Arizona State Energy Profile



Arizona Quick Facts

  • With a net summer capacity of 3,937 megawatts, Arizona's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station  is the largest nuclear power plant, the largest net generator of electricity, and the second-largest power plant by capacity of any kind in the nation.
  • In 2017, Arizona's electricity generation from solar energy exceeded generation from hydroelectric power for the first time, and the state ranked second in the nation in total solar generation.
  • Arizona, the 14th most populous state, ranked 43rd in the nation in total energy consumption per capita in 2016, partly because of the state’s small industrial sector and because of the state's mild climate.
  • Arizona's only operating coal mine, Kayenta, on the Navajo and Hopi reservations, supplies all of its coal to the Navajo Generating Station. The station is scheduled to close in 2019, removing nearly two-fifths of Arizona's coal-fired capacity from service.
  • Nuclear power, coal, and natural gas provide almost equal shares of Arizona's net electricity generation, and in 2017, together they fueled a total of 88% of the state's utility-scale net generation.

Last Updated: January 17, 2019



Data

Last Update: March 21, 2019 | Next Update: April 18, 2019

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.0 million 2.2% 2017  
Civilian Labor Force 3.5 million 2.2% Jan-19  
Economy Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 319.9 billion 21 2017  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 26,313 million 27 2017  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 41,633 43 2017  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 65,070 million miles 18 2017  
Land in Farms 26.2 million acres 14 2012  
Climate Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 62.3 degrees Fahrenheit 8 2018  
Precipitation 11.7 inches 47 2018  
Prices  
Petroleum Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 47.72 /barrel Dec-18  
Natural Gas Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.02 /thousand cu ft $ 4.74 /thousand cu ft Dec-18 find more
Residential $ 12.28 /thousand cu ft $ 9.63 /thousand cu ft Dec-18 find more
Coal Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 33.72 /short ton 2017  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.48 /million Btu $ 2.11 /million Btu Dec-18  
Electricity Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.26 cents/kWh 12.47 cents/kWh Dec-18 find more
Commercial 9.66 cents/kWh 10.33 cents/kWh Dec-18 find more
Industrial 5.96 cents/kWh 6.65 cents/kWh Dec-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2017 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2017 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2017 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 197 million short tons 1.2% 2017 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 3 wells * 2017 find more
Capacity Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 28,683 MW 2.6% Dec-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 593 trillion Btu 0.7% 2016 find more
Crude Oil 1 thousand barrels * Dec-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 56 million cu ft * 2017 find more
Coal 6,221 thousand short tons 0.8% 2017 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,402 thousand MWh 2.8% Dec-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Arizona U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Dec-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 32.4 % 31.7 % Dec-18 find more
Coal-Fired 29.8 % 28.7 % Dec-18 find more
Nuclear 29.5 % 21.2 % Dec-18 find more
Renewables 8.4 % 17.3 % Dec-18  
Stocks Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 45 thousand barrels 0.3% Dec-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 750 thousand barrels 0.7% Dec-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Dec-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 135 thousand barrels 0.5% Dec-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,525 thousand tons 2.5% Dec-18 find more
Fueling Stations Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,639 stations 1.5% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 85 stations 2.8% 2019  
Electricity 470 stations 2.2% 2019  
Ethanol 19 stations 0.6% 2019  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 18 stations 1.5% 2019  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,471 trillion Btu 26 2016 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 213 million Btu 43 2016 find more
Total Expenditures $ 19,053 million 21 2016 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,758 48 2016 find more
by End-Use Sector Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 390 trillion Btu 1.9% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial 348 trillion Btu 1.9% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial 241 trillion Btu 0.8% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation 491 trillion Btu 1.8% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,743 million 2.0% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,623 million 2.0% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,925 million 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation $ 8,763 million 1.9% 2016 find more
by Source Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 105 million barrels 1.5% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 323 billion cu ft 1.2% 2017 find more
    »  Coal 17 million short tons 2.4% 2017 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,013.8 million 1.8% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,777.6 million 1.2% 2017 find more
    »  Coal $ 750.0 million 2.5% 2017 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 4 thousand barrels 0.2% Dec-18 find more
Natural Gas 22,875 million cu ft 3.0% Dec-18 find more
Coal 1,493 thousand short tons 2.7% Dec-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Arizona U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 32.5 % 48.0 % 2017  
Fuel Oil * 4.7 % 2017  
Electricity 61.1 % 39.0 % 2017  
Propane 2.7 % 4.7 % 2017  
Other/None 3.6 % 3.6 % 2017  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 5,091 MW 2.3% Dec-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 50 million gal/year 0.3% 2018  
Renewable Energy Production Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 507 thousand MWh 2.1% Dec-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 271 thousand MWh 0.9% Dec-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 15 thousand MWh 0.3% Dec-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 151 thousand MWh 8.5% Dec-18  
Ethanol Production 1,216 Thousand Barrels 0.3% 2016  
Renewable Energy Consumption Arizona U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.8 % 22 2016  
Ethanol Consumption 7,221 thousand barrels 17 2017  
Total Emissions Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 87.5 million metric tons 1.7% 2016  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 43,739 thousand metric tons 2.3% 2017  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2017  
Nitrogen Oxide 35 thousand metric tons 2.2% 2017  

Analysis

Last Updated: January 17, 2019

Overview

Arizona is known for its iconic vistas from the Grand Canyon in the north to the Saguaro deserts in the south.1 The state has few fossil fuel resources, but it does have abundant renewable energy resources, primarily solar.2,3,4,5,6 Elevations in Arizona vary from peaks more than 12,000 feet high in the north to nearly sea level in the deserts in the southwest. Some of the highest elevations in the state are on the Colorado Plateau. Along the more than 100-mile long Mogollon Rim that marks the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau is some of Arizona's greatest wind potential.7,8 Although higher elevations receive greater amounts of precipitation, including significant snowfalls, most of Arizona is semiarid, and abundant sunshine gives the entire state some of the nation's greatest solar energy resources.9,10

Arizona is rich in minerals, and the state drew Spanish explorers seeking gold, silver, and copper as early as the 1600s. During the 20th century, mines in the state began producing uranium.11,12 Arizona is the site of major uranium reserves, including the highest-grade uranium mine in the nation.13,14 Although mining has long been a significant contributor to the state's wealth, the economy has diversified. Real estate; professional and business services; finance and insurance; trade; and health care services are among the largest contributors to Arizona's gross domestic product.15 Other key industries in Arizona include computer and electronic products manufacturing; aerospace and defense; and biosciences.16 Arizona still produces more copper than any other state, accounting for more than two-thirds of the nation's output.17

Per capita energy consumption in Arizona is among the lowest in the nation.

In part because many of Arizona's primary economic activities are not energy intensive, the state's per capita energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.18 The transportation sector is Arizona's largest end-use energy consumer, followed by the residential sector. The state's industrial sector consumes the least energy.19 The majority of Arizona's residents live in a few urban areas, leaving the rest of the state lightly populated.20,21 Mild summers in the north and mild winters in the south make Arizona a popular vacation and retirement destination, and the year-round population in Arizona grew faster than in all other states except Nevada during the first decade of the 21st century.22 The pleasant weather also draws many seasonal residents, and about 1 in 14 Arizona homes is occupied only part of the year.23,24,25

Electricity

Arizona’s Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is the nation’s largest nuclear power plant.

Arizona's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is the state's largest power plant and the nation's largest nuclear power plant.26 It is Arizona's only nuclear power plant and is second only to the Grand Coulee Dam in total electricity generating capacity among all U.S. power plants.27,28 In 2017, Palo Verde's three operating reactors generated three-tenths of the state's net electricity, a larger share than from any other energy source. Coal fueled almost as much generation as nuclear power in 2017.29 The Navajo Generating Station, the largest coal-fired facility in the state, is Arizona's second-largest power plant.30 In 2017, natural gas provided the third-largest share of the state's net generation. Natural gas-fired generation surpassed coal-fired for the first time in 2016, but in 2017 natural gas use decreased, and coal once again fueled a larger share of state generation. However, natural gas still supplied nearly three-tenths of Arizona's net generation in 2017. Renewable resources, mostly solar and hydroelectric power, supplied almost all the rest of Arizona's net electricity generation.31

More than four-fifths of the state's population lives in south-central Arizona.32 Electricity is crucial for pumping water for drinking and irrigation from the Colorado River in the north to the drier central and southern parts of Arizona.33 However, per capita retail electricity sales in Arizona are lower than those in two-thirds of the states even though about 3 in 5 households rely on electricity for home heating and more than 9 in 10 homes have air conditioning.34,35,36,37 Because power plants in Arizona generate more electricity than the state consumes, Arizona generating stations supply electricity to consumers throughout the southwest.38

Interstate transmission lines have become congested in peak demand periods. Arizona continues to work with other states and stakeholders to improve transmission capacity. Projects in development include one that will transmit electricity from Arizona and New Mexico to areas across the southwest.39 Another project will bring renewably sourced power from Wyoming to population centers in the desert southwest, including Nevada, Arizona, and Southern California.40 An additional proposed transmission project will connect areas of southeastern California to southwestern Arizona, facilitating renewable energy development along the route.41

Renewable energy

In 2017, renewable energy provided about 13% of Arizona's net electricity generation. More than one-tenth of that generation was from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities. Currently, almost half of the state's total renewable net generation and more than half of the state's utility-scale renewable net generation comes from hydroelectric power.42 The Glen Canyon Dam and Hoover Dam, both located on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, are among the largest power plants in the state and provide most of Arizona's net hydroelectric generation. Arizona is also one of almost 20 states with pumped storage hydroelectric generation. Pumped storage allows system operators to time-shift power generated during periods of low demand for electricity for use during high-demand periods. Inexpensive power purchased during periods of low demand is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high demand, water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines located between the reservoirs. A pumped storage facility uses more power than it generates, but it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.43 The state has three pumped storage plants, and two more projects have received preliminary permits.44,45

In 2017, Arizona ranked second among the states in solar generation.

Although hydroelectric power has long dominated Arizona's renewable generation, total solar generation from both large and small solar photovoltaic (PV) as well as solar thermal facilities surpassed conventional hydroelectric power in the state for the first time in 2017.46 Arizona's net generation from solar energy ranked second in the nation, behind California. In addition, Arizona's solar energy potential is second only to Nevada's among the states.47 The first commercial solar photovoltaic (PV) array in the state went into service in 1997, and in 2014 one of the nation's largest solar PV facilities, at 290 megawatts, was completed in Yuma, Arizona.48,49 Arizona is also one of only four states with utility-scale electricity generation from solar thermal technologies that concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperature heat needed to generate electricity.50,51 In 2017, solar energy accounted for about 6% of the state's net electricity generation. More than one-fourth of Arizona's solar generation was from distributed sources.52 The state's total installed solar-powered electricity-generating capacity has increased substantially over the past two decades. Arizona ranks third in the nation in installed solar generating capacity, after California and North Carolina.53

Arizona has some wind potential, mainly along and just north of the steep wall of the Mogollon Rim that cuts across the central part of the state.54 The first commercial-scale wind farm in Arizona became operational in 2009,55 but in 2017, wind provided less than 1% of the state's net electricity generation.56 Biomass fuels a minor amount of Arizona's electricity generation. The state has several small landfill gas and other waste biomass facilities, but the largest biomass fueled electricity generator uses wood and wood waste.57 The state has two wood pellet mills. Wood pellets are used in biomass-fired power generation.58,59 Arizona also has one ethanol plant.60 Arizona has geothermal resources as well, but there are no utility-scale geothermal power plants in the state.61 Arizona has several direct-use applications, including an active aquaculture industry that uses geothermal resources to raise shrimp and other fish. The state also has many hot springs and a few small spas. Some deeper high-temperature resources, particularly in the central and southern parts of Arizona, may be suitable for power generation.62,63

Arizona's renewable energy standard (RES) requires that investor-owned electric utilities and retail electricity suppliers acquire increasing amounts of the electricity they sell from renewable resources. The overall target is 15% of retail electricity sales by 2025. Each year, a total of 30% of the year's required renewable energy target must come from non-utility distributed generation. Half of the distributed generation requirement must come from residential sites and the other half from non-residential installations.64 The state allows net billing, which credits new customer-generators with the avoided costs for energy exported to the grid and facilitates distributed renewable generation.65 A referendum that would have required 50% of retail electricity sales come from renewables by 2030 failed to pass in a statewide election in 2018.66

In addition to encouraging the development of Arizona's renewable resources, the state has established energy efficiency standards that require investor-owned electric utilities, electric cooperatives, and natural gas utilities to increase energy efficiency to reduce consumption of both electricity and natural gas. Each investor-owned electric utility must achieve cumulative savings equal to 22% of their previous year's retail electricity sales by 2020. Electric cooperatives have a savings target of 16.5% by 2020. Some of the strategies that are used to meet the target include demand-side management, peak demand reductions, and energy efficient building codes.67

Coal

There are two coal fields in Arizona—Black Mesa, in the northeast on the Navajo and Hopi reservations, and Pinedale in east-central Arizona.68 Those two coal fields together hold slightly more than 1% of the nation's coal reserves at producing mines. The state's only operating coal mine is in the Black Mesa field, and it is one of the 30 largest coal mines in the nation.69 Coal from that mine is sent by conveyor to a closed loop electric train that takes the crushed coal directly to the mine's only customer, the coal-fired Navajo Generating Station, 80 miles away. However, the planned closure by the end of 2019 of the Navajo Generating Station puts the mine's continued operations at risk. Stakeholders in the mine are exploring options to keep the mine open. The federal government has an ownership interest in the power plant, which provides power for the transport of water across Arizona.70,71

The coal that supplies Arizona's four other coal-fired power plants is brought into the state by rail, typically from Wyoming and New Mexico, with smaller amounts arriving from Montana and Colorado. Some coal from Utah and Colorado is also delivered to industrial users in Arizona.72,73

Petroleum

Arizona has no significant proved crude oil reserves and crude oil production was only about 13,000 barrels in 2017.74,75 The largest oil field in the state is on the Navajo reservation in the northeastern corner of the state.76 Areas on both the Colorado Plateau in the northeast and in the Basin and Range region in the southwest are believed to have petroleum potential, but exploratory drilling has never yielded large finds, and much of Arizona remains unexplored.77 Most of the recent exploration activity in the state is related to helium recovery. Helium has many applications in science and industry because it is an unreactive agent, is lighter than air, and is useful as a cooling medium.78

Arizona does not have any oil refineries.79 Motor gasoline and other petroleum products are supplied by pipeline from Southern California and Texas.80 About 85% of the petroleum consumed in Arizona is used in the transportation sector. The industrial sector accounts for most of the remaining petroleum consumed in the state.81 To meet federal air quality standards, oxygenated motor gasoline is required in the winter in the Tucson area.82,83 More stringent state regulations require the use of a cleaner oxygenated blend of motor gasoline called Arizona Clean Burning Gasoline (CBG) in Maricopa County, which includes the city of Phoenix, where motor vehicles are the single largest source of air pollution.84

Natural gas

Arizona has no significant natural gas reserves.85 With few producing wells and little new drilling activity, Arizona's natural gas production has declined to less than 60 million cubic feet per year from a peak of more than 2 billion cubic feet per year in 1990.86,87 Almost all the natural gas consumed in Arizona comes from other states via interstate pipelines that enter Arizona at the New Mexico border. More than three-fifths of the natural gas that enters the state continues to California, and another one-tenth is sent to Mexico. Almost all the rest, more than one-fourth of the natural gas that enters the state, is consumed in Arizona.88 There is no natural gas underground storage capacity in the state.89 However, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage facility is under construction near Tucson to assure supply. It is expected to be completed in 2019.90

More than two-thirds of the natural gas consumed in Arizona is used for electric power generation.

The electric power sector consumes more than two-thirds of the natural gas used in Arizona.91 The residential sector, where about one-third of Arizonans use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel, is a distant second, accounting for about one-tenth of the state's natural gas consumption.92,93 A 2018 moratorium was placed on the construction of new natural gas-fired power plants with capacities greater than 150 megawatts. The moratorium, which expired at the end of 2018, was put in place to encourage utilities to consider more electricity generation from renewable resources and less from new natural gas-fired generators.94 Overall, per capita consumption of natural gas in Arizona is lower than in all but seven other states.95,96

Energy on tribal lands

Almost all of Arizona’s energy mineral resources are on tribal lands.

Arizona is home to 21 federally recognized Native American tribes, and 3 of the 10 biggest reservations in the United States, including most of the nation's largest, the Navajo Nation reservation.97,98,99 As tribes and individuals, Native Americans control more than one-fourth of Arizona's land—the largest proportion in any state and second only to Alaska in total acreage.100 Almost all of Arizona's energy mineral resources are on tribal lands.101 The largest producing oil field in Arizona—Dineh-bi-Keyah, The People's Field—is on the Navajo reservation. Although production is now modest, the field has produced almost 19 million barrels of crude oil since its discovery in the mid-1960s.102 Arizona's coal reserves are also on tribal land. The state's only operating coal mine, Kayenta, is in the Black Mesa coal field on the Navajo and Hopi reservations.103,104 In addition to the coal-fired Navajo Generating Station, several natural gas pipelines, electricity transmission lines, hydroelectric dams, and uranium resources are located on Arizona's tribal lands.105 From 1944 to 1986, almost 4 million tons of uranium were removed from more than 500 mines on Navajo Nation land, most of them in Arizona. Those mines are now closed.106

Renewable resources are abundant in Arizona, and they offer opportunities for electricity generation on tribal lands in remote areas. Tribes are assessing their solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass resources for onsite generation of electricity.107 Three of the five tribes in the nation with the greatest electricity generation potential from solar resources are in Arizona, as are two of the five tribes with the greatest electricity generation potential from geothermal resources.108 Although the Navajo reservation in Arizona has historically had the highest percentage of households without electricity among the nation's reservations, it is the reservation with the largest solar and geothermal energy potential.109,110 The first large-scale solar PV facility on Navajo land, with 27-megawatts of capacity, came online in 2017.111 Several planned wind projects in Arizona, including some on tribal land, have not gone forward as the emphasis has shifted to developing solar projects. However, wind energy projects are being explored by the Hopi Tribe and the Hualapai Tribe.112 Many reservations in the state have some solar PV electricity generation and one, the Hopi, uses some of its wind resources.113 Plans for additional renewable energy projects include a partnership between the Hopi reservation and the nearby city of Flagstaff for a facility on tribal lands.114

Endnotes

1 Visit Arizona, Uniquely AZ, Arizona's Parks and Monuments, accessed November 29, 2018.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2017.
3 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2017, Dry Natural Gas.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2018), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2017 and 2016.
5 Gilroy, Nicholas, Direct Normal Solar Resource of Arizona, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (April 4, 2017).
6 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (October 13, 2009).
7 NETSTATE, Arizona, The Geography of Arizona, updated December 21, 2017.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Arizona, accessed November 29, 2018.
9 Selover, Nancy, "Arizona-A State of Mild Temperatures as well as Extremes," Arizona's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, accessed November 29, 2018.
10 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State (March 11, 2010).
11 Arizona Geological Survey, Mineral Resources, accessed November 29, 2018.
12 "Arizona Strip Region Has Yielded Uranium Ore for Decades," Arizona Daily Star (June 28, 2015).
13 U.S. EIA, Major U.S. Uranium Reserves, map, accessed November 29, 2018.
14 Energy Fuels, Canyon Mine, Arizona, accessed November 29, 2018.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All statistics in table, Arizona, 2016.
16 Arizona Commerce Authority, Arizona Industries, accessed November 29, 2018.
17 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018 (January 31, 2018), p. 52.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
20 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017, All counties within Arizona.
21 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Arizona Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
22 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010 (March 2011), Table 1, Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: 2000 to 2010, p. 2.
23 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Arizona, Climate and Economy, accessed November 29, 2018.
24 Gardner, Dustin, and Leslie Wright, "Field Guide: Arizona's Snowbirds Arrive," The Arizona Republic (December 3, 2011).
25 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Arizona, Table B25002, Occupancy Status, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, and Table B25004, Vacancy Status, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
26 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2017, Tables 2A, 2B.
27 U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, List of Power Reactor Units, updated May 16, 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Secondary Sources, Electricity, Electricity in the United States, Top 10, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities (power plants) by annual net electricity generation (2017), and Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities (power plants) by electricity generating capacity (2017).
29 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.9.B.
30 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2017, Tables 2A, 2B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
32 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Pinal County, Arizona; Pima County, Arizona; Maricopa County, Arizona; Arizona; United States, Population estimates, July 1, 2017.
33 Central Arizona Project, Background & History, accessed December 3, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2016.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 Population Estimates.
36 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Arizona, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
37 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009, Table HC7.11, Air Conditioning in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
38 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2017, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2017.
39 SunZia, Welcome to the SunZia Southwest Transmission Project, accessed December 3, 2018.
40 TransWest Express LLC, Critical grid infrastructure to connect the West, accessed December 3, 2018.
41 Ten West Link, Project Information, accessed December 3, 2018.
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.12.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
43 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
45 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Issued Preliminary Permits for Pumped Storage Projects (October 2018).
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Arizona 2014-17, Net generation for all solar, annual, and Net generation for conventional hydroelectric, annual.
47 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
48 Arizona Public Service, Arizona's Energy Future, APS Solar Plant in Flagstaff Celebrates "Sunny Sweet 16″ (October 3, 2013).
49 Alba Energy, These Are The Biggest Solar Power Plants In America, April 16, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.18.B.
51 U.S. EIA, Solar Explained, Solar Thermal Power Plants, accessed September 12, 2018.
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018 and November 2018), Table 6.2.B.
54 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy in Arizona, accessed December 4, 2018.
55 Iberdrola Renewables, "Arizona's First Wind Farm Wins Award, Brings Together U.S. Interior Secretary Salazar,
Energy Leaders and Navajo County Families to Dedicate Dry Lake Wind," Press Release (October 12, 2009).
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
57 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.18.B.
58 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, September 2018.
59 "U.S. Pellet Plants, Operational," Biomass Magazine, updated September 21, 2018.
60 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2018.
61 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
62 The Arizona Experience, Geothermal Energy, accessed December 4, 2018.
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Arizona (April 2006).
64 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Arizona Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 3, 2018.
65 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Billing, Arizona, updated May 30, 2017.
66 Newberry, Bryce, "Costly and nasty: Failure of Prop. 127 won't stop renewable energy push, experts say," Phoenix Business Journal (November 8, 2018).
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Standards, Arizona, updated May 25, 2017.
68 Kirschbaum, Mark A., and Laura R. H. Biewick, Chapter B, A Summary of the Coal Deposits in the Colorado Plateau: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-B, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (2000), p. B2-B7.
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70 Randazzo, Ryan, "When coal-fired power plant closes, this mine will die. So will a lifeline for one Native American tribe," AZCentral (February 23, 2017).
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