Illinois State Energy Profile



Illinois Quick Facts

  • Illinois is a key transportation hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout North America, with 8 crude oil pipelines, 8 petroleum product pipelines, 18 interstate natural gas pipelines, two natural gas market centers, and two petroleum ports.
  • Illinois leads the Midwest in crude oil refining capacity and ranked fourth in the nation as of January 2017.
  • Illinois has one-fifth of the nation’s demonstrated coal reserve base, second only to Montana, and is the nation’s third-largest bituminous coal producer after Wyoming and Kentucky.
  • With a production capacity exceeding 1.7 billion gallons per year, Illinois is the third-largest producer of ethanol in the nation.
  • Illinois ranked first in the nation in 2017 in both generating capacity and net electricity generation from nuclear power.  Illinois nuclear power plants accounted for 12% of the nation’s nuclear power generation.

Last Updated: April 19, 2018



Data

Last Update: May 17, 2018 | Next Update: June 21, 2018

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Population 12.8 million 4.0% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 6.5 million 4.0% Mar-18  
Economy Illinois U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 791.6 billion 5 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 100,390 million 4 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 52,098 15 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 107,314 million miles 8 2016  
Land in Farms 26.9 million acres 13 2012  
Climate Illinois U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 54.5 degrees Fahrenheit 22 2017  
Precipitation 37.7 inches 31 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 58.47 /barrel $ 61.20 /barrel Feb-18  
Natural Gas Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.35 /thousand cu ft $ 3.97 /thousand cu ft Feb-18 find more
Residential $ 6.91 /thousand cu ft $ 9.65 /thousand cu ft Feb-18 find more
Coal Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 39.20 /short ton $ 30.57 /short ton 2016  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.75 /million Btu $ 2.06 /million Btu Feb-18  
Electricity Illinois U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.23 cents/kWh 12.62 cents/kWh Feb-18 find more
Commercial 8.51 cents/kWh 10.60 cents/kWh Feb-18 find more
Industrial 6.45 cents/kWh 6.75 cents/kWh Feb-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 36 million barrels 0.1% 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2016 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 1,529 million short tons 9.0% 2016 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 1 rigs 0.2% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 36 wells * 2016 find more
Capacity Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 981,540 barrels/calendar day 5.3% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 45,202 MW 4.2% Feb-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 2,660 trillion Btu 3.0% 2015 find more
Crude Oil 620 thousand barrels 0.2% Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 2,183 million cu ft * 2016 find more
Coal 43,422 thousand short tons 6.0% 2016 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 14,271 thousand MWh 4.7% Feb-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Illinois U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 3.7 % 31.4 % Feb-18 find more
Coal-Fired 33.8 % 26.8 % Feb-18 find more
Nuclear 53.5 % 21.1 % Feb-18 find more
Renewables 8.7 % 19.6 % Feb-18  
Stocks Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 348 thousand barrels 2.1% Feb-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 3,407 thousand barrels 3.2% Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 791,969 million cu ft 13.1% Feb-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 58 thousand barrels 0.2% Feb-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 5,080 thousand tons 4.2% Feb-18 find more
Fueling Stations Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,803 stations 3.4% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 117 stations 3.6% 2017  
Electricity 427 stations 2.7% 2017  
Ethanol 243 stations 8.4% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 21 stations 1.7% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Illinois U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 3,943 trillion Btu 5 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 307 million Btu 25 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 42,227 million 6 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,289 37 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 930 trillion Btu 4.5% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 795 trillion Btu 4.4% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 1,171 trillion Btu 3.7% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 1,047 trillion Btu 3.8% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 9,195 million 3.7% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 6,525 million 3.5% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 7,122 million 3.8% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 19,384 million 3.8% 2015 find more
by Source Illinois Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 244.4 million barrels 3.4% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,024.3 billion cu ft 3.7% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 39.0 million short tons 5.3% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 18,574 million 3.4% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 6,106 million 4.8% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,445 million 4.6% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 7 thousand barrels 0.5% Feb-18 find more
Natural Gas 3,805 million cu ft 0.6% Feb-18 find more
Coal 2,836 thousand short tons 6.2% Feb-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Illinois U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 79.1 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 15.1 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4.1 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 1.5 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,448 MW 2.1% Feb-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 1,747 million gal/year 11.2% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 10 thousand MWh * Feb-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,194 thousand MWh 4.1% Feb-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 38 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 5 thousand MWh 0.3% Feb-18  
Ethanol Production 35,550 Thousand Barrels 10.1% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Illinois U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.4 % 35 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 11,615 thousand barrels 5 2016  
Total Emissions Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 219.0 million metric tons 4.2% 2015  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Illinois Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 72,226 thousand metric tons 3.7% 2016  
Sulfur Dioxide 98 thousand metric tons 5.4% 2016  
Nitrogen Oxide 36 thousand metric tons 2.2% 2016  

Analysis

Last Updated: April 19, 2018

Overview

Illinois is a key transportation hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout North America.

Located in the center of the United States, Illinois is the most populous Midwestern state, and ranks fifth in the nation in both population and gross domestic product.1,2,3 Because of its central location and its access to rail and aviation hubs and major waterways, Illinois plays an important role in the nation's economy.4 The state is a key transportation hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout North America and is a major electricity generator.5,6 Illinois has the largest number of nuclear power plants in the nation, as well as the only chemical facility that converts raw uranium yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride, a step in making nuclear fuel.7,8,9 Illinois has substantial coal reserves and some crude oil resources as well.10 The state's population is concentrated in a few large urban areas, leaving much of the state rural and lightly populated.11 Illinois has about 27 million acres of farmland and ranks among the top 10 states in the market value of agricultural products sold.12,13 Corn, one of the state's most important crops, is used as the feedstock for the state's 14 ethanol plants, and Illinois is one of the top ethanol-producing states.14,15,16 Illinois is also a leader in biodiesel production capacity and has substantial wind-powered electricity generating capacity.17,18

Illinois is the fifth largest energy-consuming state in the nation. Industry is the state's largest energy-consuming end-use sector, followed closely by the transportation sector.19 Chemical, machinery, and food and beverage manufacturing are the largest contributors to the state's manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP). Other energy-intensive industries in Illinois include petroleum refining and coal mining.20,21 The residential sector consumes slightly less energy than the transportation sector, and, despite warm, occasionally hot, summers, and cold winters that include heavy snowfalls, the state's per capita energy consumption is at the national median.22,23

Electricity

Illinois leads the nation in electricity generation from nuclear power.

Illinois leads the nation in electricity generation from nuclear power.24 About one-eighth of the nation's nuclear power generation, and more than half of all net electricity generation in Illinois, is produced by the state's 6 nuclear power plants with their 11 reactors.25,26 The nuclear plants are all ranked among the 10 largest power plants in the state by electricity generation, and 5 of the 6 are among the 10 largest by capacity.27 Because of economic issues in the electricity market, two nuclear power stations were scheduled to close in 2017 and 2018, but the Illinois legislature in late 2016 approved measures to keep the stations operating for another decade.28

Coal-fired power plants have long been the second-largest electricity providers in the state. Coal's contribution to state generation has declined as older coal-fired generating plants have been shut down or converted to natural gas-fired plants.29,30 However, in 2017, coal still fueled almost one-third of state generation. In 2016, natural gas-fired generation rose to nearly one-tenth of the state's total net generation for the first time and was only slightly less in 2017.31,32 Wind energy now provides almost all the rest of the state's net generation.33

Illinois generates considerably more electricity than it consumes, and the state supplies its surplus electricity to interstate grids.34 The state is served by two regional grid systems.35 The PJM Interconnection is a regional transmission organization that manages the movement of wholesale electricity between the northern portion of the state, including the major urban areas around Chicago, and several of the Eastern and Mid-Atlantic states.36 The flow of electricity in the rest of Illinois is managed by MISO, an independent system operator that serves much of the middle of the nation from Louisiana to Canada.37

Retail sales of electricity in Illinois are fairly evenly distributed among the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. Although the largest share goes to the commercial sector, retail electricity sales to the residential sector are only slightly lower.38 Most households in the region use air conditioning, but only slightly more than one in seven homes in Illinois use electricity for heating.39,40

Coal

Recoverable coal reserves at producing mines in Illinois are the third-largest in the nation.

Illinois has one-fifth of the nation's economically-recoverable coal reserves, second only to Montana, and is the nation's third-largest bituminous coal producer after West Virginia and Pennsylvania.41,42 The first European discovery of coal in North America was made in 1673 along the Illinois River, and coal is now known to underlie about two-thirds of the state.43,44,45 The bituminous coal mines in Illinois produce about 6% of U.S. coal.46 Recoverable reserves at producing mines are estimated to be more than 1.5 billion short tons, only surpassed by the coal reserves of Wyoming and West Virginia. Illinois coal reserves account for almost one-tenth of the nation's total recoverable coal reserves at producing mines.47

Almost one of every seven tons of coal mined in Illinois was exported to other countries in 2016.48 Domestically, 13 of the 15 states that received Illinois coal used it to generate electricity, but in only 4 of those states did Illinois coal fill more than one-fifth of generators' needs.49 Illinois coal typically has a high sulfur content, so many electric utilities burn Illinois coal in combination with lower sulfur coal from other regions.50,51 Illinois coal is transported to other states mainly by rail and barge. About one-fifth of the coal mined in Illinois is consumed in the state, primarily in the electric power sector, and much of that coal is moved by truck, tramway, or conveyor.52,53 Nearly all of the U.S. coal that Illinois receives from other states comes from Wyoming by rail and is used for electric power generation. Almost one-tenth of the coal used in Illinois is consumed by industrial plants and coke plants.54

Petroleum

Illinois has the largest crude oil-refining capacity in the Midwest and the fourth largest capacity in the nation, after Texas, Louisiana, and California.55 However, the state's crude oil reserves and production are modest.56,57 All of the producing wells in Illinois are located in the southern half of the state.58 Oil exploration in Illinois began in the 1860s, but commercial production did not occur until 1905. Since the 1860s, tens of thousands of wells have been drilled in the state. Crude oil production in Illinois peaked in 1940, reaching almost 150 million barrels that year.59 In the 21st century, most of the productive oil wells in the state are stripper wells that produce less than 2 barrels of crude oil per day.60

Illinois has the largest crude oil-refining capacity in the Midwest.

The largest refinery in the state is the Wood River refinery in southwestern Illinois near St. Louis, Missouri.61 There is another refinery in southern Illinois and two more in northeastern Illinois. The state's refineries process domestic crude oil, as well as Canadian and other imported crude oils.62,63 Illinois has crude oil ports at Chicago on Lake Michigan and at Peoria on the Illinois Waterway that connects Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. Petroleum products, primarily asphalt and road oil, are also handled at Chicago's port.64 Illinois is crossed by several crude oil and petroleum product pipelines.65

Illinois is one of the top 10 petroleum-consuming states, ranking sixth in the nation. The transportation sector consumes three times as much petroleum as all the other end-use sectors combined.66 Almost half the petroleum used in the state is consumed as motor gasoline. Reformulated motor gasoline with ethanol is required in areas around Chicago in northeastern Illinois and near St. Louis, Missouri, in the southwest.67 There are more than 250 refueling stations throughout the state that sell E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. Only Minnesota has more E85 refueling stations.68 More than one-tenth of petroleum used in Illinois is consumed as jet fuel at the state's busy aviation hubs, making Illinois the seventh largest consumer of jet fuel among the states.69 About one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Illinois is used in the industrial sector, the state's second largest petroleum-consuming sector.70 About two-thirds of the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumed in Illinois is used in the industrial sector, including for agriculture where LPG is used to dry corn after harvest.71,72 In some years, LPG accounts for about one-tenth of the state's petroleum consumption.73 Only a small amount of petroleum is used in the commercial sector and in the residential sector, where less than 1 in 20 households uses petroleum products for home heating.74,75

Natural gas

Illinois has no significant natural gas reserves and few producing wells.76,77,78 However, the state is a major natural gas crossroads, with numerous interstate natural gas pipelines and two natural gas market centers.79 Illinois has 28 natural gas storage fields with a combined total natural gas storage capacity exceeding 1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and a working storage capacity of more than 300 billion cubic feet.80

Illinois is a major natural gas crossroads, with many interstate natural gas pipelines and two natural gas market centers.

Natural gas supplies enter Illinois from the west and south, primarily through Iowa, Missouri, and Kentucky. About two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Illinois continues on to the east and north through Indiana and Wisconsin.81 Illinois is one of the top 10 natural gas-consuming states in the nation.82 The residential sector uses about two-fifths of all natural gas delivered to consumers in the state, the largest share of any sector.83 Almost four in five Illinois households use natural gas for heating.84 The industrial sector is the second largest natural gas-consuming sector in Illinois, using one-fourth of the natural gas delivered in the state. Natural gas use by the electric power sector varies substantially from year to year, depending on fuel economics. In 2016, the electric power sector generated a record amount of electricity from natural gas.85,86 The use of natural gas for power generation decreased somewhat in 2017.87

Renewable energy

Illinois' primary renewable resource is biofuels. A fertile prairie state, Illinois is a major corn and soybean producer.88 Corn is the feedstock for the state's 14 ethanol plants, and multiple feedstocks, including soy and corn oils, are used at the state's 9 biodiesel facilities.89,90 The state is a leading producer of both ethanol and biodiesel, with the third-largest production capacity in the nation for ethanol and fourth for biodiesel.91,92

In 2017, Illinois ranked sixth in the nation in installed wind capacity with about 4,300 megawatts online.

Although renewable resources account for only about 7% of net electricity generated in Illinois, their contribution has increased dramatically over the past decade and has more than doubled since 2010. Wind is the primary renewable resource used for electric power generation in the state.93,94 In 2017, wind provided more than 6% of state generation, and Illinois was sixth in the nation in terms of installed wind capacity, with about 4,300 megawatts online.95 The state has considerable further wind power potential, and about 600 megawatts of additional capacity is either under construction or in advanced development.96,97 The remaining small amounts of electricity generated from renewable resources in Illinois come from biomass, mainly municipal landfills, and from hydroelectric power and solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities.98,99 Despite the state's many rivers, the relatively level terrain of the prairie limits hydroelectric potential, and less than 1% of the state's electricity generation is provided by hydroelectric power. Solar power provides less than 0.1% of the state's net electricity generation, but solar PV use has grown rapidly in the last decade. Slightly more than half of solar generation in 2017 came from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generation, like rooftop solar panels.100,101

The Illinois renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires that all investor-owned electric utilities and other retail electricity suppliers obtain increasing proportions of their retail sales from renewably-sourced generation. The RPS does not apply to municipal utilities or electric cooperatives. The RPS requires that 25% of retail sales come from renewable resources by 2026, with specified percentages of the standard coming from wind, solar PV, and distributed generation.102 In 2007, Illinois also created an energy efficiency portfolio standard that required investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities and retail suppliers to achieve long-term reductions in retail sales through efficiency measures.103 The state, working with the utilities, assembled a portfolio of energy efficiency programs available for residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In late 2016, the legislature enacted the Future Energy Jobs Act, which expanded the RPS and the state's energy efficiency programs.104,105 And, as of June 2017, the state handed over administration of energy efficiency programs to the state's investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities, making the utilities responsible for implementation of all energy efficiency programs.106

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Illinois, Population estimates, July 1, 2017.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
3 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industry Total, All Areas, 2016.
4 Illinois Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Report Card for Illinois Infrastructure 2018.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Illinois Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layer, accessed March 14, 2018.
6 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.3.B.
7 U.S. EIA, Nuclear and Uranium, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (November 2017).
8 Honeywell International, Metropolis, Illinois, About Us, accessed March 15, 2018.
9 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Uranium Conversion, updated November 28, 2017.
10 U.S. EIA, Illinois, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed March 14, 2018.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Illinois Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
12 U.S. EIA, Illinois Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed March 15, 2018.
13 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 State Agriculture Overview, Illinois, Ranked Items Within The U.S., 2012.
14 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 State Agriculture Overview, Illinois, Crops Planted, Harvested, Yield, Production, Price (MYA), Value of Production Sorted by Value of Production in Dollars.
15 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 24, 2018.
16 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, updated January 11, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2017 (February 2018), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2017.
18 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Illinois, accessed March 16, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product, (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Illinois, 2015.
21 NETSTATE, Illinois, Illinois Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
22 Angel, Jim, "Climate of Illinois Narrative," Illinois State Water Survey, State Climatologist Office for Illinois, accessed March 16, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
24 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.9.B.
25 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
26 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Illinois, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated February 21, 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2016, Illinois, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2016, Illinois.
28 Watt, Anthony, "Q-C Nuclear Plant Will Stay Open; House, Senate Pass Exelon Bill," The Rock Island Dispatch-Argus (December 1, 2016).
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
30 Lyderson, Kari, "Conversion to Natural Gas Brings New Life to Aging Coal Plants," Midwest Energy News (February 24, 2017).
31 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
32 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B.
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
34 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
35 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: National Overview, updated April 13, 2017.
36 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: PJM, updated August 22, 2017.
37 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: Midcontinent (MISO), updated July 13, 2017.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.7.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
41 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
43 American Coal Foundation, Timeline of Coal in the United States (2005).
44 U.S. Census Bureau, Geography, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed March 19, 2018.
45 "Coal Geology of Illinois," 2010 Keystone Coal Industry Manual, p. 456.
46 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
47 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2016 and 2015.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State.
49 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
50 Illinois State Geological Survey, Coal: Illinois' Black Treasure, accessed March 20, 2018.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.
52 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois.
55 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2017.
56 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2012-17.
57 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2011-16.
58 Illinois State Geological Survey, Oil Fields in Illinois, accessed March 16, 2018.
59 Illinois State Geological Survey, History of Oil and Gas Production in Illinois, accessed March 16, 2018.
60 Illinois Department of Natural Resources, About Oil and Gas in Illinois, accessed March 16, 2018.
61 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2017 (June 21, 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2017, p. 8.
62 Phillips 66, Wood River Refinery, accessed March 16, 2018.
63 ExxonMobil, United States, Joliet operations, About Us, accessed March 16, 2018.
64 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, January-December 2017.
65 U.S. EIA, Illinois, Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layers, accessed March 16, 2018.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
67 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
68 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Illinois, Ethanol (E85), updated March 7, 2017.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2015.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
71 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F12, Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption Estimates, 2015.
72 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2013, DOE/EIA-0214(2013) (July 2015), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2013.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
75 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
76 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, 2011-16.
77 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-16.
78 U.S. EIA, Illinois Profile Data, Reserves, accessed March 19, 2018.
79 U.S. EIA, Illinois Profile Overview, Natural Gas Market Hub and Natural Gas Interstate/Intrastate Pipeline Map Layers, accessed March 19, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Total Storage Capacity, and Total Working Gas Capacity, Annual 2011-16.
81 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Illinois, Annual, 2011-16.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2012-16.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2012-16.
84 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.7.B.
86 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
87 U.S. EIA, Illinois Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Customers, Annual, 1997-2017.
88 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2017 State Agriculture Overview, Illinois, Census State Profile: Illinois, Ranked Items Within The U.S., 2012.
89 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 24, 2018.
90 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 13, 2017.
91 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, updated January 11, 2018.
92 U.S. EIA, , Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2017 (February 2018), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2017.
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
94 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
95 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
96 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Illinois, accessed March 21, 2018.
97 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Illinois, accessed March 21, 2018.
98 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
99 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
100 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.17.B.
102 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, Illinois, updated December 9, 2016.
103 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, Illinois, updated February 11, 2016.
104 Prairie Rivers Network, "The Future of Energy" (September 8, 2017).
105 Future Energy Jobs Act, About the Act, accessed March 27, 2018.
106 Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, Energy Efficiency, accessed March 22, 2018.


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