Alaska State Energy Profile



Alaska Quick Facts

  • Alaska's proved crude oil reserves of 2.4 billion barrels are the fourth largest of any state. However, many of Alaska's oil fields are mature, and in 2020 the state's oil production averaged 448,000 barrels per day, the lowest level since 1976.
  • Alaska ranks third in the nation in natural gas gross withdrawals, but the state has no major pipeline to bring the natural gas to market. In part as a result, about 90% of the state's natural gas production is reinjected into oil fields to help maintain crude oil production rates.
  • Many rural communities in Alaska rely primarily on diesel electric generators for power, and Alaska ranks second only to Hawaii in the share of its electricity--16% in 2020--generated from petroleum.
  • Alaska's total energy consumption is among the 10 lowest states, but its per capita energy consumption is the fourth highest in part because of its small population, harsh winters, and energy-intensive industries.
  • In 2020, Alaska generated about 31% of its electricity from renewable energy sources. The state has a non-binding goal to generate 50% of its electricity from renewable and alternative energy sources by 2025.

Last Updated: February 17, 2022



Data

Last Update: November 17, 2022 | Next Update: December 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.7 million 0.2% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 0.4 million 0.2% Sep-22  
Economy Alaska U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 55.0 billion 49 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector W 50 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 67,138 11 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 5,306 million miles 50 2020  
Land in Farms 0.8 million acres 44 2017  
Climate Alaska U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 26.4 degrees Fahrenheit 49 2021  
Precipitation 39.3 inches 29 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 94.32 /barrel $ 93.75 /barrel Aug-22  
Natural Gas Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 8.33 /thousand cu ft $ 10.49 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Residential $ 13.30 /thousand cu ft $ 25.61 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Coal Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 60.32 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.66 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Aug-22  
Electricity Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 23.73 cents/kWh 15.95 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Commercial 20.02 cents/kWh 13.45 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Industrial 18.16 cents/kWh 9.72 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 2,423 million barrels 6.8% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 36,176 billion cu ft 8.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 229 million barrels 1.1% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 46 million short tons 0.4% 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 827 wells 0.2% 2020 find more
Capacity Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 164,200 barrels/calendar day 0.9% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 2,821 MW 0.2% Aug-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,349 trillion Btu 1.4% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 413 thousand barrels per day 3.4% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 354,660 million cu ft 1.0% 2021 find more
Coal 1,042 thousand short tons 0.2% 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 562 thousand MWh 0.1% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Alaska U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 11.8 % 0.2 % Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 44.3 % 45.7 % Aug-22 find more
Coal-Fired 13.6 % 20.5 % Aug-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 16.6 % Aug-22 find more
Renewables 30.3 % 16.4 % Aug-22  
Stocks Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 220 thousand barrels 1.8% Aug-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,074 thousand barrels 1.3% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 43,952 million cu ft 0.6% Aug-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers NM NM Aug-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Aug-22 find more
Fueling Stations Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 186 stations 0.2% 2019  
Propane 2 stations 0.1% 2022  
Electricity 49 stations 0.1% 2022  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Alaska U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 640 trillion Btu 39 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 874 million Btu 2 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 4,709 million 42 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 6,429 2 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 54 trillion Btu 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 58 trillion Btu 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 363 trillion Btu 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 165 trillion Btu 0.7% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 860 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 825 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 575 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,449 million 0.6% 2020 find more
by Source Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 39 million barrels 0.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 379 billion cu ft 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.3% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,111 million 0.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 594 million 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 125 million 0.6% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 115 thousand barrels 6.3% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas 2,688 million cu ft 0.2% Aug-22 find more
Coal 59 thousand short tons 0.1% Aug-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Alaska U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 50.4 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 26.8 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 13.8 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 2.8 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 6.3 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 542 MW 0.2% Aug-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 160 thousand MWh 0.7% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 7 thousand MWh * Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 4 thousand MWh 0.1% Aug-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 2 thousand MWh * Aug-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Alaska U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 4.0 % 48 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 0 thousand barrels 51 2020  
Total Emissions Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 34.3 million metric tons 0.7% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 3,459 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 2 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: February 17, 2022

Overview

Alaska, the largest U.S. state, is one-fifth the size of the Lower 48 states, and, with its Aleutian Island chain, is as wide as the Lower 48 states from east to west.1 It is the only U.S. state with land north of the Arctic Circle, and it has the highest mountains and longest coastline of any state.2 Alaska's winters are frequently severe, but its climate varies significantly from north to south and from winter to summer, particularly in the interior, where temperatures range from -80°F in winter to 100°F in summer.3 Large areas of Alaska remain uninhabited. It has the third-smallest population of the U.S. states and is the least densely populated state.4 Nearly half of Alaskans live in the cities of Anchorage, Juneau, and Fairbanks, while the rest of the state averages less than one resident per square mile.5

The oil and natural gas industries are a key part of Alaska's energy-intensive economy, and the state ranks fourth in the nation in the amount of energy consumption per dollar of GDP.6,7,8 The area of Alaska known as the North Slope contains 6 of the 100 largest oil fields in the United States and 1 of the 100 largest natural gas fields. Alaska's Prudhoe Bay field is among the 10 largest oil fields in the nation.9 Alaska does not have a state sales tax or a personal income tax, as revenues from Alaska's oil and gas industry fund most of the state government.10 Since 1982, every eligible state resident receives an annual dividend that is based on the value of oil royalty revenue in the Alaska Permanent Fund.11 The 2021 dividend was $1,114, up 12% from the $992 the year before, when it was the smallest dividend since 2013 and was paid four months early to help residents handle the economic impacts resulting from actions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic.12,13

Alaska’s energy demand per capita is the fourth-highest in the nation.

Alaska has other substantial energy resources. Its recoverable coal reserves rank 14th among the states.14 Alaska's many rivers offer some of the best hydroelectric power potential in the nation.15 Large swaths of the Alaskan coastline have significant wind energy resources, and the state's many volcanic fields offer geothermal energy potential.16,17 Because of its small population, Alaska's total energy demand is among the 10 lowest states.18 However, with its harsh winters, energy-intensive oil and natural gas industries, and small population, the state's per capita total energy consumption is the fourth-highest in the nation, after Wyoming, Louisiana, and North Dakota. Alaska's industrial sector accounts for almost three-fifths of the state's energy use, followed by the transportation sector at about one-fourth, the commercial sector at one-tenth, and the residential sector at about one-twelfth. Alaska has ranked as the state with the highest level of transportation sector per capita energy consumption for every year since 1969.19,20

Petroleum

Alaska's proved crude oil reserves—about 2.4 billion barrels at the beginning of 2021—are the fourth-largest of any state.21 Alaska, which was among the top five oil-producing states for many years, ranked sixth in 2020 when the state's annual oil production was 448,000 barrels per day, the lowest level in more than 40 years. The state's oil output peaked at 2 million barrels per day in 1988. Since 2003, Alaska's annual oil production declined steadily as the state's oil fields matured.22,23 In recent decades, Alaska experienced relatively warmer temperatures than before, and for longer periods of time. Warmer temperatures reduce the amount of time energy companies can explore for onshore oil, because ice roads and drilling pads can be used only during the coldest months of the year, when the frozen land is less damaged by heavy equipment. Conversely, the warmer temperatures reduce floating ice packs, which makes it easier to ship production facilities and equipment to the North Slope oil fields.24,25

Large areas of the state remain unexplored for oil. However, in 2017, Congress voted to allow oil exploration and drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), located in northeastern Alaska. In January 2021, the U.S. Department of the Interior auctioned leases on some oil exploration tracts along the refuge's 1.6 million-acre northern coastal plain.26,27,28,29 In June 2021, the Biden administration suspended those oil and natural gas leases and ordered a comprehensive review of their environmental impact.30,31 The U.S. Geological Survey estimates the ANWR coastal plain holds 10.4 billion barrels of crude oil.32 In January 2022, the Biden administration reduced by one-third the area available for oil and natural gas leasing in the separate National Petroleum Reserve on Alaska's North Slope from 18.6 million acres to 11.8 million acres.33,34

Most of Alaska's crude oil production—typically over 95%—occurs on the North Slope.35 The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, which began operating in 1977, transports crude oil 800 miles from the frozen North Slope to the warm-water port at Valdez, on Alaska's southern coast.36 In 1988, the pipeline's oil throughput peaked at 2.1 million barrels per day. Since 2003, actual deliveries are less than 1 million barrels per day, and decreased to 480,000 barrels per day in 2020.37 The lower volumes cause the oil to move more slowly in the pipeline, which results in colder oil. That creates challenges for the pipeline's operators, including the formation of ice and the buildup of wax that is in the oil on the pipeline wall. The amount of time it takes for oil to travel through the pipeline from the North Slope to the Valdez port increased from 4.5 days in 1988 to 18 days in 2020.38

Most of the oil produced in Alaska is sent to refineries in Washington and California.

Tankers transport most of the oil produced in Alaska to refineries in Washington and California. They also ship a small portion of the state's oil production to Hawaii or export it to international destinations.39 On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez tanker struck Bligh Reef and spilled 257,000 barrels of crude oil into Prince William Sound, located on Alaska's southern coast.40 The accident resulted in improvements to tanker construction, navigation technology, and crew training.41

Alaska ranks among the 10 states with the lowest total petroleum demand, but it has the third-highest per capita petroleum consumption.42 The state has five operating refineries, with a combined processing capacity of about 164,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.43 Two of the refineries, in the Prudhoe Bay region, supply fuel to crude oil drilling operations. A refinery in Kenai, which is southwest of Anchorage, produces most of the state's motor gasoline as well as some distillate fuel oil. Two other refineries, located in Valdez and near Fairbanks, also produce diesel and heating fuels.44,45 Alaska is the largest jet fuel-consuming state on a per capita basis and the 12th-largest in total jet fuel use.46,47 The state is a major fueling stop for military aircraft as well as for commercial passenger and cargo flights between the United States and Asian countries.48,49 Alaska also consumes petroleum to produce electricity. In 2020, petroleum liquids generated about 16% of the state's electricity at utility-scale power plants (1 megawatt or larger). Small diesel-fueled generators also produce electricity in isolated communities.50,51,52 One-third of the state's households relies on fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for heating.53

Natural gas

Most of Alaska’s natural gas production is reinjected into oil fields to maintain oil production rates.

Alaska's proved natural gas reserves totaled nearly 37 trillion cubic feet at the start of 2021, the fifth-largest among the states.54 Alaska ranks third in the nation (after Texas and Pennsylvania) in natural gas gross withdrawals, but most of the state's gas production is not brought to market. Natural gas volumes from the North Slope far exceed local demand, and there is no pipeline to transport the natural gas to consumers in the southern part of the state.55,56 Instead, operators reinject about 90% of the state's natural gas withdrawals—most of it from oil production—into oil reservoirs to help maintain crude oil production rates. The rest of the gas production is marketed.57 About 82% of Alaska's natural gas consumption occurs in the natural gas and crude oil production process. The electric power sector accounts for 6% of the state's natural gas consumption, as natural gas generates slightly more than two-fifths of Alaska's utility-scale electricity. The residential, commercial, and industrial sectors account for the remaining 11% of the state's natural gas consumption.58,59 Almost half of Alaskan households, most of which are located in the state's cities, heat with natural gas.60

The state has a goal to construct an 800-mile pipeline that would bring Alaska's North Slope natural gas to international markets, but the project was not considered commercially feasible by private energy companies. To advance the project, the Alaska government created a state-owned corporation to approve, build, and operate the pipeline by 2025. As part of the pipeline project, the Alaska government also plans to build a new liquefied natural gas (LNG) export terminal near Anchorage. The terminal would receive natural gas from North Slope fields via the pipeline that could transport up to 3.3 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day.61,62,63,64,65 In May 2020, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) authorized the Alaska state-owned corporation to construct and operate the LNG project. However, in April 2021 FERC ordered that a supplemental environmental impact study be done on the plant, which is expected to be published in mid-2022. The state wants one or more energy companies to take over the project, which has an estimated price of nearly $39 billion.66,67,68,69,70 71,72

The Kenai LNG liquefaction and terminal complex on Cook Inlet began operating in 1969, and until 2012 it was the only facility in the United States authorized to export LNG produced from domestic natural gas. The terminal, which has the capacity to liquefy up to 200 million cubic feet of natural gas per day, used to export LNG to Asia.73,74 However, its LNG shipments declined and the terminal's owner sold the facility in early 2018. The new owners won approval from FERC in 2020 to modify the terminal so it can receive LNG imports to provide fuel to a nearby refinery.75,76

Coal

Alaska's recoverable coal reserves are estimated at 2.8 billion tons, about 1% of the U.S. total.77 Coal mines have operated in Alaska since 1855.78 Substantial deposits of bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite are found in the north, south, and central portions of the state, but most of Alaska's coal remains unmined.79,80,81,82 Alaska has one operating surface coal mine, the Usibelli mine, which produces about 1 million tons of coal per year.83,84 In 2020, none of Alaska's coal was exported. Instead, it was used in the state at coal-fired power plants and by commercial and institutional users.85 In past years, Alaska exported some of its coal to countries in Asia.86

Electricity

Alaska ranked second, after Hawaii, for the most petroleum-fired electricity generation in 2020.

In 2020, natural gas fueled 42% of Alaska's total utility-scale electricity generation and hydroelectric power generated 28%. Petroleum accounted for 16%, coal was 12%, and other renewables—mostly wind and biomass—accounted for 3% of Alaska's generation.87 Alaska generates the second-largest amount of electricity from petroleum products after Hawaii.88 In February 2020, the only coal-fired power plant built in the United States since 2015 began operating in Alaska. The combined-heat-and-power (CHP) coal-fired plant was built at the University of Alaska's Fairbanks campus and has a generating capacity of 17 megawatts.89,90,91

The electricity infrastructure in Alaska differs from that in the Lower 48 states because Alaskans are not linked to large, interconnected grids through transmission and distribution lines. An electric grid called the Railbelt serves an area, where about two-thirds of the state's population lives, that stretches from Fairbanks to Anchorage and down to the Kenai Peninsula. However, even the Railbelt grid is isolated from the electric grids in Canada and the Lower 48 states.92 In 2020, Alaska's governor signed legislation into law creating an electric reliability organization to develop grid reliability standards among the six Railbelt utilities.93,94

Alaska uses the second-smallest amount of electricity among the states, after Vermont, and is among the 10 states with the lowest per capita electricity retail sales.95 In 2020, the commercial sector accounted for 43% of Alaska's electricity retail sales, followed by the residential sector at 35%, and the industrial sector at 22%.96 One out of eight Alaskan households use electricity for their primary heating source.97 Electricity retail prices in the state's rural areas can be three to five times higher than the rates in the urban areas, so the state provides financial assistance to local communities to help cover the cost of electricity.98 Most of the state's rural communities do not have grid access and rely on consumer-owned electric cooperatives for their power. Many of those rural power providers use diesel-fueled electricity generators for some or all of their power supplies.99,100,101,102

Renewable energy

In 2020, hydropower supplied about 90% of Alaska’s renewable electricity.

In 2010, the Alaska legislature enacted a non-binding goal for 50% of the state's electricity to be generated from renewable and alternative energy sources by 2025.103,104 In 2020, renewable energy accounted for about 31% of Alaska's utility-scale electricity generation, and hydropower was about nine-tenths of that renewable electricity, with smaller amounts from wind and biomass.105 Utility-scale hydropower facilities are concentrated in southern Alaska, where there are mountainous regions with high annual rainfalls. Smaller run-of-river projects—which do not use dams—produce power in some rural communities. Alaska is also exploring tidal and ocean technologies that could supply renewable energy to coastal communities.106 In addition, small wind and solar generation projects are found in many of the state's remote communities to reduce the use of petroleum products, which have high delivery costs, to generate electricity.107

Wind resources are abundant along Alaska's coastline. Wind energy supplies about 7% of Alaska's utility-scale renewable generation from about 60 megawatts of wind power generating capacity, located mostly along the state's southern and western coasts and on the Railbelt grid.108,109,110 111,112,113,114,115 Increasing numbers of small wind energy facilities, including some wind-diesel hybrid systems, provide power to off-grid rural communities throughout the state.116

Alaska's biomass fuels, which include wood, sawmill wastes, fish byproducts, and municipal waste, generated most of the remaining 2% of Alaska's renewable power in 2020.117 In 2010, the state's first large-scale biodiesel plant opened and it can produce 1,000 gallons of biodiesel per day using waste vegetable oil gathered from local restaurants.118,119,120 Wood is an important renewable energy resource for Alaskans, with more than 100,000 cords burned every year for residential space heating in one out of every 20 Alaskan households.121,122 The state also has one wood pellet manufacturer, located near Fairbanks, that has a production capacity of 30,000 tons per year.123 Alaskan fishmeal plants produce about 8 million gallons of fish oil as a byproduct annually; much of the fish oil is used as boiler fuel for drying the fishmeal or exported for livestock feed.124

Despite Alaska's high latitudes and long winter nights, solar energy plays a role in off-grid applications, especially in remote locations. Solar thermal technologies for water and building heating and solar photovoltaic panels for small-scale (less than 1 megawatt capacity) electricity generation are used throughout the state.125,126 Alaska's largest solar farm, a nearly 1,800-solar panel, 563-kilowatt project located south of Fairbanks, came online in October 2018.127 Total generating capacity of small residential rooftop solar panels in Alaska exceeds the capacity from solar installations at commercial sites.128 In 2020, small-scale solar generating systems produced 7,000 megawatthours of electricity and accounted for 0.2% of the state's total renewable generation. Alaska's use of small-scale solar continues to grow and generation increased to 10,000 megawatthours in 2021.129

Alaska has geothermal potential, but little completed development.130,131,132 The state's single geothermal power plant, the 400-kilowatt geothermal power facility at Chena Hot Springs, was built in 2006.133,134 A new 30-megawatt geothermal power plant is planned on the slopes of a volcano near the fishing town of Unalaska on one of the Aleutian Islands and is expected to come online in late 2023.135,136 A major challenge in developing more geothermal power projects in the state is that much of Alaska's geothermal resources are located in remote areas, far from population centers that would use the electricity generated.137

Energy on tribal lands

Alaska has more territory held as tribal lands—over 44 million acres or nearly 11% of Alaska's total land area—than any other state.138 A total of 12 regional native corporations encompassing 229 tribal groups own almost all of Alaska's tribal land.139 The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1971, divided Alaska into 12 geographic regions of common heritage and interests. Under the Act, tribal lands do not have the sovereign status of reservations, as most of the Native American reservations do in the Lower 48 states. Instead, Native Alaskans corporately own the land, allowing each native corporation to benefit from resources on their lands. In 1975, a 13th regional corporation was created to represent the interests of Alaskan natives who live in the Lower 48 States.140,141 The native corporations hold most subsurface mineral rights on native lands and are among the largest private businesses in the state.142

Alaska's tribal lands contain oil and natural gas resources on the North Slope and along the southern coast, as well as Alaska's largest bituminous coal deposit, which is also located on the North Slope. The state's tribal lands also have renewable energy resources.143,144,145,146 Native corporations control almost one-fourth of Alaska's 129 million acres of forested land and provides the tribes with vast biomass resources. More than half of the timber harvested in Alaska comes from native corporations' land.147 The native corporations share about 70% of the revenue earned from timber, oil, natural gas, coal, minerals, and other natural resources in proportion to their native populations. A significant portion of each corporation's revenue is then redistributed to village corporations within each region.148 The corporations have many business subsidiaries that involve Native Alaskans in the development of their energy resources, including oil and natural gas field services, oil refining, and real estate and financial services. One corporation manages a utility-scale wind farm and is a shareholder in Alaska's first underground natural gas storage facility.149 Another native corporation controls the only Alaskan-owned petroleum refining and fuel marketing operation, which runs two refineries in the state.150

In 2018, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded nearly $1 million to fund a 900-kilowatt wind turbine as well as $372,000 to increase the voltage and wind power use on the transmission lines of another tribal land micro grid. The project will provide electricity to two Native Alaskan rural communities.151,152 In 2016, DOE also provided a $624,000 grant to a native village's solar power and battery storage system, which will reduce the village's annual diesel fuel use for petroleum-fired generation by 30%.153,154 In 2019, DOE awarded a $1.5 million grant for a native village to install two 35-kilowatt renewable energy devices in the Kvichak River to use the river's current to generate electricity for all the village's buildings, displacing high-cost diesel fueled-generation.155

Endnotes

1 State of Alaska, Alaska Kids' Corner, Geography of Alaska, accessed January 14, 2022.
2 Fly Alaska, Interesting Geographical Alaska Facts, accessed January 14, 2022.
3 Alaska Public Lands Information Centers, Statewide FAQs, What is Alaska's weather like?, accessed January 19, 2022.
4 World Population Review, U.S. States Ranked by Population 2021 and U.S. States by Density 2021, accessed January 14, 2022.
5 Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development, Alaska Population Overview, 2019 Estimates, Population Centers, 2019 Population and Density (December 2020), p. 5-6.
6 State of Alaska, Alaska Kids' Corner, Economy, accessed January 14, 2022.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), "U.S. energy intensity has dropped by half since 1983, varying greatly by state," Today in Energy (August 3, 2021).
8 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
9 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-10.
10 Alaska Oil and Gas Association, The Role of the Oil and Gas Industry in Alaska's Economy, State Taxes and Royalties (January 2020), p. 4-5.
11 Brooks, James, "This year's Alaska Permanent Fund dividend amount is $1,114," Anchorage Daily News (September 30, 2021).
12 Alaska Department of Revenue, Permanent Fund Dividend, accessed January 14, 2022.
13 Matthews, Cheyenne, "Permanent Fund Dividend amount announced at $992," Alaska News Source (June 12, 2020).
14 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
15 U.S. Department of Energy, New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States (April 2014), Region 19-Alaska, p.169-172.
16 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Alaska, Maps & Data, accessed January 14, 2022.
17 Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Geological & Geophysical Survey, Geothermal Energy, Geothermal Sites of Alaska, Interactive Geothermal Web Application, accessed January 14, 2022.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, "More energy is used per person for transportation in states with low population density," Today in Energy (August 31, 2020).
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13, 2022), Table 6, Crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-thousand barrels per day, Alaska, 1973-2020.
23 U.S. EIA, "Oil production in Alaska reaches lowest level in more than 40 years," Today in Energy (April 26, 2021).
24 Fourth National Climate Assessment, Chapter 26: Alaska, Climate, Ice Road Transportation, and Marine Vessel Traffic, accessed January 14, 2022.
25 Koeing, Ravenna, and Elizabeth Hardball, "Climate Change Slows Oil Company Plan to Drill in the Arctic," NPR (November 21, 2018).
26 Collins, Michael, "Interior Department takes step toward drilling in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge," USA Today (April 19, 2018).
27 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, "Notice of Sale to be Issued for Coastal Plain Oil and Gas Leasing Program Dec. 7," Press Release (December 3, 2020).
28 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, "Trump Administration Conducts First ANWR Coastal Plain Oil and Gas Lease Sale," Press Release (January 6, 2021).
29 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska oil and gas lease sales, 2021 Lease sales, 2021 Coastal Plain Lease Sale Bid Recap (January 6, 2021).
30 Groom, Nichola, "Biden suspends Trump-era oil and gas leases in Alaska refuge," Reuters (June 1, 2021).
31 U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Order No. 3401, June 1, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, "Development of Alaska's ANWR would increase U.S. crude oil production after 2030," Today in Energy (June 14, 2018).
33 Bradner, Tim, "Biden rolls back Trump's oil leasing plan in petroleum reserve, reducing acreage available for exploration," Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman (January 12, 2022).
34 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, accessed January 19, 2022.
35 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-thousand barrels per day, Alaska, 1973-2020.
36 Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), accessed January 15, 2022.
37 Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Tap Operations, accessed January 15, 2022.
38 Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Trans Alaska Pipeline System Flow Assurance Overview (April 2021), slide 4.
39 U.S. EIA, "Development of Alaska's ANWR would increase U.S. crude oil production after 2030," Today in Energy (June 14, 2018).
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