Arkansas State Energy Profile



Arkansas Quick Facts

  • Arkansas accounts for about 1% of U.S. total natural gas production and natural gas reserves.
  • There are three biodiesel manufacturing plants in Arkansas with a combined production capacity of 115 million gallons per year, the fifth highest of any state and nearly 5% of the U.S. total.
  • In 2022, natural gas was the leading fuel used to generate electricity in Arkansas, surpassing coal, and accounted for 38% of the state’s total net generation.
  • Arkansas ranks among the 10 states with the lowest average electricity price, and about half the state's households rely on electricity as their primary source for home heating.
  • Arkansas's only nuclear power plant (located on Lake Dardanelle about 60 miles northwest of Little Rock) generated 22% of total in-state electricity in 2022 and is the second-largest power plant by generating capacity in the state.

Last Updated: May 18, 2023



Data

Last Update: February 15, 2024 | Next Update: March 21, 2024

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Population 3.0 million 0.9% 2022  
Civilian Labor Force 1.4 million 0.8% Dec-23  
Economy Arkansas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 165.2 billion 34 2022  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 24,612 million 32 2022  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 51,787 47 2022  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 38,427 million miles 29 2021  
Land in Farms 14.0 million acres 21 2022  
Climate Arkansas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 62.9 degrees Fahrenheit 8 2023  
Precipitation 52.3 inches 8 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 71.63 /barrel $ 77.46 /barrel Nov-23  
Natural Gas Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.64 /thousand cu ft $ 4.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Residential $ 16.09 /thousand cu ft $ 13.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Coal Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.51 /million Btu Nov-23  
Electricity Arkansas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.11 cents/kWh 16.19 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Commercial 10.21 cents/kWh 12.60 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Industrial 6.56 cents/kWh 7.90 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 35 million barrels 0.1% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 6,084 billion cu ft 1.0% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2 million barrels * 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 9,043 wells 1.9% 2020 find more
Capacity Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 90,500 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 15,229 MW 1.3% Nov-23  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 735 trillion Btu 0.7% 2021 find more
Crude Oil 12 thousand barrels per day 0.1% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 416,196 million cu ft 1.1% 2022 find more
Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,362 thousand MWh 1.4% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Arkansas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 31.1 % 42.0 % Nov-23 find more
Coal-Fired 28.9 % 15.9 % Nov-23 find more
Nuclear 30.8 % 19.3 % Nov-23 find more
Renewables 9.1 % 21.9 % Nov-23  
Stocks Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 120 thousand barrels 1.0% Nov-23  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 437 thousand barrels 0.5% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 18,289 million cu ft 0.2% Nov-23 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 162 thousand barrels 0.7% Nov-23 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 4,309 thousand tons 3.3% Nov-23 find more
Fueling Stations Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,467 stations 1.3% 2021  
Propane 27 stations 1.1% Jan-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 308 stations 0.5% Jan-24  
E85 74 stations 1.7% Jan-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 43 stations 1.5% Jan-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Arkansas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,080 trillion Btu 30 2021 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 356 million Btu 17 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 13,616 million 32 2021 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,496 15 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 226 trillion Btu 1.1% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial 177 trillion Btu 1.0% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial 389 trillion Btu 1.2% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation 287 trillion Btu 1.1% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,676 million 0.9% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,737 million 0.9% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,867 million 1.2% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation $ 6,336 million 1.0% 2021 find more
by Source Arkansas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 65 million barrels 0.9% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas 389 billion cu ft 1.2% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 12,067 thousand short tons 2.3% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 7,384 million 1.0% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,614 million 1.3% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 501 million 1.9% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 7 thousand barrels 0.4% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas 12,029 million cu ft 1.4% Apr-23 find more
Coal 773 thousand tons 2.6% Nov-23 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Arkansas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 36.1 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 54.7 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 5.7 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 3.4 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,097 MW 0.6% Nov-23  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 262 thousand MWh 1.4% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 66 thousand MWh 0.1% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 67 thousand MWh 1.7% Nov-23  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 29 thousand MWh 0.6% Nov-23  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Arkansas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.6 % 26 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 3,458 thousand barrels 31 2021  
Total Emissions Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 62.0 million metric tons 1.3% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Arkansas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 31,303 thousand metric tons 1.9% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 37 thousand metric tons 3.4% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 18, 2023

Overview

Arkansas has a diverse geography with natural resources that range from abundant natural gas, rivers, and forests to the rare gems found in the Crater of the Diamonds State Park, home to the only active diamond mine in the United States.1 The large diamond in the center of the Arkansas state flag represents the mine.2 The Mississippi River flows along the state's eastern border, the northern edge of the Gulf Coastal Plain occupies southern Arkansas, and rugged highlands cover the state's north and west.3 The fertile Arkansas River Valley separates the Ouachita Mountains from the Ozark Plateau in western Arkansas. Most of the state's natural gas production is from the Arkoma Basin, which underlies the Arkansas River Valley. Coal resources are found in the valley near the state's western border, and coal resources also cover most of the eastern half of the state.4,5,6,7 To the south, the lowlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain contain the state's crude oil-producing area.8,9

Arkansas has considerable hydropower from rivers that flow generally east and south from the state's highland regions toward the Mississippi River.10 The Mississippi River Valley and the upper reaches of its delta occupy the eastern third of Arkansas.11 That area, part of the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain, has rich soils that, along with the state's hot, humid summers and mild, slightly drier winters, provide excellent conditions for agriculture.12,13 Agricultural wastes and the forests that cover almost three-fifths of the state supply Arkansas with significant biomass resources.14,15

Arkansas uses about one-third more energy than the state produces.

Arkansas consumes about one-third more energy than it produces, and its per capita energy consumption usually ranks among the top one-third of the states.16,17 The industrial sector, which includes agriculture, consumes the most energy of any end-use sector in Arkansas, accounting for slightly more than one-third of the state's total energy use.18 Poultry, soybeans, and rice are the state's top three agricultural products in terms of cash farm receipts.19,20 Several energy-intensive manufacturing industries also are major contributors to Arkansas' gross domestic product (GDP). They include: food, beverages, and tobacco; the manufacture of primary metal and fabricated metal products; paper products; chemicals; plastics; and natural gas and crude oil extraction and mining.21 The transportation sector accounts for over one-fourth of the state's energy consumption, followed by the residential sector at one-fifth and the commercial sector at one-sixth.22

Natural gas

Arkansas accounts for about 1% of total U.S. marketed natural gas production and natural gas reserves.

Arkansas holds about 1% of the nation's proved natural gas reserves, and in 2022 the state accounted for 1% of total U.S. marketed gas production.23,24 Most of the state's natural gas production is from the Arkoma Basin in west-central Arkansas, although there are also gas wells in the southern part of the state. Most of the natural gas produced in southern Arkansas is associated with crude oil production that contains some heavier hydrocarbons, such as propane.25,26 The state's coal formations produce coalbed methane, and much of that methane production comes from the Lower Hartshorne coalbed located in west-central Arkansas along the state's border with Oklahoma.27,28,29,30 However, Arkansas is not a major producer of coalbed methane. The state accounts for 0.1% of total U.S. coalbed methane output.31

Marketed natural gas production in Arkansas increased significantly beginning in 2008. Output more than doubled by 2012 because of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the Fayetteville Shale, which accounts for most of the state's natural gas production.32,33,34 However, because of a decline in drilling activity driven, in part, by lower natural gas prices, natural gas production in Arkansas has decreased every year since its 2012 peak. The state's natural gas output in 2022 was less than half what it was in 2012.35,36

Arkansas produces more natural gas than it consumes.37,38 More than a dozen natural gas pipelines, mostly from Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, and Texas, pass through Arkansas on the way to markets in the Midwest and Northeast.39,40 Large volumes of natural gas flow into the state and even larger volumes move out, with supplies mostly going through Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri.41 The state has two natural gas storage fields that together can hold nearly 22 billion cubic feet of gas, which is about 0.2% of U.S. total storage capacity.42,43

In 2022, the electric power sector consumed about half of the natural gas delivered to end-use consumers in Arkansas, as generation from natural gas-fired power plants in the state reached a record high.44,45 The industrial sector, which includes agriculture, consumed almost three-tenths of the state's natural gas. The sector typically increases natural gas use during the fall months to dry the nation's largest harvested rice crop.46,47 The commercial sector accounted for about one-seventh of the state's gas use. The residential sector, where about 4 in 10 Arkansas households use natural gas as their primary source for home heating, consumed almost one-tenth.48,49

Petroleum

Arkansas' proved crude oil reserves are small, accounting for about 0.1% of the U.S. total, and the state produces about 0.1% of the nation's total crude oil output.50,51 Arkansas once played a larger role in the U.S. oil sector, leading the nation's crude oil production in the mid-1920s from its large Smackover oil field in the southern part of the state. Smackover remains the state's biggest crude oil producing-field.52 However, many oil wells in the state are now stripper wells that produce less than 10 barrels of crude oil per day.53 Arkansas' crude oil production continues to be concentrated along the state's southern border.54

Arkansas has 2 oil refineries that have a combined processing capacity of almost 91,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which equals about 1% of U.S. total refining capacity. The larger refinery in El Dorado can process about 83,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, propane, solvents, and asphalt products. The refinery processes crude oil produced in Arkansas and from other states and countries. The smaller refinery in Smackover processes about 7,500 barrels per calendar day and produces lubricants and process oils that are marketed to the tire, electrical, asphalt, and roofing industries.55,56,57,58

Arkansas’ biodiesel production capacity totals 115 million gallons annually, the fifth-highest of any state.

The transportation sector accounts for about four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Arkansas, and the industrial sector uses about one-seventh. The commercial and residential sectors account for most of the state's remaining petroleum use.59 About 6 out of 100 Arkansas households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for home heating.60 Arkansas allows statewide use of conventional motor gasoline without ethanol, although almost all U.S. gasoline contains at least 10% ethanol.61,62 Arkansas does not have any ethanol production plants, but the state does have three biodiesel manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of 115 million gallons per year, the fifth-highest of any state and about 5% of U.S. total capacity. Arkansas consumes much less biodiesel, about 22 million gallons annually.63,64,65

Electricity

In 2022, natural gas was the leading source of fuel for generating electricity in Arkansas.

In 2022, natural gas reclaimed the top spot as the leading fuel used to generate electricity in Arkansas and accounted for 38% of the state's total electricity net generation. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded the state's coal-fired generation in 2020 for the first time. However, higher natural gas prices made coal more competitive as a generating fuel in 2021 and coal-fired power plants were the top producer of in-state electricity. In 2022, coal accounted for 31% of the state's generation.66

Natural gas fuels 5 of the 10 largest power plants by capacity in Arkansas, including the 2,000-megawatt Union Power Station, which is the largest power plant in the state. Coal fuels 4 of Arkansas' 10 largest power plants. The second-largest power plant is the state's one nuclear power plant—with two reactors—that provided about 22% of in-state net generation in 2022. The 1,818-megawatt nuclear power plant is located on Lake Dardanelle about 60 miles northwest of Little Rock. Almost all the rest of the state's electricity net generation came from renewables, mainly hydroelectric power, solar power, and biomass-fueled generating facilities.67,68,69,70

Arkansas ranks 11th among the states in total electricity sales per capita and 8th in residential electricity sales per capita.71 The residential sector accounts for the largest share of electricity use in Arkansas, with 39% of the state's total power sales. About half of the households in the state use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, and more than 90% of households use air conditioning. Arkansas ranks among the 10 states with the lowest average electricity prices. The industrial sector closely follows the residential sector with 37% of the state's electricity consumption, and the commercial sector accounts for 24%.72,73,74,75,76

Coal

Coal was Arkansas' most valuable mineral resource from its first commercial production in the mid-19th century, but its importance diminished with the discovery of oil in the state in the 1920s and continued to decrease because of the increased retirement of coal-fired power plants nationwide.77,78 Arkansas has 227 million tons of recoverable coal reserves, which is about 0.1% of the U.S. total, but the state's last coal production occurred in 2017 at three small mines, all located in the Arkansas River Valley near the state's western border.79,80 In 2021, Arkansas was the 16th-largest coal-consuming state, using nearly 12.7 million tons. The electric power sector uses almost all the coal consumed in the state and it arrives by rail primarily from Wyoming. Industrial plants in the state also receive small amounts of coal by rail from Utah, Colorado, and Illinois.81,82

Renewable energy

Renewable energy provided 8% of Arkansas’ total electricity net generation in 2022.

Renewable sources of energy provided 8% of the electricity generated in Arkansas in 2022. Conventional hydroelectric power accounted for about two-thirds of the state's renewable generation. The state has 19 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) conventional hydroelectric power generating facilities and one hydroelectric pumped storage plant.83,84 Pumped storage plants pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low demand for electricity, which is usually at night, when electricity is less costly. The water is released from the upper reservoir in periods of high power demand and higher power prices, generating electricity as the water flows back through turbines on its way to the lower reservoir. Although pumped storage facilities use more power than they generate, they can supply power in periods of peak demand when it is needed.85

In 2022, the amount of total electricity generated in Arkansas by solar energy exceeded biomass-fueled generation for the first time, and solar power accounted for almost one-fifth of the state's renewable electricity.86 Arkansas' two largest solar farms each have 100 megawatts of generating capacity. The Chicot Solar Farm, which came online in September 2020 in the southeastern part of the state, has 350,000 solar panels spread over 825 acres. The Searcy Solar farm, located northeast of Little Rock, came online in January 2022. It is the first solar farm in the state with battery storage and can store 30 megawatts of solar-generated electricity. Nearly 600 megawatts of solar power generating capacity is scheduled to come online in Arkansas in 2023 and another 900 megawatts in 2024, including the state's largest solar power farm with 400 megawatts of capacity in the summer of 2024.87,88,89

Biomass supplied about one-sixth of Arkansas' in-state renewable electricity in 2022, almost all of it from wood and wood-derived fuels.90 Solid biomass residues, including crop residues and methane from livestock manure, are other potential resources for electricity generation in the state.91,92 Arkansas' biomass resources also provide feedstock for the state's one wood pellet manufacturing plant, which has a production capacity of 744,000 tons per year. It is the third-largest wood pellet plant in the nation.93 Wood pellets are used for heating and electricity generation.94

Arkansas does not generate any electricity from utility-scale wind power facilities, although it has moderate wind energy resources in the Ozark Mountains in the northwest corner of the state.95,96

Arkansas does not have a renewable portfolio standard that requires the state's electricity providers to generate a certain amount of electricity from renewable energy sources.97 However, the state does have net metering, allowing households with small, customer-sited solar panels, wind turbines, or other renewable power generating installations no larger than 25 kilowatts in size to receive credits from utilities for excess electricity sent to the grid. Businesses with renewable electric generating systems that are up to 1 megawatt in capacity are also eligible for net metering. In March 2023, the Arkansas legislature passed legislation that was signed into law reducing the credit that new net-metering customers receive for their surplus power, and increasing the size of eligible business renewable generating systems to 5 megawatts.98,99

In 2010, the Arkansas Public Service Commission (APSC) implemented an energy efficiency resource standard that required the state's investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities to undertake energy efficiency measures. In January 2023, the APSC extended through 2026 the targets calling for a 1.2% reduction in utility sales of electricity and a 0.5% reduction in utility sales of natural gas from 2018 levels.100,101 In January 2022, the state began two programs to expand Arkansas' electric vehicle charging infrastructure. One program provides rebates to government, private, and non-profit groups that install Level 2 charging ports that can charge a vehicle in a few hours and the other program offers funding assistance for DC fast-charging ports that can charge electric vehicles in 30 minutes.102,103

Endnotes

1 Arkansas State Parks, Crater of Diamonds State Park, History of the Crater of the Diamonds State Park, accessed April 13, 2023.
2 State Symbols USA, Flag of Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
3 World Atlas, Arkansas, Arkansas Geography, accessed April 13, 2023.
4 Foti, Thomas, Arkansas Valley, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated April 4, 2022.
5 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
6 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Coal in Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
7 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
8 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Crude Oil in Arkansas, History of Discovery and Exploration, accessed April 13, 2023.
9 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
10 Reynolds, Jerry, Hydroelectricity, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated December 16, 2022.
11 Stroud, Hubert, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated June 21, 2022.
12 Foti, Thomas, Geography and Geology, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated February 14, 2023.
13 Buckner, Ed, Climate and Weather, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, updated October 13, 2022.
14 Arkansas Department of Agriculture, Forestry, Arkansas's Forest Fact Sheets, AR Forest Inventory Fact Sheet 2021.
Arkansas Forestry Commission, Arkansas Forest Health Highlights for 2020, p. 1.
15 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, accessed April 13, 2023.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
19 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2022 State Agricultural Overview, Arkansas.
20 Farm Bureau Arkansas, Arkansas Agriculture, Poultry, accessed April 13, 2023.
21 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Arkansas, All Statistics in Table, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2021 (December 30, 2022), Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2017-22.
25 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, Conventional Gas, accessed April 13, 2023.
26 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
27 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, Unconventional Gas, Coalbed Natural Gas Methane, accessed April 13, 2023.
28 Arkansas Geological Survey, Major Producing Formations in North Arkansas, Pennsylvanian (Morrow, Atoka, Hartshorne Coal), accessed April 13, 2023.
29 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
30 Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission-Oil and Gas Info, Map, accessed April 18, 2023.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2016-2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2022.
33 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Shale Production, 2007-21.
34 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Natural Gas in Arkansas, Fayetteville Shale Gas, accessed April 13, 2023.
35 Forsyth, Angela, "Bottoming Out: Arkansas' Oil and Natural Gas Production on the Decline," Arkansas Money & Politics (July 3, 2019).
36 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2022.
37 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual, 2016-22.
39 U.S. Department of Transportation, Gas Transmission Pipelines, Pipeline data as of 10/01/2019.
40 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Arkansas, accessed April 13, 2023.
41 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Arkansas, 2016-21.
42 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2016-21.
43 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2016-21.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual 2011-22.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2019-22.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual 2017-22.
47 USA Rice, Where Rice Grows, accessed April 26, 2023.
48 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Arkansas.
49 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arkansas, Annual 2017-22.
50 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2016-21.
51 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2017-22.
52 Lambert, Don, Smackover (Union County), The Encyclopedia of Arkansas, updated April 12, 2023.
53 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Crude Oil in Arkansas, History of Discovery and Exploration, accessed April 14, 2023.
54 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Arkansas, accessed April 14, 2023.
55 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2022 (June 21, 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
56 Lion Oil, About, accessed April 14, 2023.
57 Cross Oil Refining and Marketing, About, accessed April 14, 2023.
58 Lion Oil, History, accessed April 14, 2023.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
60 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Arkansas.
61 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, January 2018.
62 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
63 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 8, 2022), Detailed annual production capacity by plants is available in XLS.
64 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity (August 8, 2022), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2021.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2019-22.
67 U.S. EIA, Arkansas Electricity Profile 2021, Table 2A, Ten Largest Plants by Capacity, 2021.
68 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2021).
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2019-22.
70 Encyclopedia of Arkansas, Arkansas Nuclear One, updated December 8, 2020.
71 U.S. EIA, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Arkansas, 2019-22.
73 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Arkansas.
74 U.S. EIA, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Housing Characteristics, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 5.6.B.
77 Arkansas Geological Survey, General Information Regarding Coal in Arkansas, accessed April 14, 2023.
78 U.S. EIA, "Coal will account for 85% of U.S. electric generating capacity retirements in 2022," Today in Energy (January 11, 2022).
79 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2021 and 2020, Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018, Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
81 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2021 and 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, Arkansas, Table DS-4, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2019-22.
84 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2023, Plant State: Arkansas, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric and Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
85 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual, 2019-22.
87 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2023, Plant State: Arkansas, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic, Batteries; Inventory of Planned Generators as of March 2023, Plant State: Arkansas, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
88 Entergy, "Second Entergy Arkansas Solar Project Begins Operation," Press release (October 8, 2020).
89 Entergy, "Entergy Arkansas Searcy Solar Energy Center Now Online," Press release (January 27, 2022).
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2019-22.
91 University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Research & Extension, Bioenergy Crops, accessed April 14, 2023.
92 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agricultural Overview, Arkansas, accessed April 14, 2023.
93 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (April 3, 2023), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, January 2023, Download.
94 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, thousand megawatthours, Arkansas, Annual 2019-22.
96 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WindExchange, Wind Energy in Arkansas, Maps & Data, accessed April 14, 2023.
97 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
98 North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, updated March 22, 2023.
99 Massey, Kyle, "Bill Cutting Solar Power Credits Goes to Governor," Arkansas Business (March 10, 2023).
100 Arkansas Public Service Commission, APSC Sustainable Energy Resources (SER) Action Guide, Docket No. 08-144-U (December 2010).
101 North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Arkansas Energy Efficiency Targets, updated February 16, 2023.
102 Arkansas Energy & Environment, "E&E to Launch Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Funding Assistance Programs," Press release (January 24, 2022).
103 Arkansas Department of Transportation, Transportation Planning & Policy, Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Plan, accessed April 15, 2023.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map