Arkansas State Energy Profile



Arkansas Quick Facts

  • Arkansas accounts for about 1% of U.S. total natural gas production, and holds about 1% of the nation’s natural gas reserves.
  • There are three biodiesel manufacturing plants in Arkansas with a combined production capacity of 115 million gallons per year, the fifth highest of any state and nearly 5% of the U.S. total.
  • In 2021, coal reclaimed the top spot as the leading fuel used to generate electricity in Arkansas, surpassing natural gas, and accounted for 35% of the state’s total net generation.
  • Arkansas ranks among the 10 states with the lowest average electricity retail price, and about half the state's households rely on electricity for heating.
  • Arkansas's only nuclear power plant (located on Lake Dardanelle about 60 miles northwest of Little Rock) generated 22% of total in-state electricity in 2021 and is the second-largest power plant by generating capacity in the state.

Last Updated: May 19, 2022



Data

Last Update: September 15, 2022 | Next Update: October 20, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Population 3.0 million 0.9% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 1.4 million 0.8% Jul-22  
Economy Arkansas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 144.5 billion 36 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 21,322 million 32 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 51,148 46 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 33,919 million miles 29 2020  
Land in Farms 13.9 million acres 22 2017  
Climate Arkansas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 61.2 degrees Fahrenheit 9 2021  
Precipitation 50.9 inches 10 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 108.24 /barrel $ 113.73 /barrel Jun-22  
Natural Gas Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 11.83 /thousand cu ft $ 10.12 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Residential $ 22.29 /thousand cu ft $ 22.73 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Coal Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.32 /million Btu Jun-22  
Electricity Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.56 cents/kWh 15.42 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Commercial 10.71 cents/kWh 12.90 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Industrial 7.98 cents/kWh 8.96 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 29 million barrels 0.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 4,981 billion cu ft 1.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2 million barrels * 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 9,043 wells 1.9% 2020 find more
Capacity Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 90,500 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 14,978 MW 1.3% Jun-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 782 trillion Btu 0.8% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 12 thousand barrels per day 0.1% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 480,982 million cu ft 1.3% 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,790 thousand MWh 1.5% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Arkansas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 42.6 % 40.9 % Jun-22 find more
Coal-Fired 26.5 % 19.3 % Jun-22 find more
Nuclear 22.8 % 17.3 % Jun-22 find more
Renewables 7.8 % 21.8 % Jun-22  
Stocks Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 121 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 645 thousand barrels 0.8% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 15,210 million cu ft 0.2% Jun-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 160 thousand barrels 0.7% Jun-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,080 thousand tons 3.5% Jun-22 find more
Fueling Stations Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,494 stations 1.3% 2019  
Propane 36 stations 1.4% 2022  
Electricity 148 stations 0.3% 2022  
E85 69 stations 1.7% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 26 stations 2.0% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Arkansas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,035 trillion Btu 31 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 344 million Btu 17 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 10,368 million 32 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,442 18 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 216 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 170 trillion Btu 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 377 trillion Btu 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 271 trillion Btu 1.1% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,342 million 0.9% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,451 million 0.8% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,265 million 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 4,311 million 1.1% 2020 find more
by Source Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 62 million barrels 0.9% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 330 billion cu ft 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 9 million short tons 2.0% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 5,084 million 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,696 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 309 million 1.6% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 8 thousand barrels 0.5% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas 18,439 million cu ft 1.6% Jun-22 find more
Coal 947 thousand short tons 2.3% Jun-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Arkansas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 38.7 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 50.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 6.7 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 4.0 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,817 MW 0.6% Jun-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 291 thousand MWh 1.1% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 83 thousand MWh 0.2% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 77 thousand MWh 1.6% Jun-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 23 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Arkansas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 11.4 % 26 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 3,098 thousand barrels 32 2020  
Total Emissions Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 65.1 million metric tons 1.3% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 23,469 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 29 thousand metric tons 2.9% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 16 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 19, 2022

Overview

Arkansas has a diverse geography with natural resources that range from abundant natural gas, rivers, and forests to the rare gems found in the Crater of the Diamonds State Park, home to the only active diamond mine in the United States.1 The large diamond in the center of the Arkansas state flag represents the mine.2 The Mississippi River flows along the state's eastern border, the northern edge of the Gulf Coastal Plain occupies southern Arkansas, and rugged highlands cover the state's north and west.3 The fertile Arkansas River Valley separates the Ouachita Mountains from the Ozark Plateau in western Arkansas. Most of the state's natural gas production is from the Arkoma Basin, which underlies the Arkansas River Valley. Coal resources are found in the valley near the state's western border, and coal resources also cover most of the eastern half of the state.4,5,6,7 To the south, the lowlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain contain the state's crude oil-producing area.8,9

Arkansas has considerable hydropower from rivers that flow generally east and south from the state's highland regions toward the Mississippi River.10 The Mississippi River Valley and the upper reaches of its delta occupy the eastern third of Arkansas.11 That area, part of the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain, has rich soils that, along with the state's hot, humid summers and mild, slightly drier winters, provide excellent conditions for agriculture.12,13 Agricultural wastes and the forests that cover about half of the state supply Arkansas with significant biomass resources.14,15

Arkansas uses about 30% more energy than the state produces.

Arkansas consumes about 30% more energy than it produces, and its per capita energy consumption usually ranks among the top one-third of the states.16,17 The industrial sector, which includes agriculture, consumes the most energy of any end-use sector in Arkansas, accounting for almost two-fifths of the state total.18 Poultry, soybeans, and rice are the state's top three agricultural products in terms of cash farm receipts.19,20 Several energy-intensive manufacturing industries also are major contributors to Arkansas' gross domestic product (GDP). They include: food, beverages, and tobacco; fabricated metal products; paper products; chemicals; plastics; and natural gas and crude oil extraction and mining.21 The transportation sector accounts for about one-fourth of the state's energy consumption, followed by the residential sector at one-fifth and the commercial sector at one-sixth.22

Natural gas

Arkansas accounts for about 1% of total U.S. marketed natural gas production and natural gas reserves.

Arkansas has about 1% of the nation's proved natural gas reserves, and in 2021 the state accounted for 1% of total U.S. marketed gas production.23,24 Most of the state's natural gas production is in the Arkoma Basin in west-central Arkansas, although there are also gas wells in the southern part of the state. Most of the natural gas produced in southern Arkansas is associated with crude oil production that contains some heavier hydrocarbons.25,26 The state's coal formations produce coalbed methane, and much of that methane production comes from the Lower Hartshorne coalbed located in west-central Arkansas along the border with Oklahoma.27,28,29 However, Arkansas is not a major producer of coalbed methane, with the state's output accounting for 0.1% of total U.S. coalbed methane production.30

Marketed natural gas production in Arkansas increased significantly beginning in 2008. Output more than doubled by 2012 because of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the Fayetteville Shale, which accounts for most of the state's natural gas production.31,32,33 However, because of a decline in drilling activity driven, in part, by lower natural gas prices, natural gas production in Arkansas decreased every year since its 2012 peak. The state's natural gas output in 2021 was less than half what it was in 2012.34,35

Arkansas produces more natural gas than it consumes.36,37 More than a dozen natural gas pipelines, mostly from Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, and Texas, pass through Arkansas on the way to markets in the Midwest and Northeast.38,39 Large volumes of natural gas flow into the state and even larger volumes move out, with supplies mostly going through Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri.40 The state has two natural gas storage fields that together can hold nearly 22 billion cubic feet of gas, which is about 0.2% of U.S. total storage capacity.41,42

The electric power sector consumes about two-fifths of the natural gas delivered to end-use consumers in Arkansas, as generation from natural gas-fired power plants in the state increased during the past decade.43,44 The industrial sector, which includes agriculture, consumes about one-third of the state's natural gas. The sector typically increases natural gas use during the fall months to dry the harvested rice crop.45 The commercial sector accounts for about one-sixth of the state's gas use, and the residential sector, where about 4 in 10 Arkansas households use natural gas as their primary source for home heating, consumes about one-tenth.46,47

Petroleum

Arkansas' proved crude oil reserves are small, accounting for about 0.1% of the U.S. total, and the state produces about 0.1% of the nation's total crude oil output.48,49 Arkansas once played a larger role in the U.S. oil sector, leading the nation's crude oil production in the mid-1920s with its large Smackover field in the southern part of the state.50 Smackover remains the state's biggest crude oil producing-field.51 However, many oil wells in the state are now stripper wells that produce less than 10 barrels of crude oil per day.52 Arkansas' crude oil production continues to be concentrated along the state's southern border.53

Arkansas has two oil refineries that have a combined processing capacity of almost 91,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which equals less than 1% of U.S. total refining capacity. The larger refinery in El Dorado can process about 83,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, propane, solvents, and asphalt products. The refinery processes crude oil produced in Arkansas and from other states and countries. The smaller refinery in Smackover processes about 7,500 barrels per calendar day and produces lubricants and process oils that are marketed to the tire, electrical, asphalt, and roofing industries.54,55,56,57

Arkansas’ biodiesel production capacity totals 115 million gallons annually, the fifth-highest of any state.

The transportation sector accounts for about four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Arkansas, and the industrial sector uses about one-seventh. The commercial and residential sectors account for most of the state's remaining petroleum use.58 Arkansas allows statewide use of conventional motor gasoline without ethanol, although almost all U.S. gasoline contains at least 10% ethanol.59,60 Arkansas does not have any ethanol production plants, but the state does have three biodiesel manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of 115 million gallons per year, the fifth-highest of any state and nearly 5% of U.S. total capacity. Arkansas consumes much less biodiesel, about 33 million gallons annually.61,62,63

Electricity

In 2021, coal regained the top spot for generating electricity in Arkansas.

In 2021, coal reclaimed the top spot as the leading fuel used to generate electricity in Arkansas and accounted for 35% of the state's total electricity net generation. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded the state's coal-fired generation in 2020 for the first time. However, higher natural gas prices made coal more competitive as a generating fuel. In 2021, natural gas accounted for 32% of the state's generation.64

Natural gas fuels 5 of the 10 largest power plants by capacity in Arkansas, including the 2,000-megawatt Union Power Station, which is the biggest power plant in the state. Coal fuels 4 of Arkansas' 10 largest power plants. The second-largest power plant is the state's one nuclear power plant—with two reactors—that provided about 22% of in-state net generation in 2021. The 1,800-megawatt nuclear power plant is located on Lake Dardanelle about 60 miles northwest of Little Rock. Almost all the rest of the state's electricity net generation came from hydroelectric power and biomass-fueled generating facilities.65,66,67,68

Arkansas ranks among the top 10 states in both total electricity sales per capita and residential electricity sales per capita. The residential sector accounts for the largest share of electricity use in Arkansas, with 39% of the state's total power sales. About half of the households in the state use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, and nearly all the states with the highest residential electricity sales per capita, which includes Arkansas, are in the South where air conditioning use is most prevalent. Arkansas ranks among the 10 states with the lowest average residential electricity retail prices. The industrial sector closely follows the residential sector with 38% of the state's electricity consumption, and the commercial sector accounts for 24%.69,70,71,72,73

Coal

Coal was Arkansas' most valuable mineral resource from its first commercial production in the mid-19th century, but its importance diminished with the discovery of oil in the state in the 1920s and the increased retirement of coal-fired power plants nationwide.74,75 Arkansas has 227 million tons of recoverable coal reserves, which is about 0.1% of the U.S. total, but the state's last coal production occurred in 2017 at three small mines, all located in the Arkansas River Valley near the state's western border.76,77 The electric power sector uses almost all the coal consumed in Arkansas and it arrives by rail primarily from New Mexico and Wyoming. Other industrial plants in the state also receive small amounts of coal by rail from Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah.78,79

Renewable energy

Hydropower, biomass, and solar provided 10% of Arkansas’ electricity net generation in 2021.

Renewable energy sources provided 10% of the electricity generated in Arkansas in 2021. Conventional hydroelectric power accounted for nearly three-fourths of the state's renewable generation. The state has 19 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) conventional hydroelectric power generating facilities and one hydroelectric pumped storage plant.80,81

Biomass supplied about one-sixth of Arkansas' in-state renewable electricity in 2021, almost all of it from wood and wood-derived fuels.82 Solid biomass residues, including crop residues and methane from livestock manure, are other potential resources for electricity generation in the state.83,84 Arkansas' biomass resources also provide feedstock for the state's one wood pellet manufacturing plant, which has a production capacity of 744,000 tons per year.85

Arkansas has a small but increasing amount of solar power, which accounted for one-tenth of the state's renewable electricity generation in 2021 and was 18 times greater than in 2016.86,87 Arkansas' two largest solar farms each have 100 megawatts of generating capacity. The Chicot Solar Farm, which came online in September 2020 in the southeastern part of the state, has 350,000 solar panels spread over 825 acres. The Searcy Solar farm, located northeast of Little Rock, came online in January 2022. It is the first solar farm in the state with battery storage and can store 30 megawatts of solar-generated electricity.88,89,90 Arkansas does not generate any electricity from utility-scale wind power facilities, although it has moderate wind energy resources in the Ozark Mountains in the northwest corner of the state.91,92

Arkansas does not have a renewable portfolio standard that requires the state's electricity providers to generate a certain amount of electricity from renewable energy sources.93 However, the state does have net metering, allowing households with small, customer-sited solar panels, wind turbines, or other renewable power generating installations no larger than 25 kilowatts in size to receive credits from utilities to send excess electricity to the grid. Businesses with renewable electric generating systems that are to up 300 kilowatts in capacity are also eligible for net metering.94 In 2010, the Arkansas Public Service Commission (APSC) implemented an energy efficiency resource standard that required the state's investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities to undertake energy efficiency measures. In 2015 and again in 2018, the APSC set new targets for continued reductions in electricity and natural gas use.95,96 The energy savings targets for program years 2020-22 call for a 1.2% reduction in utility sales of electricity from 2018 levels and a 0.5% reduction in utility sales of natural gas.97 In January 2022, the state began two programs to expand Arkansas' electric vehicle charging infrastructure. One program provides rebates to government, private, and non-profit groups that install Level 2 fast-charging stations that can charge a vehicle in a few hours and the other program offers funding assistance for three DC fast charging stations that can charge electric vehicles in 30 minutes.98

Endnotes

1 Arkansas State Parks, Crater of Diamonds State Park, History of the Crater of the Diamonds State Park, accessed April 6, 2022.
2 State Symbols USA, Flag of Arkansas, accessed April 6, 2022.
3 World Atlas, Arkansas, Arkansas Geography, accessed April 6, 2022.
4 Foti, Thomas, Arkansas Valley, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated April 4, 2022.
5 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, accessed April 6, 2022.
6 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Coal in Arkansas, accessed April 6, 2022.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Profile and Energy Estimates, Arkansas, Map, Layers/Legend: Fossil Resources, Coal Field, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed April 6, 2022.
8 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Crude Oil in Arkansas, History of Discovery and Exploration, accessed April 6, 2022.
9 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Arkansas, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil Wells: High-Level View, accessed April 6, 2022.
10 Reynolds, Jerry, Hydroelectricity, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated March 15, 2016.
11 Stroud, Hubert, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated January 1, 2022.
12 Foti, Thomas, Geography and Geology, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated October 9, 2020.
13 Buckner, Ed, Climate and Weather, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated March 28, 2022.
14 Arkansas Forestry Commission, Arkansas Forest Health Highlights for 2020, p. 1.
15 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, accessed April 6, 2022.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agricultural Overview, Arkansas.
20 Farm Bureau Arkansas, Arkansas Agriculture, Poultry, accessed April 6, 2022.
21 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Arkansas, All Statistics in Table, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
23 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13, 2022), Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
25 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, Conventional Gas, accessed April 7, 2022.
26 U.S. EIA, Arkansas, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed April 7, 2022.
27 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, Unconventional Gas, Coalbed Natural Gas Methane, accessed April 7, 2022.
28 Arkansas Geological Survey, Major Producing Formations in North Arkansas, Pennsylvanian (Morrow, Atoka, Hartshorne Coal), accessed May 8, 2022.
29 Arkansas Geological Survey, Natural Gas Wells in the Lower Hartshorne Coal Seam, Arkansas, accessed May 8, 2022.
30 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2015-2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Shale Production, 2007-20.
33 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, Fayetteville Shale Gas, accessed April 7, 2022.
34 Bree, Daniel, "Fayetteville Shale Assets Sold Off, Fracking Still Put On Hold," Arkansas Public Media (September 20, 2018).
35 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2021.
36 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual, 2016-21.
38 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed April 7, 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Pipelines and Transmission, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline and Natural Gas Market Hub Layers, accessed April 7, 2022.
40 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Arkansas, 2015-20.
41 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015-20.
42 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2015-20.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual 2011-21.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2001-21.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual 2016-21.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Arkansas.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual 2016-21.
48 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015-20.
49 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2016-21.
50 Lambert, Don, Smackover (Union County), The Encyclopedia of Arkansas, updated December 22, 2020.
51 Arkansas Oil & Gas Commission, South Arkansas Field Data, Smackover, 2018.
52 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Crude Oil in Arkansas, History of Discovery and Exploration, accessed April 7, 2022.
53 U.S. EIA, Arkansas, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed April 7, 2022.
54 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
55 Lion Oil, About, accessed April 7, 2022.
56 Cross Oil Refining and Marketing, About, accessed April 7, 2022.
57 Lion Oil, History, accessed April 7, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
59 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, January 2018.
60 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
61 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 23, 2021), Detailed annual production capacity by plants is available in XLS.
62 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2018-21.
65 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten Largest Plants by Capacity, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2021).
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2018-21.
68 Encyclopedia of Arkansas, Arkansas Nuclear One, updated December 8, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Arkansas, 2018-21.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Arkansas.
71 U.S. EIA, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
72 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Regions and Divisions of the United States, accessed April 8, 2022.
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
74 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Coal in Arkansas, accessed April 10, 2022.
75 U.S. EIA, "Coal will account for 85% of U.S. electric generating capacity retirements in 2022," Today in Energy (January 11, 2022).
76 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019, Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
77 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018, Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
79 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, Arkansas, Table DS-4, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2018-21.
81 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: Arkansas, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric and Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
82 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2018-21.
83 University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Research & Extension, Bioenergy Crops, accessed April 8, 2022.
84 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agricultural Overview, Arkansas, accessed April 8, 2022.
85 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (April 20, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, January 2022, Download.
86 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Arkansas Solar, accessed April 9, 2022.
87 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual, 2018-21.
88 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of February 2022, Plant State: Arkansas, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
89 Kovaleski, Dave, "NextEra Energy to build largest solar facility in Arkansas," Daily Energy Insider (December 4, 2019).
90 Entergy, "Entergy Arkansas Searcy Solar Energy Center Now Online," Press release (January 27, 2022).
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2018-21.
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WindExchange, Wind Energy in Arkansas, Maps & Data, accessed April 9, 2022.
93 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
94 North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, updated November 30, 2018.
95 Arkansas Public Service Commission, APSC Sustainable Energy Resources (SER) Action Guide, Docket No. 08-144-U (December 2010).
96 North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Arkansas Energy Efficiency Targets, updated August 18, 2016.
97 American Council for Energy-Efficient Economy, State and Local Policy Database, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, Arkansas, updated July 2018.
98 Arkansas Energy & Environment, "E&E to Launch Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Funding Assistance Programs," Press release (January 24, 2022).


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