,032 thousand barrels 10.7% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Illinois U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.0 % 35 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 11,267 thousand barrels 9 2019  
Total Emissions Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 201.0 million metric tons 3.9% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 63,036 thousand metric tons 3.7% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 86 thousand metric tons 6.8% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 33 thousand metric tons 2.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 21, 2020

Overview

Located in the center of the United States, Illinois is the most populous Midwestern state, and ranks sixth in the nation in population and fifth in gross domestic product.1,2 The state's population is concentrated in a few large urban areas, leaving much of the state rural and lightly populated.3 Chicago is home to one-fifth of the state's population and is the third-largest U.S. city.4,5

Illinois has the nation's second-busiest commercial airport and the nation's second-largest rail network with almost 7,000 route miles. The state has the largest number of interstate highways at almost 2,200 miles, and it also has more than 1,100 miles of navigable waterways. The state's inland waterway system connects the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Ohio River, linking the central United States to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Because of its central location and extensive transportation network, Illinois plays an important role in the nation's economy.6

Illinois is a key hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout the United States.

Illinois is a key hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout the United States.7 The state is a major electricity generator and has the largest number of nuclear power plants in the nation, as well as the only chemical facility that converts uranium yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride, a step in making nuclear fuel.8,9,10,11,12 Illinois also has substantial coal reserves and some crude oil resources as well.13,14 The state ranks sixth in the United States in wind-powered electricity generating capacity.15 Illinois has about 27 million acres of farmland, and the state ranks among the top 10 states in the market value of agricultural products sold.16,17 Soybeans and corn, the state's most important crops, provide feedstock for many ethanol and biodiesel plants. Illinois has an annual production capacity of 1.9 billion gallons of ethanol and 162 million gallons of biodiesel.18,19,20,21

Illinois is the fifth-largest energy-consuming state in the nation, and the state's largest energy-consuming end-use sector is industry.22 Chemical, machinery, and food and beverage manufacturing are the largest contributors to the state's manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP). Other energy-intensive industries in Illinois include petroleum refining, coal mining, and primary metal manufacturing.23 Transportation is the state's second-largest end-use energy-consuming sector. The residential sector consumes slightly less energy than the transportation sector. Despite Illinois' cold winters with heavy snowfalls and its warm, humid, and occasionally hot summers, the state's total energy consumption on a per capita basis is near the national median.24,25

Electricity

Illinois generates more electricity from nuclear energy than any other state.

Illinois is the third-largest net electricity exporter among the states, and typically sends about one-fifth of the power it generates to other states via the interstate transmission lines.26,27 Illinois is served by two regional grid systems.28 The PJM Interconnection is a regional transmission organization that manages the movement of wholesale electricity between the northern portion of the state, including the major urban areas around Chicago, and the Mid-Atlantic region.29,30 The flow of electricity in the rest of Illinois is managed by MISO, the Midcontinent independent system operator that serves much of the middle of the nation from Louisiana to Canada.31,32

Illinois generates more electricity from nuclear energy than any other state, accounting for one-eighth of the nation's total nuclear power generation. In 2019, 54% of electricity net generation in Illinois was produced by the state's 6 nuclear power plants with their 11 reactors.33,34,35 The nuclear plants are all ranked among the 10 largest power plants in the state by electricity generation, and 5 of the 6 are among the 10 largest by capacity.36 Because of economic issues in the electricity market, two nuclear power stations, the Clinton and Quad Cities nuclear plants, were scheduled to close in 2017 and 2018, but the Illinois legislature in late 2016 approved Zero Emissions Credits for nuclear generators to keep the stations operating for another decade.37 The ZEC program rewards utilities for producing carbon-free electricity.38,39

Coal-fired power plants have been the second-largest electricity providers in Illinois for the past decade.40 However, coal's contribution to in-state generation has declined, dropping to 27% of generation in 2019 as more than a dozen older coal-fired generating plants have shut down. Others are being considered for closure, in response to stricter emissions regulations and economic pressures.41,42,43 Natural gas-fired generation provided slightly more than 10% of the state's net generation in 2019, an all-time high and about four times more than in 2008.44 Wind energy accounts for almost all the rest of the state's net generation.45

Retail sales of electricity in Illinois do not vary greatly among end-use sectors. The commercial sector accounts for 36% of the state's electricity retail sales, and the residential and industrial sectors each account for one-third of sales.46 Most households in the region use air conditioning, but only one in six Illinois households rely on electricity for home heating.47,48

Coal

Illinois has about 15% of the nation's economically recoverable coal reserves, second only to Montana, and it is the nation's second-largest bituminous coal producer after West Virginia.49,50 The first European discovery of coal in North America was made in 1673 along the Illinois River, and coal is now known to underlie about two-thirds of the state. However, coal was not mined in the state until the 1800s.51,52 The coal mines in Illinois account for about 7% of U.S. total coal production.53

Illinois’ estimated recoverable coal reserves are the second-largest in the nation.

One-fourth of the coal mined in Illinois was exported to other countries in 2018.54 Domestically, 13 states received Illinois coal to generate electricity.55 Illinois coal typically has a high sulfur content, and many electric utilities burn Illinois coal in combination with lower sulfur coal from other regions.56,57,58 Illinois coal is transported to other states mainly by rail and barge.59 About one-fifth of the coal mined in Illinois is consumed in the state, primarily in the electric power sector, and much of that coal is moved by truck or conveyor.60,61 Nearly all of the coal that Illinois receives from other states comes from Wyoming by rail and is used for electric power generation.62 Industrial and coking plants account for almost one-tenth of the state's coal consumption.63

Petroleum

Illinois has the fourth-largest crude oil-refining capacity of any state.

Illinois has a crude oil refining capacity of 1 million barrels per calendar day, the largest capacity in the Midwest and the fourth-largest capacity in the nation after Texas, Louisiana, and California.64 However, the state's crude oil reserves and production are modest.65,66 Almost all of the producing wells in Illinois are located in the southern half of the state.67 Oil exploration in Illinois began in the 1860s, but commercial production did not occur until 1905. Since the 1860s, tens of thousands of wells have been drilled in the state. Crude oil production in Illinois peaked in 1940, reaching almost 150 million barrels that year. In 2019, the state's oil production decreased to just over 8.2 million barrels, the lowest output level in more than four decades.68,69 Most of the operating oil wells in the state are stripper wells that each produce less than 2 barrels of crude oil per day.70

The largest refinery in the state is the Wood River refinery, in the southwest near St. Louis, Missouri.71 There is another refinery in southern Illinois and two more in northeastern Illinois. The state's refineries process domestic crude oil, as well as Canadian and other imported crude oils, into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products.72,73 Illinois is crossed by several crude oil and petroleum product pipelines.74 Illinois has crude oil ports at Chicago on Lake Michigan and at Peoria on the Illinois Waterway, which connects Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. Petroleum product imports, primarily asphalt and road oil, are also handled at Chicago's port.75

Illinois is one of the top 10 petroleum-consuming states, ranking sixth in the nation. The transportation sector consumes three times as much petroleum as all the state's other end-use sectors combined.76 Almost half the petroleum used in the state is consumed as motor gasoline.77 Reformulated motor gasoline with ethanol that reduces emissions is required in areas around Chicago in northeastern Illinois and in the southwest corner of the state adjacent to St. Louis, Missouri.78 There are more than 260 refueling stations throughout the state that sell E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. Only Minnesota and Iowa have more E85 refueling stations.79 More than one-tenth of petroleum used in Illinois is consumed as jet fuel at the state's busy aviation hubs, making Illinois the sixth-largest consumer of jet fuel among the states.80 About one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Illinois is used in the industrial sector, the state's second-largest petroleum-consuming sector.81 The industrial sector also uses about two-thirds of the hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs) consumed in Illinois. Much of this consumption occurs at farms, where propane is used to dry the corn crop after harvest.82,83 HGLs account for about one-tenth of the state's petroleum consumption.84 Only a small amount of petroleum is used in the commercial sector and in the residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 20 households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for home heating.85,86

Natural gas

Illinois has no significant natural gas reserves and few producing natural gas wells.87,88,89 However, the state is a major natural gas crossroads, with many interstate natural gas pipelines and two natural gas market centers.90 Illinois has 28 underground natural gas storage fields with a total storage capacity just over 1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which is more than one-tenth of the U.S. total storage.91

Illinois has more than one-tenth of total U.S. natural gas underground storage capacity.

Natural gas supplies enter Illinois primarily from Iowa, Missouri, and Indiana. About two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Illinois continues on to the east and north through Indiana and Wisconsin.92 Illinois is the eighth-largest natural gas-consuming state in the nation.93 The residential sector uses about two-fifths of all natural gas delivered to consumers in the state, the largest share of any sector.94 Almost 8 in 10 Illinois households use natural gas for heating.95 The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Illinois, using almost one-fourth of the natural gas delivered in the state, and the commercial sector accounts for more than one-fifth of gas consumption.96 In 2019, the electric power sector generated a record amount of electricity from natural gas, offsetting decreased coal-fired power generation.97

Renewable energy

In 2019, Illinois ranked sixth in the nation in wind capacity with about 5,200 megawatts installed.

Illinois' primary renewable energy product is biofuels. The state is a leading producer of both ethanol and biodiesel. A fertile prairie state, Illinois is a major corn and soybean producer.98 Corn is the feedstock for the state's 14 ethanol plants, and multiple feedstocks, including soy and corn oils, are used at the state's 5 biodiesel facilities.99,100 The state is the third-largest ethanol producer, after Iowa and Nebraska, and is the eighth-largest consumer of ethanol in the nation. 101,102,103 Illinois is the fourth-largest biodiesel producer in the nation and the third-largest consumer of biodiesel, after Texas and California.104,105

In 2019, renewable energy generated 8% of the electricity generated in Illinois, and in-state renewable electricity has almost tripled since 2010.106 Wind is the primary renewable resource used for electric power generation in the state. In 2019, wind provided 97% of the state's renewable energy generation, and Illinois was sixth in the nation in utility-scale (1 megawatt or greater) wind capacity, with about 5,200 megawatts online.107 The state has considerable additional wind power potential, and about 1,200 megawatts of capacity is either under construction or in advanced development.108,109

Biomass, along with hydroelectric power and solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities, together account for less than 0.4% of Illinois' electricity generation. More than half of this is provided by biomass, mainly from municipal landfills.110,111 The state has many rivers, but its relatively level terrain limits hydroelectric potential, and 0.1% of the state's electricity generation is provided by hydroelectric power. Solar power provides less than 0.1% of the state's net generation. However, solar PV use has grown rapidly in the last decade. Almost three-fourth of the state's solar PV generation in 2019 came from customer-sited, small-scale generation, mostly rooftop solar panels.112,113

Illinois has a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) that requires all investor-owned electric utilities and alternative retail electricity suppliers to obtain increasing proportions of their retail sales from renewably sourced generation. The RPS does not apply to municipal utilities or electric cooperatives. The RPS requires that 25% of retail sales come from renewable resources by 2025, with specified percentages of the standard coming from wind, solar PV, and customer-sited generation.114 In 2007, Illinois also created an energy efficiency portfolio standard. Investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities and retail energy suppliers are required to achieve long-term reductions in retail sales through efficiency measures.115,116

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-alldata).
2 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Areas, All Industry Total, 2018.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Illinois Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
4 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, Chicago City, Illinois, accessed April 6, 2020.
5 City of Chicago, Facts & Statistics, accessed April 6, 2020.
6 Illinois Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Report Card for Illinois Infrastructure 2018, p. 6, 28-9, 41-2, 47.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Illinois Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layer, accessed April 7, 2020.
8 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
9 U.S. EIA, Nuclear and Uranium, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (December 2019).
10 Honeywell, Metropolis, Illinois, Home, accessed April 7, 2020.
11 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Uranium Conversion, updated April 15, 2019.
12 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "NRC Approves License for Honeywell Uranium Conversion Facility," No: 20-018 (March 25, 2020).
13 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 3, 2019), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2018 and 2017.
14 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
16 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Illinois Agricultural Statistics, 2017 Annual Bulletin (September 2018), p. 4.
17 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 Census of Agriculture, State Profile, Illinois, Ranked Items Within The U.S.
18 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Illinois Agricultural Statistics, 2017 Annual Bulletin, (September 2018), p. 4.
19 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for January 2020 (March 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, January 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 26, 2019), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Illinois, All Statistics in Table, 2018.
24 Angel, Jim, "Climate of Illinois Narrative," Illinois State Water Survey, State Climatologist Office for Illinois, accessed March 4, 2019.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
26 U.S. EIA, "California imports the most electricity from other states; Pennsylvania exports the most," Today in Energy (April 4, 2019).
27 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
28 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: National Overview, updated February 25, 2020.
29 PJM Interconnection, About PJM, Who We Are, PJM History, accessed April 9, 2020.
30 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Industries, Electric, Industry Activities, RTO/ISO, PJM, updated March 19, 2020.
31 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Industries, Electric, Industry Activities, RTO/ISO, MISO, updated March 19, 2020.
32 Midcontinent Independent System Operator, About MISO, accessed April 9, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.9.B.
34 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Illinois, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated August 23, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-19.
36 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018, Illinois, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2018, Illinois.
37 Shea, Daniel and Kristy Hartman, State Options to Keep Nuclear in the Energy Mix, National Conference of State Legislatures (January 2017), p.2, 3, 15-17.
38 Illinois Power Agency, Zero Emissions Standard Procurement Plan (October 31, 2017).
39 U.S. EIA, "Five states have implemented programs to assist nuclear power plants" (October 7, 2019).
40 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
42 Daniels, Steve, "Another downstate coal plant to close", Chicago Business (September 16, 2019).
43 Flue Gas Desulfurization Task Force Report, Analysis of the Illinois Coal Industry and Electrical Generation in Illinois (December 2018).
44 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
46 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
47 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.7.
48 U.S. Census Bureau, Explore Census Data, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2013-2018 American Community Survey.
49 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
51 Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund, History of Mining in Illinois, accessed March 5, 2019.
52 "Coal Geology of Illinois," 2010 Keystone Coal Industry Manual, p. 456.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 3, 2019), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
56 The Engineering ToolBox, Classification of Coal, Typical Sulfur Content in Coal, accessed April 4, 2020.
57 Illinois State Geological Survey, Coal: Illinois' Black Treasure, accessed April 8, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Types of Coal, accessed April 8, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 3, 2019), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State, Illinois.
61 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 3, 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
64 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014-19.
66 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2013-18.
67 Illinois State Geological Survey, Oil Fields in Illinois, accessed April 10, 2020.
68 Illinois State Geological Survey, History of Oil and Gas Production in Illinois, accessed April 10, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, Illinois, 2019.
70 Illinois Department of Natural Resources, About Oil and Gas in Illinois, accessed April 10, 2020.
71 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2019), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2019, p. 10.
72 Phillips 66, Wood River Refinery, accessed April 10, 2020.
73 ExxonMobil, United States, Joliet operations, About Us, accessed April 10, 2020.
74 Pipeline 101, Where Are Liquids Pipelines Located? Region 2, accessed April 10, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, January-December 2019.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2017, DOE/EIA-0214(2017) (June 2019), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
78 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
79 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, updated April 13, 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2017, DOE/EIA-0214(2017) (June 2019), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F12, Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption Estimates, 2015.
83 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2017, DOE/EIA-0214(2017) (June 2019), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, Explore Census Data, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2013-2018 American Community Survey.
87 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, 2012-18.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-19.
89 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2018, Illinois.
90 U.S. EIA, Illinois Profile Overview, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Market Hub and Natural Gas Interstate/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed April 20, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields and Total Storage Capacity, Annual 2013-18.
92 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Illinois, Annual, 2014-18.
93 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2014-18.
94 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2014-18.
95 U.S. Census Bureau, Explore Census Data, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2013-2018 American Community Survey.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2014-18.
97 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-19.
98 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Illinois Agricultural Statistics, 2017 Annual Bulletin (September 2018), p. 4.
99 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for January 2020 (March 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, January 2020.
101 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2017.
102 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, updated July 3, 2018.
103 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
104 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for January 2020 (March 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, January 2020.
105 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-19.
107 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
108 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Illinois, accessed April 9, 2020.
109 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Illinois, accessed April 9, 2020.
110 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
111 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
112 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
113 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.17.B.
114 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, Illinois, updated June 28, 2018.
115 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, Illinois, updated February 11, 2016.
116 Illinois Commerce Commission, Renewable Portfolio Standards Requirement, accessed April 17, 2020.


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