Mississippi State Energy Profile



Mississippi Quick Facts

  • The 1,443-megawatt Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Station in Port Gibson, Mississippi, is the largest single-reactor nuclear power plant by generating capacity in the nation. The plant generated about 10% of the state's electricity in 2020.
  • Mississippi's Pascagoula oil refinery is the nation's 10th-largest refinery, with the capacity to process about 356,000 barrels of oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and other petroleum products.
  • Mississippi is one of the few states with large underground salt caverns capable of storing natural gas, and the state has about one-fourth of total U.S. underground salt cavern natural gas storage capacity.
  • Natural gas accounted for about 80% of Mississippi's electricity net generation in 2020 and was the primary fuel used at 9 of the state's 10 largest power plants. 
  • Mississippi consumes about three times more energy that it produces, and its energy-intensive economy ranks sixth among the states in the amount of energy used to produce one dollar of GDP.

Last Updated: August 19, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Mississippi Share of U.S. Period
Population 3.0 million 0.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 1.3 million 0.8% Jul-21  
Economy Mississippi U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 114.2 billion 37 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 18,265 million 33 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 41,745 51 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 41,091 million miles 28 2019  
Land in Farms 10.4 million acres 27 2017  
Climate Mississippi U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 65.5 degrees Fahrenheit 5 2020  
Precipitation 68.3 inches 2 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Mississippi U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 68.75 /barrel $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Mississippi U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.55 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 19.76 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Mississippi U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Mississippi U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.94 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 10.93 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 6.20 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 114 million barrels 0.3% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 227 billion cu ft * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 0 million barrels 0.0% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 108 million short tons 0.8% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 1,331 wells 0.3% 2019 find more
Capacity Mississippi Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 393,940 barrels/calendar day 2.1% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 14,603 MW 1.3% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 340 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 37 thousand barrels per day 0.3% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 33,307 million cu ft 0.1% 2019 find more
Coal 2,697 thousand short tons 0.4% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 6,173 thousand MWh 1.6% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Mississippi U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 74.5 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 6.4 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 16.5 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 2.6 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 999 thousand barrels 8.0% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,550 thousand barrels 1.4% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 239,048 million cu ft 3.4% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers NM NM Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Mississippi Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,996 stations 1.8% 2019  
Propane 76 stations 2.8% 2021  
Electricity 91 stations 0.2% 2021  
E85 3 stations 0.1% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 5 stations 0.4% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Mississippi U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,086 trillion Btu 31 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 365 million Btu 16 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 12,469 million 31 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,187 17 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Mississippi Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 195 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 154 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 394 trillion Btu 1.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 343 trillion Btu 1.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,502 million 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,785 million 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,972 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 6,210 million 1.1% 2019 find more
by Source Mississippi Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 74 million barrels 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 564 billion cu ft 1.8% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 4 million short tons 0.7% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 6,957 million 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,916 million 1.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 150 million 0.6% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum * * Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 34,157 million cu ft 3.1% Jun-21 find more
Coal 335 thousand short tons 0.7% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Mississippi U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 28.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 58.0 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 11.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.6 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 521 MW 0.2% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 42 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 120 thousand MWh 2.6% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 2 thousand MWh * Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Mississippi U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.5 % 40 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 3,899 thousand barrels 30 2019  
Total Emissions Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 69.5 million metric tons 1.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Mississippi Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 25,018 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 16 thousand metric tons 1.2% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 19, 2021

Overview

Located on the nation's Gulf Coast and bordered on the west by the river that shares its name, Mississippi has substantial energy infrastructure. The state has many natural gas, crude oil, and refined product pipelines. Mississippi's larger ports—located on the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River—handle coal, crude oil, petroleum coke, and refined petroleum products.1 Although it is not as rich in crude oil and natural gas resources as some of its neighboring states, Mississippi has the nation's biggest nuclear power reactor and 10th-largest petroleum refinery, along with a large natural gas processing plant and liquefied natural gas terminal located along the state's Gulf of Mexico coastline.2,3,4,5,6,7

Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate with long, hot summers, mild winters, and abundant rainfall. Its rich soils, especially between the Mississippi River and the Yazoo River, provide fertile farmland where soybeans, cotton, and corn are the most valuable crops. Although agriculture played a central role in Mississippi's economy in the past, manufacturing is now the leading contributor in the state's gross domestic product (GDP).8,9,10 The manufacture of motor vehicles and other transportation equipment; food, beverage, and tobacco products; machinery; and chemicals, as well as crude oil production and refining, are substantial contributors to the state's economy.11

Mississippi consumes about three times more energy than it produces.

Mississippi has an energy-intensive economy and ranks sixth among the states in the amount of energy used to produce one dollar of GDP.12 The industrial sector consumes the most energy in Mississippi—nearly two-fifths of the state total—followed by the transportation sector at about one-third. The residential sector accounts for slightly less than one-fifth of state energy use and the commercial sector accounts for one-seventh. 13 The strong demand for electricity for cooling during summer and heating in winter, along with the state's energy-intensive industries, puts Mississippi among the top one-third of states in per capita energy consumption.14,15 Overall, Mississippi consumes about three times more energy than it produces.16

Petroleum

Mississippi produces about 0.3% of the nation's crude oil and holds about 0.3% of U.S. total proved oil reserves.17,18 Most of Mississippi's oil fields are located in the southern half of the state.19,20 Since 2015, Mississippi's oil production has steadily declined in the last decade as oil became less expensive to drill in other states and Mississippi's oil wells typically were deeper and more expensive. In 2020, the state's annual oil production fell to its lowest level in more than 60 years.21,22,23 Mississippi has three petroleum refineries with a combined processing capacity of about 394,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, and together the facilities account for about 2% of the nation's total refining capacity.24 The Pascagoula refinery, one of the nation's largest, is located on Mississippi's Gulf coast and supplies motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products to markets in the southeastern United States.25 Another refinery, the Ergon facility in Vicksburg on the Mississippi River, is the world's largest manufacturer of naphthenic process oils, which are used worldwide in many industrial applications such as printing inks, transformer oils, refrigeration oils, and adhesives.26 The state's smallest refinery, located in Sandersville, supplies mostly asphalt products.27,28 Mississippi also receives additional petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana via two major interstate petroleum product pipelines—the Colonial Pipeline and PPL Pipeline (formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline)—that move motor gasoline and other refined products through Mississippi to supply half a dozen other southern and eastern states.29,30,31

About 11 in 100 Mississippi households use propane as their main heating fuel, more than double the national rate.

Petroleum accounts for slightly more than one-third of the total energy consumed in Mississippi.32 Most of the petroleum consumed in the state is used in the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline.33 Conventional gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, although almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with at least 10% ethanol.34,35 Mississippi ranks among the 5 states with the lowest average gasoline prices, but among the top 10 states with the highest gasoline expenditures per capita.36 About 11 in 100 households in Mississippi use propane as their primary home heating fuel, compared with 5 in 100 households nationwide.37

Natural gas

Mississippi has small natural gas reserves and accounts for only about 0.1% of the nation's natural gas marketed production.38,39 The state's natural gas production has declined over the last decade, falling to less than half its 2009 output in 2019.40

Mississippi has 26% of the nation’s underground salt cavern natural gas storage capacity.

Mississippi is crossed by many interstate natural gas pipelines.41 Natural gas supplies move into the state primarily by way of Louisiana, Tennessee, Arkansas, Alabama, and from offshore production platforms in federal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. Nearly 90% of the natural gas that enters Mississippi by interstate pipelines continues on to other states, with more than four-fifths of that natural gas moving on through Alabama and Louisiana.42 Mississippi is one of the few states with large underground salt caverns capable of storing natural gas and the state has about one-fourth of the nation's salt cavern storage capacity. The state has 11 underground natural gas storage fields—5 are salt caverns and 6 are depleted oil and gas fields—that can hold a combined 332 billion cubic feet of natural gas, which is almost 4% of the nation's total underground storage capacity.43

One of the largest natural gas processing plants in the United States is in Mississippi. The plant, near Pascagoula on the Gulf Coast, separates natural gas liquids from the natural gas and can process up to 1 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day.44,45 Mississippi also has a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal near Pascagoula that can regasify up to 1.5 billion cubic feet of LNG imports a day.46,47 With U.S. natural gas production rising to record levels almost every year since 2010, the terminal's owners are considering whether to add the capability to export up to 1.5 billion cubic feet of LNG per day from the site.48,49,50

The electric power sector accounts for about two-thirds of Mississippi's natural gas consumption, and that sector's natural gas use has increased by more than 60% over the past decade. The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector and accounts for about one-fourth of the state's natural gas use. The residential and commercial sectors together account for the nearly one-tenth of the state's remaining natural gas consumption.51,52 About 3 out of 10 households in Mississippi rely on natural gas for home heating.53

Coal

All of the coal mined in Mississippi is lignite, which comes from one mine in Choctaw County.

Mississippi has almost 1% of the nation's recoverable coal reserves at producing mines.54 All of the state's coal production comes from one mine that supplies lignite, which has a lower heating value and higher moisture content than other types of coal.55,56,57 The Red Hills surface coal mine, located in Choctaw County, Mississippi, sends all of its lignite coal output to a nearby power plant.58 A second coal mine that was to provide lignite to a new advanced integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant in Kemper County ceased operations in 2018 after the plant's owners stopped using coal gasification for power generation at the facility. The plant now uses natural gas.59,60,61,62 About three-fifths of the coal consumed in Mississippi is mined in the state, and the rest comes primarily from Wyoming and Colorado. Almost all the coal used in Mississippi is consumed by the state's electric power sector.63

Electricity

Mississippi has the largest nuclear power reactor by generating capacity in the United States.

Natural gas accounted for 80% of the state's net generation in 2020 and fueled 9 of the state's 10 largest power plants.64,65 Nuclear power was the second-largest provider of in-state electricity, accounting for 10% of Mississippi's generation in 2020. The Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Station is the largest single-reactor nuclear power plant by generating capacity in the nation.66,67,68 Coal fueled about 7% of the state's net generation in 2020, down from about 25% a decade earlier. A new 582-megawatt power plant in Kemper County had planned to generate electricity using a state-of-the-art coal gasification process, designed to reduce carbon emissions, but technological and economic issues led the plant's owners to switch to using only natural gas. Biomass and solar energy primarily fuel the rest of the state's net generation.69,70,71

Mississippi generates more electricity than it uses, and the surplus power is sent to other states over the regional grid.72,73 The residential sector receives the largest share of electricity retail sales in Mississippi, accounting for two-fifths of the state's total, followed by the industrial sector at about one-third, and the commercial sector at slightly more than one-fourth.74 Air-conditioning use during the state's hot summer months and the widespread use of electricity for home heating during the mild winter months drives demand for electricity from Mississippi's residential sector. About 6 out of 10 of the state's households use electricity for home heating.75,76,77 Mississippi ranks among the top five states in residential sector electricity sales on a per capita basis.78

Renewable energy

Biomass and solar energy account for Mississippi’s electricity generation from renewables.

Renewable resources generated nearly 3% of Mississippi's utility-scale electricity in 2020. Biomass from wood and wood waste accounted for about three-fourths of the state's renewable electricity.79 With almost two-thirds of the state forested and more than one-fourth of the state's land used for agriculture, Mississippi has abundant renewable biomass resources, including: logging residue, municipal landfills, crop residues, poultry litter, and livestock manure.80 Some of these biomass resources also provide the feedstock for two wood pellet manufacturing plants in the state that have a combined production capacity of about 653,000 tons of pellets per year, which is about 5% of the U.S. total.81

In 2020, solar energy provided about one-fourth of Mississippi's electricity generation from renewables. Utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar power generation, although small at just 0.7% of the state's total generation, has increased rapidly in recent years. Mississippi's first utility-scale solar facilities came online in 2017, and the state's annual solar generation more than quadrupled by 2020. The state's largest solar generating facility is a 53-megawatt solar farm, located near Meridian in east-central Mississippi near the border with Alabama. A 100-megwatt solar farm, which will be located in the northwest corner of the state, is scheduled to come online at the end of 2021.82,83,84

There are no utility-scale wind power facilities operating in the state. Mississippi's best wind resources are found in the northwest corner of the state.85,86 In June 2021, state regulators approved construction in that area of Mississippi for the state's first utility-scale wind farm. The wind farm will have up to 100 turbines with a generating capacity of 200 megawatts. The project's backers plan to have the wind farm online by the end of 2022.87,88,89 Also in June 2021, the U.S. Department of the Interior published a request to see if there was any interest among energy companies in leasing tracts in federal waters off the Mississippi coastline for commercial wind power development.90 While Mississippi has several dams, they are all non-powered, and there is no utility-scale hydroelectric generation in the state.91,92 Mississippi does not have a renewable portfolio standard requiring electricity suppliers to obtain specific amounts of their power from renewable energy sources.93 The state does offer limited net metering for small, customer-sited solar generation, like rooftop solar panels.94

Mississippi has three biodiesel production plants that have an annual combined output capacity of about 102 million gallons. One of those plants, located in Natchez, ranks among the 10 largest biodiesel plants in the nation by capacity. The state consumes about 33 million gallons of biodiesel a year, which is about 2% of the U.S. total.95,96,97 Mississippi has no ethanol production plants, but the state consumes almost 164 million gallons of fuel ethanol annually, which accounts for about 1% of the U.S. total.98,99

Endnotes

1 World Port Source, Mississippi United States, Port Index, accessed July 20, 2021.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2014-19.
3 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2014-19.
4 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Nuclear Power Plant, Petroleum Refinery, Natural Gas Processing Plant, accessed July 20, 2021.
5 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Gulf LNG, accessed July 20, 2021.
6 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Oil and petroleum products explained, Top 10 U.S. refineries operable capacity, January 1, 2021.
7 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2020).
8 Mississippi State University, Department of Geosciences, Office of the Mississippi State Climatologist, Mississippi Climate, accessed July 20, 2021.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Mississippi.
10 Wallenfeldt, Jeff, David G. Sansing, and John N. Burrus, Mississippi, State, United States, Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed July 20, 2021.
11 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Mississippi, All statistics in table, 2019.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
14 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail Electricity Sales, Mississippi Monthly, January 2001 through April 2021.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
18 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2014-19.
19 Mississippi State Oil and Gas Board, Oil and Gas Map of Mississippi, accessed July 20, 2021.
20 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil Wells: High-Level View, accessed July 20, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Field Production of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels), 1981-2020.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Mississippi, 1960-2019.
23 Mississippi Encyclopedia, Oil and Gas Industry, accessed August 10, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021; Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
25 Chevron, Chevron Pascagoula Refinery 2020 Snapshot.
26 Ergon, Refining & Marketing, Ergon Refining Inc., accessed July 20, 2021.
27 Hunt Refining Company, Refining Operations, Sandersville Refinery, accessed July 20, 2021.
28 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
29 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed July 20, 2021.
30 Kinder Morgan, Southeast Operations, Products (SE) Pipe Line Corporation, accessed July 20, 2021.
31 Kinder Morgan, Form 10-K, For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, Products Pipeline, Southeast Refined Products, PPL Pipeline, p. 10.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
34 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
35 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
36 U.S. EIA, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2019.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, United States, Mississippi.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
40 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2019.
41 Mississippi State Oil and Gas Board, Oil and Gas Map of Mississippi, accessed July 21, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Mississippi, 2014-19.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual 2019 (September 30, 2020), Table 14, Underground natural gas storage capacity by state, December 31, 2019.
44 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Processing Plant, accessed July 21, 2021.
45 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., Natural Gas Processing Plants and Related NGL Marketing, accessed July 21, 2021.
46 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, LNG Terminals, Gulf LNG, accessed July 21, 2021.
47 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals Existing (updated April 16, 2021).
48 Perez, Mary, "Billion dollar LNG plant at Pascagoula wins federal approval," Sun Herald (July 19, 2019).
49 Weber, Harry, "Kinder Morgan content with keeping liquefaction footprint small for now," S&P Global Platts (January 29, 2020).
50 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals Approved, Not Yet Built, updated April 16, 2021.
51 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Mississippi, Annual, 2015-20.
52 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic Feet), 1997-2020.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Mississippi.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
56 Thieling, Stan, David E. Thompson, and Michael B. E. Bograd, Lignite Resources of Mississippi, Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Geology, Fact Sheet 2 (August 2009).
57 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, Types of Coal, Lignite, updated October 8, 2020.
58 PurEnergy, Choctaw Generation LP, Red Hills Power Plant, accessed July 21, 2021.
59 Southern Company, "Southern Company and Mississippi Power Announce Suspension of Gasification Operations at Kemper," Press Release (June 28, 2017).
60 Amy, Jeff, "Utility faces federal investigation over failed $7.5 billion Kemper power plant," Associated Press (May 1, 2019).
61 Brock, Jim, "Kemper Coal Operation to Cut 75 Jobs," The Meridian Star (August 9, 2017).
62 NACCO Industries, Inc., Form 8-K filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (February 8, 2018).
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Mississippi, Table DS-22, 2019.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
65 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity.
66 Entergy, Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, accessed July 21, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2020).
68 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
70 Southern Company, "Southern Company and Mississippi Power Announce Suspension of Gasification Operations at Kemper," Press Release (June 28, 2017).
71 Amy, Jeff, "Utility faces federal investigation over failed $7.5 billion Kemper power plant," Associated Press (May 1, 2019).
72 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
73 U.S. EIA, Mississippi Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Electric Transmission Line>=345 kV, accessed July 21, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Annual, Mississippi 2001-20.
75 Mississippi State University, Department of Geosciences, Office of the Mississippi State Climatologist, Mississippi Climate, accessed July 22, 2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air conditioning, Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015 (May 2018).
77 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, United States, Mississippi.
78 U.S. EIA, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
80 Mississippi Development Authority, Developing Our Biomass Resources, accessed July 21, 2021.
81 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (July 22, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, May 2021.
82 Mississippi Power, About Energy, Solar Power, accessed July 22, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
84 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2021, Plant State: Mississippi, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic; Inventory of Planned Generators as of May 2021, Plant State: Mississippi, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Mississippi, Maps & Data, accessed July 22, 2021.
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
87 Mississippi Public Service Commission, "Mississippi Public Service Commission Approves State's First Wind Turbine Facility," Press Release (June 9, 2021).
88 Broom, Brian, "100 turbines on 13,000 acres: Mississippi OKs first wind turbine electricity facility," Mississippi Clarion Ledger (June 10, 2021).
89 Bennett, Abbie, "Mississippi PSC approves state's 1st utility-scale wind power facility," S&P Global Market Intelligence (June 10, 2021).
90 Regulations.gov, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, "Request for Interest: Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf" (June 11, 2021).
91 National Hydropower Association, Mississippi, accessed July 22, 2021.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for All Sectors, Annual, Mississippi, 2001-20.
93 U.S. EIA, Renewable Energy Explained, Portfolio Standards, updated June 29, 2021.
94 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Mississippi, Net Metering, updated March 12, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
96 Biodiesel Magazine, US Biodiesel Plants, operational, updated December 15, 2020.
97 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
98 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
99 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.


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