New Hampshire State Energy Profile



New Hampshire Quick Facts

  • More than two-fifths of New Hampshire households use fuel oil as their primary heating fuel, the second-largest share among the states and about 10 times greater than the national average.
  • Seabrook, one of only two nuclear power plants in New England and the largest power plant in New Hampshire, provided 56% of New Hampshire’s 2021 total in-state electricity net generation.
  • In 2021, 16% of New Hampshire's electricity generation came from renewable resources, including small-scale solar installations. Most of the state's renewable generation comes from hydroelectric power, biomass, and wind.
  • New Hampshire has the two remaining coal-fired power plants in New England—Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Bow. Coal-fired plants no longer supply baseload power, but they play an important role in providing electricity on high demand days.
  • New Hampshire is one of only eight states and the District of Columbia where the residential sector is the largest energy consumer, even though about 1 in 9 New Hampshire homes are only seasonally or occasionally occupied.  

Last Updated: September 15, 2022



Data

Last Update: September 15, 2022 | Next Update: October 20, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 0.8 million 0.5% Jul-22  
Economy New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 98.2 billion 39 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 9,820 million 38 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 72,003 7 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 11,956 million miles 42 2020  
Land in Farms 0.4 million acres 48 2017  
Climate New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 46.1 degrees Fahrenheit 40 2021  
Precipitation 46.0 inches 17 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 113.73 /barrel Jun-22  
Natural Gas New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 13.88 /thousand cu ft $ 10.12 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Residential $ 23.59 /thousand cu ft $ 22.73 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Coal New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 2.32 /million Btu Jun-22  
Electricity New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 22.72 cents/kWh 15.42 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Commercial 17.35 cents/kWh 12.90 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Industrial 14.50 cents/kWh 8.96 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 4,463 MW 0.4% Jun-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 149 trillion Btu 0.2% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,623 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Hampshire U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 33.0 % 40.9 % Jun-22 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 19.3 % Jun-22 find more
Nuclear 55.3 % 17.3 % Jun-22 find more
Renewables 11.3 % 21.8 % Jun-22  
Stocks New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Jun-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 293 thousand barrels 0.4% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 208 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-22 find more
Fueling Stations New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 550 stations 0.5% 2019  
Propane 12 stations 0.5% 2022  
Electricity 146 stations 0.3% 2022  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 3 stations 0.2% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 296 trillion Btu 46 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 215 million Btu 39 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 4,621 million 44 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,354 19 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 101 trillion Btu 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 65 trillion Btu 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 40 trillion Btu 0.1% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 89 trillion Btu 0.4% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,672 million 0.6% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 890 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 448 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,611 million 0.4% 2020 find more
by Source New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 28 million barrels 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 52 billion cu ft 0.2% 2020 find more
    »  Coal * * 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,511 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 375 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 5 million * 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 1 thousand barrels 0.1% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas 3,767 million cu ft 0.3% Jun-22 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Jun-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Hampshire U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 21.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 42.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 9.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 17.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 9.3 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 944 MW 0.3% Jun-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 60 thousand MWh 0.2% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 31 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 92 thousand MWh 2.0% Jun-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 25 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 17.3 % 14 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,535 thousand barrels 40 2020  
Total Emissions New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 13.9 million metric tons 0.3% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 1,728 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide * * 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: September 15, 2022

Overview

About 1 in 14 New Hampshire households use wood as their main heating source.

New Hampshire is one of the smallest states in the nation, but its terrain ranges from ocean beaches to rugged mountains. Maine and the Atlantic Ocean form the state's eastern borders, and New Hampshire has only about 20 miles of Atlantic coastline. However, the state contains both recreational beaches and Portsmouth, a deep-draft, ice-free port, where the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard repairs the U.S. nuclear submarine fleet.1,2,3 Although it has no fossil energy resources, New Hampshire's mountains, rivers, and forests hold plentiful renewable energy resources.4 Several large rivers run through the state, and dams on those rivers have provided New Hampshire with hydroelectric power for more than a century.5 The White Mountains of northern New Hampshire are home to a world record surface wind speed of 231 miles per hour set in 1934 and held for almost 62 years. In 1980, New Hampshire's mountains became the site of the nation's first attempt to produce electricity from wind resources at a commercial wind farm.6,7 Forests cover 81% of New Hampshire, and the state is second only to Maine in the percentage of its area that is woodland.8 Wood is the mainstay of New Hampshire's biomass energy industry, both for power generation and for space heating. About 1 in 14 New Hampshire households use wood as their primary heating source, four times the national average.9,10

Most of New Hampshire's small population lives in the southeastern part of the state.11 However, the state's natural beauty and proximity to northeastern population centers draw many visitors and part-time residents whose travel and second homes add to the state's energy use.12 New Hampshire is one of only eight states and the District of Columbia where the residential sector accounted for the largest share of state total energy consumption, even though about 1 in 9 New Hampshire homes are only seasonally or occasionally occupied.13 That sector accounted for more than one-third of state energy use. The transportation sector followed the residential sector and used about three-tenths of the total energy consumed in the state. The commercial sector used more than one-fifth. Less energy-intensive computer and electronics manufacturing has replaced New Hampshire's long-established textile and shoe manufacturing industries. As a result, the industrial sector accounted for only slightly more than one-eighth of the energy used in the state.14,15 Real estate, finance, and insurance are the largest contributors to New Hampshire's gross domestic product (GDP).16 New Hampshire is among the nation's 10 states that use the smallest amount of energy for every dollar of GDP created.17

Electricity

In 2021, New Hampshire’s largest power plant and only nuclear facility accounted for almost three-fifths of the state’s electricity net generation.

In 2021, almost three-fifths of New Hampshire's net generation came from the state's only nuclear generating station, the largest power plant in the state.18 Two natural gas-fired plants are the state's next largest power plants by capacity and are among the top four by generation.19 In 2021, natural gas provided about one-fourth of in-state generation. Hydroelectric power, biomass (primarily from wood and wood-derived fuels), and wind supplied most of the remaining in-state electricity net generation. Coal and solar energy also fueled small amounts.20 Since 2001, coal's contribution has declined from 25% of New Hampshire's total in-state generation to less than 2%. At the same time, the contribution from natural gas increased from less than 1% to 25%.21 However, as power companies use more natural gas to fuel electricity generation in New Hampshire, and in New England as a whole, assurance of natural gas supply has become a critical energy issue for the region.22 Petroleum, used primarily to meet peak demand, has fueled less than 2% of the state's power generation since 2008. In 2021, its contribution was less than 0.5%.23 Because New Hampshire's power plants generate more electricity than the state consumes, the state sends its excess generation to other states and to Canada.24

In 2020, New Hampshire had lower total electricity retail sales per capita than all but seven other states.25 It also had the fifth-highest average electricity retail prices among the Lower 48 states.26 The residential sector, where only 1 in 10 households use electricity as the primary heating source, accounted for about 44% of the state's electricity retail sales in 2021.27 The commercial sector used about 38%, and the industrial sector consumed the rest.28 New Hampshire is a participant in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a multi-state cap and trade program that sets regional caps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power generation. Carbon dioxide emissions in New Hampshire are among the lowest in the nation, and the state has used most of its RGGI emission allowance auction proceeds to reduce energy use and lower electricity bills through rebates.29,30

Renewable energy

Renewables generate 16% of New Hampshire’s in-state electricity.

In 2021, renewable resources provided about 16% of New Hampshire's in-state electricity generation, mostly from hydroelectric power and biomass. Wind and solar energy, primarily at small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) facilities, supplied the rest.31 New Hampshire is home to one-fourth of New England's hydroelectric generating capacity and accounts for almost one-fifth of the region's hydroelectric net generation. Hydropower supplied about 7% of the state's total net generation in 2021.32,33 The two largest hydroelectric power plants in New England—the 189-megawatt S.C. Moore and the 166-megawatt Comerford hydropower dams—are located on the Connecticut River along the state's border with Vermont. However, most of the state's hydroelectric facilities have capacities of less than 5 megawatts.34,35

Biomass supplied the second-largest share of New Hampshire's electricity generation from renewable resources in 2021 and accounted for about 6% of the state's total net generation.36 Wood and wood waste from the state's forest industry provided about 86% of the state's biomass-fueled generation. The rest came from landfill gas and municipal solid waste.37 New Hampshire's biomass resources also provide the feedstock for the state's one wood pellet manufacturing plant that can produce 90,000 tons of wood pellets each year. Wood pellets are burned for heating and electricity generation.38 New Hampshire has one biodiesel plant with a capacity of about 4 million gallons per year, which was about equal to the amount of biodiesel consumed in the state in 2020.39,40 There are no fuel ethanol plants in New Hampshire.41

Areas along New Hampshire's short Atlantic coastline and on the state's mountain ridges have New Hampshire's best wind resources.42 In 2021, wind energy accounted for about 3% of New Hampshire's in-state electricity generation.43 The state's first modern wind farm came online in 2008. As of June 2022, New Hampshire has 5 wind farms with a combined 212 megawatts of capacity.44,45 All of the state's wind turbines are located on mountain ridges in western New Hampshire.46 In 2016, wind supplied more of the state's net generation than coal for the first time, and, with the exception of 2018, annual generation from wind has continued to exceed that from coal.47

New Hampshire also has modest solar resources that support both small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) and utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) projects.48 Solar energy supplied about 1% of New Hampshire's total net generation in 2021, almost all of it from small-scale installations.49 The state's first and so far only utility-scale solar-powered facility came online in early 2019 with a capacity of 2.4 megawatts.50 Prior to that, the state's largest solar facility was almost at utility-scale with a 944-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) solar array at a wastewater treatment plant in the town of Peterborough.51 The rest of New Hampshire's solar power comes from small-scale, customer-sited installations, mostly rooftop solar panels but also larger ground-mounted arrays like the one on Star Island.52 The total capacity of New Hampshire's small-scale solar facilities was about 165 megawatts in mid-2022.53 However, new utility-scale solar projects are in development.54

New Hampshire's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state's electricity providers, except for municipal utilities, acquire the equivalent of 25.2% of the electricity they sell from renewable energy sources by 2025. State power suppliers can use electricity generated from renewable energy resources in neighboring New England states to comply with the RPS. New Hampshire's RPS includes credit for new thermal energy projects, such as solar thermal, geothermal, and ocean thermal facilities, that deliver energy as heat instead of as electricity.55 The state requires utilities that sell electricity in New Hampshire to offer net metering to small-scale electricity generators that use eligible renewable or combined-heat-and-power technologies up to an aggregate total of 100 megawatts.56

Petroleum

New Hampshire does not produce or refine crude oil and has no crude oil reserves.57 Although petroleum products account for about half of the state's total energy consumption, there are no petroleum product pipelines in New Hampshire.58,59,60 All refined petroleum products arrive in the state by rail, truck, or ship. Some arrive at Portsmouth, the state's only seaport. Most are from Mid-Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico refineries or from other countries.61 Although most imported petroleum products are from Canada, refined products also arrive from several other countries. Distillate and propane are the most common imports.62 There are marine terminal and storage facilities at Portsmouth for heating oil, propane, and other petroleum products.63,64 The terminals connect with rail lines and highways that take petroleum products inland. Distributors also bring in supplies by rail and by truck from neighboring states.65 One crude oil pipeline crosses from Maine to Vermont through New Hampshire's northeastern White Mountains, but does not deliver crude in New Hampshire. Built in 1941, it is the only crude oil pipeline in the state and it operates intermittently. It transports crude oil from tanker docks at Portland, Maine, to refineries in Montreal, Canada.66,67

More than two-fifths of New Hampshire households use fuel oil for heating, about 10 times the national average.

New Hampshire uses less petroleum than all but five other states and the District of Columbia, but per capita use is greater than more than half the states.68 Although New Hampshire is a small state with fewer road miles traveled than most other states, the transportation sector accounts for almost two-thirds of its petroleum consumption.69,70 The more densely populated counties in southeastern New Hampshire require the use and sale of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol. However, most gasoline sold in New Hampshire and the nation contains at least 10% ethanol.71,72 New Hampshire's residential sector, where three-fifths of households use petroleum products as the primary source for space heating, accounts for nearly one-fourth of state petroleum use.73,74 Only two other states, Vermont and Maine, heat a larger share of their households with petroleum products, and only one other, Maine, has a larger share heated with fuel oil. More than two-fifths of New Hampshire's households use fuel oil as their primary heating fuel, almost 10 times more than the national average, and more than one in six homes use hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), mostly propane, for heat, nearly four times the national average.75 The commercial sector accounts for one-tenth of state petroleum use and the industrial sector uses almost all the rest. The electric power sector uses a very small amount of petroleum, primarily as a backup fuel.76

New Hampshire is particularly vulnerable to distillate fuel oil supply constraints and price spikes during the winter months. In a supply emergency, the U.S. Department of Energy can release heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), created by Congress in 2000, to avert supply disruptions. In 2011, the Reserve replaced its stockpile of high-sulfur heating oil with ultra-low sulfur heating oil (ULSHO). By 2018, ULSHO had replaced high-sulfur heating oil use throughout New England, including in New Hampshire.77 The NEHHOR holds a total of 1 million barrels of ULSHO, with 400,000 of those barrels stored nearby in Massachusetts.78

Natural gas

New Hampshire does not have any natural gas reserves or production.79,80 Natural gas enters New Hampshire by interstate pipeline, primarily from Canada and from domestic production through the surrounding New England states. About four-fifths of the natural gas that enters New Hampshire leaves the state.81 The electric power sector is the largest natural gas consumer in New Hampshire, accounting for 56% of the natural gas used in the state in 2021. The industrial and commercial sectors each used about 16% and the residential sector used almost all the rest. Vehicles use a very small amount as transportation fuel.82 About one in five state households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.83 In 2020, New Hampshire consumed less natural gas than all but three other states and the District of Columbia. Most of the state does not have any natural gas distribution infrastructure.84,85

Coal

New Hampshire has the only two coal-fired electricity generating stations in New England.

There are no coal reserves or coal mines in New Hampshire, but the state does have the only two coal-fired electricity generating stations still operating in New England—Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Bow.86,87 The Schiller station has generating units that can burn either coal or petroleum products, and one unit can burn woody biomass.88 However, the Schiller plant is out of service and is not expected to come back online within the next calendar year.89 The much larger Merrimack coal-fired power plant operates intermittently.90 Coal-fired plants no longer supply baseload power, but they play an important role in providing electricity on high demand days, especially in winter when supplies of natural gas for electricity generation are constrained by increased natural gas use for space heating. New Hampshire's electric power sector received only a small amount of Pennsylvania produced coal in 2020.91

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, New Hampshire Geography, updated February 25, 2016.
2 World Port Source, Port of Portsmouth, Review and History, and Port Commerce, accessed August 16, 2022.
3 Naval Sea Systems Command, Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, accessed August 16, 2022.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), New Hampshire Profile Data, Reserves and Environment, accessed August 16, 2022.
5 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2021ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
6 Mount Washington Observatory, World Record Wind, accessed August 16, 2022.
7 Brooks, David, "Remembering the World's First Wind Farm-in New Hampshire," Granite Geek (February 24, 2016).
8 New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands, New Hampshire Forest Statistics, accessed August 16, 2022.
9 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2021ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
10 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New Hampshire Profile, accessed August 16, 2022.
12 Kitch, Michael, "The economic impact of second homes in New Hampshire," New Hampshire Business Review (July 20, 2017).
13 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, 2019, Tables B25002, Occupancy Status, and B25004, Vacancy Status.
14 Bookman, Todd, "Made in New Hampshire: Manufacturing's Rise and Fall in Manchester," New Hampshire Public Radio (March 27, 2017).
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, New Hampshire, All statistics in table, 2020-21.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
18 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, New Hampshire, updated June 17, 2022
19 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Coal, Natural gas, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
22 ISO New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed August 16, 2022.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001‒21.
24 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
27 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.4.B.
29 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2019.
30 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, The Investment of RGGI Proceeds in 2019 (June 2021), p. 4, 30-32.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2022), Table 6.2.B.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New England, New Hampshire, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2021
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
35 Granite State Hydropower Association, About Us, accessed August 17, 2022.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, Solar, Annual, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, May 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2022 (Excel File).
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New Hampshire, and U.S. Offshore 90-Meter Wind Resource Potential, accessed August 17, 2022.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2022), Table 6.2.B.
46 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed August 18, 2022.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, Coal, Wind, Annual, 2001‒21.
48 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001‒21.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
51 "Peterborough celebrating solar array, largest in state," Associated Press (November 6, 2015).
52 Star Island, Isle of Shoals, NH, The Island, The Green Gosport Initiative, accessed August 18, 2022.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2022), Table 6.2.B.
54 Audette, Bob, "Hinsdale solar project would be largest in state," Brattleboro Reformer (October 19, 2021).
55 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Hampshire, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated July 10, 2018.
56 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Hampshire, updated May 6, 2016.
57 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire, Profile Data, Supply & Distribution and Reserves, accessed August 18, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and HGL Pipeline Map Layers, accessed August 19, 2022.
61 New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Statewide Freight Plan, Final Report (January 2019), p. 17, 110, 125.
62 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed August 19, 2022.
63 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layer, accessed August 19, 2022.
64 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 6.
65 New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Statewide Freight Plan, Final Report (January 2019), p. 100, 111.
66 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Refinery Map Layers, accessed August 19, 2022.
67 Canada Energy Regulator, Pipeline Profiles: Montreal and Throughput and capacity, accessed August 19, 2022.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption Estimates, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
70 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, Highway Statistics 2020, HM-44 National Highway System Travel - 2020, Annual Vehicle Miles by Functional System, October 26, 2021.
71 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed August 19, 2022.
72 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
73 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
75 U.S. Census Bureau, All states, United States, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
77 New England Fuel Institute, Guidance, Exemptions and Enforcement Discretion for New England's ULSHO Transition, accessed August 19, 2022.
78 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, About NEHHOR, and Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History, accessed August 19, 2022.
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015‒20.
80 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016-21.
81 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Hampshire, 2015-20.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Hampshire, Annual 2016-21.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Consumers, Annual, 2016-21.
85 New Hampshire Public Service Commission, State of New Hampshire Gas Utilities Franchise Areas, accessed August 19, 2022.
86 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Tables 1, 15.
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