Arizona State Energy Profile



Arizona Quick Facts

  • Arizona's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, rated at 3,937 net megawatts, is the largest nuclear power plant, the largest net generator of electricity, and the second-largest power plant by capacity of any kind in the nation. 
  • In 2016, two-fifths of Arizona’s renewable electricity generation came from solar energy. The state ranked second in the nation in utility-scale electricity generation from solar energy and third in generation from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar resources.
  • Arizona, the 14th most populous state, ranked 44th in the nation in per capita energy consumption in 2015, partly because of the state’s small industrial sector.
  • Arizona's only operating coal mine, Kayenta, on the Navajo and Hopi reservations, supplies all of its coal to the Navajo Generating Station. The station is scheduled to close in 2019, removing nearly two-fifths of Arizona's coal-fired capacity from service.
  • In 2016, natural gas provided the largest share of Arizona's net electricity generation, surpassing coal’s annual contribution for the first time.

Last Updated: December 21, 2017



Data

Last Update: October 18, 2018 | Next Update: November 15, 2018

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.0 million 2.2% 2017  
Civilian Labor Force 3.4 million 2.1% Aug-18  
Economy Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 319.9 billion 21 2017  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 26,313 million 27 2017  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 41,633 43 2017  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 65,786 million miles 17 2016  
Land in Farms 26.2 million acres 14 2012  
Climate Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 63.1 degrees Fahrenheit 8 2017  
Precipitation 9.4 inches 49 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 67.00 /barrel Jul-18  
Natural Gas Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 4.67 /thousand cu ft Jul-18 find more
Residential $ 22.69 /thousand cu ft $ 17.88 /thousand cu ft Jul-18 find more
Coal Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 30.57 /short ton 2016  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.46 /million Btu $ 2.05 /million Btu Jul-18  
Electricity Arizona U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.92 cents/kWh 13.12 cents/kWh Jul-18 find more
Commercial 11.48 cents/kWh 10.98 cents/kWh Jul-18 find more
Industrial 7.68 cents/kWh 7.34 cents/kWh Jul-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2016 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 203 million short tons 1.2% 2016 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 3 wells * 2017 find more
Capacity Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 28,683 MW 2.6% Jul-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 593 trillion Btu 0.7% 2016 find more
Crude Oil 1 thousand barrels * Jul-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 56 million cu ft * 2017 find more
Coal 5,423 thousand short tons 0.7% 2016 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 12,126 thousand MWh 3.0% Jul-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Arizona U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Jul-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 39.9 % 40.3 % Jul-18 find more
Coal-Fired 27.1 % 28.2 % Jul-18 find more
Nuclear 22.5 % 17.7 % Jul-18 find more
Renewables 10.2 % 13.0 % Jul-18  
Stocks Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 49 thousand barrels 0.3% Jul-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 659 thousand barrels 0.7% Jul-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jul-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 136 thousand barrels 0.5% Jul-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,177 thousand tons 2.9% Jul-18 find more
Fueling Stations Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,639 stations 1.5% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 91 stations 2.8% 2017  
Electricity 384 stations 2.4% 2017  
Ethanol 21 stations 0.7% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 20 stations 1.6% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Arizona U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,471 trillion Btu 26 2016 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 213 million Btu 43 2016 find more
Total Expenditures $ 19,053 million 21 2016 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,758 48 2016 find more
by End-Use Sector Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 390 trillion Btu 1.9% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial 348 trillion Btu 1.9% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial 241 trillion Btu 0.8% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation 491 trillion Btu 1.8% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,743 million 2.0% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,623 million 2.0% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,925 million 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation $ 8,763 million 1.9% 2016 find more
by Source Arizona Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 105.4 million barrels 1.5% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 358.3 billion cu ft 1.3% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 16.8 million short tons 2.3% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,014 million 1.8% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,781 million 1.4% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 693 million 2.2% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.4% Jul-18 find more
Natural Gas 37,192 million cu ft 3.0% Jul-18 find more
Coal 1,766 thousand short tons 2.8% Jul-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Arizona U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 32.5 % 48.0 % 2017  
Fuel Oil * 4.7 % 2017  
Electricity 61.1 % 39.0 % 2017  
Propane 2.7 % 4.7 % 2017  
Other/None 3.6 % 3.6 % 2017  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 5,091 MW 2.4% Jul-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 50 million gal/year 0.3% 2018  
Renewable Energy Production Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 647 thousand MWh 2.7% Jul-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 577 thousand MWh 2.4% Jul-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 18 thousand MWh 0.3% Jul-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 223 thousand MWh 7.0% Jul-18  
Ethanol Production 1,216 Thousand Barrels 0.3% 2016  
Renewable Energy Consumption Arizona U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.8 % 22 2016  
Ethanol Consumption 7,124 thousand barrels 17 2016  
Total Emissions Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 91.0 million metric tons 1.7% 2015  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Arizona Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 44,531 thousand metric tons 2.3% 2016  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2016  
Nitrogen Oxide 36 thousand metric tons 2.2% 2016  

Analysis

Last Updated: December 21, 2017

Overview

Arizona is known for its iconic vistas from the Grand Canyon in the north to the Saguaro deserts in the south.1 The state has few fossil fuel resources, but it does have abundant solar and geothermal energy potential.2,3,4 Elevations in Arizona vary from peaks more than 12,000 feet high in the north to nearly sea level in the lower deserts to the southwest. Some of the highest elevations in the state are on the Colorado Plateau of northern Arizona. Along the more than 100-mile long, steep slope of the Mogollon Rim that marks the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau is some of Arizona’s greatest wind potential.5,6 Although higher elevations receive greater amounts of precipitation, including significant snowfalls, most of Arizona is semiarid, and abundant sunshine gives the entire state some of the nation’s greatest solar power potential. 7,8

Arizona is rich in minerals, and the state drew Spanish explorers seeking gold, silver, and copper as early as the 1600s. During the 20th century, mines in the state began producing uranium.9,10 Arizona is the site of major uranium reserves, including the highest-grade uranium mine in the nation.11,12 Although mining has long been a significant contributor to the state’s wealth, the economy has diversified. Real estate; professional and business services; trade; and health care services are among the largest contributors to Arizona’s gross domestic product.13 Other key industries in Arizona include computer and electronic products manufacturing; aerospace and defense; and biosciences.14 Arizona still produces more copper than any other state.15

Transportation is the largest end-use energy-consuming sector in Arizona.

Because Arizona’s primary economic activities are not energy intensive, the state’s per capita energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.16 The transportation sector is Arizona’s largest end-use energy consumer, followed by the residential sector.17 The majority of Arizona’s residents live in a few urban areas, leaving the rest of the state lightly populated.18,19 Mild summers in the north and mild winters in the south make Arizona a popular vacation and retirement destination. Arizona’s year-round population grew faster than all other states except Nevada during the first decade of the 21st century.20 The pleasant weather also draws many seasonal residents, and about 1 in 14 Arizona homes is occupied only part of the year.21,22,23

Petroleum

Arizona has no significant proved crude oil reserves and has only minor crude oil production from fewer than 30 producing wells, all of which are located in the northeastern corner of the state.24,25 The largest oil field in the state is on the Navajo reservation.26 Areas on both the Colorado Plateau in the northeast and in the Basin and Range region in the southwest are believed to have petroleum potential, but exploratory drilling has never yielded large finds, and much of Arizona remains unexplored.27 Most of the recent drilling activity is related to helium, carbon dioxide, or minerals exploration.28

Arizona does not have any oil refineries.29 Motor gasoline and other petroleum products are supplied by pipeline from Southern California and Texas.30 Most of Arizona’s petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector where almost 9 of every 10 barrels are used.31 To meet federal air quality standards, an oxygenated blend called Arizona Clean Burning Gasoline (CBG) is used year-round in Maricopa County, which includes the city of Phoenix. A lowered vapor pressure is required in the motor gasoline sold in much of Maricopa County during the summer months to reduce ground-level ozone formation. Oxygenated motor gasoline is also required during the winter in the Tucson area.32,33,34 The industrial sector accounts for most of the remaining petroleum consumed in the state.35

Natural gas

Arizona has no significant natural gas reserves.36 With few producing wells and little new drilling activity, Arizona’s natural gas production has declined to less than 50 million cubic feet per year from a peak of more than 2 billion cubic feet per year in 1990.37,38 Almost all of the natural gas consumed in Arizona comes from other states via interstate pipelines that enter Arizona at the New Mexico border. Nearly two-thirds of the natural gas entering the state continues on to California.39 Arizona does not have any natural gas underground storage capacity.40 However, a natural gas storage project is in development in southern Arizona, and, if regulatory approval is obtained, construction could begin by 2019.41 A liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage facility is also being built near Tucson to assure supply. It is expected to be completed in 2019.42

Almost three-fourths of the natural gas consumed in Arizona is used for electric power generation.

The electric power sector consumes almost three-fourths of the natural gas used in Arizona. The residential sector, where about one-third of Arizonans use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel, is a distant second, accounting for about one-tenth of the state’s natural gas consumption.43,44 Overall per capita consumption of natural gas in Arizona is less than in two-thirds of the states.45,46

Coal

There are two coal fields in Arizona—Black Mesa, in the northeast on the Navajo and Hopi reservations, and Pinedale in south-central Arizona.47 Those fields hold about 1% of the nation’s coal reserves at producing mines. The state’s only operating coal mine is in the Black Mesa field, and it is one of the 30 largest coal mines in the nation.48 Coal from that mine is sent by conveyor to a closed loop electric train that takes the crushed coal directly to the mine’s only customer, the coal-fired Navajo Generating Station, 80 miles away. However, the planned closure by 2019 of the Navajo Generating Station puts the mine’s continued operations at risk. Stakeholders in the mine are exploring options to keep the mine open, including new rail service to other areas.49,50 The coal that supplies Arizona's other coal-fired power plants is brought into the state by rail, typically from New Mexico and Wyoming, with smaller amounts arriving from Montana and Colorado. Some coal from Colorado and Utah is also delivered to industrial plants in Arizona.51

Electricity

Arizona’s Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is the nation’s largest nuclear power plant and is second only to the Grand Coulee Dam in total electricity generating capacity.52 It is Arizona’s largest power plant. The Navajo Generating Station is the second-largest power plant in the state and the largest coal-fired facility. However, in 2016, natural gas provided the largest share of the state’s net generation, surpassing coal’s annual contribution for the first time. Between 2004 and 2009, natural gas power plants’ contribution to the state’s net electricity generation exceeded that of nuclear power, and in 2015, natural gas once again surpassed nuclear power.53 In 2016, natural gas and nuclear energy each supplied close to one-third of the state’s net generation, and coal provided slightly more than one-fourth. Renewable resources, mostly hydroelectric power and solar, provided the balance.54

Power plants in Arizona generate more electricity than the state consumes, and Arizona generating stations supply electricity to consumers throughout the southwest.55,56,57 Transmission lines have become congested in peak demand periods. Arizona has been working with other states and stakeholders on multiple projects to improve transmission capacity. Among them are projects that will transmit electricity from Arizona and New Mexico to areas across the southwest.58 Another project in development will bring renewably sourced power from Wyoming to population centers in the desert southwest, including Nevada, Arizona, and Southern California.59 An additional proposed transmission project would connect areas of southeastern California to southwestern Arizona, facilitating renewable energy development along the route.60

Electricity is crucial for pumping water for drinking and irrigation from the Colorado River in the north to the drier central and southern parts of Arizona.61 More than four-fifths of the state’s population lives in south-central Arizona.62 However, per capita retail electricity sales in Arizona are near the bottom one-third of the states even though about 3 in 5 households rely on electricity for home heating, and more than 9 in 10 homes have air conditioning.63,64,65,66,

Renewable energy

Arizona's renewable energy standard requires that investor-owned electric utilities and retail electricity suppliers acquire increasing amounts of the electricity they sell from renewable resources. The overall target is 15% of retail electricity sales by 2025. Each year, a total of 30% of the year’s required renewable energy target must come from non-utility distributed (customer-sited) generation. Half of the distributed generation requirement must come from residential sites and the other half from non-residential installations.67 The state allows net billing, which credits new customer-generators with the avoided costs for energy exported to the grid and facilitates distributed renewable generation.68 Key to developing the state’s renewable resource potential on a large scale is adding the transmission capacity needed to carry the electricity from remote sites, where it is generated, to urban markets for consumption. State, regional, and federal stakeholders have joined together to expand the transmission infrastructure in Arizona.69,70 In addition to encouraging the development of Arizona’s renewable resources, the state has established energy efficiency standards that require investor-owned electric utilities, electric cooperatives, and natural gas utilities to increase energy efficiency to reduce consumption of both electricity and natural gas.71 Investor-owned utilities have 2.5% electricity savings targets for 2016 through 2020.72

The Glen Canyon and Hoover Dams, among the largest power plants in the state, provide most of Arizona’s net hydroelectric generation.

In 2016, renewable energy provided more than 12% of Arizona’s net generation. More than one-tenth of that generation was distributed (customer-sited). However, slightly more than half of the state’s renewable net generation comes from utility-scale hydroelectric power.73 The Glen Canyon Dam and Hoover Dam, both located on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, are among the largest power plants in the state and provide most of Arizona’s net hydroelectric generation.74 Although hydroelectric power has long dominated Arizona's renewable electricity generation, solar energy is providing increasing amounts of generation.75 In 2016, solar energy accounted for about 5% of Arizona’s net electricity generation, almost one-third of it from distributed sources.76 Arizona has one of the largest solar energy potentials of any state, second only to Nevada.77 Arizona’s first commercial solar photovoltaic (PV) array went into service in 1997, and, by 2014, one of the world's largest solar PV facilities was completed in Yuma, Arizona.78,79 Arizona is also one of four states that generates electricity using concentrating solar power technology.80 The state’s total installed solar-powered electricity-generating capacity has increased substantially over the past two decades. Arizona ranks third in the nation in solar capacity, after California and North Carolina. 81

Arizona has some wind potential, mainly along and just north of the steep-walled Mogollon Rim that cuts across the central part of the state.82 The first commercial-scale wind farm in Arizona became operational in 2009.83 But, in 2016, wind provided only 0.5% of the state’s net electricity generation.84 Arizona has geothermal resources, as well; however, there are no utility-scale geothermal power plants in the state.85 Arizona has many hot springs, a few small spas, and several direct-use applications, including an active aquaculture industry that uses geothermal resources to raise shrimp and other fish. Some deeper high-temperature resources, particularly in the central and southern parts of Arizona, may be suitable for power generation.86,87

Energy on tribal lands

Arizona is home to 21 federally recognized Native American tribes, 22 tribal governments, and most of the nation’s largest reservation, the Navajo Nation.88,89,90 As tribes and individuals, Native Americans control more than one-fourth of Arizona’s land—the largest proportion of any state and second only to Alaska in total acreage.91 Almost all of Arizona’s energy mineral resources are on the state’s tribal lands.92 The largest producing oil field in Arizona—Dineh-bi-Keyah, The People’s Field—is on the Navajo reservation. Although production is now modest, the field has produced almost 19 million barrels of crude oil since its discovery in the mid-1960s.93 Arizona’s coal reserves are also on tribal land.94 The state’s only operating coal mine, Kayenta, is in the Black Mesa coal field on the Navajo and Hopi reservations.95 In addition to the Navajo Generating Station, which will close by 2019, several natural gas pipelines, electricity transmission lines, and hydroelectric dams are located on Arizona’s tribal lands.96 From 1944 to 1986, almost 4 million tons of uranium were removed from more than 500 mines on Navajo Nation land, most of them in Arizona. Those mines are now closed.97 Renewable resources are abundant in Arizona, and they offer opportunities for electricity generation, especially on tribal lands in remote areas. Tribes are assessing their solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass resources for onsite generation of electricity.98 Three of the top five tribes with the greatest electricity generation potential from solar resources are in Arizona, as are two of the five tribes with the greatest electricity generation potential from geothermal resources.99 Although the Navajo reservation in Arizona has historically had the highest percentage of households without electricity among the nation’s reservations, it is the reservation with the largest solar and geothermal potential.100,101 The first large-scale solar PV facility on Navajo land, with 27-megawatts of capacity, came online in 2017.102 Several planned wind projects in Arizona, including some on tribal land, have not gone forward as the emphasis has shifted to developing solar projects. However, wind energy opportunities are being explored by the Hopi Tribe and the Hualapai Tribe.103

Endnotes

1 Visit Arizona, Uniquely AZ, Arizona’s Parks and Monuments, accessed November 17, 2017.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Arizona Profile Data, Reserves, accessed November 28, 2017.
3 Gilroy, Nicholas, Direct Normal Solar Resource of Arizona, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (April 4, 2017).
4 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (October 13, 2009).
5 NETSTATE, Arizona, The Geography of Arizona, updated February 25, 2016.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Arizona, accessed November 18, 2017.
7 Selover, Nancy, Arizona–A State of Mild Temperatures as well as Extremes, Arizona’s Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, accessed November 17, 2017.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State (March 11, 2010).
9 Arizona Geological Survey, Mineral Resources, accessed November 20, 2017.
10 "Arizona Strip Region Has Yielded Uranium Ore for Decades," Arizona Daily Star (June 28, 2015).
11 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Major U.S. Uranium Reserves, map, accessed November 20, 2017.
12 Energy Fuels, “Energy Fuels Discovers High-Grade Copper Mineralization at Its Canyon Uranium Mine,” Press Release (October 27, 2016).
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All Industries, Arizona, 2015.
14 Arizona Commerce Authority, Arizona Industries, accessed November 20, 2017.
15 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2017 (January 19, 2017), p. 54.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Arizona Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
20 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010 (March 2011), Table 1, Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: 2000 to 2010.
21 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Arizona, Climate and Economy, accessed November 20, 2017.
22 Gardner, Dustin, and Leslie Wright, "Field Guide: Arizona's Snowbirds Arrive," The Arizona Republic (December 3, 2011).
23 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Arizona, Table B25002, Occupancy Status, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, and Table B25004, Vacancy Status, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
24 U.S. EIA, Arizona Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply and Distribution, accessed November 20, 2017.
25 Arizona Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, Arizona Geological Survey, Oil, Gas, Helium Production Report, January 2017 (June 16, 2017).
26 Rauzi, Steven L., Dineh-Bi-Keyah Oil Field Apache County, Arizona, Arizona Geological Survey, Publication OG-15 (OGCC Well Location Map P-2) (March 5, 2015).
27 Rauzi, Steven L., Arizona Has Oil and Gas Potential!, Arizona Geological Survey Circular 29 (February 2001).
28 Rauzi, Steven L., Annual Oil and Gas Activity in Arizona 1959 to 2014, Arizona Geological Survey (March 4, 2015), p. 59–63.
29 U.S. EIA, Arizona Profile Data, Reserves, accessed November 20, 2017.
30 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Phoenix Terminal, Inbound Receipt Modes, accessed November 20, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
32 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed November 20, 2017.
33 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008), p. 1.
34 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements Map (June 22, 2015).
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
36 U.S. EIA, Arizona Profile Data, Reserves, accessed November 21, 2017.
37 Arizona Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, Arizona Geological Survey, Oil, Gas, Helium Production Report, December 2016 (March 30, 2017).
38 U.S. EIA, Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1990–2016.
39 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Arizona, 2016.
40 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2016.
41 “Kinder Morgan proposes Arizona gas storage project,” Argus Media (October 21, 2016).
42 Southwest Gas, Southern Arizona LNG Reliability Project, accessed November 20, 2017.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Arizona, 2016.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Arizona, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, accessed November 1, 2016.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, All States, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates.
47 Kirschbaum, Mark A., and Laura R. H. Biewick, Chapter B, A Summary of the Coal Deposits in the Colorado Plateau: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625–B, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (2000), p. B2.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Tables 1, 9, 14.
49 Randazzo, Ryan, “When coal-fired power plant closes, this mine will die. So will a lifeline for one Native American tribe,” AZCentral (February 23, 2017).
50 Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, “Peabody Angles to Keep Kayenta Mine in Arizona Open,” Bloomberg BNA (August 22, 2017).
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Arizona Table DS-3, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
52 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Secondary Sources, Electricity, Electricity in the United States, Top 10, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities by annual net electricity generation, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities by electricity generation capacity (2014 final data).
U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2015, Tables 2A, 2B, 5.
54 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
55 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
56 Nuclear Energy Institute, Economic Benefits of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station, An Economic Impact Study by the Nuclear Energy Institute (November 2004), 2.2 Generation, p. 11.
57 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Region, Glen Canyon Unit, updated May 1, 2017.
58 SunZia, Welcome to the SunZia Southwest Transmission Project, accessed November 25, 2017.
59 TransWest Express LLC, Delivering Wyoming wind energy to the West, accessed November 25, 2017.
60 Ten West Link, accessed November 25, 2017.
61 Central Arizona Project, CAP Background, accessed November 25, 2017.
62 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Arizona, Maricopa County, Pima County and Pinal County, Population 2016, accessed November 25, 2017.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
64 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, All States, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates.
65 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Arizona, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
66 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009, Table HC7.11, Air Conditioning in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Arizona Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 7, 2017.
68 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Billing, Arizona (May 30, 2017).
69 SunZia, Welcome to the SunZia Southwest Transmission Project, accessed November 25, 2017.
70 U.S. Department of Energy, “Energy Department, Arizona Utilities Announce Transmission Infrastructure Project Energization,” Press Release (February 12, 2015).
71 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Standards, Arizona (May 25, 2017).
72 American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS), January 2017, p. 2.
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.12.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
74 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2015, Tables 2A, 2B.
75 U.S. EIA, Arizona Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
77 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
78 Arizona Public Service, Arizona’s Energy Future, APS Solar Plant in Flagstaff Celebrates “Sunny Sweet 16″ (October 3, 2013).
79 Jegede, Dara, “Top 10 largest solar photovoltaic plants in the world,” Institution of Mechanical Engineers (May 4, 2016).
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.18.B.
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016, February 2017, November 2017), Table 6.2.B.
82 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy in Arizona, accessed November 25, 2017.
83 Iberdrola Renewables, “Arizona’s First Wind Farm Wins Award, Brings Together U.S. Interior Secretary Salazar, Energy Leaders and Navajo County Families to Dedicate Dry Lake Wind,” Press Release (October 12, 2009).
84 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.16.B.
86 The Arizona Experience, Geothermal Energy, accessed November 26, 2017.
87 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Arizona (April 2006).
88 Arizona Governor’s Office on Tribal Relations, Tribes of Arizona, Arizona Tribal Leadership List, updated December 14, 2016.
89 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, “Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs,” Federal Register, Vol. 82, No. 10 (January 17, 2017), p. 4915–20.
90 Pariona, Amber, “Biggest Indian Reservations In The United States,” World Atlas, updated April 25, 2017.
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95 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
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97 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines, accessed November 27, 2017.
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101 U.S. EIA, Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands, SR/CNEAF/2000-01 (April 2000), p. 39.
102 “Navajo celebrate first large-scale solar farm on Nation,” Navajo-Hopi Observer (September 5, 2017).
103 Baranowski, Ruth, et al., 2016 State of Wind Development in the United States by Region, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (April 2017), p. 14–15.

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