Idaho State Energy Profile



Idaho Quick Facts

  • In 2021, renewable energy sources generated 74% of the electricity in Idaho, the fourth-highest share of renewable electricity for any state after Vermont, South Dakota, and Washington.
  • Idaho has the lowest average electricity price among the states, in part because of the large amount of electricity that comes from relatively inexpensive hydropower, which accounted for 51% of the state's generation in 2021.
  • Idaho is one of only seven states that generates utility-scale electricity from geothermal energy. In 2021, geothermal energy provided less than 1% of the state's net generation.
  • Per capita natural gas consumption in Idaho ranks among the lowest one-third of the states, despite slightly more than half of Idaho households using natural gas as their primary energy source for heating.
  • Idaho has one ethanol plant with a production capacity of about 60 million gallons per year, which is less than state's annual ethanol consumption of about 82 million gallons.

Last Updated: March 17, 2022



Data

Last Update: January 19, 2022 | Next Update: February 16, 2023

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.9 million 0.6% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 1.0 million 0.6% Nov-22  
Economy Idaho U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 94.3 billion 40 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 10,334 million 36 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 51,379 45 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 17,406 million miles 38 2020  
Land in Farms 11.7 million acres 24 2017  
Climate Idaho U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 45.4 degrees Fahrenheit 42 2021  
Precipitation 21.0 inches 39 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 86.62 /barrel Oct-22  
Natural Gas Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.02 /thousand cu ft $ 6.83 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Residential $ 9.60 /thousand cu ft $ 18.63 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Coal Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector 0 $/million Btu $ 2.46 /million Btu Oct-22  
Electricity Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.24 cents/kWh 16.09 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Commercial 8.61 cents/kWh 13.04 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Industrial 6.24 cents/kWh 8.61 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 5,078 MW 0.4% Oct-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 152 trillion Btu 0.2% 2020 find more
Crude Oil * * Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2021 find more
Coal -- -- 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,094 thousand MWh 0.3% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Idaho U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.0 % 0.3 % Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 28.3 % 42.4 % Oct-22 find more
Coal-Fired NM 17.2 % Oct-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.8 % Oct-22 find more
Renewables 71.6 % 20.7 % Oct-22  
Stocks Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 42 thousand barrels 0.3% Oct-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 170 thousand barrels 0.2% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Oct-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers * * Oct-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Oct-22 find more
Fueling Stations Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 662 stations 0.6% 2019  
Propane 24 stations 1.0% 2022  
Electricity 103 stations 0.2% 2022  
E85 3 stations 0.1% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 2 stations 0.2% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Idaho U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 550 trillion Btu 41 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 298 million Btu 21 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,949 million 39 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,220 23 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 134 trillion Btu 0.7% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 90 trillion Btu 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 169 trillion Btu 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 158 trillion Btu 0.6% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,241 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 711 million 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,054 million 0.6% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,942 million 0.7% 2020 find more
by Source Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 35 million barrels 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 133 billion cu ft 0.4% 2021 find more
    »  Coal * * 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,437 million 0.7% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 646 million 0.3% 2021 find more
    »  Coal $ 6 million * 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 0 thousand barrels 0.0% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas 2,493 million cu ft 0.3% Oct-22 find more
Coal NM NM Oct-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Idaho U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 50.7 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 1.7 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 35.1 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 5.5 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 7.0 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,935 MW 1.3% Oct-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 60 million gal/year 0.3% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 463 thousand MWh 3.2% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 283 thousand MWh 0.6% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 37 thousand MWh 0.9% Oct-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 17 thousand MWh 0.3% Oct-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 365 thousand barrels 0.1% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Idaho U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 28.7 % 8 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,950 thousand barrels 37 2020  
Total Emissions Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 20.1 million metric tons 0.4% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 2,573 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2021  
Sulfur Dioxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2021  
Nitrogen Oxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 17, 2022

Overview

Idaho has many renewable energy resources, but few fossil fuel reserves.

Idaho, known as the Gem State, is rich in silver, phosphate, gold, cobalt, and many other minerals, but the state has few fossil fuel reserves.1,2,3,4 Idaho's energy potential lies in its substantial renewable resources, including hydropower, wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal.5 Mountains cover much of Idaho from its border with Canada in the north to Nevada and Utah in the south. The mountains capture moisture-laden clouds that move east from the Pacific Ocean, and produce deep mountain snowfalls that feed the state's fast-running rivers.6 Idaho's river valleys, which offered passage through the rugged mountains for early pioneer settlers, today give the state a wealth of hydroelectric and wind energy resources.7,8,9 The plains flanking Idaho's Snake River stretch in an arc all the way across the southern part of the state from the Teton Mountains on the Wyoming border to Hells Canyon at the Oregon border.10 The valleys of the Snake River and its tributaries are home to most of Idaho's small population, more than two-fifths of whom live in the Boise area. Vast stretches of Idaho remain wilderness.11,12,13

About 70% of the energy consumed in Idaho comes from out of state.14 Idaho's energy consumption per capita ranks near the middle of the 50 states, and the energy intensity of its economy—the amount of energy used to produce each dollar of GDP—is near the top one-third of the states.15,16 The industrial sector and the transportation sector each account for about 30% of the state's total energy use, followed by the residential sector at 24% and the commercial sector at 16%.17 Real estate, manufacturing, healthcare, and construction are among the largest contributors to Idaho's GDP. Other contributors to the state's economy are the energy-intensive agriculture, food processing, pulp and paper, and mining sectors.18,19

Renewable energy

In 2021, Idaho ranked fourth among the states in the share of electricity generated from renewables.

In 2021, renewable energy generated 74% of Idaho's total in-state electricity, including from small-scale solar panel generating systems (less than 1 megawatt capacity), which is the fourth-highest share for any state, after Vermont, South Dakota, and Washington. Most of Idaho's renewable electricity comes from hydropower.20,21 Hydropower and wind energy fuel 5 of Idaho's 10 largest generating facilities by capacity. Based on actual generation, 8 of the largest 10 power plants produce electricity from renewable resources.22

In 2021, hydropower provided 51% of Idaho's total in-state electricity generation.23 Just over half of Idaho's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generating capacity is at hydroelectric power plants, and 6 of the state's 10 largest power plants ranked by the actual amount of electricity generated are hydroelectric facilities.24,25 The nation's largest privately-owned conventional hydroelectric generating facility, the Brownlee plant, is on the Idaho-Oregon border. The three-dam complex, owned by Idaho Power, is on the Snake River in Hells Canyon, which is the deepest river gorge in North America.26,27

Although only a small amount of the state's land area is suitable for wind power development, Idaho has substantial wind energy potential in the southern half of the state along the Snake River and on mountain ridges across the state.28 In 2021, about 16% of the state's total in-state electricity net generation came from wind facilities, whose total combined generating capacity was nearly 1,000 megawatts. Idaho's electricity generation from utility-scale wind power farms began in 2006. The state's 10th-largest electricity generating plant is a 125-megawatt wind facility.29,30,31 Idaho's wind farms are located on the Snake River Plain. 32

Idaho's first utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation was in 2016, when three solar power generating facilities came online.33,34 Solar heating and small-scale, customer-sited solar panel generating systems can be found in the state's cities and rural areas. About 90% of Idaho's solar PV electricity generation came from utility-scale facilities in 2021, when total solar power accounted for 4% of the state's net generation.35,36 37

About two-fifths of Idaho is covered by forests.38 Biomass, primarily wood waste from those forests, provided 3% of the state's total in-state electricity generation in 2021. Other waste biomass and landfill gas also generate electricity in the state.39,40 Idaho's biomass resources provide feedstock for the state's three wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of 75,000 tons per year.41

In 2021, Idaho was one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy.42 Although geothermal energy provides less than 1% of the state's net generation, Idaho's volcanic landscape has some of the best geothermal potential in the nation. The state's wealth of hot springs and other geothermal resources have long been used as direct heat sources for aquaculture, greenhouses, spas, resorts, and city district heating. In 2008, the first commercial geothermal power plant in the U.S. Northwest came online in south-central Idaho. The 10-megawatt capacity facility is the state's only geothermal power plant.43,44,45,46

Idaho has no renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring that a specific amount of electricity come from renewables by a certain date.47 The state offers low-interest loans for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and tax deductions for small-scale renewable energy-fueled devices used for residential heating or electricity generation.48,49 Each of Idaho's three investor-owned electric utilities offers net metering programs for small-scale, customer-sited renewable generation. Idaho's commercial, residential, and agricultural customers are all eligible for net metering.50,51,52

Electricity

Hydroelectric power plants typically supplied more than two-thirds of Idaho's in-state generation. However, in recent years, drought and increased generation from other renewables have reduced hydropower's share of the state's total annual generation to slightly more than half. The balance of Idaho's in-state generation is supplied mostly by natural gas and wind power. In 2021, natural gas accounted for about one-fourth of Idaho's electricity generation and wind accounted for more than one-sixth.53

Three large investor-owned electric utilities supply about four-fifths of the state's electricity. About two dozen municipal utilities and rural electric cooperatives provide the rest, and they buy almost all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which markets electricity mainly from hydroelectric facilities at federal dams in the Pacific Northwest.54,55 About one-third of the electricity consumed in Idaho comes over interstate transmission lines from out-of-state generating facilities owned by Idaho utilities and from the BPA.56,57,58

Idaho's only coal-fired power plant is an industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) facility.59 Although coal's share of in-state electricity generation is minimal—about 0.1% in 2021—Idaho's utilities bring in electricity from coal-fired power plants in neighboring states.60,61,62 However, a coal-fired power plant in Oregon that supplied electricity to Idaho closed in 2020, and other coal-fired generation in neighboring states is set to shut down over the next several years. Idaho's largest electric utility plans to end its coal-fired power generation purchases by 2028.63,64,65

The state has no commercial nuclear power plants, but the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a federal nuclear energy research center and one of the state's largest employers, was the site of the nation's first nuclear power plant. It first generated electricity in 1951.66,67,68 Currently, plans are underway to build on the INL site the first power plant with six small modular nuclear reactors—each with 60 megawatts of generating capacity. The power plant, which is scheduled to be online by 2029, will be a smaller, scalable version of the widely-used light water reactor technology.69,70,71,72,73

The region's transmission lines are increasingly congested, and projects are under way to expand capacity both to supply Idaho with electricity and to transport power among several western states including Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon. In the near term, most new generating capacity planned in the region will be fueled by renewable energy sources. The transmission projects are also designed to enable development of the region's remote renewable resources.74,75

Idaho has the lowest average electricity retail price of any state.

Idaho has the lowest average electricity retail price among the states, in part because of the large proportion of generation that comes from relatively inexpensive hydropower.76 In 2021, the largest share of electricity retail sales went to the state's industrial sector—which accounted for 37% of the state's total—followed closely by the residential sector at almost 37% and the commercial sector at 26%.77 About one-third of Idaho households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.78

Petroleum

Idaho has no significant proved crude oil reserves and only a small amount of crude oil production.79,80 Exploration for crude oil began in Idaho in 1903, but, despite promising geology in the state's southeast and southwest, no commercial reserves were discovered or produced until recently.81 Since 2015, the small amounts of crude oil are produced from wells drilled primarily for natural gas.82,83

Idaho has no petroleum refineries.84 Two major petroleum product pipelines cross the state. One pipeline in southern Idaho runs west through the Snake River Valley from refineries in Utah and another pipeline crosses the northern part of the state from refineries in Montana. Only the southern pipeline system delivers refined products to terminals in Idaho.85 The fuel in the northern pipeline is shipped to terminals in Spokane, Washington, and then trucked back to northern Idaho.86

Idaho’s total petroleum consumption is among the lowest 10 states, but its per capita petroleum use is near the national average.

Because of its small population, Idaho's total petroleum consumption is among the lowest 10 states, but its per capita petroleum use is near the national average.87 The transportation sector uses more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state, the industrial sector uses about one-tenth, and the residential and commercial sectors use the rest.88 About 7 in 100 Idaho households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.89 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, but, as is the case in most states, almost all the motor fuel sold in Idaho contains at least 10% ethanol.90,91 The state has one ethanol plant with a production capacity of about 60 million gallons per year, which is less than Idaho's annual ethanol consumption of about 82 million gallons.92,93,94

Natural gas

Idaho does not have any significant natural gas reserves.95 Natural gas discoveries in 2010 led to the state's first commercial natural gas production in 2015.96,97 Output so far is modest and fell sharply in 2020, down about 90% from 2019, due in part to a decline in drilling activity related to lower natural gas prices and less natural gas demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.98,99,100 Idaho consumers receive most of their natural gas supply by interstate pipeline, primarily from Canada and Utah, and about 90% of the natural gas that enters Idaho leaves, mostly to Washington.101,102,103 One pipeline system enters Idaho at its northern border with Canada, crosses the state's panhandle, and continues to Washington, Oregon, and California. Another pipeline system runs from the San Juan Basin in southwestern Colorado across Idaho's Snake River Plain on its way to the Pacific Northwest and Canada. That system is bi-directional, so it can supply natural gas to Idaho either from Canada or from Wyoming and Colorado.104,105,106 Idaho has no natural gas underground storage sites.107

Idaho's per capita natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest one-third of the states, despite the prevalence of natural gas use for heating during the state's extremely cold winters.108 The industrial sector is the largest natural gas-consuming end-use sector in Idaho, making up almost one-third of the state's gas use. The electric power sector is the second-largest gas consuming end-use sector, accounting for slightly more than one-fourth of the state total. The residential sector makes up one-fourth of the state's natural gas use, as slightly more than half of Idaho households use natural gas as their primary energy source for heating. The commercial sector accounts for about one-sixth of natural gas consumption.109,110

Coal

Idaho has a small amount of estimated recoverable coal reserves, but the state does not have any coal production.111,112 There are no utility-owned coal-fired power plants in Idaho, but there is one coal-fueled electricity generating unit with 5 megawatts of capacity at a processing plant in Twin Falls that produces sugar from sugar beets.113 Small amounts of coal are shipped to industrial users in Idaho by rail and truck from Utah and Pennsylvania.114

Endnotes

1 Idaho State University, Idaho Museum of Natural History, Mining in Idaho, accessed February 1, 2022.
2 Holtz, Michael, "Idaho is sitting on One of the Most Important Elements on Earth," The Atlantic (January 24, 2022).
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
4 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020, Tables 7, 10.
5 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy, accessed February 1, 2022.
6 Qualls, Russell, "Idaho Contrasts from Mountains to Plains," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, State Climates Series, accessed February 1, 2022.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Historic Trails, Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide, Along the Snake River Plain Through Idaho, The Tangle of Trails Through Idaho (October 2008), p. 7-10.
8 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Hydroelectric, accessed February 17, 2022.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Idaho, Maps & Data, accessed February 1, 2022.
10 World Atlas, Idaho, accessed February 1, 2022.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Idaho Profile.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Table B01003, Total Population, 2019: ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho and Boise City, ID Metro Area.
13 Sangres.com, National Wilderness Areas in Idaho, accessed February 1, 2022.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
18 NETSTATE, Idaho Economy, accessed February 1, 2022.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Tools, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Idaho, All Statistics in Table, Idaho, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
21 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
22 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
24 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: All, Conventional Hydroelectric.
25 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
26 Idaho Power, Hydroelectric, accessed February 1, 2022.
27 U.S. Forest Service, Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, Hells Canyon Overview, accessed February 1, 2022.
28 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Idaho, Maps and Data, accessed February 1, 2022.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation or all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
30 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
32 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plant, accessed February 1, 2022.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2001-20.
34 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
35 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Solar, accessed February 1, 2022.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
37 Idaho Forest Products Commission, Forest Information Topic: Idaho's Forests, accessed February 2, 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
40 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (February 16, 2022), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, November 2021, Download.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.16.B.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
43 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Geothermal, accessed February 2, 2022.
44 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 41-42.
45 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Geothermal.
46 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2022.
47 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Idaho, Low-Interest Energy Loan Programs, updated January 7, 2021.
48 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Idaho, Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction, updated December 18, 2015.
49 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Idaho Power, Net Metering, updated October 27, 2016.
50 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Rocky Mountain Power, Net Metering, updated October 27, 2016.
51 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Avista Utilities, Net Metering, updated October 27, 2016.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
53 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 10-15, 63.
54 Bonneville Power Administration, About Us, accessed February 2, 2022.
55 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
56 Idaho Power, How We Get Electricity to You, accessed February 2, 2022.
57 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 27-28.
58 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2018-21.
60 Idaho Coal, Our Pathway Away from Coal, accessed February 17, 2022.
61 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Coal, accessed February 2, 2022.
62 Idaho Power, Coal, accessed February 2, 2022.
63 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Montana, Utah, Washington: Technology: Conventional Steam Coal, planned retirement year.
64 Ridler, Keith, "Idaho Power cuts coal by 2028 in plan to state regulators," Associated Press (January 4, 2022).
65 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity, accessed February 3, 2022.
66 Idaho National Laboratory, The World's First Nuclear Power Plant, accessed February 3, 2022.
67 Idaho National Laboratory, "Idaho National Laboratory a Major Contributor to Idaho's Economy," Press Release (February 26, 2019).
68 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Nuclear, accessed February 3, 2022.
69 NuScale, Frequently Asked Questions, 5, Where do you expect the first NuScale plant to be built?, accessed February 3, 2022.
70 UAMPS, Clean Energy News, 19th Edition (December 28, 2021).
71 "Eastern Idaho nuclear project goes from 12 to six reactors," Associated Press (July 19, 2021).
72 Patel, Sonal, "Nuclear Field Activities Completed for Idaho NuScale SMR Project," Power (February 3, 2022).
73 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy Resources, Energy Infrastructure, Transmission Line Projects, accessed February 2, 2022.
74 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Technology: All.
75 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Idaho, Retail Sales of Electricity (million kilowatthours), 2018-21.
77 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho.
78 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2020.
79 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
80 Barton, Mark, "Idaho Geological Survey Oil & Gas Program," Idaho Geological Survey (November 2019), slide 4.
81 Barker, Rocky, "Idaho Has Become an Oil-Producing State," Idaho Statesman (June 28, 2016).
82 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
83 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
84 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Idaho Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 4, accessed February 3, 2022.
85 Sowell, John, "In a state without crude oil or refineries, Idahoans are hit hard at the pump," Idaho Statesman (June 20, 2015).
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho.
89 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements Map, updated January 2018.
90 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
91 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS file.
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
95 Dunnahoe, Tayvis, "Idaho enters ranks of hydrocarbon producing states," Oil and Gas Journal (February 6, 2017).
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Idaho, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
98 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas production decreased by 1% in 2020," Today in Energy (March 2, 2021).
99 U.S. EIA, "In 2020, U.S. natural gas prices were the lowest in decades," Today in Energy (January 7, 2021).
100 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Idaho, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Idaho, Annual, 2016-21.
102 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Idaho, 2015-20.
103 Idaho Public Utilities Commission, Major Natural Gas Pipelines and Local Gas Distribution Companies, accessed February 13, 2022.
104 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 16-18.
105 Williams, Operations, Transmission & Gulf of Mexico, Overview, accessed February 13, 2022.
106 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, 2015-20.
107 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
108 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Idaho, Annual, 2016-21.
109 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
112 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
113 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Idaho, Table DS-9, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.


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