Alaska State Energy Profile



Alaska Quick Facts

  • Alaska's proved crude oil reserves of 2.7 billion barrels are the fifth-largest of any state. However, many of Alaska's oil fields are mature, and the state's oil production in 2019 averaged 466,000 barrels per day, the lowest level since the late 1970s.
  • Alaska ranks third in the nation in natural gas gross withdrawals, but the state has no major pipeline to bring the natural gas to market. As a result, about 90% of the state's natural gas production is reinjected into oil fields to help maintain crude oil production rates.
  • Many rural communities in Alaska rely primarily on diesel electric generators for power, and Alaska ranks second only to Hawaii in the share of its electricity--15% in 2019--that is generated from petroleum fuels.
  • Alaska's total energy consumption is among the 10 lowest states, but its per capita energy consumption is the 4th-highest in part because of its small population, harsh winters, and energy-intensive industries.
  • Alaska has a non-binding goal to generate 50% of its electricity from renewable and alternative energy sources by 2025, and renewables already accounted for about 30% of the state's electricity generation in 2019.

Last Updated: January 21, 2021



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.7 million 0.2% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.3 million 0.2% Feb-21  
Economy Alaska U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 55.4 billion 47 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 1,814 million 50 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 64,780 10 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 5,881 million miles 50 2019  
Land in Farms 0.8 million acres 44 2017  
Climate Alaska U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature NA NA 2020  
Precipitation NA NA 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 46.69 /barrel $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 7.43 /thousand cu ft $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 10.58 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price W $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.37 /million Btu $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity Alaska U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 21.32 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 18.34 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 15.44 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 2,680 million barrels 6.1% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 9,297 billion cu ft 2.0% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 247 million barrels 1.1% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 48 million short tons 0.3% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 798 wells 0.2% 2019 find more
Capacity Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 164,200 barrels/calendar day 0.9% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 2,770 MW 0.2% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,411 trillion Btu 1.5% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 464 thousand barrels per day 4.2% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 329,361 million cu ft 0.9% 2019 find more
Coal 975 thousand short tons 0.1% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 483 thousand MWh 0.1% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Alaska U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 11.6 % 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 32.2 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 15.8 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 40.4 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 853 thousand barrels 5.2% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,084 thousand barrels 0.8% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 40,885 million cu ft 0.6% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 48 thousand barrels 0.2% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 182 stations 0.2% 2018  
Propane 3 stations 0.1% 2021  
Electricity 37 stations 0.1% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 1 stations 0.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Alaska U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 610 trillion Btu 40 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 830 million Btu 4 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,925 million 43 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 8,060 3 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 49 trillion Btu 0.2% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 57 trillion Btu 0.3% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 334 trillion Btu 1.0% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 169 trillion Btu 0.6% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 816 million 0.3% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 876 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 663 million 0.3% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 3,571 million 0.6% 2018 find more
by Source Alaska Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 39 million barrels 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 359 billion cu ft 1.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 4,414 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 608 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 114 million 0.4% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 98 thousand barrels 6.0% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,753 million cu ft 0.2% Jan-21 find more
Coal 60 thousand short tons 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Alaska U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 48.6 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 30.8 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 12.1 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 1.9 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 6.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 542 MW 0.2% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 179 thousand MWh 0.7% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 12 thousand MWh * Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 4 thousand MWh 0.1% Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Alaska U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 4.1 % 46 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 0 thousand barrels 51 2019  
Total Emissions Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 34.0 million metric tons 0.7% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Alaska Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 3,470 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: January 21, 2021

Overview

Alaska, the largest U.S. state, is one-fifth the size of the Lower 48 states, and, with its Aleutian Island chain, is as wide as the Lower 48 states from east to west.1 It is the only U.S. state with land north of the Arctic Circle, and it has the highest mountains and longest coastline of any state.2 Alaska's winters are frequently severe, but its climate varies significantly from north to south and from winter to summer, particularly in the interior, where temperatures ranging from minus 80°F to 100°F have been recorded.3 Large areas of Alaska remain uninhabited. It has the third-smallest population of the U.S. states and is the least densely populated state.4 Nearly half of Alaskans live in the cities of Anchorage, Juneau, and Fairbanks, while the rest of the state averages less than one resident per square mile.5

The oil and natural gas industry is a key part of Alaska's economy.6 The state's North Slope contains 6 of the 100 largest oil fields in the United States and 1 of the 100 largest natural gas fields. Alaska's Prudhoe Bay field is among the 10 largest oil fields in the nation.7 Alaska is the only state that does not have a state sales tax or a personal income tax, as revenues from Alaska's oil and gas industry fund most of the state government.8 Since 1982, every eligible state resident has received an annual dividend that is based on the value of oil royalty revenue in the Alaska Permanent Fund.9 The 2020 dividend was $992, the smallest since 2013, and it was paid four months early to help residents handle the economic impacts resulting from actions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic.10

Alaska’s energy demand per capita is the fourth highest in the nation.

In recent years, Alaska experienced warmer temperatures than normal for longer periods of time. Warmer temperatures reduce the amount of time energy companies can explore for onshore oil, because ice roads and drilling pads can be used only during the coldest months of the year, when the frozen land is less damaged by heavy equipment. Conversely, the warmer temperatures reduce floating ice packs, potentially making offshore oil exploration easier.11

Alaska has other substantial energy resources. Its recoverable coal reserves rank 14th among the states.12 Alaska's many rivers offer some of the best hydroelectric power potential in the nation.13 Large swaths of the Alaskan coastline have significant wind energy resources, and the state's many volcanic fields offer geothermal energy potential.14,15 Because of its small population, Alaska's total energy demand is among the 10 lowest states.16 However, with its harsh winters, energy-intensive oil and natural gas industries, and small population, the state's per capita energy consumption is the fourth highest in the nation, after Wyoming, Louisiana, and North Dakota.17

Petroleum

Alaska's proved crude oil reserves—about 2.7 billion barrels at the beginning of 2020—were the fifth-largest of any state.18 Alaska, which was among the top five oil-producing states for many years, dropped to sixth place in 2019 when the state's annual oil production was 466,000 barrels per day, its lowest level since the late 1970s. The state's oil output peaked at 2 million barrels per day in 1988. Since 2003, Alaska's annual oil production has declined steadily as the state's oil fields matured.19

Large areas of the state remain unexplored for oil. However, in 2017, oil exploration and drilling was no longer prohibited in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), located in northeastern Alaska. The U.S. Department of the Interior in early January 2021 auctioned leases on some oil exploration tracts along the refuge's 1.6 million-acre northern coastal plain.20,21,22,23 The Biden administration in late January 2021 subsequently imposed a temporary moratorium on all federal activities related to oil and natural gas leasing in ANWR.24 The U.S. Geological Survey estimates the ANWR coastal plain holds 10.4 billion barrels of crude oil.

Most of Alaska's crude oil production—typically over 95%—occurs on the North Slope.25 The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, which began operating in 1977, transports crude oil from the frozen North Slope to the warm-water port at Valdez, on Alaska's southern coast.26 The pipeline can carry more than 2 million barrels per day. Actual deliveries have been less than 1 million barrels per day since 2003, and decreased to 490,000 barrels per day in 2019.27 The lower volumes cause the oil to move more slowly in the pipeline, which results in colder oil. That creates challenges for the pipeline's operators, including the formation of ice and the buildup of wax that is in the oil on the pipeline wall. The amount of time it takes for oil to travel through the pipeline from the North Slope to the Valdez port increased from 4.5 days in 1988 to 18 days in 2018.28,29

About 4 out of 5 barrels of oil produced in Alaska are sent to refineries in Washington and California.

About four-fifths of the oil produced in Alaska is transported by tankers to refineries in Washington and California. The other one-fifth of the state's oil production is refined in Alaska and shipped to Hawaii or exported to international destinations.30 On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez tanker struck Bligh Reef and spilled 257,000 barrels of crude oil into Prince William Sound, located on Alaska's southern coast.31 As a result, improvements were made in tanker construction, navigation technology, and crew training.32

Alaska ranks 11th among the states with the lowest total petroleum demand, but it has the third-highest per capita petroleum consumption.33 The state has five operating refineries, with a combined processing capacity of about 164,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.34 Two of the refineries, in the Prudhoe Bay region, supply fuel to crude oil drilling operations. Motor gasoline demand is primarily met by a refinery in Kenai. Diesel and heating fuels are also produced there as well as in two other refineries, located at Valdez and near Fairbanks.35,36 Alaska is the largest jet fuel-consuming state on a per capita basis.37,38 The state is a major fueling stop for military aircraft as well as for commercial passenger and cargo flights between the United States and Asian countries.39,40,41 Alaska also consumes petroleum to produce electricity. In 2019, petroleum liquids generated about 15% of the state's utility-scale electricity. Small diesel-fueled generators also produce electricity in isolated communities.42,43,44 One-third of the state's households relies on fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for heating.45

Natural gas

Most of Alaska’s natural gas production is reinjected into oil fields to maintain oil production rates.

Alaska's proved natural gas reserves totaled 9.4 trillion cubic feet at the start of 2020, the 11th largest among the states.46 Alaska ranks third in the nation (after Texas and Pennsylvania) in natural gas gross withdrawals, but most of the state's gas production is not brought to market. Natural gas volumes from the North Slope far exceed local demand, and there is no pipeline to transport the natural gas to consumers in the south.47,48 About 90% of the state's natural gas withdrawals—most of it extracted during oil production—is reinjected into oil reservoirs to help maintain crude oil production rates. The rest of the gas production is marketed.49 About 78% of Alaska's natural gas consumption occurs in the natural gas and crude oil production process. The electric power sector accounts for 9% of the state's natural gas consumption, and more than two-fifths of Alaska's utility-scale electricity is generated by natural gas. The remaining 13% of natural gas consumption is almost evenly divided among the residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.50,51 About half of Alaskan households, most of which are located in the state's cities, heat with natural gas.52

Construction of an 800-mile pipeline that would bring Alaska's North Slope natural gas to international markets has been a state goal, but the project has not been considered commercially feasible by private energy companies. To advance the project, the Alaska government created a state-owned corporation to approve, build, and operate the pipeline by 2025. As part of the pipeline project, the Alaska government also wants a new liquefied natural gas (LNG) export terminal built near Anchorage. The terminal would receive natural gas from North Slope fields via the pipeline that could transport up to 3.9 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day.53,54,55,56 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in May 2020 authorized the Alaska state-owned corporation to construct and operate the LNG project. The state wants one or several energy companies to take over the project, which has an estimated price of nearly $39 billion.57,58,59,60

The Kenai LNG liquefaction and terminal complex on Cook Inlet began operating in 1969, and until 2012 it was the only facility in the United States authorized to export LNG produced from domestic natural gas. The terminal, which has the capacity to liquefy up to 200 million cubic feet of natural gas per day, had exported LNG to Asia.61,62 However, its LNG shipments have declined and the terminal's long-time owner sold the facility in January 2018. The new owners won approval from FERC in 2020 to modify the terminal so it can receive LNG imports, which can be used to provide fuel to a nearby refinery.63,64,65

Coal

Alaska's recoverable coal reserves were estimated to be about 2.8 billion tons at the end of 2019, equal to about 1% of the U.S. total.66 Coal mines have operated in Alaska since 1855.67 Substantial deposits of bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite are found in the north, south, and central portions of the state, but most of Alaska's coal has remained unmined.68,69,70,71 Alaska has only one operating surface coal mine, the Usibelli mine, which produces about 975,000 tons of coal per year.72,73 In 2019, none of Alaska's coal was exported. Instead, it was used in the state at coal-fired power plants and by commercial and institutional users.74 In past years, Alaska exported some of its coal to countries in Asia.75

Electricity

Alaska ranked second, after Hawaii, for the most petroleum-fired electricity generation in 2019.

In 2019, natural gas fueled 44% of Alaska's total utility-scale electricity generation and hydroelectric power generated 27%. Petroleum liquids accounted for 15%, coal was 11%, and other renewables—mostly wind and biomass—accounted for 3% of Alaska's generation.76 Alaska generates the second-largest amount of electricity from petroleum products after Hawaii.77 In February 2020, the only coal-fired power plant built in the United States since 2015 began operating in Alaska. The combined heat and power (CHP) plant was built at the University of Alaska's Fairbanks campus and has a generating capacity of 17 megawatts.78,79,80

The electricity infrastructure in Alaska differs from that in the Lower 48 states because Alaskans are not linked to large, interconnected grids through transmission and distribution lines. Although a grid called the Railbelt, where about two-thirds of the state's population lives, serves an area that stretches from Fairbanks to Anchorage and down to the Kenai Peninsula, even that grid is isolated from the electric grids in Canada and the Lower 48 states.81

Alaska uses the second-smallest amount of electricity among the states, after Vermont, and is among the 10 states with the lowest per capita electricity retail sales.82 In 2019, the commercial sector accounted for 45% of Alaska's electricity retail sales, followed by the residential sector at 33%, and the industrial sector at 22%.83 One out of eight Alaskan households use electricity for their primary heating source.84 Electricity retail prices in the state's rural areas can be three to five times higher than the rates in the urban areas, so the state provides financial assistance to local communities to help cover the cost of electricity.85 Most of the state's rural communities do not have grid access and rely on consumer-owned electric cooperatives for their power. Many of those rural power providers use diesel-fueled electricity generators for some or all of their power supplies.86,87,88

Renewable energy

In 2019, hydropower supplied about 90% of Alaska’s renewable electricity.

In 2010, the Alaska legislature enacted a non-binding goal for 50% of the state's electricity to be generated from renewable and alternative energy sources by 2025.89,90 In 2019, about 30% of Alaska's utility-scale electricity generation came from renewable energy sources, and about nine-tenths of those renewables was hydropower with much smaller amounts from wind and biomass.91 Utility-scale hydropower facilities are concentrated in southern Alaska, in mountainous regions with high annual rainfalls. Smaller run-of-river projects—which do not employ dams—produce power in some rural communities. Alaska is also exploring tidal and ocean technologies that could supply renewable energy to coastal communities.92 In addition, small-scale wind, biomass, and solar generation are found in many of the state's remote communities that want to reduce the use of petroleum products, which have high delivery costs, to generate electricity.

Wind resources are abundant along Alaska's coastline. Wind supplies about 8% of Alaska's utility-scale renewable generation, from more than 100 wind turbines with about 61 megawatts of generating capacity.93,94,95,96 Wind farms are located primarily along the state's southern and western coasts and on the Railbelt grid.97,98,99,100 Increasing numbers of small wind energy facilities, including some wind-diesel hybrid systems, provide power to off-grid rural communities throughout the state.101

Alaska's biomass fuels, which include wood, sawmill wastes, fish byproducts, and municipal waste, were used to generate most of the remaining 2% of Alaska's renewable power in 2019. The first large-scale biodiesel plant in the state opened in 2010 and can produce 250,000 gallons of biodiesel annually using waste vegetable oil gathered from local restaurants.102,103,104 Wood is an important renewable energy resource for Alaskans, with more than 100,000 cords burned every year for residential space heating in one out of every 20 Alaskan households.105,106 The state also has one wood pellet manufacturer, located near Fairbanks, that has a production capacity of 30,000 tons per year.107,108 About 8 million gallons of fish oil are produced annually as a byproduct at Alaskan fishmeal plants; much of the fish oil is used as boiler fuel for drying the fishmeal or exported for livestock feed.109

Despite Alaska's high latitudes and long winter nights, solar energy plays a role in off-grid applications, especially in remote locations. Solar thermal technologies—for water and building heating—and solar photovoltaic panels—for small-scale electricity generation—are used throughout the state.110,111 Alaska's largest solar farm, a nearly 1,800-solar panel, 563-kilowatt project located south of Fairbanks, came online in October 2018.112 In recent years, the total generating capacity of small residential rooftop solar panels have exceeded the capacity from solar installations at commercial sites.113 Small-scale solar generating systems (each less than 1 megawatt in capacity) produced 4,000 megawatthours of electricity in 2019 and accounted for 0.2% of the state's total renewable generation. Alaska's use of small-scale solar is growing and generation increased in 2020 to 7,000 megawatthours through the third quarter.114

Alaska has geothermal resources, but little has been developed.115,116,117 The state's single geothermal power plant, the 400-kilowatt geothermal power facility at Chena Hot Springs, was built in 2006.118,119 A major challenge in developing additional geothermal power projects in the state is that much of Alaska's geothermal resources are located in remote areas, far from population centers that would consume the electricity generated.120

Energy on tribal lands

Alaska has more territory held as tribal lands—over 44 million acres—than any other state.121 Almost all Alaskan tribal land is owned outright by 12 regional native corporations encompassing 229 tribal groups.122 The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1971, divided Alaska into 12 geographic regions of common heritage and interests. Under the Act, tribal lands do not have the sovereign status of reservations, as most of the Native American reservations do in the Lower 48 states. Instead, the land is owned corporately by Native Alaskans, allowing each native corporation to benefit from resources on their lands. A 13th regional corporation was formed in 1975 to represent the interests of Alaskan natives who live in the Lower 48 States.123,124 The native corporations hold most subsurface mineral rights on native lands and rank among the largest private businesses in the state.125

Alaska's tribal lands include oil and natural gas resources on the North Slope and along the southern coast, as well as Alaska's largest bituminous coal deposit, which is located on the North Slope. The state's tribal lands also have renewable energy resources.126,127,128,129 Almost one-fourth of Alaska's 129 million acres of forested land is controlled by native corporations and provides the tribes with vast biomass resources. More than half of the timber harvested in Alaska comes from native corporations' land.130 About 70% of the revenue earned from timber, oil, natural gas, coal, minerals, and other natural resources by each regional corporation is shared among the native corporations in proportion to their native populations. A significant portion of each corporation's revenue is then redistributed to village corporations within each region.131 The corporations have formed many business subsidiaries that involve Native Alaskans in the development of their energy resources, including oil and natural gas field services, oil refining, and real estate and financial services. One corporation manages a utility-scale wind farm and is a shareholder in Alaska's first underground natural gas storage facility.132 Another native corporation controls the only Alaskan-owned petroleum refining and fuel marketing operation, which runs two refineries in the state.133

In 2018, the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) awarded nearly $1 million to fund a 900-kilowatt wind turbine to provide electricity to two Native Alaskan rural communities and awarded $372,000 to increase the voltage and wind power use on the transmission lines of another tribal land micro electric grid.134,135 U.S. DOE also provided a $624,000 grant to a native village's solar power and battery storage system, which will reduce the village's annual diesel fuel use for petroleum-fired generation by 25%.136,137 In 2019, U.S. DOE awarded a $1.5 million grant for a native village to install two 35-kilowatt renewable energy devices in the Kvichak River to use the river's current to generate electricity for all the village's buildings, displacing high-cost diesel fueled-generation.138

Endnotes

1 State of Alaska, Alaska Kids' Corner, Geography of Alaska, accessed December 17, 2020.
2 Fly Alaska, Interesting Geographical Alaska Facts, accessed December 17, 2020.
3 Alaska Public Lands Information Centers, Statewide FAQs, What is Alaska's weather like?, accessed December 17, 2020.
4 World Population Review, U.S. States Ranked by Population 2020 and U.S. States by Density 2020, accessed December 17, 2020.
5 Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development, Alaska Population Overview, 2019 Estimates, Population Centers, 2019 Population and Density (December 2020), p. 5-6.
6 State of Alaska, Alaska Kids' Corner, Economy, accessed December 17, 2020.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-10.
8 Alaska Oil and Gas Association, The Role of the Oil and Gas Industry in Alaska's Economy, State Taxes and Royalties (January 2020), p. 4-5.
9 Alaska Department of Revenue, Permanent Fund Dividend Division, accessed December 17, 2020.
10 Matthews, Cheyenne, "Permanent Fund Dividend amount announced at $992," Alaska News Source (June 12, 2020).
11 National Climate Assessment, Alaska, Introduction, accessed December 17, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States (April 2014), Region 19—Alaska, p.169-172.
14 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Alaska, Maps & Data, accessed December 17, 2020.
15 Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Geological & Geophysical Survey, Geothermal Energy, Geothermal Sites of Alaska, Interactive Geothermal Web Application, accessed December 22, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11, 2021), Table 6, Crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-thousand barrels per day, Alaska, 1973-2019.
20Collins, Michael, "Interior Department takes step toward drilling in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge," USA Today (April 19, 2018).
21U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, "Notice of Sale to be Issued for Coastal Plain Oil and Gas Leasing Program Dec. 7," Press Release (December 3, 2020).
22U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, "Trump Administration Conducts Frist ANWR Coastal Plain Oil and Gas Lease Sale," Press Release (January 6, 2021).
23U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska oil and gas lease sales, 2021 Lease sales, 2021 Coastal Plain Lease Sale Bid Recap (January 6, 2021).
24The White House, "Executive Order on Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis," Press Release (January 20, 2021).
25 U.S. EIA, "Development of Alaska's ANWR would increase U.S. crude oil production after 2030," Today in Energy (June 14, 2018).
26 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, Questions and Answers about the Spill, accessed December 17, 2020.
27 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Spill Prevention and Response, Prevention Preparedness and Response, 30 Years after the Exxon Valdez, accessed December 22, 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
29 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
30 Marathon, Kenai Refinery, accessed December 17, 2020.
31 PetroStar Inc., Mission, accessed December 17, 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
33 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Alaska, Population Estimates, July 1, 2019.
34 Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Alaska International Airport System, Welcome to the Alaska International Airport System, accessed December 17, 2020.
35 Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, Airport Facts, accessed December 17, 2020.
36 Federal Aviation Administration, Alaskan Region, FAI FSS - Military Activity, updated March 17, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Alaska, 2019.
38 U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, "Murkowski Calls Attention to Alaska's Isolated Energy Systems," Press Release (July 14, 2015).
39 University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Energy and Power, Diesel Generator Technology Briefing, accessed December 22, 2020.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Alaska.
41 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11, 2021), Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-19.
43 U.S. EIA, Alaska, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed December 18, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Summary, Alaska, Production, Repressuring, 2014-19.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Alaska, Lease Fuel, Annual, 2014-19.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alaska, 2016-19.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Alaska.
48 Alaska Gasline Development Corporation, Alaska LNG, Pipeline, accessed December 21, 2020.
49 Alaska Gasline Development Corporation, Alaska LNG, Liquefaction Facility, accessed December 21, 2020.
50 Alaska Gasline Development Corporation, Pipeline project presentation to Greater Fairbanks Chamber of Commerce (September 11, 2019), slide 5.
51 Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil & Gas, Special Projects, accessed December 21, 2020.
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