New Hampshire State Energy Profile



New Hampshire Quick Facts

  • More than two-fifths of New Hampshire households rely on fuel oil as their primary heating source, the second-largest share among the states and about 10 times greater than the national average.
  • Seabrook, one of only two nuclear power plants in New England and the largest power plant in the state, provided 59% of New Hampshire’s 2020 in-state electricity net generation.
  • In 2020, 19% of New Hampshire's electricity generation came from renewable resources, including small-scale solar installations. Most of the state's renewable generation comes from hydroelectric power, biomass, and wind.
  • As of June 2021, New Hampshire had the two remaining coal-fired power plants still operating in New England—Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Bow. Coal-fired plants no longer supply baseload power, but they play an important role in providing electricity on high demand days.
  • New Hampshire is one of only five states where the residential sector is the largest energy consumer, even though about 1 in 9 New Hampshire homes are only seasonally or occasionally occupied.  

Last Updated: August 19, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.8 million 0.5% Jul-21  
Economy New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 85.1 billion 40 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 9,682 million 36 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 66,418 9 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 13,828 million miles 41 2019  
Land in Farms 0.4 million acres 48 2017  
Climate New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 45.8 degrees Fahrenheit 40 2020  
Precipitation 41.6 inches 25 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 19.22 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity New Hampshire U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 19.27 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 16.15 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 13.68 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 4,478 MW 0.4% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 170 trillion Btu 0.2% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,659 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New Hampshire U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.3 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 29.7 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 1.1 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 54.2 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 14.4 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 366 thousand barrels 0.3% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 313 thousand barrels 1.3% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 550 stations 0.5% 2019  
Propane 15 stations 0.6% 2021  
Electricity 125 stations 0.3% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 3 stations 0.2% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 320 trillion Btu 46 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 235 million Btu 41 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,549 million 44 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,078 19 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 105 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 71 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 40 trillion Btu 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 103 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,845 million 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,033 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 477 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,194 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 31 million barrels 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 54 billion cu ft 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,301 million 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 543 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 14 million 0.1% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 9 thousand barrels 0.6% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 3,600 million cu ft 0.3% Jun-21 find more
Coal 12 thousand short tons * Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New Hampshire U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 21.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 42.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 9.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 17.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 9.3 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 959 MW 0.4% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 112 thousand MWh 0.5% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 40 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 87 thousand MWh 1.9% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 20 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption New Hampshire U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 19.5 % 13 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,788 thousand barrels 40 2019  
Total Emissions New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 14.2 million metric tons 0.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New Hampshire Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 1,952 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 1 thousand metric tons * 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 19, 2021

Overview

About 1 in 14 New Hampshire households use wood as their main heat source.

New Hampshire is one of the smallest states in the nation, but its landscapes range from ocean beaches to rugged mountains, and its mountains, rivers, and forests hold plentiful renewable energy resources. The state is bordered on the east by Maine and the Atlantic Ocean, where its less than 20 miles of Atlantic coastline contains both recreational beaches and Portsmouth, a deep-draft, ice-free port, where the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard repairs the U.S. nuclear submarine fleet.1,2,3 Several large rivers run through the state, and dams on those rivers have provided New Hampshire with hydroelectric power for more than a century.4 The White Mountains of northern New Hampshire are home to some of the highest inland wind speeds ever recorded. In 1980, the state was the site of the nation's first attempt to produce electricity from wind resources at a commercial wind farm.5,6 Forests cover about four-fifths of New Hampshire, and the state is second only to Maine in the percentage of its area that is woodland.7 Wood is the mainstay of New Hampshire's biomass energy industry, both for power generation and for space heating. About 1 in 14 New Hampshire households use wood as their primary heating source, four times the national average.8,9 The state has no fossil energy reserves, but it does have a nuclear power plant.10,11

Most of New Hampshire's small population lives in the southeastern part of the state.12 However, the state's natural beauty and proximity to northeastern population centers draw many visitors and part-time residents whose travel and second homes add to the state's energy use.13 New Hampshire is one of only five states where the residential sector accounts for the largest share of total energy consumption, even though about 1 in 9 New Hampshire homes are only seasonally or occasionally occupied.14 The transportation sector follows the residential sector closely, and each of those sectors uses nearly one-third of the total energy consumed in the state. The commercial sector uses more than one-fifth. Less energy-intensive computer and electronics manufacturing has replaced New Hampshire's long-established textile and shoe manufacturing industries. As a result, the industrial sector accounts for only about one-eighth of the energy used in the state.15,16 Real estate, finance, and insurance are the largest contributors to New Hampshire's gross domestic product (GDP). 17 New Hampshire's state economy now ranks among the nation's 10 most efficient in terms of energy used per dollar of GDP.18

Electricity

In 2020, New Hampshire’s largest and only nuclear power plant accounted for three-fifths of the state’s electricity net generation.

In 2020, about three-fifths of New Hampshire's net generation came from the state's only nuclear generating station, the largest power plant in New Hampshire. Two natural gas-fired plants that came online in 2002 and 2003 are the state's next largest power plants by capacity.19,20 In 2020, natural gas provided slightly more than one-fifth of in-state generation. Hydroelectric power and other renewable resources, primarily biomass from wood and wood-derived fuels and wind, supplied almost all of the state's remaining generation. Coal fueled a small amount of the state's net generation.21 Since 2001, coal's contribution has declined from about one-fourth of New Hampshire's in-state generation to less than 1%. At the same time, the contribution from natural gas has increased.22 However, as more natural gas use for electricity generation has increased in New Hampshire, and in New England as a whole, assurance of natural gas supply has become a critical energy issue for the region.23 New Hampshire's natural gas-fired generation rose rapidly in 2003 and peaked in 2008, but in 2018, it declined to its lowest level since 2002. An increase in coal-fired generation compensated for the decline that year. As natural gas-fired generation rebounded, coal-fired generation decreased. Petroleum's share of New Hampshire net generation has declined from 52% of state generation in 2003 to 0.2% in 2020. It has fueled less than 2% of the state's power since 2008.24 Overall, New Hampshire's power plants typically generate more electricity than the state consumes, and New Hampshire sends its excess generation to other states and to Canada.25

In 2020, New Hampshire had lower total electricity retail sales per capita than all but six other states.26,27 It also had the fifth-highest average electricity retail prices among the Lower 48 states.28 The residential sector accounts for about 45% of the electricity retail sales in New Hampshire, followed by the commercial sector, which uses about 38%. The industrial sector consumes the rest.29 There is limited demand for air conditioning during the state's mild summers and only 1 in 10 households use electricity as the primary energy source for home heating.30,31 New Hampshire is a participant in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a multi-state cap and trade program that sets regional caps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power generation. Carbon dioxide emissions in New Hampshire are among the lowest in the nation, and the state has used most of its RGGI emission allowance auction proceeds to reduce energy use and lower electricity bills through rebates.32,33

Renewable energy

Renewables generate almost one-fifth of New Hampshire’s in-state electricity.

Renewable resources supply almost one-fifth of New Hampshire's in-state electricity generation, mostly from hydroelectric power and biomass. Wind turbines and some small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) solar energy facilities supply the rest.34 The state has additional renewable energy potential from winds along its Atlantic coastline and northern mountain ridges.35 New Hampshire also has solar resources that can support utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) projects.36

New Hampshire is home to one-fourth of New England's hydroelectric generating capacity and accounted for about one-fifth of the region's hydroelectric net generation in 2020. Hydropower supplied about 9% of the state's total utility-scale net generation that year.37,38 The two largest hydroelectric power plants in New England—the 191-megawatt S.C. Moore and the 168-megawatt Comerford hydropower dams—are located in New Hampshire on the Connecticut River along the state's border with Vermont. However, many of the state's hydroelectric facilities have capacities of less than 5 megawatts.39,40

Biomass supplied the second-largest share of New Hampshire's electricity generation from renewable resources in 2020 and accounted for about 6% of the state's total net generation.41 Wood and wood waste from the state's forest industry provided about 86% of the state's biomass-fueled generation. The rest came from landfill gas and municipal solid waste.42 New Hampshire's biomass resources also provide the feedstock for the state's one wood pellet manufacturing plant that can produce 85,000 tons of wood pellets each year. Wood pellets can be burned for heating and electricity generation.43

In 2020, wind energy accounted for about 3% of New Hampshire's utility-scale in-state electricity generation.44 The state's first modern wind farm came online in 2008. As of May 2021, New Hampshire has 5 wind farms with a combined 212 megawatts of capacity.45,46 All of the state's wind turbines are located on mountain ridges in western New Hampshire.47 In 2016, wind supplied more of New Hampshire's net generation than coal for the first time, and, with the exception of 2018, annual generation from wind has continued to exceed that from coal.48

New Hampshire's first and, so far only, utility-scale solar-powered facility came online in early 2019. It has a capacity of 2.4 megawatts. Prior to that, the state's largest solar facility was the 944-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) solar array at a wastewater treatment plant in the town of Peterborough.49 Several additional utility-scale solar farms are in development.50 The rest of New Hampshire's solar power comes from small-scale, customer-sited installations, mostly rooftop solar panels but also ground-mounted arrays like the one on Star Island.51 The total capacity of New Hampshire's small-scale solar facilities was about 137 megawatts in mid-2021.52 Solar PV provided about 1% of the state's total net generation in 2020.53

New Hampshire's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state's electricity providers, except for municipal utilities, acquire the equivalent of 25.2% of the electricity they sell from renewable energy sources by 2025. State power suppliers can use electricity generated by renewable energy in neighboring New England states to comply with the RPS. New Hampshire's RPS includes credit for new useful thermal energy projects, such as solar thermal, geothermal, and ocean thermal facilities, that deliver energy as heat instead of as electricity.54 The state requires utilities that sell electricity in New Hampshire to offer net metering to small-scale electricity generators that use eligible renewable or combined-heat-and-power technologies up to an aggregate total of 100 megawatts.55

Petroleum

New Hampshire does not produce or refine crude oil and has no crude oil reserves.56 However, petroleum products account for half of the state's total energy consumption.57,58 There are no petroleum product pipelines in New Hampshire.59 All refined petroleum products arrive in the state by rail, truck, or ship. Some arrive at Portsmouth, the state's only seaport. Most are from Mid-Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico refineries or from other countries.60 Although most imported petroleum products are from Canada, refined products also arrive from several other countries. Distillate and propane are the most common imports.61 There are marine terminal and storage facilities at Portsmouth for heating oil, propane, and other petroleum products.62,63 The terminals connect with rail lines and highways that take petroleum products inland. Distributors also bring in supplies by rail and by truck from neighboring states.64 A crude oil pipeline crosses from Maine to Vermont through New Hampshire's northeastern White Mountains. Built in 1941, it is the only crude oil pipeline in the state and can carry crude oil from tanker docks at Portland, Maine, to refineries in Montreal, Canada, but it is used only intermittently. No crude oil is delivered in New Hampshire.65,66

New Hampshire uses less petroleum than all but five other states and the District of Columbia. The transportation sector accounts for almost two-thirds of the petroleum consumed in New Hampshire. However, the transportation sector's per capita petroleum consumption is less than in about seven-tenths of the states, in part because it is a small state with fewer road miles traveled than most other states.67,68,69 New Hampshire also requires state vehicles to use a biodiesel blend unless the blend is unavailable or costs more than conventional diesel fuel.70 New Hampshire has one biodiesel plant with a capacity of about 4 million gallons per year. Slightly less than 4 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in the state in 2019.71,72 Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the more densely populated counties in southeastern New Hampshire to reduce smog formation and toxic pollutants in the air. Although conventional gasoline use is allowed elsewhere in the state, most gasoline sold in New Hampshire and the nation contains at least 10% ethanol.73,74 There are no fuel ethanol plants in New Hampshire.75

Over two-fifths of New Hampshire households use fuel oil for heating, about 10 times the national average.

Petroleum consumption in New Hampshire's residential sector accounts for nearly one-fourth of state petroleum use. In part because of the common use of heating oil during the state's frigid winters, New Hampshire's residential sector consumes more petroleum on a per capita basis than all but two other states, Vermont and Maine.76,77 More than two-fifths of all New Hampshire households use fuel oil as their primary heating fuel, almost 10 times more than the national average and the second-largest share, after Maine, among the states.78 More than one in six homes use hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), mostly propane, for heat, about four times the national average.79 New Hampshire is particularly vulnerable to distillate fuel oil supply constraints and price spikes during the winter months. In a supply emergency, the U.S. Department of Energy can release heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, created by Congress in 2000 to avert supply disruptions. The reserve holds a total of 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel, and 400,000 of those barrels are stored nearby in Massachusetts.80 Ultra-low sulfur heating oil replaced high-sulfur heating oil throughout New England, including New Hampshire, in 2018.81

Natural gas

New Hampshire does not have any natural gas reserves or production.82,83 Natural gas enters New Hampshire by interstate pipeline, primarily from Canada and Massachusetts. About four-fifths of the natural gas that enters New Hampshire leaves the state.84 The electric power sector is the largest natural gas consumer in the state, accounting for more than half of the natural gas used in New Hampshire in 2020. The industrial, commercial, and residential sectors shared almost all the rest. Vehicles use a very small amount.85 About one in five state households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.86 New Hampshire consumes less natural gas than all but three other states and the District of Columbia, in part because most of the state does not have any natural gas distribution infrastructure.87,88

Coal

New Hampshire has the only two coal-fired electricity generating stations still operating in New England.

There are no coal reserves or coal mines in New Hampshire, but the state does have the only two coal-fired electricity generating stations still operating in New England—Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Bow.89,90,91 Coal-fired plants no longer supply baseload power, but they play an important role in providing electricity on high demand days, especially in winter when the supply of natural gas for electricity generation is constrained by increased natural gas use for space heating.92 The Schiller station also has generating units that can burn either coal or petroleum products, and one unit can burn woody biomass.93 The much larger Merrimack coal-fired power plant operates intermittently, and only a small amount of domestically produced coal was delivered to the state's electric power sector in 2019. 94,95

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, New Hampshire Geography, updated February 25, 2016.
2 World Port Source, Port of Portsmouth, Review and History, and Port Commerce, accessed July 12, 2021.
3 Naval Sea Systems Command, Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, accessed July 12, 2021.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
5 Mount Washington Observatory, World Record Wind, accessed July 12, 2021.
6 Brooks, David, "Remembering the World's First Wind Farm-in New Hampshire," Granite Geek (February 24, 2016).
7 New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands, New Hampshire Forest Statistics, accessed July 12, 2021.
8 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
9 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
10 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Data, Reserves, accessed July 12, 2021.
11 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, New Hampshire, updated March 19, 2020.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New Hampshire Profile, accessed July 12, 2021.
13 Kitch, Michael, "The economic impact of second homes in New Hampshire," New Hampshire Business Review (July 20, 2017).
14 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, 2019, Tables B25002, Occupancy Status, and B25004, Vacancy Status.
15 Bookman, Todd, "Made in New Hampshire: Manufacturing's Rise and Fall in Manchester," New Hampshire Public Radio (March 27, 2017).
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, New Hampshire, All statistics in table, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Coal, Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
23 ISO New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed July 13, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001‒20.
25 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
27 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
29 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
30 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8, Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
32 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2018.
33 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, The Investment of RGGI Proceeds in 2019 (June 2021), p. 4, 30-32.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All solar, Annual, 2020.
35 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New Hampshire, accessed July 14, 2021.
36 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.10.B, 6.2.B.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New England, New Hampshire, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2020
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
40 Granite State Hydropower Association, About Us, accessed July 14, 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New Hampshire, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Solar, Annual, 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
43 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
46 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2021), Table 6.2.B.
47 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 15, 2021.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, Coal, Wind, Annual, 2001‒20.
49 "Peterborough celebrating solar array, largest in state," Associated Press (November 6, 2015).
50 Brooks, David, "Another utility-scale solar farm - 75 MW this time - eyed in N.H.," Granite Geek (November 13, 2020).
51 Star Island, Isle of Shoals, NH, The Island, The Green Gosport Initiative, accessed July 20, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2021), Table 6.2.B.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New Hampshire, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2020.
54 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New Hampshire, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated July 10, 2018.
55 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Hampshire, updated May 6, 2016.
56 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire, Profile Data, Supply & Distribution and Reserves, accessed July 19, 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
59 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and HGL Pipeline Map Layers, accessed July 21, 2021.
60 New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Statewide Freight Plan, Final Report (January 2019), p. 17, 110, 125.
61 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, May 2020-April 2021.
62 U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Active Fuel Terminals—3/19/2021.
63 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 6.
64 New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Statewide Freight Plan, Final Report (January 2019), p. 100, 111.
65 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed July 19, 2021.
66 Portland Pipe Line Corporation, Montreal Pipe Line Limited, About Us, accessed July 19, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
68 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
69 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, Highway Statistics 2019, HM-44 National Highway System Travel - 2019, Annual Vehicle Miles By Functional System, September 30, 2020.
70 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel, accessed July 19, 2021.
71 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
73 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed July 19, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
75 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020 (Excel File).
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
77 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
78 U.S. Census Bureau, All states, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, About NEHHOR, and Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History, accessed July 19, 2021.
81 New England Fuel Institute, Guidance, Exemptions And Enforcement Discretion For New England's ULSHO Transition, accessed July 29, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014‒19.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
84 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Hampshire, 2014-19.
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