Rhode Island State Energy Profile



Rhode Island Quick Facts

  • In May 2017, the first U.S. offshore wind farm began operating off Block Island. Wind power provided 2% of Rhode Island's net generation in 2021.
  • Rhode Island consumes the second-lowest amount energy on a per capita basis, after Hawaii, and is among the 10 states that use the least amount of energy per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • About 29% of Rhode Island households use heating oil as their primary source for home heating, which is 7 times more than the U.S. rate. The 1-million-barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve can help offset supply disruptions in the region.
  • In 2021, natural gas fueled 87% of Rhode Island's electricity net generation, the largest share of any state.
  • Rhode Island ranks last among the states in total petroleum consumption and second-lowest, after New York, in petroleum use on a per capita basis.

Last Updated: October 20, 2022



Data

Last Update: November 17, 2022 | Next Update: December 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.1 million 0.3% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 0.6 million 0.4% Sep-22  
Economy Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 65.9 billion 45 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 5,008 million 43 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,942 20 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 6,864 million miles 48 2020  
Land in Farms 0.1 million acres 50 2017  
Climate Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 52.6 degrees Fahrenheit 26 2021  
Precipitation 49.9 inches 11 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 93.75 /barrel Aug-22  
Natural Gas Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 16.44 /thousand cu ft $ 10.49 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Residential $ 24.76 /thousand cu ft $ 25.61 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Coal Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 2.51 /million Btu Aug-22  
Electricity Rhode Island U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 21.49 cents/kWh 15.95 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Commercial 15.61 cents/kWh 13.45 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Industrial 17.97 cents/kWh 9.72 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 2,147 MW 0.2% Aug-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 11 trillion Btu * 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2021 find more
Coal -- -- 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 876 thousand MWh 0.2% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Rhode Island U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 91.2 % 45.7 % Aug-22 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 20.5 % Aug-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 16.6 % Aug-22 find more
Renewables 8.8 % 16.4 % Aug-22  
Stocks Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Aug-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 335 thousand barrels 0.4% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Aug-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 140 thousand barrels 0.7% Aug-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Aug-22 find more
Fueling Stations Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 306 stations 0.3% 2019  
Propane 5 stations 0.2% 2022  
Electricity 238 stations 0.5% 2022  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 176 trillion Btu 49 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 160 million Btu 50 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 3,140 million 49 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,865 38 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 58 trillion Btu 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 45 trillion Btu 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 22 trillion Btu 0.1% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 50 trillion Btu 0.2% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,193 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 746 million 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 306 million 0.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 896 million 0.2% 2020 find more
by Source Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 13 million barrels 0.2% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 98 billion cu ft 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 0 million short tons 0.0% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 1,286 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 661 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 0 million 0.0% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas 6,249 million cu ft 0.4% Aug-22 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Aug-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Rhode Island U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 52.8 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 28.9 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 11.6 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 4.7 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 2.0 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 364 MW 0.1% Aug-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 58 thousand MWh 0.1% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 20 thousand MWh 0.4% Aug-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 54 thousand MWh 0.9% Aug-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Rhode Island U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.9 % 33 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 807 thousand barrels 47 2020  
Total Emissions Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 10.4 million metric tons 0.2% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Rhode Island Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 3,357 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide * * 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 20, 2022

Overview

Known as the Ocean State, Rhode Island is one-third water and includes one of New England's deepwater ports at Providence.1,2 The state's mainland wraps around Narragansett Bay with its many islands, as well as Block Island further offshore 3,4,5 Rhode Island is the smallest state in the nation by land area, but is the second-most densely populated, after New Jersey, and has nearly 1,161 people per square mile.6,7 The state has substantial renewable energy potential, particularly from winds offshore and along its extensive shoreline. But like the rest of the New England region, Rhode Island does not have any economically recoverable fossil energy resources.8,9,10,11

Rhode Island consumes less energy per capita than any other state, except Hawaii.

Rhode Island consumes the second-least amount of energy among the states, after Hawaii, on a per capita basis, due in part to its small size.12 It also has one of the least energy-intensive economies. Rhode Island ranks among the ten states using the smallest amount of energy to produce a dollar of gross domestic product (GDP), in part because less than one-tenth of the state's GDP comes from manufacturing.13,14 The largest contributors to Rhode Island's GDP are finance, insurance, and real estate; government; professional and business services; and education, healthcare, and social assistance. The state's industrial activities include the manufacture of computers and electronic equipment; chemicals; transportation equipment; fabricated metal products; food and beverages; machinery; and plastics.15

Rhode Island summers are typically temperate, particularly in the ocean-moderated areas. Heavy snows can occur in winter, especially in the western third of the state where the terrain rises to 800 feet above sea level.16 The residential sector leads Rhode Island's end-use energy consumption, accounting for about one-third of the state's total, the fourth-highest share for a state's residential sector energy use after Vermont, Connecticut, and New Hampshire The transportation sector is a close second, making up slightly less than three-tenths of the state's energy use. The commercial sector accounts for about one-fourth of the state's energy consumption, and the industrial sector accounts for about one-eighth.17

Electricity

Natural gas provides a larger share of electricity in Rhode Island than in any other state.

In 2021, Rhode Island generated a larger share of its electricity from natural gas than any other state, about 87%. Most of the rest of the state's net generation came from solar, wind, and biomass resources. A small amount of the state's electricity was also generated from petroleum and hydropower.18,19 Rhode Island is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a market-based program to reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation in 11 northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states.20 Rhode Island is the nation's second-lowest energy-related carbon dioxide emitter, after Vermont, due in part to its low energy use and because of the state's small size.21,22

Rhode Island's total per capita electricity sales are lower than in all but two other states, California and Hawaii, and its per capita electricity sales to the residential sector are lower than in all but four states.23,24 With fewer than 10 days of temperatures above 90°F in a typical summer, air conditioning use in Rhode Island is limited, as less than one-third of households have central air conditioning. About one in 10 state households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.25,26,27

In 1996, Rhode Island joined some of the other New England states to implement an electricity restructuring plan that separated power generation from transmission and distribution.28 The plan was initially only for industrial customers, but was expanded in 1998 to include commercial and residential customers.29 As a result, all of the state's electricity generated by the electric power sector comes from independent power producers.30 The previous exception was on Block Island—located about 9 miles south of the state's coastline—which was not connected to the mainland grid and was dependent on local diesel-fueled generators. Generator fuel arrived in trucks ferried to the island. Because fuel prices sometimes caused Block Island's electricity costs to rise to more than four times the state's average, particularly in summer when rates and electricity demand increased with the influx of tourists, the island participated in the nation's first offshore wind project.31,32 In May 2017, Block Island Power turned off its diesel generators and began receiving power from an undersea cable installed between the offshore wind farm, Block Island, and the mainland. The cable allowed, in conjunction with the wind farm, electricity generated on the mainland to reach Block Island for the first time and allowed the wind-generated electric power to be sent to the onshore grid.33,34,35

Renewable energy

In 2021, solar power accounted for nearly two-thirds of Rhode Island’s total electricity generated by renewable energy.

In 2021, about 13% of Rhode Island's in-state electricity came from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) generating facilities that produced power from renewable energy sources, with almost two-thirds of that from solar energy. Hydropower supplied an additional small amount of the state's total renewable electricity.36

Solar energy's contribution to the amount of electricity generated in Rhode Island more than tripled since 2019 and accounted for 9% of the state's total generation in 2021.37 The state had almost 600 megawatts of solar generating capacity in mid-2022, and about three-fifths of it was small-scale solar panel systems with less than 1 megawatt of generating capacity each.38 The state's largest solar generating facility, which has a capacity of 24 megawatts, came online in December 2019. A 40-megawatt solar farm built at a former gravel pit is scheduled to come online at the end of 2022.39,40

Biomass accounted for nearly 2.5% of Rhode Island's net generation in 2021.41 The state's largest onshore renewable electricity generating station is a 31-megawatt biomass-fueled power plant that uses methane produced from a Providence landfill. A second, smaller landfill gas facility has a capacity of about 6 megawatts.42 Rhode Island also has two utility-scale hydroelectric power plants along its northern border. Each of those hydroelectric facilities has a generating capacity of less than 2 megawatts, and combined accounted for about 0.1% of the state's generation.43,44,45

In 2017, Rhode Island became home to the first offshore wind farm in the nation—the 30-megawatt, 5-turbine Block Island project.46,47 With the advent of offshore generation, wind-powered electricity generation in Rhode Island increased rapidly in recent years. Wind power provided 2% of the state's net generation in 2021.48 In mid-2022, the state had 48 megawatts of generating capacity at 18 onshore wind farms. The 715-megawatt Revolution Wind project is planned in federal waters 15 miles south of the Rhode Island coastline and is expected to be operational at the beginning of 2025. The offshore wind farm will generate 400 megawatts of wind power for Rhode Island and more than 300 megawatts for Connecticut.49,50

Rhode Island has a renewable energy standard that requires retail electricity providers to obtain 22% of the power they sell in the state from renewable resources by the end of 2024, and 38.5% at the end of 2035. Retail electricity providers can meet their obligations with renewable energy certificates (RECs). Providers can obtain RECs by generating renewable energy themselves or by purchasing RECs from other renewable electricity producers located in nearby states.51 In June 2022, Rhode Island's governor signed into law legislation requiring the state's electricity providers to obtain 100% of their power supply from renewables by 2033, which is the fastest timeline set by any state.52

Petroleum

Rhode Island has no crude oil reserves and does not produce or refine petroleum, but the Port of Providence is a key hub for the distribution of petroleum products to southern New England.53,54,55 Almost all of the transportation and heating fuel products consumed in Rhode Island, eastern Connecticut, and parts of Massachusetts are supplied via marine shipments through the Port of Providence. The port area has petroleum storage tanks and a petroleum product pipeline that runs from the port to central Massachusetts.56,57

Rhode Island uses less petroleum than all other states and is second-lowest, after New York, in petroleum use on a per capita basis.58 The transportation sector consumes about 7 out of 10 barrels of petroleum consumed in Rhode Island, mostly as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.59,60 As in the surrounding states, the use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required statewide in Rhode Island year-round to reduce air pollution.61 The residential sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in the state, accounting for about 17% of petroleum use.62 About 3 out of 10 Rhode Island households use heating oil as their primary source for home heating, making the state, like much of the U.S. Northeast, vulnerable to heating oil shortages and price spikes in winter.63

To avert supply disruptions, the U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in 2000. The reserve contains 1 million barrels of heating fuel stored at three terminals, two in New England and one in New Jersey. Rhode Island sits between the two New England terminals, which are located in Connecticut and in Massachusetts. Together those two terminals contain 700,000 barrels of heating fuel.64,65 The combined consumption of petroleum in Rhode Island's industrial and commercial sectors is about 15% of the state's total petroleum use.66

Natural gas

Rhode Island does not have any natural gas reserves or production.67,68 The state's natural gas is supplied by two major interstate pipelines.69,70 The natural gas that enters the state is produced primarily from the Marcellus and Utica shale regions in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio, and most of that natural gas reaches Rhode Island by pipeline through Connecticut.71,72 About three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Rhode Island is sent on to Massachusetts.73

About half of Rhode Island households rely on natural gas for heating.

With almost all in-state electricity generation fueled by natural gas, about 60% of the natural gas consumed in Rhode Island went to the electric power sector in 2021.74,75 The residential sector, where slightly more than half of the state's households heat with natural gas, accounted for about 20% of natural gas use. The commercial sector made up 12% of the state's natural gas consumption, followed by the industrial sector at 9%. As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Rhode Island and throughout New England, ensuring reliable natural gas supplies is a critical energy issue for the region because of limited pipeline capacity.76,77,78

Rhode Island does not have any natural gas underground storage sites and depends on natural gas from storage fields in other states to meet peak winter demand.79 Because of regional pipeline constraints, Rhode Island and other New England states have also received some natural gas from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports arriving at ports in Massachusetts.80,81 There is also an LNG vaporization facility in Portsmouth, Rhode Island that provides emergency heating fuel, when necessary, to Aquidneck Island in Narragansett Bay during the winter.82,83,84

Coal

Rhode Island has no economically recoverable coal reserves or mining, and it was one of only five states, along with Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, and Vermont, with no utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation in 2021.85,86 Providence was once one of the largest coal import centers in the Northeast, and received more than one-tenth of the imported coal delivered to the eastern customs district in 2015. Coal imports into Providence decreased as demand for coal for electricity generation in New England fell, and there have been no coal imports received at the Providence seaport since 2016.87

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Pilsch, Marty, "The Port of Providence, A multi-dimensional port," American Journal of Transportation (April 4, 2016).
3 U.S. Geological Survey, The USGS Water Science School, How much of your state is wet?, accessed August 31, 2022.
4 World Atlas, Rhode Island, accessed August 31, 2022.
5 Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Block Island," accessed August 31, 2022.
6 NETSTATE, The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, updated July 28, 2017.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020).
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Rhode Island, Maps & Data, accessed August 31, 2022.
9 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2020.
10 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2020.
11 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Rhode Island, All statistics in the table, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Rhode Island, All statistics in the table, 2020.
16 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, "Climate of Rhode Island," Rhode Island's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed August 31, 2022.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
20 The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Welcome, accessed September 1, 2022.
21 U.S. EIA, Energy-Related CO2 Emission Data Tables, Table 1, State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year, unadjusted (2000-2019).
22 U.S. EIA, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), New England, Rhode Island, 2018-21.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
25 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
26 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, "Climate of Rhode Island," Rhode Island's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed September 1, 2022.
27 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Rhode Island.
28 State of Rhode Island, Office of Energy Resources, Learn About Electricity, What was electricity deregulation, or "electric restructuring"?, accessed September 12, 2022.
29 New England States Committee on Electricity, "Electric Restructuring in New England - A Look Bank," (December 21, 2015).
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.3.B.
31 Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Block Island," accessed September 12, 2022.
32 "From Diesel to Wind on Block Island," Rocky Mountain Institute (June 19, 2015).
33 Block Island Power Company, The Company, accessed September 12, 2022.
34 Shuman, Cassius, "Island operating on wind farm power," Block Island Times (May 1, 2017).
35 Shuman, Cassius, "How the wind powers the island," Block Island Times (May 5, 2017).
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2022), Table 6.2.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2022 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of August 2022, Plant State: Rhode Island, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
40 Brown University, "Brown launches sustainability strategic plan to confront urgent environmental challenges," Press Release (March 5, 2021).
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2022, Plant State: Rhode Island, Technology: Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2022, Plant State: Rhode Island, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
45 U.S. EIA, Rhode Island Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed September 13, 2022.
46 Orsted, Block Island Wind Farm, accessed September 13, 2022.
47 Shuman, Cassius, "Island operating on wind farm power," Block Island Times (May 1, 2017).
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
49 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2022 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of August 2022, Plant State: Rhode Island, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
50 Orsted, About Revolution Wind, accessed September 13, 2022.
51 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Rhode Island Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 26, 2018.
52 State of Rhode Island Governor Dan McKee, "Governor McKee Signs Historic Legislation Requiring 100% of Rhode Island's Electricity to be Offset by Renewable Energy by 2033," Press Release (June 29, 2022).
53 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015-20.
54 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2017-22.
55 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed September 14, 2022.
56 Rhode Island Division of Planning, Energy 2035, Rhode Island State Energy Plan (October 8, 2015), p. 14.
57 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Rhode Island Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption Estimates, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
61 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
63 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Rhode Island.
64 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, History, accessed September 14, 2022.
65 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), About HEHHOR, accessed September 14, 2022.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016-21.
69 Enbridge, Algonquin Gas Transmission, accessed September 20, 2022.
70 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Tennessee Gas Pipeline and Asset Map, accessed September 20, 2022.
71 State of Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources, Lean About Natural Gas, Where does natural gas used in Rhode Island come from?, accessed September 20, 2022.
72 U.S. EIA, "New England natural gas pipeline capacity increases for the first time since 2010," Today in Energy (December 6, 2016).
73 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Rhode Island, 2015-20.
74 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Rhode Island, Annual, 2016-21.
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Rhode Island, 2018-21.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Rhode Island, Annual, 2016-21.
77 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Rhode Island.
78 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed September 20, 2022.
79 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
80 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, 2015-20.
81 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Rhode Island, 2015-20.
82 Faulkner, Tim, "Portsmouth LNG Operation: A Neighborhood Nuisance," ecoRI News (January 31, 2021).
83 McGaw, Jim, "LNG to be stored at Portsmouth site for at least another 3-4 years," EastBayRI (October 16, 2020).
84 McGaw, Jim, ""Board requests advisory opinions on Old Mill Ln. facility," EastBayRI (August 31, 2022).
85 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Tables 1, 15.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.4.B.
87 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2016-21, Previous reports, Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.


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