Alabama State Energy Profile



Alabama Quick Facts

  • The electric power sector is the largest consumer of natural gas in Alabama, accounting for 63% of consumption in 2016.
  • In 2016, the port of Mobile, Alabama, handled the second-largest tonnage of U.S. coal imports, as well as the third-largest tonnage of coal exports (mostly coking coal used in steelmaking).
  • Alabama's Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, with three reactors, has a total generating capacity of 3,310 megawatts, second only to Arizona’s Palo Verde nuclear plant.
  • In 2016, Alabama ranked 14th in net electricity generation from renewable energy resources, with conventional hydroelectric power supplying 70% of the state's renewable generation.
  • Alabama has the third-largest timberland acreage among the Lower 48 states, and wood and wood waste were key contributors to the state's ranking of  fifth in the nation in electricity generation from biomass.

Last Updated: May 18, 2017



Data

Last Update: August 17, 2017 | Next Update: September 21, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.9 million 1.5% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 2.2 million 1.4% Jun-17  
Economy Alabama U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 204.9 billion 27 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 35,716 million 23 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 39,231 47 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 67,257 million miles 16 2015  
Land in Farms 8.9 million acres 31 2012  
Climate Alabama U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 65.4 degrees Fahrenheit 6 2016  
Precipitation 46.0 inches 11 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 45.47 /barrel $ 45.19 /barrel May-17  
Natural Gas Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.92 /thousand cu ft $ 4.38 /thousand cu ft May-17 find more
Residential $ 20.85 /thousand cu ft $ 13.21 /thousand cu ft May-17 find more
Coal Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 84.05 /short ton $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.11 /million Btu $ 2.12 /million Btu May-17  
Electricity Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.79 cents/kWh 13.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Commercial 11.66 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Industrial 6.52 cents/kWh 7.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 64 million barrels 0.2% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 2,182 billion cu ft 0.7% 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 58 million barrels 0.5% 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 228 million short tons 1.2% 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 6 rigs 0.3% 2014  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 6,044 wells 1.1% 2015 find more
Production Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,256 trillion Btu 1.4% 2015 find more
Crude Oil 559 thousand barrels 0.2% May-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 168,249 million cu ft 0.6% 2015 find more
Coal 13,191 thousand short tons 1.5% 2015 find more
Capacity Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 131,675 barrels/calendar day 0.7% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 29,329 MW 2.7% Jun-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 11,807 thousand MWh 3.7% May-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Alabama U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % May-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 34.9 % 30.0 % May-17 find more
Coal-Fired 21.4 % 29.0 % May-17 find more
Nuclear 32.1 % 19.1 % May-17 find more
Renewables 11.6 % 20.8 % May-17  
Stocks Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 151 thousand barrels 1.0% May-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,046 thousand barrels 0.8% May-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 34,333 million cu ft 0.5% May-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 329 thousand barrels 1.1% May-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,231 thousand tons 2.0% May-17 find more
Production Facilities Alabama
Major Coal Mines No 7 Mine / Jim Walter Resources Inc find more
Petroleum Refineries Goodway Refining (Atmore), Hunt Refining (Tuscaloosa), Shell Chemical (Saraland) find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Barry (Alabama Power Co) ; James H Miller Jr (Alabama Power Co) ; H Allen Franklin Combined Cycle (Southern Power Co) ; E B Harris Electric Generating Plant (Southern Power Co) ; E C Gaston (Alabama Power Co)  
Nuclear Power Plants Browns Ferry (Tennessee Valley Authority), Joseph M Farley (Alabama Power Co) find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers Alabama
Petroleum Ports Mobile find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs None  
Major Pipelines Alabama find more
Crude Oil Plains Pipeline, Hunt Crude Oil Supply  
Petroleum Product Colonial Pipeline, Kinder Morgan  
Natural Gas Liquids Enterprise Products  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Alabama Gas Corporation, American Midstream AlaTenn LLC, Bay Gas Storage, Chandeleur Pipeline Company, Childersburg Water Works, Sewer, and Gas Board, DCP Midstream LP, Florida Gas Transmission Company, Gulf South Pipeline Company LP, Gulfstream Natural Gas System LLC, Midcontinent Express Pipeline, Southeast Supply Header, Southern Natural Gas Company, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, Texas Eastern Transmission LP, Transcontinental Gas Pipeline, USG Pipeline Company  
Fueling Stations Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,035 stations 2.7% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 91 stations 2.8% 2017  
Electricity 63 stations 0.4% 2017  
Ethanol 23 stations 0.8% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 15 stations 1.2% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Alabama U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,910 trillion Btu 17 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 393 million Btu 12 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 20,095 million 20 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,140 14 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 353 trillion Btu 1.7% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 264 trillion Btu 1.5% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 808 trillion Btu 2.6% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 485 trillion Btu 1.8% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,330 million 1.7% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,005 million 1.6% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 4,279 million 2.3% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 8,481 million 1.7% 2015 find more
by Source Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 102.9 million barrels 1.4% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 676.1 billion cu ft 2.5% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 23.6 million short tons 3.0% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 9,654 million 1.6% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,685 million 1.9% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,310 million 3.6% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas 33,673 million cu ft 3.9% Jun-17 find more
Coal 1,490 thousand short tons 2.5% Jun-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Alabama U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 28.5 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 62.9 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 6.8 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 1.6 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,082 MW 2.0% Jun-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 897 thousand MWh 2.9% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 21 thousand MWh 0.1% May-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 258 thousand MWh 5.0% Jun-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation NM NM May-17  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Alabama U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 14.2 % 13 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 6,649 thousand barrels 21 2015  
Total Emissions Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 123.0 million metric tons 2.3% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 64,442 thousand metric tons 3.2% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 117 thousand metric tons 4.6% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 51 thousand metric tons 2.8% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 18, 2017

Overview

Alabama’s energy use per capita is high because of demand from the state’s manufacturing base.

Alabama is rich in energy resources, with sizable deposits of coal, as well as some crude oil, natural gas, and coalbed methane reserves.1,2,3 Located on the Gulf of Mexico, southern Alabama consists of coastal plain with a humid, subtropical climate. The state's north includes the southern limits of the Appalachian Mountains.4,5 Alabama's many rivers flow from the Appalachian highlands toward the Gulf of Mexico,6 and several dams along those rivers provide hydroelectric power.7 Forests cover more than two-thirds of Alabama, the third-largest timberland acreage among the Lower 48 states, giving the state ample biomass resources.8

Alabama ranks among the top one-fourth of all states in energy consumption per person9 because of high demand from the state's industrial sector, which accounts for more than two-fifths of end-use consumption and uses more energy than the transportation and residential sectors combined.10 The automotive, chemical, metals manufacturing, forestry, and aeronautical industries are major contributors to Alabama's economy, as are mining and food production.11,12 Despite high energy use for cooling during the hot, humid summers and the widespread use of electricity for home heating, the residential sector and the commercial sector together account for only about one-third of the state's end-use energy consumption. The transportation sector uses about one-fourth of the energy delivered to end users in the state.13,14,15

Petroleum

Oil was discovered in Alabama in the mid-1940s. Today, a small amount of crude oil is produced annually from fields in the northwestern part of the state and on Alabama's Gulf Coast in the southwestern part of the state.16,17,18 Proved crude oil reserves are small—well under 1% of U.S. reserves—but they did rise in 2014 and 2015 as more Alabama land was explored.19,20 Annual crude oil production increased slightly from 2011 through 2013 but was still less than half of the state's 1985 peak output of 21.5 million barrels, and annual production has remained below 10.5 million barrels since 2000.21

Alabama’s three oil refineries can process about 132,000 barrels of crude oil per day.

Alabama has three petroleum refineries. One refinery, the largest in the state, is located near the Port of Mobile. Another refinery is in Tuscaloosa on the Black Warrior River, and the third and smallest refinery is in Atmore. The refineries have a combined capacity of nearly 132,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day22 and can process a range of domestic and imported crude oils. Refined products include feedstocks for chemical plants, specialty products, transportation fuels, and asphalt for local and regional markets.23,24,25 Alabama receives additional refined products from Texas and Louisiana via two major interstate petroleum product pipelines.26,27

The majority of the petroleum used in Alabama is consumed as transportation fuels, particularly motor gasoline.28 Reformulated gasoline is not required in Alabama, and conventional gasoline can be used year round.29 Counties in the Birmingham area were required to use motor gasoline with a reduced volatility during the summer months, but those restrictions were lifted in 2015.30 Only about 0.2% of Alabama homes heat with fuel oil or kerosene, but 1 in 14 households heat with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).31

Natural gas

Alabama produces natural gas both onshore and offshore in state waters. The state's annual natural gas production has steadily declined from its peak in 1996, and Alabama currently contributes less than 1% of the nation's total natural gas output.32,33 Three-fifths of Alabama's natural gas production comes from onshore wells, and more than two-thirds of that production comes from coalbed methane—a natural gas derived from coal seams. Alabama's coalbed methane wells are located primarily in the Black Warrior Basin.34,35 Overall, Alabama's proved reserves of natural gas have fallen to about one-third of their peak estimate in 1992 and comprise less than 1% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves.36,37

Alabama production meets about one-fifth of state demand.38,39 Consumers receive natural gas by interstate pipelines, mainly from Mississippi and the Gulf Coast but with a growing share through Tennessee from the Marcellus and Utica shales. Four-fifths of the natural gas entering Alabama passes through, mainly to markets in Georgia and Florida.40 An increasing amount of the natural gas delivered to Alabama customers is going to the electric power sector. Since 2007, that sector has been the largest natural gas-consuming sector in the state.41,42 The industrial sector consumes the second-largest amount. Although about 3 out of every 10 households use natural gas for heating, the residential sector typically uses about 5% of the natural gas delivered to customers, primarily because of the state's mild winters.43

Coal

Mobile, Alabama, is one of the largest U.S. coal ports, handling both imports and exports.

Coal has been mined commercially in Alabama for more than 150 years and supported development of the iron and steel industry in the state.44 Alabama has about 1% of the U.S. coal demonstrated reserve base, and, in 2015, the state ranked 14th in total coal production and 10th in bituminous coal production among the states.45 Alabama produces large amounts of high-quality bituminous coal from both surface and underground mines.46,47,48 In 2016, more than three-fourths of the coal produced in the state was exported, and nine-tenths of the exported coal was metallurgical quality coal for steelmaking. Mobile, Alabama, is the nation's third-largest seaport for exporting U.S. coal, most of which was bound for Europe in 2016. Mobile also was second only to Tampa, Florida, in coal imports.49,50,51 About three-fifths of the coal mined in Alabama for domestic sale is delivered by barge, railroad, and truck to electric power plants in the state. Most of the rest is delivered to coke plants and other industrial facilities in Alabama. Minor amounts are delivered to nearby states.52

Only one-fourth of the domestically produced coal used in Alabama is mined in the state. Wyoming supplies about half of the U.S. coal consumed in Alabama, and all of that coal is delivered to electric power plants, the largest coal consumers in the state. Another one-fourth of domestic coal comes by railroad, river barge, and truck from several other states for use in Alabama power plants and industrial facilities. Coke plants in the state get their coal from West Virginia and Alabama.53 Imported coal, primarily from Latin America, is also used in Alabama.54

Electricity

The Browns Ferry plant has the second-largest nuclear electric generating capacity in the nation.

Alabama is sixth among the states in net electricity generation.55 Coal historically fueled the largest share of electric power generation in the state, but aging coal-fired generating plants have been shut down, including 2,300 megawatts of coal capacity in 2014 through 2016 alone.56 Since 2008, coal's contribution has fallen from more than half to less than one-fourth of Alabama's net electricity generation, while natural gas' share has risen from one-fifth to one-third.57,58 Alabama is the nation's seventh largest generator of electricity from nuclear power. The state's two nuclear power plants, with a total of five reactors, typically produce over one-fourth of the electricity generated in Alabama.59,60 The three reactors at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Browns Ferry nuclear power plant in Limestone County have a combined generating capacity of 3,310 megawatts, second only to Arizona's Palo Verde plant in generating capacity among U.S. nuclear power plants.61

Alabama is one of the largest hydroelectric power producers east of the Rocky Mountains, second only to New York.62 Nearly two dozen hydroelectric dams on the state's rivers typically supply about 6% of net electricity generation.63,64,65 Alabama also ranks among the top five states for electricity generation from biomass, much it from wood and wood waste from the state's substantial forest products industry.66,67

The largest share of retail electricity sales in Alabama is delivered to the industrial sector, followed closely by the residential sector.68 Average monthly consumption of electricity in Alabama's residential sector is among the highest in the nation because of high demand for air conditioning during the hot summer months and the widespread use of electricity for home heating during the winter months.69,70 Three out of five Alabama households heat with electricity.71 Power production in Alabama exceeds the state's consumption, and typically one-third of the electricity generated in the state is delivered to neighboring states over high-voltage interstate transmission lines.72,73

Renewable energy

Renewable energy sources supply about 1 in every 13 megawatthours generated in Alabama. The state's hydroelectric facilities provide three-fourths of the renewable electricity generation.74 Almost all the rest of Alabama's utility-scale renewable generation comes from biomass, most of which is generated at industrial facilities.75 Additionally, the state has five commercial biomass pellet plants with a combined annual production capacity of 868,500 short tons, almost 7% of the nation's total productive capacity.76 Alabama does not have any ethanol plants, but the state does have three facilities that produce biodiesel from multiple feedstocks.77 Alabama has no utility-scale wind generation, but there are a few areas along its short coastline and along the spine of the mountains in northern Alabama with modest wind resources.78,79

Alabama's first commercial solar farm, with 75 megawatts of photovoltaic (PV) generating capacity, opened in 2016.80 The U.S. Army, in collaboration with Alabama Power, the state's largest electric utility, is developing large-scale solar projects at three military installations in the state.81 The state's other major electricity provider, TVA, operates two small solar facilities in Alabama, one at a botanical garden and one at a wastewater treatment plant.82 There is little distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar capacity installed in the state so far, though several companies have installed systems at their facilities.83

Alabama does not have a renewable portfolio standard but does encourage energy savings and efficiency.84 The state has adopted an energy building code for commercial and residential buildings and energy standards for state agencies.85 TVA and several other electricity providers offer homeowners and businesses financial incentives to save energy or to install renewable energy generation.86

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2015 and 2014.
2 U.S. EIA, Alabama Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed April 12, 2017.
3 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2010–15.
4 University of Alabama, Department of Geography, Physiographic Regions, accessed April 12, 2017.
5 Christy, John, "Alabama's Climate, It's the Humidity!" Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed April 12, 2017.
6 Geology.com, Alabama Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed April 12, 2017.
7 Alabama Power, Our Lakes and Dams, accessed April 12, 2017.
8 Alabama Forestry Commission, Alabama Forest Facts, accessed April 12, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
11 Alabama Department of Commerce, Made in Alabama, Industries, accessed April 12, 2017.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, All industries, Alabama, 2014, 2015, 2016.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Alabama, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
15 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015 RECs Survey Data, Tables HC6.8, Space Heating, and HC7.8, Air Conditioning, East South Central census division (February 2017).
16 Hall, Douglas R., and David E. Bolin, The Petroleum Industry in Alabama, 1999–2007, Oil and Gas Report 3U, Geological Survey of Alabama (2009), p. 1, 2.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
18 Fractracker, Alabama Shale Viewer, updated January 6, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, Alabama Crude Oil Proved Reserves, 1987–2015.
20 Cleek, Ashley, "Oil rumors spread through rural Alabama," Al Jazeera America (February 16, 2015).
21 U.S. EIA, Alabama Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981–2016.
22 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2016 (June 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016.
23 Shell United States, Mobile, AL, accessed April 12, 2017.
24 Goodway Refining, LLC, accessed April 12, 2017.
25 Hunt Refining Company, Refining Operations, Tuscaloosa Refinery, accessed April 12, 2017.
26 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed April 12, 2017.
27 Kinder Morgan, Plantation Pipe Line Company (PPL), accessed April 12, 2017.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2014.
29 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Reformulated Gasoline, updated December 5, 2016.
30 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, updated December 5, 2016.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Alabama, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
32 U.S. EIA, Alabama Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2015.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011–2016.
34 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million cubic feet, 2010–15.
35 Coalbed Methane Association of Alabama, Coalbed Methane in Alabama, accessed April 12, 2017.
36 U.S. EIA, Alabama Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production, 1990–2015.
37 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2010–15.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2011–2016.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Alabama, Annual, 2011–16.
40 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Alabama, Annual, 2010–15.
41 U.S. EIA, Alabama Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Customers, 1997–2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Alabama, Annual, 2011–16.
43 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Alabama, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
44 Mining Artifacts, Alabama Mines, accessed April 14, 2017.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2015; Table 16, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
46 DellaMea, Chris, Coalfields of the Appalachian Mountains, Northern Alabama Coalfields (Including Georgia), accessed April 14, 2017.
47 Geology.com, Alabama County Map with County Seat Cities, accessed April 14, 2017.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2015.
49 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October–December 2016 (April 2017), Table 2, Coal Production by State; Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 15, Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District.
50 U.S. EIA, "U.S. coal exports and imports both decline in 2016 as U.S. remains net coal exporter," Today in Energy (March 14, 2017).
51 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October–December 2016 (April 2017), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
52 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Alabama, 2015.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Alabama, 2015.
54 Union of Concerned Scientists, Alabama's Dependence on Imported Coal, Burning Coal, Burning Cash: 2014 Update (January 2014).
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.3.B.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017, February 2016, February 2015), Table 6.4.
57 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
61 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nuclear Generation and Generating Capacity, 2017P (March 29, 2017).
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.10.B.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
64 AL.com, Hydroelectric Power Plants in Alabama, accessed April 14, 2017.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.15.B.
67 U.S. EIA, Alabama Profile Overview, Map Layers, Biomass Power Plant and Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed April 14, 2017.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
69 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015 RECs Survey Data, Tables HC6.8, Space Heating, and HC7.8, Air Conditioning, East South Central census division (February 2017).
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price, 2015 Average Monthly Bill-Residential, accessed April 14, 2017.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Alabama, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
72 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Alabama, 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
73 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: Southeast, updated March 10, 2016.
74 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
75 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.15.B.
76 Pellet Plants, Operational, Biomass Magazine, updated January 25, 2017.
77 "USA Plants," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 12, 2016.
78 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Alabama Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.14.B.
80 Smith, Tom, "River Bend Solar Energy Center operational, selling solar power," Times Daily (November 20, 2016).
81 U.S. Army, Fort Rucker Large-Scale Renewable Energy Solar Project (April 2016).
82 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Alabama, accessed April 14, 2017.
83 Solar Energy Industries Association, Alabama Solar, accessed April 14, 2017.
84 Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Energy, accessed April 14, 2017.
85 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Alabama Programs, accessed April 14, 2017.
86 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, TVA Green Power Providers, updated June 2, 2015.


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