Idaho State Energy Profile



Idaho Quick Facts

  • In 2019, 76% of the electricity generated in Idaho at utility-scale power plants was produced from renewable energy sources, the third-highest share for any state after Vermont and Maine.
  • Idaho is among the five states with the lowest average electricity price, in part because of the large amount of electricity that comes from relatively inexpensive hydropower, which accounted for 56% of the state's generation in 2019.
  • Idaho's small population contributes to it being among the 10 states with the lowest total petroleum consumption, but Idaho's per capita petroleum use is near the national average.
  • Per capita natural gas consumption in Idaho ranks among the lowest one-third of the states, despite about half of Idaho households using natural gas as their primary energy source for heating.
  • Idaho has one ethanol plant with a production capacity of about 60 million gallons per year, which is less than state's annual ethanol consumption of nearly 78 million gallons.

Last Updated: February 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: May 20, 2021 | Next Update: June 17, 2021

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.8 million 0.6% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.9 million 0.6% Mar-21  
Economy Idaho U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 80.9 billion 41 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 8,480 million 38 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 48,616 44 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 18,058 million miles 39 2019  
Land in Farms 11.7 million acres 24 2017  
Climate Idaho U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 44.4 degrees Fahrenheit 43 2020  
Precipitation 22.1 inches 37 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 56.72 /barrel Feb-21  
Natural Gas Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 2.88 /thousand cu ft $ 12.43 /thousand cu ft Feb-21 find more
Residential $ 6.41 /thousand cu ft $ 9.55 /thousand cu ft Feb-21 find more
Coal Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector 0 $/million Btu $ 1.92 /million Btu Feb-21  
Electricity Idaho U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.62 cents/kWh 13.34 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Commercial 7.49 cents/kWh 11.93 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Industrial 5.60 cents/kWh 8.15 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 5,215 MW 0.5% Feb-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 179 trillion Btu 0.2% 2018 find more
Crude Oil * * Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,609 thousand MWh 0.5% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Idaho U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.0 % 0.5 % Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 22.7 % 34.1 % Feb-21 find more
Coal-Fired NM 26.9 % Feb-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 19.3 % Feb-21 find more
Renewables 77.0 % 18.7 % Feb-21  
Stocks Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 322 thousand barrels 2.2% Feb-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 304 thousand barrels 0.3% Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Feb-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers * * Feb-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Feb-21 find more
Fueling Stations Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 662 stations 0.6% 2019  
Propane 27 stations 1.0% 2021  
Electricity 96 stations 0.2% 2021  
E85 3 stations 0.1% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 2 stations 0.2% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Idaho U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 553 trillion Btu 42 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 316 million Btu 24 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 6,917 million 39 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,951 27 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 130 trillion Btu 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 91 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 171 trillion Btu 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 162 trillion Btu 0.6% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,232 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 740 million 0.4% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,217 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 3,728 million 0.6% 2018 find more
by Source Idaho Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 36 million barrels 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 129 billion cu ft 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal * * 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 4,228 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 587 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 6 million * 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 0 thousand barrels 0.0% Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas 2,788 million cu ft 0.3% Feb-21 find more
Coal NM NM Feb-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Idaho U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 50.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 1.5 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 34.4 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 5.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 8.0 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,079 MW 1.5% Feb-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 60 million gal/year 0.3% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 936 thousand MWh 4.2% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 268 thousand MWh 0.8% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 36 thousand MWh 0.8% Feb-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 6 thousand MWh 0.2% Feb-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 1,444 thousand barrels 0.4% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Idaho U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 32.0 % 6 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,001 thousand barrels 38 2019  
Total Emissions Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 19.0 million metric tons 0.4% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Idaho Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 2,293 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 5 thousand metric tons 0.3% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: February 18, 2021

Overview

Idaho has few fossil fuel reserves, but it has many renewable energy resources.

Idaho, known as the Gem State, is rich in silver, phosphate, gold, and many other minerals, but the state has few fossil fuel reserves.1,2,3 Idaho's energy potential lies in its substantial renewable resources, including solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass.4 Mountains cover much of Idaho from its border with Canada in the north to Nevada and Utah in the south. The mountains capture moisture-laden clouds that move east from the Pacific Ocean, and produce deep mountain snowfalls that feed the state's fast-running rivers.5 Idaho's river valleys, which offered passage through the rugged mountains for early pioneer settlers, today give the state a wealth of hydroelectric and wind energy resources.6,7,8 The plains flanking Idaho's Snake River stretch in an arc all the way across the southern part of the state from the Teton Mountains on the Wyoming border to Hells Canyon at the Oregon border.9 The valleys of the Snake River and its tributaries are home to most of Idaho's population, more than two-fifths of whom live in the Boise area. Vast stretches of Idaho remain wilderness.10,11,12

About two-thirds of the energy Idaho consumes comes from out of state.13 Idaho's energy consumption per capita ranks near the middle of the 50 states, and the energy intensity of its economy—which is the amount of energy used to produce each dollar of the state's gross domestic product (GDP)—is near the top one-third of the states.14,15 The industrial sector leads Idaho's end-use sectors in energy consumption and accounts for 31% of the state's total energy use, followed closely by the transportation sector at 29%, the residential sector at 23%, and the commercial sector at 16%.16 Real estate, government, healthcare, and construction are among the largest shares of the state's GDP. Other contributors to Idaho's economy are the energy-intensive agriculture; food processing; pulp and paper; and mining industries.17,18

Renewable energy

In 2019, renewables provided a larger share of electricity generation in Idaho than in any other state except Vermont and Maine.

In 2019, Idaho generated 76% of its in-state utility-scale (facilities that are 1 megawatt or larger in capacity) electricity from renewable energy, the third-highest share for any state, after Vermont and Maine. Most of Idaho's renewable electricity comes from hydropower.19,20 Hydropower and wind power fuel 5 of Idaho's 10 largest generating facilities by capacity.21

Just over half of Idaho's utility-scale electricity generating capacity is at hydroelectric power plants, and 7 of the state's 10 largest power plants ranked by the actual amount of electricity generated are hydroelectric facilities.22,23 The nation's largest privately-owned conventional hydroelectric generating facility is on the Idaho-Oregon border. The three-dam complex, owned by Idaho Power, is on the Snake River in Hells Canyon, which is the deepest river gorge in North America.24,25

Although only a small amount of the state's land area is suitable for wind power development, Idaho has some substantial wind energy potential in the southern half of the state along the Snake River and on mountain ridges across the state.26 Idaho's electricity generation from utility-scale wind power farms began in 2006.27 Idaho's 10th-largest electricity generating plant is a 125-megawatt wind facility.28 In 2019, about 14% of the state's electricity net generation was provided by wind facilities, whose total combined generating capacity was close to 1,000 megawatts from nearly 550 wind turbines. Idaho's wind farms are located on the Snake River Plain.29,30,31

Idaho had its first utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in 2016, when three solar power generating facilities came online.32,33 Solar heating and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar panel generating systems can be found in the state's cities and rural areas. About 90% of the Idaho's solar PV electricity generation occurred at utility-scale facilities in 2019, when total solar power accounted for slightly more than 3% of the state's net generation.34,35

About two-fifths of Idaho is covered by forests.36 Biomass, primarily wood waste from those forests, provided nearly 3% of the state's utility-scale electricity generation in 2019. Electricity is also generated from other waste biomass and landfill gas.37,38 Idaho's biomass resources provide feedstock for the state's three wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of 71,000 tons per year.39

In 2019, Idaho was one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy.40 Although this resource provides less than 1% of the state's net generation, Idaho's volcanic landscape has some of the best geothermal potential in the nation. The state's wealth of hot springs and other geothermal resources have long been used as direct heat sources for aquaculture, greenhouses, spas, resorts, and city district heating. In 2008, the first commercial geothermal power plant in the U.S. Northwest came online in south central Idaho. The 10-megawatt capacity facility is the state's only geothermal power plant.41,42,43,44 Utility-scale geothermal technology is water-intensive, and further development in Idaho may be limited by availability of groundwater.45

Idaho has no renewable portfolio standard (RPS) or state-wide renewable energy goals.46 The state offers low-interest loans for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and tax deductions for small-scale renewable energy-fueled devices that are used for residential heating or electricity generation.47,48 Although there is no state net metering policy, each of Idaho's three investor-owned electric utilities offers net metering programs for small-scale, customer-sited renewable generation. Idaho's commercial, residential, and agricultural customers are all eligible for net metering.49,50,51

Electricity

Hydroelectric power plants have typically supplied more than two-thirds of Idaho's in-state generation. However, in recent years, drought and increased generation from other renewables has reduced hydropower's share of the state's total annual generation to around three-fifths. The balance of Idaho's in-state generation is mostly supplied by natural gas and wind power. In 2019, natural gas accounted for about almost one-fourth of Idaho's generation and wind accounted for about one-seventh.52

Idaho power users are served by three large investor-owned electric utilities that supply about 84% of the state's electricity. Twenty-three municipal utilities and rural electric cooperatives provide the rest, and they buy almost all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which markets electricity mainly from hydroelectric facilities at federal dams in the Pacific Northwest.53,54 About three-tenths of the electricity consumed in Idaho is brought in over interstate transmission lines from out-of-state generating facilities owned by Idaho utilities and from the BPA.55,56,57

Idaho's one small coal-fired power plant is an industrial combined-heat-and-power facility.58 Although coal's share of in-state electricity generation is minimal—about 0.1% in 2019—Idaho's utilities bring in electricity from coal-fired power plants in neighboring states.59,60,61,62 A coal-fired power plant in Oregon that supplied electricity to Idaho closed in 2020, and other coal-fired generation in neighboring states is set to shut down over the next several years. Idaho's largest electric utility plans to end its coal-fired power generation purchases by 2030.63,64,65

The state has no commercial nuclear power plants, but the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a federal nuclear energy research center and one of the state's largest employers, was the site of the nation's first nuclear power plant. It first generated electricity in 1951.66,67,68 Currently, plans are under way to build the first power plant with 12 small modular nuclear reactors—each with 60 megawatts of generating capacity—on a site at INL in 2026. The power plant in development will be a smaller, scalable version of the widely-used light water reactor technology.69,70,71

The region's transmission lines have grown increasingly congested, and projects are under way to expand capacity both to supply Idaho with electricity and to transport power among several western states including Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon. In the near term, most new generating capacity planned in the region is expected to run on renewable energy sources, and transmission projects are being designed to enable development of the region's remote renewable resources.72,73

Idaho ranks among the five states with the lowest average retail electricity prices.

Idaho is among the five states with the lowest average retail prices for electricity, in part because of the large proportion of generation that comes from relatively inexpensive hydropower.74 In 2019, the largest share of retail electricity sales went to the state's industrial sector—which accounted for 37% of the state's total—followed closely by the residential sector at 36%, and the commercial sector at 27%.75 About one-third of Idaho households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.76

Petroleum

Idaho has no significant proved crude oil reserves and only a small amount of oil production.77,78 Exploration for crude oil began in Idaho in 1903, but, despite promising geology in the state's southeast and southwest, no commercial reserves were discovered or produced until recently.79 Since 2015, small amounts of crude oil have been produced from wells drilled primarily for natural gas.80,81

Idaho has no petroleum refineries.82 The state is crossed by two major petroleum product pipelines, one in southern Idaho that runs west along the Snake River Valley from refineries in Utah and another pipeline that crosses the northern part of the state from refineries in Montana. Only the southern pipeline system delivers refined products to terminals in Idaho.83 The fuel in the northern pipeline is shipped to terminals in Spokane, Washington, and then trucked back to northern Idaho.84

Idaho’s total petroleum consumption is among the lowest 10 states, but its per capita petroleum use is near the national average.

Because of its small population, Idaho's total petroleum consumption is among the lowest 10 states, but its per capita petroleum use is near the national average.85 Slightly more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state is used in the transportation sector, about one-tenth is used in the industrial sector, and the rest is split almost equally between the commercial and residential sectors.86 Only about 7 in 100 Idaho households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.87 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, but, as is the case in most states, most of the motor fuel sold in Idaho contains at least 10% ethanol.88,89 The state has one ethanol plant with a production capacity of about 60 million gallons per year, which is less than Idaho's annual ethanol consumption of about 78 million gallons.90,91,92

Natural gas

Idaho does not have any significant natural gas reserves.93 Natural gas discoveries in 2010 led to the state's first commercial natural gas production in 2015.94,95 Output so far is modest, and Idaho consumers receive most of their natural gas supply by interstate pipeline, primarily from Canada and Utah.96,97,98 One pipeline system enters Idaho at its northern border with Canada, crosses the state's panhandle, and continues to Washington, Oregon, and California. Another pipeline system runs from the San Juan Basin in southwestern Colorado across Idaho's Snake River Plain on its way to the Pacific Northwest and Canada. That system is bi-directional, so it can supply natural gas to Idaho either from Canada or from Wyoming and Colorado.99,100,101,102 Nearly 90% of the natural gas that enters Idaho leaves the state, and almost all of it goes to Washington.103 Idaho has no natural gas underground storage sites.104

Idaho's per capita natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest one-third of the states, despite the prevalence of natural gas use for heating during the state's extremely cold winters.105 The industrial sector is the largest natural gas-consuming end-use sector in Idaho, making up three-tenths of the state's gas use. The residential sector is the second-largest gas consuming end-use sector, accounting for about one-fourth of the state total.106 Slightly more than half of Idaho households use natural gas as their primary energy source for heating.107 The electric power sector is the third-largest natural gas-consuming sector at nearly one-fourth of state's total, followed by the commercial sector at slightly less than one-fifth.108

Coal

Idaho has a small amount of estimated recoverable coal reserves, but the state does not have any coal production.109,110 There are no utility-owned coal-fired power plants in Idaho, but there is one large coal-fueled generating plant at an industrial facility.111 Small amounts of coal are shipped to industrial users in Idaho by rail and truck from mines in Utah, Pennsylvania, and Wyoming.112

Endnotes

1 Idaho State University, Idaho Museum of Natural History, Mining in Idaho, accessed January 5, 2021.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
3 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2018, Tables 7, 10.
4 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy, accessed January 5, 2021.
5 Qualls, Russell, "Idaho Contrasts from Mountains to Plains," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, State Climates Series, accessed January 5, 2021.
6 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Historic Trails, Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide, Along the Snake River Plain Through Idaho, The Tangle of Trails Through Idaho (October 2008), p. 7-10.
7 Hall, Douglas G., Idaho's Water Energy Resources and Hydroelectric Potential, Idaho National Laboratory (August 2006).
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Idaho, Maps & Data, accessed January 5, 2021.
9 World Atlas, Idaho, accessed January 5, 2021.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Idaho Profile.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Table B01003, Total Population, 2019: ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho and Boise City, ID Metro Area.
12 Sangres.com, National Wilderness Areas in Idaho, accessed January 5, 2021.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
17 NETSTATE, Idaho Economy, accessed January 5, 2021.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Tools, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Idaho, All Statistics in Table, Idaho, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
20 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
21 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.
22 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: All, Conventional Hydroelectric.
23 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.
24 Idaho Power, Hydroelectric, accessed January 6, 2021.
25 U.S. Forest Service, Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, Hells Canyon Overview, accessed January 6, 2021.
26 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Idaho, Maps and Data, accessed January 6, 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation or all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2001-19.
28 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2001-19.
30 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Idaho, accessed January 6, 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plant, accessed January 6, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
33 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
34 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Solar, accessed January 6, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
36 Idaho Forest Products Commission, Forest Information Topic: Idaho's Forests, accessed January 6, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
39 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (January 20, 2020), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, October 2020, Download.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.16.B.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
42 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Geothermal, accessed January 6, 2021.
43 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 41-42.
44 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Geothermal.
45 Harrington, Helen, Ken Neely, and Warren Weihing, Geothermal Resources in Idaho, Idaho Department of Water Resources, updated 2007, p. 14.
46 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated January 4, 2021.
47 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Idaho, Low-Interest Energy Loan Programs, updated December 18, 2015.
48 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Idaho, Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction, updated December 18, 2015.
49 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Idaho Power, Net Metering, updated October 27, 2016.
50 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Rocky Mountain Power, Net Metering, updated October 27, 2016.
51 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Avista Utilities, Net Metering, updated October 27, 2016.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
53 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 10-15, 63.
54 Bonneville Power Administration, About Us, accessed January 28, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, Idaho Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
56 Idaho Power, How We Get Electricity to You, accessed January 7, 2021.
57 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 27-28.
58 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2016-19.
60 Ramseth, Luke, "Idaho's Energy Future: Less Coal, Uncertain Hydro," Idaho Statesman (December 28, 2015).
61 Kennison, Heather, "What's it like to rely on renewable energy? Look at life in Idaho," Idaho Statesman (June 26, 2018).
62 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Coal, accessed January 7, 2021.
63 Idaho Power, Coal, accessed January 7, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Montana, Utah, Washington: Technology: Conventional Steam Coal, planned retirement year.
65 Wilson, Miranda, "Idaho utility's coal exit sparks NIMBY grid fight," E&E News (November 30, 2020).
66 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity, accessed January 6, 2021.
67 Idaho National Laboratory, The World's First Nuclear Power Plant, accessed January 6, 2021.
68 Idaho National Laboratory, "Idaho National Laboratory a Major Contributor to Idaho's Economy," Press Release (February 26, 2019).
69 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Nuclear, accessed January 7, 2021.
70 NuScale, Frequently Asked Questions, 5, Where do you expect the first NuScale plant to be built?, accessed January 7, 2021.
71 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, "Nation's First Small Modular Reactor Plant to Power Nuclear Research at Idaho National Laboratory," (June 11, 2019).
72 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy Resources, Energy Infrastructure, Transmission Line Projects, accessed January 7, 2021.
73 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Technology: All.
74 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Idaho, Retail Sales of Electricity (million kilowatthours), 2016-19.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho.
77 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2019.
79 Barton, Mark, "Idaho Geological Survey Oil & Gas Program," Idaho Geological Survey (November 2019), slide 4.
80 Barker, Rocky, "Idaho Has Become an Oil-Producing State," Idaho Statesman (June 28, 2016).
81 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014-19.
82 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
83 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Idaho Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 5, accessed January 8, 2021.
84 Sowell, John, "In a state without crude oil or refineries, Idahoans are hit hard at the pump," Idaho Statesman (June 20, 2015).
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho.
88 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements Map, updated January 2018.
89 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
90 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS file.
91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
93 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
94 Dunnahoe, Tayvis, "Idaho enters ranks of hydrocarbon producing states," Oil and Gas Journal (February 6, 2017).
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014-19.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Idaho, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-19.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Idaho, Annual, 2014-19.
98 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Idaho, 2014-19.
99 Idaho Public Utilities Commission, Major Natural Gas Pipelines and Local Gas Distribution Companies, accessed January 8, 2021.
100 Northwest Gas Association and Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, Natural Gas-Electricity Primer (August 2012), p. 7-8.
101 Idaho Governor's Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Idaho Energy Landscape 2021, p. 15-17.
102 Williams, Operations, Transmission & Gulf of Mexico, Overview, accessed January 8, 2021.
103 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Idaho, 2014-19.
104 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, 2014-19.
105 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
106 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Idaho, Annual, 2014-19.
107 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Idaho.
108 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Idaho, Annual, 2019.
109 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
111 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2020, Plant State: Idaho, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
112 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Idaho, Table DS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map