New Hampshire State Energy Profile



New Hampshire Quick Facts

  • More than two-fifths of all New Hampshire households rely on fuel oil as their primary heating fuel, the second-largest share, after Maine, among the states.
  • In 2016, New Hampshire generated more of the state's electricity from wind than from coal for the first time, and, with the exception of 2018, annual generation from wind has continued to exceed that from coal.
  • Seabrook, the largest nuclear power reactor in New England, provided 61% of New Hampshire’s 2019 electricity net generation.
  • In 2019, 17% of New Hampshire's electricity generation came from renewable resources, including small-scale solar installations. Most of the state's renewable generation comes from biomass and hydroelectric power.
  • New Hampshire has two of the three coal-fired power plants still operating in New England—Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Bow.

Last Updated: July 16, 2020



Data

Last Update: March 18, 2021 | Next Update: April 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.8 million 0.5% Jan-21  
Economy New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 88.6 billion 40 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 10,106 million 36 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 63,880 9 2019  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 13,828 million miles 41 2019  
Land in Farms 0.4 million acres 48 2017  
Climate New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 45.8 degrees Fahrenheit 40 2020  
Precipitation 41.6 inches 25 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 43.96 /barrel Dec-20  
Natural Gas New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.68 /thousand cu ft $ 3.55 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Residential $ 15.56 /thousand cu ft $ 9.73 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Coal New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 1.91 /million Btu Dec-20  
Electricity New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 18.74 cents/kWh 12.80 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Commercial 15.34 cents/kWh 10.48 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Industrial 13.51 cents/kWh 6.40 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 4,497 MW 0.4% Dec-20  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 161 trillion Btu 0.2% 2018 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,392 thousand MWh 0.4% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Hampshire U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 1.7 % 0.3 % Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 7.7 % 36.4 % Dec-20 find more
Coal-Fired 4.5 % 22.8 % Dec-20 find more
Nuclear 66.7 % 20.3 % Dec-20 find more
Renewables 19.0 % 19.5 % Dec-20  
Stocks New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Dec-20  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 669 thousand barrels 0.5% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Dec-20 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 360 thousand barrels 1.4% Dec-20 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Dec-20 find more
Fueling Stations New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 563 stations 0.5% 2018  
Propane 15 stations 0.6% 2021  
Electricity 125 stations 0.3% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 3 stations 0.2% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 325 trillion Btu 46 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 240 million Btu 41 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,837 million 44 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,313 20 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 107 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 73 trillion Btu 0.4% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 42 trillion Btu 0.1% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 102 trillion Btu 0.4% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,923 million 0.7% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,078 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 518 million 0.2% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,319 million 0.4% 2018 find more
by Source New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 32 million barrels 0.4% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 54 billion cu ft 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,563 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 543 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 14 million 0.1% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 32 thousand barrels 2.0% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas 788 million cu ft 0.1% Dec-20 find more
Coal 26 thousand short tons 0.1% Dec-20 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Hampshire U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 21.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 42.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 9.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 17.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 9.3 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 957 MW 0.4% Dec-20  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 123 thousand MWh 0.5% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 56 thousand MWh 0.1% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 85 thousand MWh 1.7% Dec-20  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 9 thousand MWh 0.3% Dec-20  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 19.1 % 11 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,788 thousand barrels 40 2019  
Total Emissions New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 13.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 1,952 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 1 thousand metric tons * 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 16, 2020

Overview

About 1 in 15 New Hampshire households depend on wood products as their primary heating source.

New Hampshire is one of the smallest states in the nation, but it has a wide variety of terrains from ocean beaches to rugged mountains, and its mountains, rivers, and forests hold plentiful renewable energy resources.1 The state is bordered on the west by the Connecticut River and Vermont, and by Maine and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. It stretches south from Canada to its border with Massachusetts. Although New Hampshire has less than 20 miles of Atlantic coastline, it contains both recreational beaches and Portsmouth, a deep-draft, ice-free port, where the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard repairs the U.S. nuclear submarine fleet.2,3,4 Several large rivers run through the state and dams on those rivers have provided New Hampshire with hydroelectric power for more than a century.5 The White Mountains of northern New Hampshire are home to some of the highest inland wind speeds ever recorded, one at 231 miles per hour, and the state was the site of the nation's first attempt to harvest wind resources at a commercial wind farm.6,7,8 About four-fifths of New Hampshire is covered in forests, and the state is second only to Maine in the percentage of its area that is woodland.9 Wood is the mainstay of New Hampshire's biomass energy industry, both for power generation and for space heating.10 About 1 in 15 New Hampshire households use wood as their primary heating source.11 The state has no fossil energy resources, but it does have a nuclear power plant.12,13

New Hampshire's small population is concentrated in the southeastern part of the state.14 However, the state’s natural beauty and proximity to other northeastern population centers draws many visitors and part-time residents whose travel and second homes add to the state’s energy use.15,16 The residential sector leads state energy consumption even though about 1 in 10 New Hampshire homes are only seasonally occupied. The transportation sector’s energy use follows the residential sector’s closely, and each of those sectors consume nearly one-third of the energy used in the state. The commercial sector uses nearly one-fourth. New Hampshire's long-established textile and shoe manufacturing industries have been replaced by less energy-intensive computer and electronics manufacturing. As a result, the industrial sector consumes only a little more than one-eighth of the energy used in the state.17,18 Real estate, finance, and insurance are the largest contributors to New Hampshire's gross domestic product (GDP).19 New Hampshire's state economy now ranks among the nation's most efficient in terms of energy used per dollar of GDP.20

Electricity

New Hampshire’s three largest power plants account for more than four-fifths of the state’s electricity net generation.

New Hampshire’s three largest power plants account for more than four-fifths of the state’s electricity net generation. In 2019, more than three-fifths of New Hampshire's net generation came from the Seabrook nuclear generating station, the largest power plant in the state.21 Two natural gas-fired plants that came online in 2002 and 2003 are the state’s next largest power plants.22 In 2019, natural gas provided one-fifth of in-state generation. Biomass, hydroelectric power, wind, and coal supplied almost all of the state’s remaining generation.23 Since 2001, coal’s contribution has declined as the contribution from natural gas has increased.24 However, as more natural gas is used to generate electricity in New Hampshire, and in New England as a whole, assurance of natural gas supply has become a critical energy issue for the region.25 New Hampshire’s natural gas-fired generation reached a high in 2012, but it has fluctuated since then and in 2018 it declined to its lowest level since 2002. However, natural gas-fired generation rebounded in 2019. The decline in natural gas-fired generation in 2018 was primarily compensated for by an increase in coal-fired generation.26 Overall, New Hampshire’s power plants generate more electricity than is consumed in the state, and typically between one-third and half of the electricity generated in New Hampshire is sent to other states and to Canada over a high-voltage transmission network operated by Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).27 ISO-NE manages power flows in the six New England states and interconnects with the power grids serving New York state and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec.28

New Hampshire has some of the highest average retail prices for electricity in the nation.29 There is limited demand for air conditioning during the mild summers and only 1 in 11 households use electricity as a primary energy source for home heating. The state's electricity consumption per capita, like most of New England's, is low.30,31,32 New Hampshire is a participant in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a multi-state cap and trade program that sets regional caps to reduce power sector carbon dioxide emissions from power generation. Carbon dioxide emissions in New Hampshire are among the lowest in the nation, and the state has used most of its RGGI emission allowance auction proceeds to lower electricity bills through rebates.33,34

Renewable energy

More than one-sixth of New Hampshire’s in-state electricity generation comes from renewable resources, with biomass and hydroelectric facilities providing most of that generation. Wind turbines and some small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) solar energy facilities supply the rest.35 The state has additional renewable energy potential from winds along its Atlantic coastline and its northern mountain ridges. New Hampshire also has solar resources that could support utility-scale projects.36

More than one-sixth of New Hampshire’s in-state electricity generation comes from renewable resources.

Biomass supplied the largest share of electricity generated from renewable resources in New Hampshire in 2019.37 Most of the generation from biomass is fueled by wood and wood waste from the state's forest industry, but some is produced at facilities that use methane gas generated in municipal landfills. The wood and wood waste electricity generators accounted for nine-tenths of the state’s utility-scale biomass-fueled electricity generation in 2019. New Hampshire has 1 wood pellet manufacturing plant that can produce 85,000 tons of wood pellets each year. Wood pellets are used for heating and for electricity generation.38

The two largest hydroelectric plants in New England—the 191-megawatt S.C. Moore and the 168-megawatt Comerford hydropower dams—are located in New Hampshire on the Connecticut River along the state’s border with Vermont.39 As a result, New Hampshire has more than one-fourth of New England’s hydroelectric generating capacity.40 However, many of the state’s more than 100 hydroelectric facilities have capacities of less than 5 megawatts.41,42 New Hampshire accounts for only slightly more than one-sixth of the New England’s annual hydroelectric power generation.43

Most of New Hampshire’s biomass generators are more than 20 years old, and almost nine-tenths of New Hampshire’s hydroelectric capacity is greater than 60 years of age, but the state’s operational wind facilities have all started operating within the past 12 years. New Hampshire's first modern wind farm opened in 2008. By 2019, the state had 212 megawatts of installed wind-powered capacity.44,45 In 2016, the state obtained more net generation from wind than from coal for the first time, and, with the exception of 2018, annual generation from wind has continued to exceed that from coal.46

New Hampshire has no utility-scale solar power facilities (1-megawatt or larger), but the state’s largest solar facility, the 944-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) solar array at a wastewater treatment plant in the town of Peterborough, comes close.47,48 The rest of the state’s solar power comes from smaller customer-sited solar energy installations, mostly rooftop solar panels. The total capacity of New Hampshire’s small-scale solar facilities was about 102 megawatts at the end of 2019. They generated an estimated 130,000 megawatthours of electricity that year, less than 1% of the state’s total net generation.49,50

New Hampshire’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state’s electricity providers, except for municipal utilities, acquire 25.2% of the electricity they sell from renewable energy sources by 2025. State power suppliers can use electricity generated by renewable energy in neighboring New England states to comply with the RPS. New Hampshire’s RPS also offers credit for new renewable thermal projects such as solar thermal, geothermal, and ocean thermal facilities that deliver energy as heat instead of as electricity.51 The state requires electric utilities that sell power in New Hampshire to offer net metering to small-scale electricity generators that use eligible renewable or combined-heat-and-power technologies.52

Petroleum

New Hampshire does not produce or refine crude oil, nor does it have any crude oil reserves, but refined petroleum products account for half of the state’s total energy consumption.53,54,55,56,57 There are no petroleum product pipelines in New Hampshire.58 All refined petroleum products arrive in the state by rail, truck, or ship. Some petroleum products arrive at Portsmouth, the state’s only seaport, from Mid-Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico refineries or from other countries. Most imported refined products are from Canada. Imports, mostly propane, arrive from Europe, South America, and Africa, as well.59,60 There are marine terminal and storage facilities at Portsmouth for heating oil, propane, and other refined petroleum products. The terminals connect with rail lines and highways that take refined products inland. Distributors also bring in supplies by rail and by truck from neighboring states.61,62

A crude oil pipeline crosses from Maine to Vermont through New Hampshire's northeastern White Mountains. It is the only crude oil pipeline in the state.63 Built in 1941, the Portland-Montreal Pipeline carried crude oil from tanker docks at Portland, Maine, to refineries in Montreal, Canada. However, those Canadian refineries are now supplied with crude oil from western Canada, and pipeline shipments from Portland have nearly stopped.64 There have been proposals to reverse the flow in the pipeline to bring crude oil from Alberta, Canada, and North Dakota to Portland for export, but the idea has encountered environmental opposition and legal challenges in both Canada and the United States.65

The transportation sector accounts for almost two-thirds of the petroleum consumed in New Hampshire. However, the transportation sector’s per capita petroleum consumption is less than in about two-thirds of the states, in part because it is a small state with fewer road miles than most other states.66,67,68 Petroleum use is also limited by the requirement that state vehicles use a biodiesel blend unless the blend is unavailable or costs more than an all-petroleum fuel.69 New Hampshire has one biodiesel plant with a capacity of 4 million gallons per year, slightly less than the 5 million gallons consumed in the state in 2018.70,71 Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the more densely populated counties of southeastern New Hampshire to limit ozone formation. However, although conventional motor gasoline is allowed in the rest of the state, most gasoline sold in the state, and the nation, contains ethanol.72,73,74 There are no fuel ethanol plants in New Hampshire.75

More than two-fifths of all New Hampshire households rely on fuel oil for heat in the winter.

Although New Hampshire uses less petroleum than most other states, petroleum consumption in its residential sector, which accounts for nearly one-fourth of state petroleum use, is among the highest in the nation on a per capita basis, in part because of the heavy dependence on heating oil during the state’s frigid winters.76,77 More than two-fifths of all New Hampshire households rely on fuel oil as their primary heating fuel. Another one-sixth of state households use hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), mostly propane, for heat.78 New Hampshire is particularly vulnerable to distillate fuel oil supply constraints and price spikes during the winter months.79 In a supply emergency, the U.S. Department of Energy can release heating oil from its nearby Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, which was created by Congress in 2000 to avert supply disruptions. The reserve holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel in storage facilities located in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.80 Ultra-low sulfur heating oil replaced high-sulfur heating oil throughout New Hampshire in 2018.81

Natural gas

New Hampshire does not have any natural gas reserves or production.82,83 The state receives natural gas by pipelines from Canada, Massachusetts, and Maine. About four-fifths of the natural gas that enters New Hampshire continues on to Maine and Massachusetts.84

More than two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in New Hampshire is used for electricity generation.

More than two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in New Hampshire is used to generate electricity. The rest of the state’s natural gas consumption is distributed fairly evenly among the commercial, residential, and industrial sectors.85 About one in five New Hampshire households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.86 However, New Hampshire is the fourth-lowest state in per capita natural gas consumption, in part because most of the state does not have any natural gas distribution infrastructure.87,88,89

Coal

There are no coal reserves or coal mines in New Hampshire, but the state does have two of the three coal-fired electricity generating stations still operating in New England—Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Bow.90,91 Coal-fired power plants play an important role in providing power on high demand days, especially in winter when the supply of natural gas for electricity generation is constrained by price and by increased natural gas use for space heating.92 The Schiller station has generating units that can burn either coal or petroleum, and one unit that was converted to burn woody biomass in 2006.93 Merrimack is a much larger coal-fired power plant, but it is used only intermittently and has not received any coal in at least two years.94 No domestically produced coal has been delivered to New Hampshire since 2015.95,96

Endnotes

1 New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Energy Overview, Energy Resources, accessed June 19, 2020.
2 NETSTATE, New Hampshire Geography, updated February 25, 2016.
3 World Port Source, Port of Portsmouth, Review and History, and Port Commerce, accessed June 19, 2020.
4 Naval Sea Systems Command, Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, accessed June 19, 2020.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
6 Mount Washington Observatory, World Record Wind, accessed June 19, 2020.
7 American Wind Energy Association, Wind 101, History of Wind, 1980’s, accessed June 19, 2020.
8 Brooks, David, “Remembering the World’s First Wind Farm–in New Hampshire,” Granite Geek (February 24, 2016).
9 New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands, New Hampshire Forest Statistics, accessed June 19, 2020.
10 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
11 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
12 New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Energy Overview, Energy Resources, accessed June 19, 2020.
13 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, New Hampshire, updated October 5, 2016.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New Hampshire Profile, accessed June 19, 2020.
15 New Hampshire Department of Business and Economic Affairs, Division of Travel and Tourism Development, “NH Division of Travel & Tourism Development Predicting Record-breaking Summer Travel Season,” Press Release (May 3, 2018).
16 Kitch, Michael, “The economic impact of second homes in New Hampshire,” New Hampshire Business Review (July 20, 2017).
17 Bookman, Todd, “Made in New Hampshire: Manufacturing's Rise and Fall in Manchester,” New Hampshire Public Radio (March 27, 2017).
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, New Hampshire, All statistics in table, 2017, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Check all, Annual, 2019.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, Coal, Natural gas, Annual, 2001–19.
25 ISO New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed June 20, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, New Hampshire, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Annual, 2001‒19.
27 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
28 ISO-New England, About Us, accessed June 22, 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average retail price of electricity, All sectors, All states, 2001–19.
30 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8, Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2017.
34 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, The Investment of RGGI Proceeds in 2017 (October 2019), New Hampshire, p. 30–32.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Solar, Annual, 2001–19.
36 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New Hampshire, accessed June 20, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Solar, Annual, 2001–19.
38 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (June 2020), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, March 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), New Hampshire.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B
41 New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, New Hampshire Water Resources Primer (December 2008), Chapter 11, Dams, p. 11-4.
42 Granite State Hydropower Association, About Us, accessed June 21, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New England, New Hampshire, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001‒19.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), New Hampshire.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, Coal, Wind, Annual, 2001‒19.
47 “Peterborough celebrating solar array, largest in state,” Associated Press (November 6, 2015).
48 Solar Energy Industries Association, New Hampshire Solar, accessed June 23, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001‒19.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
51 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Hampshire, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated July 10, 2018.
52 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Hampshire, updated May 6, 2016.
53 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014–19.
54 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual as of January 1, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves, Annual as of December 31, 2018.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
58 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and HGL Pipeline Map Layers, accessed June 21, 2020.
59 New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Statewide Freight Plan, Final Report (January 2019), p. 11, 17, 95.
60 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, January–December 2019, January–March 2020.
61 U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Active Fuel Terminals (April 30, 2019), p. 1.
62 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 6.
63 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed June 21, 2020.
64 National Energy Board of Canada, Pipeline Profiles: Montreal, Pipeline System and Throughput and Capacity, accessed June 21, 2020.
65 Bouchard, Kelley, “Federal appeals court asks Maine’s top judges to rule on South Portland pipeline case,” Portland Press Herald (January 15, 2020).
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
67 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
68 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, State Highway Agency-Owned Public Roads, 2016, updated September 18, 2017.
69 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel, accessed June 22, 2020.
70 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, March 2020.
71 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
72 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed June 22, 2020.
73 New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, NH Converts to More Environmentally Friendly Ethanol Based Gasoline, Frequently Asked Questions (March 3, 2006).
74 U.S. EIA, “Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol,” Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
75 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019 (Excel File).
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
77 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010–2019, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019F-01).
78 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
79 Andrews, Anthony, The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve and the National Oilheat Research Alliance, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 (September 19, 2013), Summary.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, About NEHHOR, and Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History, accessed June 22, 2020.
81 Clean Oil Heat NH, Ultra-Low Sulfur Heating Oil, accessed June 22, 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013‒18.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
84 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Hampshire, 2013–18.
85 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Table F18, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2018.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
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