Rhode Island State Energy Profile



Rhode Island Quick Facts

  • In May 2017, the first U.S. offshore wind farm began operating off Block Island, and the amount of wind-powered electricity  generated in Rhode Island in 2019 was nearly 23 times greater than in 2015.
  • Rhode Island consumes less energy on a per capita basis than any other state and it is among the 10 states that use the least amount of energy per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • Rhode Island’s Port of Providence, a major deep water port in New England, is a key regional hub for transportation and heating fuel products.
  • Rhode Island generates a larger share of its electricity from natural gas than any other state. In 2019, natural gas fueled 91% of Rhode Island's electricity net generation.
  • Rhode Island's total emissions of carbon dioxide were the second-lowest among all the states in 2017.

Last Updated: August 20, 2020



Data

Last Update: July 15, 2021 | Next Update: August 19, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.1 million 0.3% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.5 million 0.3% May-21  
Economy Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 60.2 billion 45 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,889 million 42 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 60,837 17 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 7,581 million miles 48 2019  
Land in Farms 0.1 million acres 50 2017  
Climate Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 52.8 degrees Fahrenheit 26 2020  
Precipitation 44.5 inches 18 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 60.08 /barrel Apr-21  
Natural Gas Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 2.06 /thousand cu ft $ 3.82 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Residential $ 15.64 /thousand cu ft $ 12.21 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Coal Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 1.89 /million Btu Apr-21  
Electricity Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 23.54 cents/kWh 13.76 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Commercial 15.12 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Industrial 15.82 cents/kWh 6.77 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 2,051 MW 0.2% Apr-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 9 trillion Btu * 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 333 thousand MWh 0.1% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Rhode Island U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 79.2 % 36.6 % Apr-21 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 18.4 % Apr-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 19.5 % Apr-21 find more
Renewables 20.7 % 24.5 % Apr-21  
Stocks Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Apr-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 964 thousand barrels 0.9% Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 216 thousand barrels 0.9% Apr-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Apr-21 find more
Fueling Stations Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 306 stations 0.3% 2019  
Propane 5 stations 0.2% 2021  
Electricity 203 stations 0.5% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 190 trillion Btu 49 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 180 million Btu 51 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 3,641 million 49 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,441 39 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 61 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 48 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 22 trillion Btu 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 59 trillion Btu 0.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,246 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 826 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 324 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,244 million 0.2% 2019 find more
by Source Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 15 million barrels 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 95 billion cu ft 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 0 million short tons 0.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 1,723 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 764 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 0 million 0.0% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas 2,145 million cu ft 0.3% Apr-21 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Apr-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Rhode Island U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 55.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 28.6 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 10.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.6 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.3 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 276 MW 0.1% Apr-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation * * Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 52 thousand MWh 0.1% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 17 thousand MWh 0.4% Apr-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 35 thousand MWh 0.8% Apr-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.2 % 41 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 956 thousand barrels 47 2019  
Total Emissions Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 11.2 million metric tons 0.2% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 2,996 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide * * 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 20, 2020

Overview

Rhode Island’s mainland wraps around Narragansett Bay with its many islands.1,2 Called the Ocean State, Rhode Island is one-third water and includes Block Island further offshore, as well as one of New England’s deepwater ports at Providence.3,4,5 Rhode Island summers are typically temperate, particularly in the ocean-moderated areas. Heavy snows can occur in winter, especially in the western third of the state where the terrain rises to 800 feet above sea level.6 The state has substantial renewable energy potential, particularly from winds offshore and along its extensive shoreline. But like the rest of the New England region, Rhode Island does not have any fossil energy resources.7,8,9,10

Rhode Island consumes less energy per capita than any other state.

Rhode Island is the smallest state in the nation by land area and is the second-most densely populated, after New Jersey.11,12 Rhode Island is the lowest consumer of energy among the states on a per capita basis, due in part to its small size.13 It also has one of the least energy-intensive economies, ranking among the 10 states using the smallest amount of energy to produce a dollar of gross domestic product (GDP), in part because less than one-tenth of Rhode Island’s GDP comes from manufacturing.14,15 The largest contributors to the state’s GDP are finance, insurance, and real estate; educational services and social assistance; government; and professional and business services. Rhode Island’s industrial activities include the manufacture of transportation equipment; chemicals; computers and electronic equipment; fabricated metal products; and plastics.16

The residential sector leads Rhode Island’s end-use energy consumption, accounting for about one-third of the state’s total, the second-highest share for a state’s residential sector energy use after Connecticut. The transportation sector is a close second, consuming slightly less than one-third of the state’s energy. The commercial sector accounts for about one-fourth of the state’s energy consumption, and the industrial sector accounts for more than one-tenth.17

Electricity

The share of electricity generated in Rhode Island by natural gas is the largest for any state.

In 2019, Rhode Island generated a larger share of its electricity from natural gas than any other state, about 91%. Most of the rest of the state’s net generation came from solar, wind, and biomass resources. A small amount of the state’s electricity was also generated from petroleum and hydropower.18,19 Rhode Island is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a market-based program to reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation in ten of the northeastern states.20 Rhode Island is among the nation’s lowest carbon dioxide emitters, due in part to nearly all of its electricity net generation coming from natural gas and because of the state’s small size.21

Rhode Island’s per capita electricity sales are lower than in all other states except for Hawaii and California, and its per capita electricity sales to the residential sector are lower than in all but five states.22,23 With fewer than 10 days with temperatures above 90°F in summer, air conditioning use in Rhode Island is limited, and only about 1 in 10 households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.24,25,26

In 1996, Rhode Island was the first state in the nation to implement an electricity restructuring plan, separating power generation from transmission and distribution.27 The restructuring plan was initially only for industrial customers, but was expanded in 1998 to include commercial and residential customers.28 As a result, all of the state's electricity generated by the electric power sector comes from independent power producers.29 The previous exception was on Block Island—located about 9 miles south of the state’s coastline—which was not connected to the mainland grid and was dependent on Block Island Power Company's diesel-fueled generators. Generator fuel arrived in trucks ferried to the island. Because fuel prices at times caused Block Island’s electricity costs to rise to more than four times the state’s average, particularly in summer when rates and electricity demand went up with the influx of tourists, the island participated in the nation’s first offshore wind project.30,31 In May 2017, Block Island Power turned off its diesel generators and began receiving power from an undersea cable installed between the offshore wind farm, Block Island, and the mainland. The cable allowed, in conjunction with the wind farm, electricity generated on the mainland to reach Block Island for the first time and allowed the wind-generated electric power to be sent to the onshore grid.32,33,34

Renewable energy

In 2019, about 9% of Rhode Island's in-state electricity came from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale generating facilities that produced power using renewable energy sources. Solar and wind energy each surpassed biomass for the first time in 2019 to provide a larger amount of the state’s renewable generation. Hydropower supplied an additional small amount, less than 1%, of the state’s renewable electricity.35

In 2019, for the first time solar and wind power each generated more of Rhode Island’s electricity than biomass.

Electricity generation from solar power in Rhode Island more than tripled from 2017 to 2019 and accounted for 3.2% of the state’s total generation in 2019.36 The state has about 250 megawatts of solar generating capacity, most of it small-scale solar panel systems.37 In 2019, almost three-fourths of the solar power in Rhode Island was from small-scale, customer-cited generation.38 The state’s largest solar generating facility, which has a capacity of 10 megawatts, came online in September 2019. Several larger solar farms, each with 12 megawatts of generating capacity, are scheduled to be operational at the end of 2020 and in 2021.39

In 2017, Rhode Island became home to the first operational offshore wind farm in the nation—the 30-megawatt, 5-turbine Block Island project.40,41 With the advent of offshore generation, wind-powered electricity generation in Rhode Island has increased rapidly in recent years. The amount of wind-powered electricity generation in the state in 2019 was nearly 23 times greater than in 2015, and provided 2.8% of the state’s net generation in 2019.42 The state also has 43 megawatts of generating capacity at about a dozen onshore wind farms.43

In 2019, biomass accounted for 2.6% of Rhode Island’s net generation.44 The state’s largest onshore renewable energy generator is a biomass-fueled power plant that uses methane produced from a Providence landfill, and it has a generating capacity of about 31 megawatts. A second, smaller landfill gas facility has a capacity of about 6 megawatts.45 Rhode Island also has two hydroelectric power plants along its northern border. Each of those hydroelectric facilities has a generating capacity of less than 2 megawatts, and combined accounted for about 0.1% of the state’s generation.46,47,48

Rhode Island's renewable energy standard requires that retail electricity providers obtain 22% of the power they sell in the state from renewable resources by the end of 2024, and 38.5% at the end of 2035. Retail electricity providers can meet their obligations with renewable energy certificates (RECs). Providers can obtain RECs by generating renewable energy themselves or by purchasing RECs from other renewable energy producers located in nearby states.49

Petroleum

Rhode Island has no crude oil reserves and does not produce or refine petroleum, but the Port of Providence is a key hub for petroleum products for southern New England.50 ,51,52 Almost all of the transportation and heating fuel products consumed in Rhode Island, eastern Connecticut, and parts of Massachusetts are supplied via marine shipments through the Port of Providence. The port area has petroleum storage tanks and a petroleum product pipeline that runs from the port to central Massachusetts.53,54

Nearly seven-tenths of the petroleum used in Rhode Island is consumed by the transportation sector, almost entirely as motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil.55,56 As in the surrounding states, the use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required statewide in Rhode Island year-round to reduce air pollution.57 The residential sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in the state, accounting for about one-fifth of petroleum use.58 About 3 out of 10 Rhode Island households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, making the state, like much of the U.S. Northeast, vulnerable to fuel oil shortages and price spikes in winter.59

To avert heating fuel supply disruptions, the U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in 2000. The reserve contains 1 million barrels of heating fuel, which is stored at three terminals, two in New England and one in New Jersey. Rhode Island sits between the two New England terminals, which are located in Connecticut and in Massachusetts. Together those two terminals contain 700,000 barrels of heating fuel.60,61 The combined consumption of petroleum in Rhode Island’s industrial and commercial sectors equals about one-eighth of the state’s total petroleum use.62

Natural gas

Rhode Island does not have any natural gas reserves or production.63,64 The state's natural gas is supplied by two major interstate pipelines65,66 Most of the natural gas that enters the state is produced from the Marcellus and Utica shale regions in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio, and most of that natural gas reaches Rhode Island by pipeline through Connecticut.67 About three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Rhode Island is sent on to Massachusetts.68

More than half of Rhode Island’s households rely on natural gas for heating.

With almost all in-state electricity generation fueled by natural gas, more than half of the natural gas consumed in Rhode Island goes to the electric power sector.69,70 The residential sector, where almost 6 out of 10 of the state’s households heat with natural gas, accounts for one-fifth of natural gas use. The commercial sector makes up about one-eighth of the state’s natural gas consumption, followed by the industrial sector at nearly one-tenth. As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Rhode Island and throughout New England, ensuring reliable natural gas supplies is a critical energy issue for the region because of limited pipeline capacity.71,72,73

Rhode Island does not have any natural gas underground storage sites and depends on natural gas from storage fields in other states to meet peak winter demand.74 Because of regional pipeline constraints, Rhode Island and other New England states have also received some natural gas from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports arriving at ports in Massachusetts.75,76

Coal

Rhode Island has no economically recoverable coal reserves or mining, and the state is one of only three in the nation with no coal-fired electricity generation.77,78 Providence was once one of the largest coal import centers in the Northeast, and received more than one-tenth of the imported coal delivered to the eastern customs district in 2015. Coal imports into Providence decreased as demand for coal for electricity generation in New England fell, and there have been no coal imports received at the Providence seaport since 2016.79 However, the regional grid remains dependent on some coal-fired facilities in the New England states during periods of peak electricity demand in the winter months.80

Endnotes

1 U.S. Geological Survey, The USGS Water Science School, How much of your state is wet?, accessed July 1, 2020.
2 World Atlas, Rhode Island, accessed July 1, 2020.
3 NETSTATE, The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, updated July 28, 2017.
4 Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Block Island,” accessed July 1, 2020.
5 Pilsch, Marty, “The Port of Providence, A multi-dimensional port,” American Journal of Transportation (April 4, 2016).
6 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, “Climate of Rhode Island,” Rhode Island’s Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, accessed July 1, 2020.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Rhode Island, Maps & Data, accessed July 1, 2020.
8 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2018.
9 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2018.
10 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
11 NETSTATE, The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, updated July 28, 2017.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, 2010 Census: Population Density Data (Text Version).
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Rhode Island, All statistics in the table, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Rhode Island, All statistics in the table, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
20 State of Rhode Island, Office of Energy Resources, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), accessed July 1, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, Energy-Related CO2 Emission Data Tables, Table 1, State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year, unadjusted (1990–2017).
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), New England, Rhode Island, 2016–19.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Table HC7.7, Air conditioning in homes in the Northeast and Midwest regions, 2015.
25 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, “Climate of Rhode Island,” Rhode Island’s Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, accessed July 14, 2020.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Rhode Island.
27 State of Rhode Island, Office of Energy Resources, Learn About Electricity, What was electricity deregulation, or “electric restructuring”?, accessed July 14, 2020.
28 New England States Committee on Electricity, Electric Restructuring History Whitepaper (December 21, 2015).
29 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
30 Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Block Island,” accessed July 17, 2020.
31 "From Diesel to Wind on Block Island," Rocky Mountain Institute (June 19, 2015).
32 Block Island Power Company, The Company, accessed July 15, 2020.
33 Shuman, Cassius, “Island operating on wind farm power,” Block Island Times (May 1, 2017).
34 Shuman, Cassius, “How the wind powers the island,” Block Island Times (May 5, 2017).
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2020), Table 6.2.B.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
39 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2020, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
40 Orsted, Block Island Wind Farm, accessed July 16, 2020.
41 Shuman, Cassius, “Island operating on wind farm power,” Block Island Times (May 1, 2017).
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
43 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Landfill Gas.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
48 U.S. EIA, Rhode Island Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed July 16, 2020.
49 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Rhode Island Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 26, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013–18.
51 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2015–20.
52 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed July 13, 2020.
53 Rhode Island Division of Planning, Energy 2035, Rhode Island State Energy Plan (October 8, 2015), p. 14.
54 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Rhode Island Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4.
55 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
57 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
59 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Rhode Island.
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History, accessed July 13, 2020.
61 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), About HEHHOR, accessed July 13, 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
63 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013–18.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
65 Enbridge, Algonquin Gas Transmission, accessed July 13, 2020.
66 Kinder Morgan, Tennessee Gas Pipeline and System Map, accessed July 13, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, “New England natural gas pipeline capacity increases for the first time since 2010,” Today in Energy (December 6, 2016).
68 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Rhode Island, 2013–18.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Rhode Island, Annual, 2014–19.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2016–19.
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Rhode Island, Annual, 2014–19.
72 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Rhode Island.
73 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed July 13, 2020.
74 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2013–18.
75 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, 2013–18.
76 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Rhode Island, 2013–18.
77 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (November 2, 2020), Tables 1, 15.
78 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.4.B.
79 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October–December 2016-20 , Previous reports, Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
80 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, Access to Fuel Has Become Uncertain during Winter, accessed July 13, 2020.


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