Arizona State Energy Profile



Arizona Quick Facts

  • With a net summer capacity of 3,937 megawatts, Arizona's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is the largest nuclear power plant, the largest net generator of electricity, and the second-largest power plant by capacity of any kind in the nation.
  • In 2020, Arizona ranked fourth in the nation in solar-powered electricity generation at utility-scale and small-scale installations. Solar energy provided the state with more power than all of Arizona's other nonhydroelectric renewable energy sources combined.
  • In part because of its large population, low industrial sector energy use, and mild winter climate, only five states consumed less energy per capita than Arizona in 2018. 
  • Arizona's Navajo Generating Station, the state's second-largest power plant, closed in 2019, removing 2,250 megawatts of Arizona's coal-fired capacity from service. It was the only customer of the state's last remaining operating coal mine, which also closed in 2019.
  • Natural gas, nuclear power, and coal provided 88% of Arizona's utility-scale electricity net generation in 2020. 

Last Updated: March 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: June 17, 2021 | Next Update: July 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.4 million 2.3% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.6 million 2.2% Apr-21  
Economy Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 372.5 billion 19 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 31,112 million 26 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 48,950 43 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 70,281 million miles 17 2019  
Land in Farms 25.1 million acres 15 2017  
Climate Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 62.6 degrees Fahrenheit 8 2020  
Precipitation 6.6 inches 47 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 60.67 /barrel Mar-21  
Natural Gas Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.66 /thousand cu ft $ 4.09 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Residential $ 13.52 /thousand cu ft $ 10.55 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Coal Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.08 /million Btu $ 1.89 /million Btu Mar-21  
Electricity Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.18 cents/kWh 13.29 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Commercial 9.60 cents/kWh 11.13 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Industrial 5.91 cents/kWh 7.01 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 193 million short tons 1.4% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2019 find more
Capacity Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 27,205 MW 2.4% Mar-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 621 trillion Btu 0.6% 2018 find more
Crude Oil * * Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 66 million cu ft * 2019 find more
Coal 3,843 thousand short tons 0.5% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 7,969 thousand MWh 2.6% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Arizona U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 40.1 % 33.9 % Mar-21 find more
Coal-Fired 7.1 % 20.0 % Mar-21 find more
Nuclear 36.9 % 20.5 % Mar-21 find more
Renewables 15.9 % 24.6 % Mar-21  
Stocks Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 56 thousand barrels 0.4% Mar-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 577 thousand barrels 0.5% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Mar-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 118 thousand barrels 0.5% Mar-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,624 thousand tons 3.2% Mar-21 find more
Fueling Stations Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,612 stations 1.4% 2019  
Propane 70 stations 2.6% 2021  
Electricity 674 stations 1.7% 2021  
E85 16 stations 0.4% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 16 stations 1.3% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,550 trillion Btu 26 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 208 million Btu 46 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 23,514 million 18 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,189 48 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 413 trillion Btu 2.0% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 347 trillion Btu 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 226 trillion Btu 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 564 trillion Btu 2.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,062 million 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,629 million 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,135 million 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 12,688 million 2.2% 2019 find more
by Source Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 119 million barrels 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 469 billion cu ft 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 13 million short tons 2.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 14,366 million 2.1% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,699 million 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 663 million 2.6% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.5% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas 23,658 million cu ft 3.1% Mar-21 find more
Coal 347 thousand short tons 1.0% Mar-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Arizona U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 32.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 60.5 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 2.8 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.7 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 5,885 MW 2.2% Mar-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 55 million gal/year 0.3% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 562 thousand MWh 2.6% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 687 thousand MWh 1.4% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation NM NM Mar-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 286 thousand MWh 7.0% Mar-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 1,203 thousand barrels 0.3% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Arizona U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 12.0 % 20 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 7,495 thousand barrels 15 2019  
Total Emissions Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 90.4 million metric tons 1.7% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 43,562 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 11 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 34 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 18, 2021

Overview

Per capita energy consumption in Arizona is among the lowest in the nation.

Arizona is known for its stunning landscapes and natural wonders from the Grand Canyon in the north to the Saguaro deserts in the south.1 The state has few fossil fuel reserves, but it does have abundant renewable energy resources.2,3,4,5 Although higher elevations receive greater amounts of precipitation, including significant snowfalls, most of Arizona is semiarid or arid, and plentiful sunshine gives the entire state some of the nation's greatest solar energy resources.6,7,8 Elevations in Arizona vary from peaks more than 12,000 feet high in the north to nearly sea level in the deserts in the southwest. Some of the highest elevations and greatest wind potential in the state are on the Colorado Plateau just north of the 200-mile-long Mogollon Rim that cuts diagonally across the state from northwest to southeast and marks the southern edge of the Plateau.9 Arizona also has biomass resources, including the nation's largest ponderosa pine forest.10

Arizona is rich in minerals, and the area drew Spanish explorers seeking gold, silver, and copper as early as the late 1500s.11 Arizona still produces more copper than any other state, accounting for almost three-fourths of the nation's output in 2020.12 During the 20th century, mines in the state also began producing uranium.13 Arizona is the site of major uranium reserves, including the highest-grade uranium in the nation.14 Mining has long been a significant contributor to the state's wealth; however, the economy has diversified. Real estate; government; professional and business services; finance and insurance; trade; and health care services are among the largest contributors to Arizona's gross domestic product (GDP).15 Other key industries in the state include computer and electronic products manufacturing; aerospace and defense; and biosciences.16

In part because many of Arizona's primary economic activities are not energy intensive, the state's total per capita energy consumption was the sixth-lowest in the nation in 2018.17 The transportation sector accounted for one-third of Arizona's end-use energy consumption, and the residential sector used more than one-fourth.18 The majority of Arizona's residents live in a few urban areas, leaving most of the state lightly populated.19 Mild summers in the north and mild winters in the south make Arizona a popular vacation and retirement destination, and the year-round population in Arizona grew faster than in all other states except Nevada during the first decade of the 21st century.20 The pleasant weather also draws many seasonal residents, and about 1 in 14 Arizona homes is occupied only part of the year.21,22,23 The commercial sector accounted for almost one-fourth of state end-use energy consumption, and the state's industrial sector consumed the rest.24

Electricity

Arizona’s Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is the nation’s largest nuclear power plant.

Natural gas is the primary fuel used for electricity generation in Arizona. Natural gas fueled almost half of Arizona's electricity net generation in 2020, up from one-third just two years earlier, because more than 700 megawatts of new natural gas-fired capacity came online between 2018 and 2020.25,26 Arizona's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is the state's largest power plant and the nation's largest nuclear power plant.27 Palo Verde generates more electricity annually than any other U.S. power plant and is second only to the Grand Coulee Dam in total electricity generating capacity among all U.S. power plants.28 In 2020, Palo Verde's three operating reactors generated almost three-tenths of the state's net electricity.29 Coal fueled about as much or more of the state's electricity generation as nuclear power until 2018. However, the Navajo Generating Station, the largest coal-fired facility in the state and Arizona's second-largest power plant, closed in late 2019.30,31,32 Until its closure, the Navajo Generating Station had typically provided two-fifths of the state's coal-fired power generation, and 12% to 16% of all utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) generation in the state, annually.33 In 2020, coal fueled one-eighth of the state's utility-scale net generation.34 Renewable resources, mostly solar and hydroelectric power, supplied almost all the rest of Arizona's in-state utility-scale electricity generation.35 Some of Arizona's in-state generation from all sources was developed to power the crucial pumping systems that bring water for drinking and irrigation from the Colorado River in the north to the drier central and southern parts of Arizona, where most of the state's population lives.36,37

Arizona power plants typically generate more electricity than the state consumes, and, in 2019, more than one-fourth of the electricity generated in-state was sent to consumers outside of Arizona.38 Interstate transmission lines have become congested in peak demand periods, and Arizona continues to work with other states and stakeholders to improve transmission capacity. Projects in development include one that will transmit electricity from carbon-free sources (renewable and nuclear) in Arizona and New Mexico to consumers across the southwest.39 Another project will bring wind power from Wyoming to population centers in the desert southwest, including in Arizona, and transmit solar power from the southwest to the Rocky Mountain states.40 A third transmission project in development will connect areas of southeastern California to southwestern Arizona, facilitating renewable energy development along the route.41

Total per capita electricity retail sales in Arizona are lower than in about two-thirds of the states. However, per capita electricity retail sales to the state's residential sector, where about 3 in 5 households rely on electricity for home heating and more than 9 in 10 homes use air conditioning, are greater than in more than half the states.42,43,44 Almost half of Arizona's electricity retail sales go to the residential sector. The commercial sector uses slightly more than one-third, and the industrial sector accounts for less than one-fifth.45

Renewable energy

In 2020, renewable energy from both utility- and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities provided about 14% of Arizona's total net generation. More than half of that total came from solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal energy. Most of the rest of the renewable in-state generation was from hydroelectric facilities.46

Arizona ranks fourth among the states in solar-powered electricity generation

Although conventional hydroelectric power had long dominated Arizona's renewable generation, solar energy generated at the state's utility- and small-scale installations combined surpassed it for the first time in 2017. By 2020, solar energy accounted for about 8% of the state's electricity net generation from all sources, and one-third of that was from small-scale solar PV installations, such as rooftop panels.47 Overall, Arizona ranks second in the nation in solar energy potential after Nevada, and it is fourth in net generation from solar, after California, Texas, and North Carolina.48,49 Arizona is also one of a handful of states with electricity generation from utility-scale solar thermal technologies, which concentrate sunlight to heat the fluids used to spin the turbines that generate electricity.50,51 The Solana Generating Station in Maricopa County is Arizona's only solar thermal power plant. It has a capacity of almost 300 megawatts. The state's largest solar PV facility is also one of the nation's largest. That plant, Agua Caliente, is located in Yuma County and has a capacity of almost 350 megawatts.52,53 Arizona ranks among the top five states in the nation in total solar-powered generating capacity from both utility- and small-scale installations, with almost 4,200 megawatts.54

Hydroelectric power typically accounts for less than one-tenth of Arizona's total in-state utility-scale net generation. In 2020, it supplied about 6%.55 Glen Canyon Dam and Hoover Dam, both located on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, are among the largest power plants in the state and are the two tallest concrete-arch dams in the nation.56,57,58 They provide most of Arizona's in-state hydroelectric generation.59 Arizona is also one of almost 20 states with pumped storage hydroelectric generation.60 Pumped storage is a process whereby inexpensive power purchased during periods of low demand is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high demand, water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines located between the reservoirs. A pumped storage facility uses more power than it generates, but it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.61 The state's three pumped storage plants have a combined capacity of almost 220 megawatts.62

Arizona uses several other renewable resources. The state's first utility-scale wind farm came online in 2009.63 It was built in a high wind area just north of the Mogollon Rim in central Arizona.64 In 2020, the state's five wind farms provided less than 1% of Arizona's in-state utility-scale generation. The state also has a few landfill gas and other biomass facilities that generated less than 0.5% of power.65 The largest biomass-fueled electricity generator in Arizona uses wood and wood waste.66 The state also has one wood pellet manufacturing plant. Wood pellets are used for heat and power generation, and about 1 in 50 households in the state heat with wood.67,68 Although Arizona has geothermal resources, the state has no utility-scale geothermal power plants.69 However, Arizona has several direct-use applications, including an active aquaculture industry that uses geothermal resources to raise shrimp and fish. The state also has many hot springs and a few small spas. Some deeper, high-temperature resources, particularly in southeastern Arizona, may be suitable for power generation.70

Arizona's renewable energy standard (RES) requires that investor-owned electric utilities and electricity retail suppliers acquire increasing amounts of the electricity they sell from renewable resources with an overall target of 15% of electricity retail sales by 2025. Each year, a total of 30% of the year's required renewable energy target must come from non-utility, customer-sited generation. Half of that generation requirement must come from residential sites and the other half from non-residential installations.71 The state allows net billing, which credits customer-generators with the avoided costs for energy delivered to the grid and facilitates small-scale, customer-sited renewable generation.72 A referendum that would have required 50% of electricity retail sales to come from renewables by 2030 failed to pass in a statewide election in 2018.73 In 2020, Arizona's largest utility announced that it aims to supply 100% carbon-free energy, including nuclear power, by 2050, with an intermediate target of 45% from renewable resources by 2030.74 Arizona also established energy efficiency standards that require investor-owned electric utilities, electric cooperatives, and natural gas utilities to increase energy efficiency and to reduce consumption of both electricity and natural gas. Some of the strategies that are used to meet the energy efficiency targets include demand-side management, peak demand reductions, and energy-efficient building codes.75

Coal

Coal is Arizona's most abundant fossil fuel resource, but it is no longer mined in the state.76 There are two coal fields in Arizona—Black Mesa, in the northeast on the Navajo and Hopi reservations, and Pinedale in east-central Arizona.77 The state's only coal mine was in the Black Mesa field, but it ceased operations in 2019 because its only customer, the coal-fired Navajo Generating Station, closed. That mine was one of the 30 largest coal mines in the nation, and in 2018, it accounted for about 1% of the nation's coal reserves at producing mines.78,79 The coal that supplies Arizona's remaining four coal-fired power plants is brought into the state by rail, typically from New Mexico and Wyoming, with smaller amounts arriving from Montana. A small amount of coal (about 2% of total deliveries) was shipped from Utah and Colorado to industrial users in Arizona in 2019.80,81

Petroleum

Arizona has no significant proved crude oil reserves, and crude oil production was only about 7,000 barrels in 2019.82,83 The largest oil field in the state is on the Navajo reservation in the northeastern corner of the state.84 Areas on both the Colorado Plateau in the northeast and in the Basin and Range region in the southwest are believed to have potential for development, but exploratory drilling has not yielded large finds, and much of Arizona remains unexplored.85

Arizona does not have any crude oil refineries.86 Motor gasoline and other petroleum products are supplied by pipeline from southern California and from Texas.87 In 2018, about 86% of the petroleum consumed in Arizona was used in the transportation sector. The industrial sector accounted for most of the rest of the state's petroleum consumption.88 To meet federal air quality standards, the Tucson area requires oxygenated motor gasoline in the winter.89,90 More stringent state regulations require the use of an oxygenated blend of motor gasoline called Arizona Clean Burning Gasoline (CBG) in Maricopa County, including the city of Phoenix where motor vehicles are the single largest source of air pollution.91,92 Ethanol is used as an oxygenate in motor gasoline in Arizona.93 The state has one fuel ethanol production plant, but its capacity is less than the state's consumption, and supplies are received from midwestern states.94,95,96

Natural gas

About three-fourths of the natural gas consumed in Arizona is used for electric power generation.

Arizona has no significant natural gas reserves.97 With few producing wells and little new drilling activity, Arizona's natural gas production declined to less than 70 million cubic feet per year in 2019, down from a peak of more than 2 billion cubic feet in 1990.98 Almost all the natural gas consumed in Arizona comes from other states via interstate pipelines that enter Arizona at the New Mexico border. Nearly three-fifths of the natural gas that enters the state continues on to California, and almost one-tenth is exported to Mexico. About one-third of the natural gas that enters the state is consumed in Arizona.99 There is no natural gas underground storage capacity in the state.100 However, an above-ground liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage facility near Tucson was put in service in late 2019.101

In 2019, the electric power sector used 76% of the natural gas consumed in Arizona. The residential sector, where about one-third of Arizona households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel, accounted for 9% of the state's natural gas consumption, and the commercial sector used slightly more than 7%. The industrial sector accounted for 4%, which was only slightly more than the amount used in the production and distribution of natural gas in the state.102,103 Overall, per capita consumption of natural gas in Arizona was lower than in all but 11 states and the District of Columbia in 2019.104,105

Energy on tribal lands

Almost all of Arizona’s energy mineral resources are on tribal lands.

Arizona is home to 21 federally recognized Native American tribes, and 3 of the 10 largest reservations in the United States, including most of the nation's biggest, the Navajo Nation reservation.106,107 More Native Americans live in Arizona than any states besides California and Oklahoma.108 As tribes and individuals, Native Americans hold more than one-fourth of Arizona's land—the largest share in any state and second only to Alaska in total acreage—and almost all of Arizona's energy mineral resources are on tribal lands.109,110

Nearly all of Arizona's coal reserves are on tribal lands. All of the state's commercial coal reserves at producing mines were in the Black Mesa coal field on the Navajo and Hopi reservations. Until its closure in 2019, the Kayenta mine on the Navajo Nation's reservation was Arizona's only remaining operating coal mine. Its sole customer was the state's largest coal-fired power plant, also on tribal land, but the plant closed in 2019.111,112

Several natural gas pipelines, electricity transmission lines, hydroelectric dams, and uranium resources are also located on Arizona's reservations.113 From 1944 to 1986, almost 30 million tons of uranium ore were removed from more than 500 mines on Navajo Nation land, most of them in Arizona. Those mines are now closed.114 The largest producing oil field in Arizona—Dineh-bi-Keyah, The People's Field—is on the Navajo Nation reservation. The field has produced about 19 million barrels of crude oil since its discovery in 1967 and accounts for almost all of Arizona's crude oil production. Since 2003, helium has also been produced from that field.115,116

Many Arizona tribes have significant solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass resources suitable for onsite generation of electricity.117 Three of the nation's five tribes with the greatest electricity generation potential from solar resources—both solar thermal and utility-scale solar PV—are in Arizona, as are two of the five tribes with the greatest potential from geothermal-sourced generation. The Navajo reservation has the largest solar and geothermal energy potential among all U.S. reservations.118 The first large-scale solar PV facility on Navajo land came online in 2017 with 27 megawatts of capacity.119 In 2019, an additional 28 megawatts of capacity was added at that facility.120 Many reservations in the state use small-scale solar PV for electricity generation.121 Biomass is used to generate electricity on the Salt River Reservation.122 The Hopi reservation has entered a partnership with the nearby city of Flagstaff to develop a green energy project on tribal land that will sell energy to the city.123 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several Arizona tribal energy projects in the past decade.124 In 2019, the DOE awarded a grant to the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe for the development of a new solar PV array with 2.3 megawatts of capacity on the Fort Mohave Indian Reservation. Fort Mohave is one of the few reservations in the nation that has a tribally owned and operated electric and natural gas utility.125

Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Arizona, accessed February 1, 2021.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Arizona Profile Data, Reserves, accessed February 1, 2021.
3 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed February 1, 2021.
5 Roberts, Billy, Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
6 Selover, Nancy, "Arizona-A State of Mild Temperatures as well as Extremes," Arizona's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed February 1, 2021.
7 Arizona State Climate Office, Arizona Climate, accessed February 1, 2021.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, accessed February 1, 2021.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Arizona, accessed February 1, 2021.
10 NETSTATE, Arizona, The Geography of Arizona, updated December 21, 2017.
11 Frommer's, Arizona Travel Guide, History of Arizona, accessed February25, 2021.
12 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2021 (January 29, 2021), p. 52.
13 "Arizona Strip Region Has Yielded Uranium Ore for Decades," Arizona Daily Star (June 28, 2015).
14 Uranium Producers of America, Uranium in America, Uranium in Arizona, accessed February 1, 2021.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All statistics in table, Arizona, 2019.
16 Arizona Commerce Authority, Arizona Industries, accessed February 1, 2021.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Arizona Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
20 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010 (March 2011), Table 1, Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: 2000 to 2010, p. 2.
21 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Arizona, Climate and Economy, accessed February 1, 2021.
22 Gardner, Dustin, and Leslie Wright, "Field Guide: Arizona's Snowbirds Arrive," The Arizona Republic (December 3, 2011).
23 U.S. Census Bureau, Arizona, Table B25002, Occupancy Status, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, and Table B25004, Vacancy Status, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), EIA 860M, December, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels (utility-scale), Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
27 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
28 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Secondary Sources, Electricity, Electricity in the United States, Top 10, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities (power plants) by annual net electricity generation (2019), and Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities (power plants) by electricity generating capacity (2019).
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels (utility-scale), Nuclear, Annual, 2019-20.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels (utility-scale), Nuclear, Coal, Annual, 2010-20.
31 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
32 Randazzo, Ryan, and Shondiin Silversmith, "Largest coal plant in the West shuts down, dealing financial losses to Native American tribes," USA Today (November 18, 2019).
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels (utility-scale), Coal, Annual, and Navajo Generating Station, Annual, 2010-19.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels (utility-scale), Coal, Annual, 2019 -20.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2019-20.
36 Central Arizona Project, Background & History, accessed February 3, 2021.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Arizona Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
38 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
39 SunZia Southwest Transmission Project, Details, accessed February 3, 2021.
40 TransWest Express LLC, Critical grid infrastructure to connect the West, accessed February 3, 2021.
41 Ten West Link, Project Information, accessed February 3, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
43 U.S. Census Bureau, Arizona, Occupied Housing Units, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
44 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009, Table HC7.11, Air Conditioning in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Arizona, All sectors, Annual, 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, All solar, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
49 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, accessed February 4, 2021.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 1.18.B.
51 U.S. EIA, Solar Explained, Solar Thermal Power Plants, updated January 22, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
53 Alba Energy, "These Are The Biggest Solar Power Plants In America," Blog (April 16, 2018).
54 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.B.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Arizona, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
56 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A.
57 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Region, Glen Canyon Unit, accessed February 4, 2021.
58 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Projects and Facilities, Hoover Dam, accessed February 4, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, , Electricity Data Browser, List of plants for conventional hydroelectric, Arizona, all sectors 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.12.B.
61 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
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