Iowa State Energy Profile



Iowa Quick Facts

  • Iowa is the nation's largest fuel ethanol and biodiesel producer, and it accounts for about one-fourth of U.S. fuel ethanol production capacity and almost one-fifth of biodiesel production capacity.
  • In 2021, wind turbines generated 58% of Iowa's electricity, the highest wind power share for any state.
  • Iowa is among the top 10 states in electricity sales per capita, and about one in four Iowa households rely on electricity for home heating.
  • Iowa's industrial sector, which includes agriculture and biofuels production, ranks among the top 10 states in industrial sector total energy consumption.
  • Iowa is the fourth-largest consumer of hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane--which is used for drying the state's large harvested corn crop and for heating one in eight Iowa households.

Last Updated: July 21, 2022



Data

Last Update: July 21, 2022 | Next Update: August 18, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Iowa Share of U.S. Period
Population 3.2 million 1.0% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 1.7 million 1.0% May-22  
Economy Iowa U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 219.8 billion 30 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 37,687 million 24 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 56,973 31 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 29,751 million miles 33 2020  
Land in Farms 30.6 million acres 10 2017  
Climate Iowa U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 50.0 degrees Fahrenheit 33 2021  
Precipitation 31.1 inches 32 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Iowa U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 103.28 /barrel Apr-22  
Natural Gas Iowa U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.32 /thousand cu ft $ 6.34 /thousand cu ft Apr-22 find more
Residential $ 14.22 /thousand cu ft $ 13.65 /thousand cu ft Apr-22 find more
Coal Iowa U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.75 /million Btu $ 2.18 /million Btu Apr-22  
Electricity Iowa U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.09 cents/kWh 14.77 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Commercial 9.28 cents/kWh 11.92 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Industrial 6.07 cents/kWh 7.83 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Iowa Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 22,237 MW 1.9% Apr-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 930 trillion Btu 1.0% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,489 thousand MWh 1.8% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Iowa U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired -0.1 % 0.2 % Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 3.1 % 34.8 % Apr-22 find more
Coal-Fired 10.0 % 18.1 % Apr-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.2 % Apr-22 find more
Renewables 86.9 % 28.0 % Apr-22  
Stocks Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 54 thousand barrels 0.4% Apr-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,534 thousand barrels 1.9% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 219,051 million cu ft 3.6% Apr-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 100 thousand barrels 0.5% Apr-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,948 thousand tons 4.3% Apr-22 find more
Fueling Stations Iowa Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,729 stations 1.5% 2019  
Propane 36 stations 1.4% 2022  
Electricity 263 stations 0.6% 2022  
E85 334 stations 8.1% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 29 stations 2.2% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Iowa U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,526 trillion Btu 24 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 479 million Btu 5 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 12,694 million 28 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,981 7 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Iowa Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 233 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 181 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 834 trillion Btu 2.7% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 278 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,631 million 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,629 million 0.9% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,832 million 2.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,602 million 1.1% 2020 find more
by Source Iowa Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 86 million barrels 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 403 billion cu ft 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 10 million short tons 2.2% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 6,343 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,811 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 294 million 1.5% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.5% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas 1,522 million cu ft 0.2% Apr-22 find more
Coal 295 thousand short tons 1.0% Apr-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Iowa U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 60.6 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.4 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 23.7 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 12.9 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.4 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 12,545 MW 4.2% Apr-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 4,667 million gal/year 26.6% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 75 thousand MWh 0.4% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 4,679 thousand MWh 7.7% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 16 thousand MWh 0.4% Apr-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 29 thousand MWh 0.5% Apr-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 92,137 thousand barrels 27.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Iowa U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 36.5 % 5 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 3,768 thousand barrels 28 2020  
Total Emissions Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 77.3 million metric tons 1.5% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Iowa Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 21,135 thousand metric tons 1.4% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 17 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 17 thousand metric tons 1.4% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 21, 2022

Overview

Located between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, Iowa's gently rolling plains have some of the richest farmland in the nation and significant renewable energy resources. The state's climate, with rainfall in the growing season and dry air at harvest, together with Iowa's deep topsoil, produce abundant grain crops.1 The state leads the nation in the production of both corn and ethanol.2,3 Unobstructed winds blow across Iowa's open prairie, giving the state significant wind energy resources.4 With many days of sunshine each year, Iowa has solar energy potential as well.5,6 However, the state has few economically recoverable fossil energy reserves and no crude oil, natural gas, or coal production.7,8,9,10

Iowa ranks among the top 10 states in total industrial sector energy use.

Iowa is the only non-crude oil-producing state among the top five states in total energy consumption per capita. Iowa ranks fifth in the nation in energy use per capita, mainly because of the state's small population and its large industrial sector.11 The industrial sector leads Iowa's end-use energy consumption, accounting for slightly more than half of the state total.12 Iowa ranks among the top 10 states in total industrial sector energy use.13 Agriculture, food production, biofuels production, and manufacturing are key Iowa industries.14 The state's major manufactured products include chemicals; computers and electronics; food and beverages; motor vehicles and parts; other transportation equipment; and machinery.15 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy user, accounting for almost one-fifth of the state's total. The residential sector makes up about one-seventh of the state's energy consumption and the commercial sector accounts for about one-eighth.16

Renewable energy

Iowa produces more fuel ethanol and biodiesel than any other state in the nation.

Iowa is the top fuel ethanol-producing state in the nation and has about one-fourth of total U.S. fuel ethanol production capacity. The state's ethanol plants can produce nearly 4.7 billion gallons per year, which is 30 times more than the 158 million gallons of ethanol consumed annually in the state. Iowa's fertile cornfields provide the feedstock for most of the state's 43 ethanol plants.17,18,19,20 Iowa also leads the nation in biodiesel production. Its 10 biodiesel plants have a combined production capacity of 459 million gallons per year, which is almost one-fifth of the nation's total capacity and the largest biodiesel production capacity of any state. Iowa's biodiesel production is about five times larger than the state's biodiesel use of 66.7 million gallons a year.21,22,23

In 2021, 58% of Iowa’s total electricity net generation came from wind, the largest wind power share of any state.

In 2021, nearly three-fifths of Iowa's total electricity net generation came from renewable resources, almost all of it from wind.24 The state was the second-largest wind power producer, after Texas. Wind energy powered 58% of Iowa's net generation, the highest share of any state. Iowa's wind power is expected to increase, as about 1,000 megawatts of new wind power generating capacity are scheduled to come online in 2022.25,26 The strongest winds occur in northwestern Iowa, and although there are wind power farms across the state, most are in the state's northern and western areas.27,28

About 2% of Iowa's in-state electricity generation in 2021 came from renewable energy resources other than wind, with hydroelectric power, solar energy, and biomass each contributing a small amount of the state's electricity.29 The largest of Iowa's four hydroelectric power plants—the Keokuk plant with 15 turbine generators and 146 megawatts of generating capacity—is almost 110 years old. It is the largest privately-owned and operated dam and hydroelectric plant on the Mississippi River.30,31 The state's small, but growing, solar power supply is provided almost equally from customer-sited, small-scale generating systems (less than 1 megawatt each) and utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar arrays.32 The state's largest solar generating facility, the 100-megawatt Wapello Solar Farm, came online in 2021. Another 100-megawatt solar farm is scheduled to begin operating in 2022.33 Iowa's best solar power resource potential is found in the southwestern corner of the state.34 The state's biomass resources include landfill gas and agricultural biodigesters that produce methane gas, and they both fuel electricity generating facilities. Iowa's biomass resources also provide feedstock to the state's one wood pellet plant, which can process wood waste into 15,000 tons of pellets annually.35,36,37

In 1983, Iowa became the first state in the nation to adopt a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). State regulators required Iowa's two investor-owned electric utilities to own or to contract for a combined 105 megawatts of total renewable generating capacity.38 Capacity from eligible renewable resources has far exceeded the RPS goals. At the beginning of 2022, Iowa had about 12,300 megawatts of generating capacity fueled by renewable energy sources at utility-scale power facilities.39

In 2008, state regulators also established energy efficiency standards for each regulated electric and natural gas utility in the state. Municipal and cooperative utilities were required to set their own energy efficiency goals. The utilities were allowed to increase efficiency and reduce consumption with improved infrastructure or through customer programs.40

Electricity

In 2019, wind turbines in Iowa generated more electricity than the state's coal-fired power plants for the first time. In 2021, coal provided 33% of the state's electricity net generation, which was up from 24% in 2020 but down from 46% five years earlier. During the same five-year period, wind power grew from 37% of the state's net generation to 58% in 2021. However, 5 of Iowa's 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are coal-fired, and only 2 wind farms are in the top 10. When ranked by generation, 4 of the top 10 plants are wind-powered and 3 are coal-fired.41,42

Natural gas-fired power plants contributed 9% of Iowa's in-state generation in 2021, with total generation from natural gas the lowest since 2017 after natural gas prices recently increased in 2021. Nuclear power accounted for nearly 5% of Iowa's electricity generation in 2020, but none in 2021, as the state's one nuclear plant is no longer operating.43,44,45 The state's 601-megawatt Duane Arnold power plant closed in August 2020 when storm winds damaged the power station's cooling towers. The plant's owner plans to build a 200-megawatt solar power farm at the site by the end of 2024.46,47,48 The state's remaining 2% of electricity generation came from hydropower, solar, biomass, and petroleum.49

Since 2008, Iowa has generated more electricity each year than the state consumed. The excess power is sent to other states over the regional electric grid.50 Iowa ranks in the top 10 states in total electricity sales per capita.51 Almost half of electricity retail sales in Iowa go to the industrial sector, nearly three-tenths go to the residential sector, and the commercial sector accounts for slightly less than one-fourth.52 Iowa's average electricity retail price is below the U.S. average and less than in two-thirds of the states.53 About one in four Iowa households rely on electricity for home heating.54

Petroleum

Iowa is not a crude oil-producing state and does not have any proved oil reserves.55,56 Of more than 100 exploratory wells drilled in the state, only a handful ever produced oil. Those wells no longer produce, and their combined production was less than 500 barrels of crude oil.57,58 Iowa does not have any oil refineries and relies on pipelines to bring petroleum products from other states.59 Nearly 12,000 miles of petroleum product pipelines cross the state.60

One in eight Iowa homes heat with propane, almost triple the national rate.

In 2020, the transportation sector accounts for 58% of Iowa's petroleum use.61 About two-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Iowa is used as motor gasoline, three-tenths is diesel fuel, and one-fourth is propane.62 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide in Iowa, although almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with at least 10% ethanol.63,64 About 340 fueling stations in the state dispense E85, a blend of motor gasoline with 85% ethanol.65,66 Iowa's industrial sector makes up 31% of the state's petroleum consumption, the residential sector accounts for 7%, and the commercial sector uses 3%.67 The state's petroleum consumption includes hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL), mostly propane and ethane. Iowa ranks fourth among the states in HGL consumption. The industrial sector consumes two-thirds of the HGLs, where farmers use propane to dry their corn after harvest in wet years.68,69,70 About one in eight Iowa households heats with propane, almost triple the national rate.71

Natural gas

Iowa does not have any natural gas reserves or production, but the state is crossed by several interstate natural gas pipeline systems and has four natural gas storage fields that together account for about 3% of U.S. gas storage capacity by volume.72,73,74,75 Natural gas enters Iowa by pipelines primarily from Minnesota, Nebraska, and Missouri. About three-fourths of the natural gas that enters Iowa exits the state and continues on to Illinois and Minnesota on its way to markets in those states and farther east.76,77,78

Natural gas accounts for slightly more than one-fourth of the total energy consumed in Iowa.79 In 2021, the industrial sector accounted for 60% of the natural gas consumed in the state. Iowa's residential sector, where 6 out of 10 households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel, accounted for about 16% of the natural gas delivered to consumers. The commercial sector used 13%, and the electric power sector used 10%.80,81

Coal

Coal mining began in Iowa in the 1840s and continued until the 1990s. Most of the coal mines were located in the southern half of the state and supplied coal to run the railroads that first reached Iowa in the 1860s.82 Today, there are no active coal mines in Iowa, but the state still has about 1.1 billion tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, located primarily in south-central Iowa.83,84

Almost all of the coal consumed in Iowa is subbituminous coal brought by rail from Wyoming and delivered to power plants. A few small coal shipments from Wyoming and several other states are also delivered to Iowa's industrial, commercial, and institutional users.85,86 In 2021, Iowa ranked 16th among the states in coal used for electricity generation.87

Endnotes

1 Hillaker, Harry, Iowa's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed June 14, 2022.
2 Rodriguez, Hannah, "No state produces more corn than Iowa. Here are more ways Iowa farmers lead the nation," Des Moines Register (December 30, 2021).
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Iowa, Maps & Data, accessed June 14, 2022.
5 Current Results, Weather and Science Facts, Days of Sunshine per Year in Iowa, accessed June 14, 2022.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Maps, Iowa, accessed June 14, 2022.
7 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
8 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
9 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2016-21.
10 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
14 Iowa Area Development Group, Target Industries, accessed June 14, 2022.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Iowa, All Statistics in Table, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
20 U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
21 U.S. EIA, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
24 U. S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Annual, 2018-21.
25 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Iowa, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
27 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Iowa, Maps & Data, accessed June 14, 2022.
28 U.S. EIA, Iowa Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plant, accessed June 15, 2022.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Annual, 2018-21.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Iowa, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
31 "American Hydro to modernize two units at 142-MW Keokuk hydroelectric plant," Hydro Review (October 16, 2020).
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Annual, 2018-21.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Iowa, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic, Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Iowa, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
34 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Map, U.S. Annual Solar GHI, Iowa, February 22, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Iowa, Technology: Landfill gas, Other Waste Biomass.
36 TrackMyElectricity, AgriReNew Methane Center, About, accessed June 15, 2022.
37 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (June 15, 2022), Highlights, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, March 2022, Download.
38 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Iowa Alternative Energy Law, updated June 28, 2018.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2022), Table 6.2.A.
40 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Iowa Energy Efficiency Standard, updated December 9, 2016.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Annual, 2018-21.
42 U.S. EIA, Iowa Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. coal-fired electricity generation will increase for the first time since 2014," Today in Energy (December 21, 2021).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Annual, 2018-21.
45 U.S. EIA, "Wholesale electricity prices trended higher in 2021 due to increasing natural gas prices," Today in Energy (January 7, 2022).
46 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nuclear Generation and Generating Capacity, 2019, 2020.
47 Steppe, John, "Duane Arnold nuclear plant won't restart after Iowa derecho damage," The Gazette (August 25, 2021).
48 NextEra Energy Resources, Duane Arnold Solar Project, accessed June 20, 2022.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Annual, 2018-21.
50 U.S. EIA, Iowa Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), 2018-21.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
54 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Iowa.
55 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016-21.
56 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2015-20.
57 Anderson, Raymond R., Oil Exploration in Iowa, adapted from Iowa Geology 1992, No. 17, Centennial Edition, Iowa Department of Natural Resources.
58 McKay, Robert M., Mineral Resource Facts, Energy Resources, Oil and Gas, accessed June 15, 2022.
59 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2016-21.
60 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Iowa Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed June 15, 2022.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
63 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute (January 2018).
64 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
65 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Ethanol (E85), Iowa, accessed June 15, 2022.
66 Hardy, Kevin, "Why Iowans will likely see more E15 and E85 gas at the pump soon," Des Moines Register (June 5, 2017).
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2020.
70 U.S. EIA, Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained, Where do hydrocarbon gas liquids comes from?, updated October 26, 2021.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Iowa, United States.
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
73 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawal and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
74 U.S. EIA, Iowa Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed June 16, 2022.
75 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015-20 and Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
76 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Iowa, Annual, 2015-20.
77 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Midwest Region, accessed June 16, 2022.
78 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Central Region, accessed June 16, 2022.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
80 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Iowa.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Iowa, Annual, 2016-21.
82 Types of Business and Industry, Iowa Pathways, accessed June 16, 2022.
83 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019; Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
84 U.S. EIA, Iowa Profile Overview, Map, Legends/Layers: Coal Field, accessed June 16, 2022.
85 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by: Destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Iowa, Table DS-14, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 4.6.B.


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