Massachusetts State Energy Profile



Massachusetts Quick Facts

  • Massachusetts's liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Everett received two-thirds of the nation's total LNG imports in 2019.
  • Massachusetts ranks second among the states in the least amount of energy used to produce each dollar of gross domestic product.
  • Massachusetts consumes about twice as much electricity than it generates, but it is among the five states with the lowest electricity consumption on a per capita basis.
  • By the end of 2019, Massachusetts ranked eighth among the states in both installed solar photovoltaic generating capacity and the amount of solar power produced, accounting for about 14% of the state's electricity net generation.
  • More than half of Massachusetts households use natural gas for home heating, about one in four rely on fuel oil, and about one in six households uses electric heat.

Last Updated: August 20, 2020



Data

Last Update: March 18, 2021 | Next Update: April 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Population 6.9 million 2.1% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.7 million 2.3% Jan-21  
Economy Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 595.6 billion 11 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 52,497 million 18 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 74,967 3 2019  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 64,890 million miles 19 2019  
Land in Farms 0.5 million acres 46 2017  
Climate Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 50.9 degrees Fahrenheit 30 2020  
Precipitation 42.3 inches 22 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 43.96 /barrel Dec-20  
Natural Gas Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.67 /thousand cu ft $ 3.55 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Residential $ 15.40 /thousand cu ft $ 9.73 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Coal Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector 0 $/million Btu $ 1.91 /million Btu Dec-20  
Electricity Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 21.54 cents/kWh 12.80 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Commercial 15.89 cents/kWh 10.48 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Industrial 13.73 cents/kWh 6.40 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 13,003 MW 1.2% Dec-20  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 126 trillion Btu 0.1% 2018 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,611 thousand MWh 0.5% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Massachusetts U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.5 % 0.3 % Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 78.9 % 36.4 % Dec-20 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 22.8 % Dec-20 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.3 % Dec-20 find more
Renewables 17.6 % 19.5 % Dec-20  
Stocks Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 4 thousand barrels * Dec-20  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,541 thousand barrels 2.0% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Dec-20 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,431 thousand barrels 5.6% Dec-20 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Dec-20 find more
Fueling Stations Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,970 stations 1.7% 2018  
Propane 30 stations 1.1% 2021  
Electricity 1,536 stations 3.8% 2021  
E85 7 stations 0.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 11 stations 0.9% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,459 trillion Btu 27 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 212 million Btu 44 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 26,859 million 16 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,902 29 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 434 trillion Btu 2.0% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 412 trillion Btu 2.2% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 151 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 462 trillion Btu 1.6% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 8,290 million 3.1% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 6,394 million 3.3% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,069 million 1.0% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 10,106 million 1.7% 2018 find more
by Source Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 111 million barrels 1.5% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 428 billion cu ft 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 12,976 million 1.7% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 4,383 million 2.9% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 12 thousand barrels 0.7% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas 9,265 million cu ft 1.0% Dec-20 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Dec-20 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Massachusetts U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 52.3 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 24.4 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 16.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.7 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.7 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,604 MW 0.6% Dec-20  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 83 thousand MWh 0.4% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 114 thousand MWh 0.3% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 87 thousand MWh 1.8% Dec-20  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 119 thousand MWh 4.7% Dec-20  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.2 % 34 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,860 thousand barrels 19 2019  
Total Emissions Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 63.0 million metric tons 1.2% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 8,519 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 8 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 20, 2020

Overview

Massachusetts is home to almost half of New England’s residents and is one of the most densely populated states in the nation.1 Most of the state’s population resides in the eastern half of the state, particularly around Boston.2 Elevations in Massachusetts rise from sea level around the coastal marshes of Cape Cod in the east to more than 3,400 feet in the Berkshire and Taconic Mountains in the west.3 Offshore winds in the east and forests in the west offer substantial renewable resources, and state policies encourage solar and wind power development across Massachusetts.4,5,6 The region’s longest river, the Connecticut, cuts across central Massachusetts and, along with other rivers, provides the state with hydropower resources.7 Massachusetts has no fossil energy reserves.8,9,10

Although Massachusetts experiences wide variations in temperature, summers are generally mild and mid-winter temperatures are usually below freezing. Precipitation, as rain or snow, is equally distributed throughout the year.11 Agriculture in Massachusetts includes nurseries, fruit orchards, vegetable production, dairy, aquaculture, and tobacco farming. The ocean-moderated climate and coastal bogs of Plymouth and Cape Cod in eastern Massachusetts help make the state the nation's second-largest producer of cranberries after Wisconsin.12,13 Only one-tenth of the state is farmland, and half of that farmland is woodland or pasture.14 Overall, more than three-fifths of Massachusetts remains forested.15 Despite its abundant forest resources, the state’s primary biomass resources used for electricity generation are municipal solid waste and landfill gas.16

Massachusetts uses the second-smallest amount of energy among the states to produce a dollar of economic output.

Massachusetts consumes almost 12 times more energy than it produces.17 However, it is among the 10 states with the lowest energy consumption on a per capita basis.18 Additionally, the state’s economy relies on less energy-intensive service industries. Massachusetts ranks second among the states, after New York, in using the smallest amount of energy to produce a dollar of gross domestic product (GDP). Slightly more half of the state’s GDP comes from finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing; professional and business services; state and local governments; and publishing, broadcasting, data processing, and other information services.19,20 The transportation sector leads Massachusetts’ end-use energy consumption, accounting for almost one-third of total state use. The residential and commercial sectors each account for almost three-tenths of total end-use consumption in the state, and the industrial sector uses about one tenth.21

Electricity

Natural gas fueled about two-thirds of Massachusetts’ total electricity net generation in 2019. Renewable resources provided about one-fourth of the state’s total generation, and the largest renewable electricity contribution came from small-scale solar panel systems with less than 1-megawatt of generating capacity. Almost one-tenth of the state’s generation came from nuclear power.22

While most of the utility-scale generating capacity (1 megawatt or larger) scheduled to come online in Massachusetts in 2020 and 2021 will be solar-powered, all new nonrenewable electricity generation planned will be fueled by natural gas.23 Among the New England states, Massachusetts has the most natural gas-fired generating capacity.24

A decade ago, coal fueled about one-fourth of Massachusetts’ power generation, but since mid-2017 there has been no utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation in the state. Petroleum-fired generation, which is largely used to meet peak electricity demand, has continued, but decreased from more than one-fifth of the state’s generation in 2001 to less than 1% in 2019.25 In 2019, Massachusetts received almost one-tenth of its electricity generation from the Pilgrim nuclear power plant, located in Plymouth on Cape Cod Bay. Because of economic factors, however, the state’s only nuclear power plant ceased generating electricity in May 2019 and is in the process of decommissioning.26,27,28

Massachusetts is part of the ISO-New England (ISO-NE) regional electricity market. ISO-NE has promoted demand response programs to maintain the reliability of the electricity grid. Industrial and commercial consumers in Massachusetts have committed to substantial power reductions during demand peaks and emergencies.29 Massachusetts is also part of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a ten-state cooperative effort to limit and reduce carbon emissions from power plants.30 With its declining use of coal and petroleum for electricity generation, Massachusetts was on track to reduce its total greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 by 25% from the state’s 1990 level. The state has set a new goal to have net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.31,32

Massachusetts uses about twice as much electricity than is generated in the state.

Overall, about twice as much electricity is consumed in Massachusetts than is generated in the state and needed electricity generated in nearby states is brought in over the regional grid.33,34 However, on a per capita basis, Massachusetts’ electricity consumption, as measured by retail sales, is among the lowest five states.35 One in six Massachusetts households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.36 Electricity use for air conditioning is relatively low because of the mild Massachusetts summers.37

Renewable energy

All utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) renewable power generation in Massachusetts came from hydroelectric and biomass facilities until 2008, when solar and wind-powered generating units came online. By 2019, about 23% of the state’s net generation, including small-scale generation, was produced by renewable resources, primarily from solar power.38,39 By the end of 2019, Massachusetts ranked eighth in the nation in combined utility-scale and small-scale solar generating capacity with about 2,540 megawatts installed.40 Massachusetts also ranked eighth in the amount of solar power produced, accounting for about 14% of the state’s net generation.41

In 2019, hydropower supplied the second-largest amount of renewably sourced net electricity in Massachusetts and accounted for slightly more than 4% of the state’s generation.42 The state has about 30 hydroelectric power plants, including two pumped storage facilities.43 In the 19th century, many dams were built on the state’s rivers to provide mechanical power to industrial mills. South Hadley Falls, the highest falls on the Connecticut River, is in central Massachusetts near the city of Holyoke. The state’s oldest operating hydroelectric power plant, built in 1893, is located there.44,45,46

Biomass has been used for power generation in Massachusetts for decades and was the third-largest source for the state’s renewable-sourced electricity in 2019, and provided about 4% of the state’s net generation .47,48 The biomass power plants with the highest capacities are fueled with municipal solid waste.49

Massachusetts plans to have 3,200 megawatts of offshore wind power generating capacity by 2035.

In mid-2020, Massachusetts had two dozen utility-scale wind power facilities online that had a combined 106 megawatts of generating capacity. Wind power accounted for nearly 1% of the state’s net generation in 2019.50,51 Most of the onshore commercial wind development in Massachusetts has taken place along the coast, but about two-fifths of the generating capacity is in two projects in the mountains near the state’s northwestern border. The best offshore wind resources are around Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.52,53 Massachusetts’ first offshore wind farm, which is expected to have 800 megawatts of generating capacity and could provide power to over 400,000 customers, is in development 15 miles south of Martha’s Vineyard and is scheduled to begin operating in late 2023.54,55,56 In 2016, legislation was enacted that required the state’s utilities to procure a total of 1,600 megawatts of offshore wind capacity by 2027. In 2018, the amount was increased to 3,200 megawatts by 2035.57,58,59

Massachusetts first adopted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2002, and it was amended in 2018 to increase the RPS requirements. The RPS requires 35% of the electricity sold in the state to be generated by renewable resources by 2030, and increase by 1% annually thereafter with no end date. A portion of all power sales must be generated by solar and waste energy.60,61,62 In 2017, Massachusetts established a Clean Energy Standard (CES) similar to the RPS. The CES sets a minimum percentage of electricity sales that suppliers must obtain from clean energy sources that have net lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of at least 50% below those from the most efficient natural gas-fueled generator. Eligible technologies include hydroelectric and nuclear power. The CES requirement began at 16% of sales from clean energy by 2018, and after that it requires increases of 2% annually to reach a goal of 80% in 2050.63

Petroleum

One of the U.S. Department of Energy’s three Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve storage sites is located in Revere, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts has no crude oil production, reserves, or refineries.64,65 The Port of Boston, the oldest continuously active commercial port in the nation, has petroleum product terminals that supply most of the demand in Massachusetts.66 Refined products are transported to Boston Harbor by ship or barge, mainly from refineries in Canada, Europe, and other regions of the United States, for redistribution inland.67,68 Additionally, two small-capacity petroleum product pipelines run from ports in Connecticut and Rhode Island into central Massachusetts. Petroleum products also arrive by truck.69,70

More than three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in Massachusetts is used by the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.71,72 Massachusetts is one of the few states that require the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to limit smog and toxic pollutant formation.73,74 Most of the state’s remaining petroleum use is in the residential sector, where about one in four households is heated with fuel oil, making Massachusetts, like much of New England, vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months.75,76 The U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avert heating fuel shortages. The reserve holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in terminals at three locations in the Northeast, one of which is in Revere, Massachusetts.77,78 All the northeastern states, including Massachusetts, required the use of ULSD—which has sulfur levels that are no greater than 15 parts per million—for heating by July 2018.79 Massachusetts is also home to one of three storage sites that make up the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, which was created to counter motor fuel supply disruptions caused by hurricanes, winter storms, and other natural events.80

Natural gas

Massachusetts has no natural gas reserves or production.81,82 However, the state consumes nearly half of the natural gas used in New England, which is roughly in proportion to Massachusetts’ share of the region’s population.83,84 In 2019, the residential sector accounted for the largest share of natural gas consumption in Massachusetts, about three-tenths of the state total.85 More than half of the households in the state rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.86 The commercial sector and the electric power sector each accounted for slightly less than three-tenths of the state’s natural gas consumption followed by the industrial sector at about one-tenth.87

Massachusetts receives its natural gas supplies by pipeline from other states and by tankers as liquefied natural gas (LNG), mainly from the Caribbean. Most of the natural gas that enters Massachusetts by pipeline comes through New York and Rhode Island. The natural gas that is not consumed in the state is typically sent by pipeline to Rhode Island and New Hampshire. A small amount is sent to Connecticut.88 Most of the natural gas delivered to Massachusetts is produced in the Marcellus Shale basin in Pennsylvania, and shipments from the region to New England have increased in recent years.89,90 A pipeline that traverses Maine and New Hampshire also brings in offshore, onshore, and LNG-sourced natural gas from Canada.91,92

Massachusetts has New England’s only operating LNG import terminals.

Massachusetts has the only LNG import terminals in New England, one at Everett on Boston Harbor and two offshore in Massachusetts Bay.93,94,95,96 Everett received the most LNG imports of any U.S. terminal, about two-thirds of the total LNG imports in 2019. The terminal is connected to regional pipelines, a natural gas utility, and a power plant. LNG is also transported by truck to storage tanks for several local natural gas distribution companies. The Northeast Gateway, one of the two offshore terminals, accounted for nearly one-tenth of U.S. LNG imports.97,98,99,100 The other offshore terminal, Neptune Deepwater Port, has been inactive since it received initial LNG deliveries at the time of the facility’s completion in 2010.101 LNG provides about 28% of New England’s heating fuel supply to local natural gas distribution companies during the winter.102

Like other New England states, Massachusetts has no underground natural gas storage and depends on storage capacity in other states to meet peak winter natural gas demand for heating and for electricity generation.103 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Massachusetts and throughout New England, assurance of natural gas supply remains a critical energy issue for the region.104 Pipeline infrastructure has been added to transport natural gas to the Northeast from the productive Marcellus and Utica shales of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio.105,106

Coal

Massachusetts does not have any coal mines, reserves, or production.107 A small amount of coal is brought into the state from Pennsylvania to meet the limited needs of industrial plants.108 There was no coal-fired electricity generation in Massachusetts in 2019.109 The state’s last operational coal-fired generating plant, the 1,488-megawatt Brayton Point plant located on the coast at Somerset, was permanently shut down at the end of May 2017.110 Two other coal-fired power plants were closed in 2014: the Mount Tom plant near Holyoke and the Salem Harbor plant north of Boston.111 About 1,600 households, which is less than 0.1% of the state total, use coal as their primary heating fuel.112

Endnotes

1 World Population Review, US States by Density 2020, accessed July 20, 2020.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Massachusetts Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
3 NETSTATE, The Geography of Massachusetts, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Maps, Biomass Maps, Wind Maps, accessed July 20, 2020.
5 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Division, Solar Information & Programs, accessed July 20, 2020.
6 Massachusetts Clean Energy Center, Commonwealth Wind, accessed July 20, 2020.
7 Connecticut River Conservancy, Watershed Facts, accessed July 20, 2020.
8 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013–18.
9 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, 2013–18.
10 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
11 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, Massachusetts’ Climate, The CoCoRaHS State Climate Series, accessed July 20, 2020.
12 Beckius, Kim Knox, “Visiting Cranberry Bogs in Massachusetts,” Tripsavvy, updated May 10, 2019.
13 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2019 State Agriculture Overview, Massachusetts.
14 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, State Fact Sheets: Massachusetts, Farm Characteristics, updated May 13, 2020.
15 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MassWoods, Massachusetts Forests, accessed July 20, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Massachusetts, All statistics in table, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, 2016–19.
23 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Select All.
24 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (May2020), Table 6.2.C.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, Annual, Monthly, 2001–20.
26 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Massachusetts, updated August 23, 2018.
27 Entergy, “Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Shut Down Permanently,” Press Release (May 31, 2019).
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, Annual, Monthly, 2016–20.
29 ISO New England, New England Power Grid State Profiles 2018–2019 (January 2019).
30 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Welcome, accessed July 26, 2020.
31 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, GHG Emissions and Mitigation Policies, Policy Implementation Overview, Achieved and Projected GHG Emissions Reductions in 2016 and 2020.
32 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, “Baker-Polito Administration Issues Letter Establishing Net Zero Emissions Target,” Press Release (April 22, 2020).
33 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile, 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
34 ISO New England, New England Power Grid State Profiles 2018–2019 (January 2019).
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
36 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Massachusetts.
37 U.S. EIA, Household Energy Use in Massachusetts, accessed July 21, 2020.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, 2001–19.
39 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Select All.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table1.17.B.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, 2016–19.
43 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
44 Connecticut River Watershed Council, Watershed Facts, accessed July 24, 2020.
45 Lotspeich, Charlie, “Water Power to the People of Holyoke,” Valley Advocate (June 4, 2009).
46 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
47 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, 2016–19.
49 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass.
50 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, accessed July 26, 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Massachusetts, 2016–19.
52 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plant, accessed July 26, 2020.
53 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, Maps & Data, accessed July 27, 2020.
54 Kumagai, Jean, “With Vineyard Wind, the U.S. Finally Goes Big on Offshore Wind Power,” IEEE Spectrum (January 1, 2019).
55 Vineyard Wind, Vineyard Wind 1, Overview, accessed July 27, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of May 2020, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine.
57 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Chapter 188, An Act to Promote Energy Diversity, approved August 8, 2016, Section 83C (b).
58 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Chapter 227, An Act to Advance Clean Energy, approved August 9, 2018, Section 21 (a).
59 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Offshore Wind Study (May 2019), p. 20.
60 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, Renewable Portfolio Standard, accessed July 27, 2020.
61 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Division, Program Summaries, accessed July 27, 2020.
62 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Massachusetts Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated July 9, 2018.
63 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Division, Program Summaries, Clean Energy Standard, accessed July 27, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013–18.
65 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2015–20.
66 Boston Harbor Now, Boston’s Working Port: A Foundation for Innovation (January 2018), p. 11, 28–29.
67 U.S. EIA, Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, 2014–19.
68 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports (January 2019–April 2020).
69 Hansen, Lee, “Buckeye Pipeline,” Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research (October 1, 2013), Summary.
70 Rhode Island Department of Administration, Division of Planning, Energy 2035, Rhode Island State Energy Plan (October 8, 2015), p. 14–15.
71 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
73 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
74 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, “Opt-In” Areas, accessed July 21, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Massachusetts.
77 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, History, accessed July 21, 2020.
78 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, About NEHHOR, accessed July 21, 2020.
79 New England Fuel Institute, EPA and DOT document notification requirements for 15 PPM heating oil, May 18, 2018.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, About NGSR, accessed July 21, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013–18.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Consumption, Annual, 2014–19.
84 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, National Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2014–19.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Massachusetts.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2014–19.
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