Massachusetts State Energy Profile



Massachusetts Quick Facts

  • The liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Everett, Massachusetts, received 99% of the nation's total LNG imports in 2021.
  • In 2020, Massachusetts used less energy to produce a dollar of GDP than any other state except New York.
  • Massachusetts consumes almost three times as much electricity as the state produces, but it uses less electricity per capita than all but four other states.
  • In 2021, solar energy accounted for 20% of Massachusetts' total in-state electricity net generation and accounted for more than three-fifths of the solar electricity net generation in New England. Massachusetts also ranked eighth in the nation in net generation from all solar in 2021.
  • In 2021, more than half of Massachusetts households used natural gas for home heating, about one in four relied on fuel oil, and more than one in six households used electricity.

Last Updated: October 20, 2022



Data

Last Update: November 17, 2022 | Next Update: December 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.0 million 2.1% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 3.7 million 2.2% Sep-22  
Economy Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 636.5 billion 12 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 61,863 million 15 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 82,475 2 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 54,127 million miles 19 2020  
Land in Farms 0.5 million acres 46 2017  
Climate Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 50.8 degrees Fahrenheit 31 2021  
Precipitation 54.8 inches 7 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 93.75 /barrel Aug-22  
Natural Gas Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 19.89 /thousand cu ft $ 10.49 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Residential $ 25.84 /thousand cu ft $ 25.61 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Coal Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector 0 $/million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Aug-22  
Electricity Massachusetts U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 26.66 cents/kWh 15.95 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Commercial 19.44 cents/kWh 13.45 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Industrial 19.39 cents/kWh 9.72 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 12,814 MW 1.1% Aug-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 74 trillion Btu 0.1% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2021 find more
Coal -- -- 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 2,433 thousand MWh 0.6% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Massachusetts U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.4 % 0.2 % Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 83.2 % 45.7 % Aug-22 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 20.5 % Aug-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 16.6 % Aug-22 find more
Renewables 15.0 % 16.4 % Aug-22  
Stocks Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 3 thousand barrels * Aug-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 698 thousand barrels 0.8% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Aug-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 575 thousand barrels 2.7% Aug-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Aug-22 find more
Fueling Stations Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,982 stations 1.8% 2019  
Propane 30 stations 1.2% 2022  
Electricity 2,098 stations 4.5% 2022  
E85 5 stations 0.1% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 10 stations 0.8% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,278 trillion Btu 27 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 182 million Btu 47 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 20,902 million 16 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,977 31 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 412 trillion Btu 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 369 trillion Btu 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 138 trillion Btu 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 360 trillion Btu 1.5% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 7,589 million 2.9% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,218 million 3.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,814 million 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 6,281 million 1.5% 2020 find more
by Source Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 89 million barrels 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 389 billion cu ft 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 0 million short tons 0.0% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 8,349 million 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,794 million 2.8% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 0 million 0.0% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 17 thousand barrels 0.9% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas 15,057 million cu ft 1.1% Aug-22 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Aug-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Massachusetts U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 51.2 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 23.5 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 17.8 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 4.7 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 2.8 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,875 MW 0.6% Aug-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 62 thousand MWh 0.3% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 214 thousand MWh 0.5% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 88 thousand MWh 1.8% Aug-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 285 thousand MWh 4.7% Aug-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Massachusetts U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.4 % 37 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 5,534 thousand barrels 22 2020  
Total Emissions Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 63.3 million metric tons 1.2% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Massachusetts Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 7,958 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 20, 2022

Overview

Massachusetts, home to almost half of New England's residents, is one of the most densely populated states in the nation.1,2 Most of the state's residents live in the eastern half of the state, particularly around Boston on the Atlantic coast.3 Elevations in Massachusetts rise from sea level around the coastal marshes of Cape Cod in the east to almost 3,500 feet in the Berkshire and Taconic Mountains in the west.4 Massachusetts has no fossil fuel reserves, but the state does have renewable energy resources, especially from solar energy.5 Solar arrays and rooftop panels contribute the largest share of Massachusetts' renewable generation and are found statewide.6,7 Offshore winds in the east and onshore winds on the state's western mountain ridges provide Massachusetts with substantial wind power potential.8 More than three-fifths of Massachusetts is forested, but, despite its abundant forest resources, the state's primary biomass resource used for electricity generation is municipal solid waste.9,10 Biomass, primarily from urban waste, fuels several power plants in the eastern half of the state.11 The region's longest river, the Connecticut, cuts across central Massachusetts and, along with other rivers, provides the state with hydropower resources.12

Massachusetts summers are generally mild and mid-winter temperatures are often below freezing, but rarely fall below zero. Precipitation, as rain or snow, is equally distributed throughout the year.13 Although only one-tenth of the state is farmland, and half of that farmland is woodland or pasture, farming occurs in many of the state's counties, especially in the fertile Connecticut River valley in the center of the state.14,15 The ocean-moderated climate and coastal bogs of Plymouth and Cape Cod in eastern Massachusetts help make the state the nation's second-largest producer of cranberries after Wisconsin.16,17

Massachusetts uses less energy per dollar of economic output than all but New York and the District of Columbia.

Massachusetts' residential sector accounted for about one-third of the state's total energy use in 2021. The commercial sector and the transportation sector each used slightly less than three-tenths, and the industrial sector accounted for about one-tenth.18 Although Massachusetts consumes about 17 times more energy than it produces, it is among the five states with the lowest per capita energy consumption, in part because the state's economy relies on less energy-intensive service industries.19,20 In 2021, finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing accounted for almost one-fourth of Massachusetts' gross domestic product (GDP), and professional and business services accounted for about one-fifth. Overall, service industries accounted for more than three-fourths of state GDP.21 In 2020, Massachusetts used less energy to produce a dollar of gross domestic product than all but New York and the District of Columbia.22

Electricity

Natural gas fueled more than two-thirds of Massachusetts' total in-state electricity net generation in 2021, and as of June 2022, the state had two-fifths of the natural gas-fired generating capacity in New England, the largest share in the region.23,24 In 2021, renewable resources provided nearly three-tenths of Massachusetts' total in-state generation, most of it from solar energy. Small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) solar photovoltaic (PV) systems account for almost two-thirds of the state's total solar capacity and accounted for nearly three-fifths of the state's solar electricity net generation in 2021.25,26 Utility-scale solar capacity has increased rapidly, and more than 190 megawatts have come online since January 2021. Currently, all of the state's planned electricity generation additions will be fueled by renewable energy or natural gas.27

In 2020, Massachusetts consumed almost three times as much electricity as it generated.

In 2001, coal fueled almost three-tenths of Massachusetts' electricity net generation, but since mid-2017 there has been no utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) coal-fired electricity generation in the state. Petroleum-fired generation, which primarily is used to meet peak electricity demand during winter, has decreased from more than one-fifth of the state's net generation in 2001 to less than 0.5% in 2021. Before 2019, Massachusetts received between one-tenth and one-fifth of its electricity generation from the Pilgrim nuclear power plant, located in Plymouth on Cape Cod Bay. Because of economic factors, the plant ceased generating electricity in May 2019 and is in the process of decommissioning.28 Overall, in 2021, Massachusetts' total in-state electricity net generation was half of what it was in 2010, in part because a reduction in fossil fuel-fired generation during the preceding 10 years, the retirement of the state's only nuclear power plant in mid-2019, as well as decreased electricity demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.29,30 Massachusetts is part of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), created in 2005, an 11-state cooperative effort to limit and reduce carbon emissions from power plants.31 With its declining use of coal and petroleum for electricity generation, the state has reduced its total greenhouse gas emissions, and in 2019, Massachusetts was among the lowest three-fifths of the states in carbon dioxide emissions.32,33 In 2020, the Governor's Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs set a new goal of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.34

Massachusetts' commercial sector accounts for almost half of the state's electricity retail sales, and the residential sector accounts for two-fifths.35 However, fewer than one in five Massachusetts households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, and electricity use for air conditioning is relatively low because of the mild Massachusetts summers.36,37 The industrial sector accounts for one-eighth of state electricity purchases, and the transportation sector uses less than 1%.38 Massachusetts' total electricity consumption, as measured by retail sales per capita, is less than in all but four other states.39 Even so, in 2020 Massachusetts consumed almost three times as much electricity as it generated, and additional electricity was brought in over the regional grid.40,41

Renewable energy

Massachusetts plans to acquire 5,600 megawatts of offshore wind power by 2027.

In 2021, renewable resources supplied 29% of Massachusetts' total in-state electricity net generation, and renewables accounted for 25% of the state's total generating capacity.42 All utility-scale renewable power generation in Massachusetts came from hydroelectric and biomass facilities until 2008, when solar and wind-powered generating units came online. By 2021, almost one-fifth of the state's total net generation, including small-scale generation, came from solar power, and the state ranked ninth in the nation in the amount of electricity generated from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels.43,44 As of mid-2022, the state had about 3,178 megawatts of installed solar capacity.45

Biomass has been used for power generation in Massachusetts for decades and was the second-largest source for the state's renewable-sourced electricity in 2021, when it provided about 5% of the total in-state electricity net generation.46,47 Massachusetts' biomass power plants have a total of about 284 megawatts of capacity. The biomass plants with the highest capacities are fueled with municipal solid waste.48,49 Hydropower supplied the third-largest amount of in-state renewable electricity and accounted for about 4% of the state's total net generation.50 There are 31 conventional hydroelectric power plants in Massachusetts and two hydroelectric pumped storage facilities. In the 19th century, many dams were built on the state's rivers to provide mechanical power to industrial mills. South Hadley Falls, the highest falls on the Connecticut River, is in central Massachusetts near the city of Holyoke. The state's oldest operating hydroelectric power plant, built in 1893, is located there.51,52,53

Wind power accounted for 1% of Massachusetts' total net generation in 2021.54 The state has 23 utility-scale wind power facilities with a combined 106 megawatts of generating capacity.55,56 Most of the onshore commercial wind development in Massachusetts is along the coast, but the largest wind farms and the largest share of the state's wind generating capacity, about two-fifths, is at two projects in the mountains near the state's northwestern border.57 In 2016, the state enacted legislation that required utilities to conduct competitive solicitations for offshore wind capacity and to enter into cost-effective, long-term contracts for offshore wind energy generation equal to about 1,600 megawatts by mid-2027. In 2018, the state's Department of Energy Resources was given the authority to require an additional 1,600 megawatts by 2035.58,59,60 Massachusetts has since increased its offshore wind energy goals and now intends to solicit proposals for 5,600 megawatts of offshore wind power by 2027.61 The best offshore wind resources are around Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.62 Massachusetts' first offshore wind farm, which is expected to have 800 megawatts of generating capacity, is in development 15 miles south of Martha's Vineyard and is scheduled to begin operating in 2024.63,64 Additional wind projects are in development in the federal offshore areas south of Martha's Vineyard.65

Massachusetts' renewable portfolio standard (RPS), first adopted in 2003 and then expanded in 2009, is a two-tier system that applies to investor-owned utilities and retail electricity suppliers. Class I applies to new renewable resource facilities and Class II applies to existing facilities. The RPS required that providers acquire 15% of sales from Class I renewable resources by 2015 and then increased by 1% per year thereafter. A portion of all power sales must come from solar and waste energy.66 Massachusetts also has an Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard that required 5% of the state's electricity come from alternative energy sources by 2020, increasing by 0.25% per year after that. Alternative energy sources include combined heat and power (CHP) projects and renewable technologies, like biomass and geothermal heat pumps, that generate useful thermal energy.67 The state also has a Clean Energy Standard (CES) similar to the RPS. The CES requires that a minimum percentage of electricity sales come from clean energy sources, including hydroelectric and nuclear power. Those resources must have net lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of at least 50% below those from the most efficient natural gas-fueled generator. The CES required 16% of sales from clean energy by 2018 and then required annual increases of 2% with a final goal of 80% in 2050.68

Petroleum

One of the three Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve storage sites is located in Revere, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts has no crude oil production, reserves, or refineries.69,70 The Port of Boston, one of the nation's oldest seaports, has storage terminals that supply most of the petroleum products used in Massachusetts.71 Refined products are transported to Boston Harbor by ship or barge from refineries in the United States, Canada, Europe, and other regions of the world for redistribution inland.72,73 Additionally, two small-capacity petroleum product pipelines run from ports in Connecticut and Rhode Island to terminals in central Massachusetts. Petroleum products also enter Massachusetts by truck.74,75

The transportation sector uses 75% of the petroleum consumed in Massachusetts, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.76,77 Massachusetts is one of the few states that require the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to limit toxic pollutants and smog formation.78,79 Most of the state's remaining petroleum use, about 16%, occurs in the residential sector, where almost 3 in 10 households heat with petroleum products.80 The industrial sector consumes about 5% and the commercial sector uses almost all the rest. The electric power sector uses a very small amount to meet increased electricity demand on high use days.81

Massachusetts, like much of New England, is vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months. In 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to protect against heating fuel shortages. The reserve holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in terminals at three locations in the Northeast, one of which is in Revere, Massachusetts. That site can store 400,000 barrels of ULSD.82 All the northeastern states, including Massachusetts, require the use of ULSD—which has sulfur levels that are no greater than 15 parts per million—for heating.83 In 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy also created the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve to counter motor fuel supply disruptions caused by hurricanes, winter storms, and other natural events. Massachusetts became home to one of the three storage sites that make up that 1-million-barrel federal Reserve.84

Natural gas

Massachusetts has New England’s only operating LNG import terminals.

Massachusetts does not have any natural gas reserves or production.85,86 The state receives its natural gas supply from interstate pipelines and liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals. Pipeline deliveries of natural gas have shifted as production from the Marcellus and Utica shales in the Appalachians has offset shipments from other regions.87 Natural gas also comes from offshore Nova Scotia in Canada.88 In recent years, pipeline infrastructure has been added to transport natural gas deliveries to the Northeast.89 Most of the natural gas that enters Massachusetts by pipeline comes through New York and Rhode Island.90 Additional pipeline deliveries come via a pipeline that traverses Maine and New Hampshire to deliver offshore, onshore, and LNG-sourced natural gas from Canada.91 The natural gas that is not consumed in the state is typically sent by pipeline to Rhode Island and New Hampshire. A small amount is sent to Connecticut.92

Although Massachusetts receives most of its natural gas supplies by pipeline through other states, natural gas also arrives by tanker at the state's LNG terminals. Because of New England's limited natural gas pipeline infrastructure, LNG imports help to meet natural gas demand in the region.93 Massachusetts has the only LNG import terminals in New England, one at Everett on Boston Harbor and two offshore in Massachusetts Bay, only one of which is active.94,95,96,97 In 2021, U.S. LNG imports were less than 3% of their 2007 peak.98 However, in 2021, the Everett terminal received 99% of total U.S. LNG imports, almost all of it from Trinidad and Tobago.99,100 The Everett terminal is connected to regional pipelines, a natural gas utility, and a power plant. LNG is also transported by truck to storage tanks for several local natural gas distribution companies. The Northeast Gateway, one of the two offshore terminals, did not receive any LNG imports in 2020 or 2021, but it did receive a shipment in early 2022. The other offshore terminal, Neptune Deepwater Port, has been inactive since it received initial LNG deliveries at the time of the facility's completion in 2010. LNG provides more than one-fourth of New England's natural gas supplies during peak heating demand days in the winter.101 Like other New England states, Massachusetts has no underground natural gas storage and depends on storage capacity in other states for the natural gas needed to meet peak winter demand for heating and for electricity generation.102 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Massachusetts and throughout New England, assurance of natural gas supply remains a critical energy issue for the region.103

Massachusetts consumers typically account for nearly half of the natural gas used in New England.104 In 2021, 31% of Massachusetts natural gas deliveries went to the residential sector.105 Slightly more than half of households in the state rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.106 Although the electric power sector was the largest consumer of natural gas for almost two decades, it has used less than the residential sector since 2019. In 2021, the electric power sector accounted for about 30% of the natural gas delivered to consumers, nearly as much as to the residential sector.107 The commercial sector consumed 26%, and the industrial sector used about 13%.108

Coal

Massachusetts does not have any coal mines, reserves, or production.109 There is no longer any utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation in Massachusetts.110 The coal-fired Somerset power plant near the Rhode Island border closed in 2011. Two other coal-fired power plants closed in 2014—the Mount Tom plant near Holyoke and the Salem Harbor plant north of Boston.111 The state's last operational coal-fired generating plant, the 1,488-megawatt Brayton Point plant located on the coast at Somerset, was permanently shut down at the end of May 2017.112

Endnotes

1 Statista, Population density in the U.S. by federal states including the District of Columbia in 2021.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Vermont; Rhode Island; New Hampshire; Maine; Massachusetts; Connecticut, Population estimates July 1, 2021.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Massachusetts Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
4 NETSTATE, The Geography of Massachusetts, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves and Environment, accessed September 9, 2022.
6 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Massachusetts, Net generation for all sectors, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2021.
7 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Solar Power Plant Map Layer, accessed September 9, 2022.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, accessed September 9, 2022.
9 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MassWoods, Massachusetts Forests, accessed September 9, 2022.
10 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
11 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed September 9, 2022.
12 Connecticut River Conservancy, Watershed Facts, accessed September 9, 2022.
13 Massachusetts Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, "Climate of Massachusetts," accessed September 9, 2022.
14 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, State Fact Sheets: Massachusetts, Farm Characteristics, updated September 7, 2022.
15 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, Geography of Farms, accessed August 22, 2021.
16 Shahbandeh, M., "Total cranberry production in the United States in 2021, by state (in 1,000 barrels)," Statista (May 11, 2022).
17 Beckius, Kim Knox, "Visiting Cranberry Bogs in Massachusetts," Tripsavvy, updated May 10, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
21 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Massachusetts, All statistics in table, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Natural gas, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
24 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2022), Table 6.2.C.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Massachusetts, Net generation for all sectors, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2022), Table 6.2.B.
27 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2022 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of August 2022.
28 Entergy, "Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Shut Down Permanently," Press Release (May 31, 2019).
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-21.
30 Knight, Patrick, "COVID-19 Lowers Electricity Use in New England," Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. (May 18, 2020).
31 Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, accessed September10, 2022.
32 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, GHG Emissions and Mitigation Policies, accessed September10, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2019.
34 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, "Baker-Polito Administration Issues Letter Establishing Net Zero Emissions Target," Press Release (April 22, 2020).
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Massachusetts, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2021.
36 U.S. Census Bureau, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables.
37 U.S. EIA, Household Energy Use in Massachusetts, accessed September10, 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Massachusetts, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2021.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
40 ISO New England, Operating the Power System, accessed September 10, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile, 2020, Tables 1, 10.
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 6.2.A, 6.2.B.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-21.
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table1.17.B.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022) (September 2022), Table 6.2.B.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-21.
47 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2020, Table 5.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2022), Table 6.2.B.
49 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-21.
51 Connecticut River Conservancy, Watershed Facts, accessed September 11, 2022.
52 Lotspeich, Charlie, "Water Power to the People of Holyoke," Valley Advocate (June 4, 2009).
53 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2022), Table 6.2.B.
56 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2022.
57 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed September 12, 2022.
58 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Chapter 188, An Act to Promote Energy Diversity, approved August 8, 2016, Section 83C (b).
59 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Chapter 227, An Act to Advance Clean Energy, approved August 9, 2018, Section 21 (a).
60 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Offshore Wind Study (May 2019), p. 20.
61 Mass.gov, Offshore Wind Update, News (June 23, 2022).
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, Maps & Data, Offshore Wind Speed, accessed September 12, 2022.
63 Vineyard Wind, Vineyard Wind 1, Overview, accessed September 12, 2022.
64 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of July 2022.
65 Mayflower Wind, Project Description, accessed September 12, 2022.
66 DSIRE, Massachusetts Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated July 9, 2018.
67 DSIRE, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, updated May 22, 2017.
68 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Division, Program Summaries, accessed September 12, 2022.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015-20.
70 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2017-22.
71 Boston Harbor Now, Boston's Working Port: A Foundation for Innovation (January 2018), p. 11, 28-29.
72 U.S. EIA, Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, 2016-21.
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74 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Massachusetts Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed September 12, 2022.
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