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Table HC2.3 Structural and geographic characteristics of U.S. homes by year of construction, 20151

Release date: February 2017
Revised date: May 2018


Number of housing units (million)
Year of construction
  Total U.S.2 Before 1950 1950 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2009 2010 to 2015
All homes 118.2 20.8 12.6 12.8 18.3 16.0 16.8 17.0 3.8
Census region and division                  
Northeast 21.0 7.3 3.0 2.4 2.5 2.1 1.7 1.6 0.4
New England 5.6 1.9 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 Q
Middle Atlantic 15.4 5.4 2.3 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.2 0.3
Midwest 26.4 6.2 3.3 3.0 4.0 2.7 3.5 3.1 0.6
East North Central 18.1 4.4 2.4 2.1 2.7 1.7 2.4 2.0 0.3
West North Central 8.3 1.8 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.3
South 44.4 3.9 3.6 4.5 7.2 7.3 7.7 8.2 2.0
South Atlantic 23.5 2.1 1.9 2.3 3.6 4.1 4.3 4.3 0.9
East South Central 7.2 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.2 0.3
West South Central 13.8 1.1 1.2 1.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.6 0.8
West 26.4 3.4 2.8 2.9 4.7 3.9 3.9 4.1 0.8
Mountain 8.5 0.7 0.6 0.7 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.8 0.3
Mountain North 4.2 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 Q
Mountain South 4.3 0.2 Q 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.0 Q
Pacific 17.9 2.7 2.2 2.2 3.2 2.6 2.3 2.2 0.5
Census urban/rural classification3                  
Urban 94.7 17.2 11.0 10.8 14.8 12.9 12.6 12.9 2.6
Urbanized area 82.2 14.4 9.5 9.4 13.0 11.6 10.8 11.2 2.3
Urban cluster 12.5 2.8 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.8 1.6 0.3
Rural 23.5 3.5 1.6 2.0 3.6 3.1 4.2 4.1 1.2
Metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area                  
In metropolitan statistical area 98.5 16.7 10.6 11.0 15.5 13.7 13.7 14.2 3.1
In micropolitan statistical area 12.3 2.5 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.5 2.0 1.6 0.3
Not in metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area 7.4 1.5 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.2 0.4
Climate region4                  
Very cold/Cold 42.5 10.9 5.1 4.5 6.3 4.0 5.4 5.0 1.2
Mixed-humid 33.5 5.8 3.5 3.6 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.7 1.0
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 12.7 0.9 1.3 1.5 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.1 0.2
Hot-humid 22.8 1.5 1.9 2.5 3.2 4.2 3.9 4.6 1.2
Marine 6.7 1.7 0.8 0.8 1.3 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.2
Housing unit type                  
Single-family detached 73.9 13.6 9.5 8.3 10.3 8.4 10.5 10.9 2.3
Single-family attached 7.0 1.1 0.8 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.3
Apartments  in buildings with 2-4 units 9.4 2.9 1.1 0.9 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.0 Q
Apartments  in buildings with 5 or more units 21.1 3.1 1.1 2.7 4.0 3.8 2.7 2.9 0.9
Mobile homes 6.8 Q Q 0.4 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.2 0.3
Number of stories                  
One story 47.5 6.8 7.7 6.6 7.4 5.5 6.0 6.1 1.3
Two stories 29.5 7.3 2.1 1.8 3.2 3.7 5.0 5.4 1.1
Three or more stories 1.8 0.4 Q Q 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 Q
Split level 2.1 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.2 Q
Not asked (apartments and mobile homes) 37.3 6.1 2.3 3.9 7.0 6.3 5.4 5.0 1.3
Major outside wall construction                  
Siding (aluminum, vinyl, or steel) 40.2 7.3 4.5 3.8 5.8 4.6 6.6 6.1 1.4
Brick 32.9 6.0 3.5 4.5 6.3 4.1 3.8 4.0 0.8
Wood 18.0 4.0 1.5 1.6 2.5 3.0 2.7 2.0 0.6
Stucco 15.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 2.2 2.5 2.6 3.1 0.5
Concrete or concrete block 6.7 0.7 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.7 1.2 0.3
Shingles (composition) 3.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 Q Q
Stone 1.4 0.3 Q Q Q Q Q 0.2 Q
Some other material 0.7 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0.1 Q
Major roofing material                  
Shingles (composition or asphalt) 73.1 13.4 8.9 8.0 10.4 8.9 10.6 10.7 2.2
Metal 9.8 1.4 0.9 1.0 2.1 1.4 1.8 0.7 0.4
Wood shingles or shakes 5.4 1.0 1.1 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.6 Q
Ceramic or clay tiles 4.4 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.2 Q
Concrete tiles 1.8 Q Q Q Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 Q
Slate or synthetic slate 1.2 0.6 Q Q 0.2 Q Q Q N
Some other material 1.3 0.4 Q Q 0.2 Q Q 0.2 Q
Not asked (apartments in buildings with 5 or more units) 21.1 3.1 1.1 2.7 4.0 3.8 2.7 2.9 0.9
Total number of rooms (excluding bathrooms)                  
1 or 2 5.3 1.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.5 Q
3 9.0 1.8 0.9 1.0 1.8 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.4
4 16.8 2.4 1.8 2.2 3.1 2.7 2.2 1.8 0.5
5 19.4 3.7 2.5 1.7 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.3 0.8
6 22.2 4.1 2.8 2.6 3.5 2.8 2.9 3.1 0.5
7 16.9 2.8 1.7 1.9 2.4 2.2 2.7 2.7 0.4
8 12.6 2.4 1.5 1.2 1.9 1.5 1.6 2.1 0.4
9 or more 16.0 2.2 1.0 1.6 1.9 2.0 2.9 3.7 0.8
Number of bedrooms                  
0 3.2 0.9 Q 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q
1 11.7 2.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.4
2 29.8 5.9 3.3 3.0 4.9 4.8 3.7 3.2 1.0
3 47.6 8.1 5.4 5.5 7.6 5.9 7.1 6.9 1.2
4 20.5 2.7 1.7 2.1 2.9 2.7 3.2 4.1 1.0
5 or more 5.3 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.1 1.5 0.2
Number of other rooms (excluding bathrooms)                  
1 10.3 2.1 0.8 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.5 0.4
2 31.0 4.7 3.7 3.8 5.8 4.5 4.3 3.1 0.9
3 32.1 6.3 4.0 3.3 4.9 4.0 4.4 4.3 1.0
4 22.5 4.0 2.2 2.4 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.8 0.7
5 or more 22.4 3.7 2.0 2.1 3.0 2.8 3.7 4.3 0.9
Number of full bathrooms                  
0 Q Q Q Q Q N Q N N
1 53.1 15.0 7.7 7.2 9.2 5.9 3.8 3.3 1.0
2 52.1 4.8 4.3 4.8 7.9 8.4 10.2 9.7 1.9
3 or more 12.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.8 4.0 1.0
Number of half bathrooms                  
0 85.0 16.3 10.0 9.7 13.2 11.3 11.2 10.8 2.5
1 31.1 4.2 2.4 3.0 4.8 4.4 5.1 5.8 1.3
2 or more 2.2 0.4 0.2 Q 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 Q
Basement                  
Yes 35.2 9.9 5.2 3.8 4.4 3.2 4.1 3.9 0.7
Finished basement 20.6 4.0 3.1 2.6 3.0 2.2 3.0 2.3 0.4
Unfinished basement 14.6 5.9 2.1 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.6 0.3
No 45.7 4.8 5.1 5.0 7.0 6.5 7.3 8.1 1.8
Not asked (apartments and mobile homes) 37.3 6.1 2.3 3.9 7.0 6.3 5.4 5.0 1.3
Attic                  
Yes 45.3 7.9 5.5 4.8 6.1 6.0 6.6 6.9 1.5
Finished attic 7.5 2.1 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.3
Unfinished attic 37.9 5.8 4.4 4.1 5.2 5.2 5.9 6.1 1.2
No 35.5 6.8 4.8 4.0 5.2 3.7 4.8 5.1 1.1
Not asked (apartments and mobile homes) 37.3 6.1 2.3 3.9 7.0 6.3 5.4 5.0 1.3
Attached garage                  
Yes 46.9 3.2 3.8 4.9 7.6 6.8 8.7 9.8 2.1
1-car garage 11.4 1.9 2.2 1.7 2.1 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.2
2-car garage 30.3 1.2 1.6 3.1 5.2 5.0 6.1 6.8 1.2
3 or more car garage 5.2 Q Q Q 0.3 0.4 1.5 2.1 0.6
No 34.0 11.5 6.5 4.0 3.8 2.9 2.7 2.2 0.4
Not asked (apartments and mobile homes) 37.3 6.1 2.3 3.9 7.0 6.3 5.4 5.0 1.3
Adequacy of insulation                  
Well insulated 37.5 4.3 2.9 3.3 5.0 5.3 6.6 7.7 2.2
Adequately insulated 57.9 9.9 6.6 6.6 9.7 8.1 8.0 7.8 1.3
Poorly insulated 20.9 6.1 2.7 2.5 3.3 2.4 2.2 1.4 0.3
No insulation 1.9 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.2 Q Q Q
Home is too drafty during the winter                  
Never 56.0 6.9 4.9 5.9 8.5 8.4 9.0 9.7 2.7
Some of the time 48.4 10.1 6.4 5.3 7.5 5.8 6.3 6.0 1.0
Most of the time 9.0 2.2 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.1 0.9 Q
All of the time 4.8 1.6 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.4 N
Unusually high ceilings                  
Yes 38.2 6.3 2.2 2.2 3.5 5.6 7.9 8.7 1.9
No 73.3 14.4 10.3 10.3 13.3 9.0 7.1 7.1 1.7
Not asked (mobile homes) 6.8 Q Q 0.4 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.2 0.3
Number of windows                  
1 to 2 5.8 0.7 0.3 0.6 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.3
3 to 5 17.8 2.1 1.2 2.1 3.5 3.2 2.5 2.5 0.6
6 to 9 28.2 4.2 3.1 3.1 4.8 4.2 4.1 3.9 0.8
10 to 15 37.6 6.9 5.0 4.8 6.1 4.7 4.6 4.4 1.1
16 to 19 12.9 3.1 1.8 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.8 1.9 0.3
20 to 29 12.2 2.9 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.1 2.4 0.5
30 or more 3.7 0.8 Q Q 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.0 0.2
Type of glass in windows                  
Single-pane glass 48.7 9.9 6.0 5.8 8.4 6.9 5.6 4.8 1.2
Double-pane glass 68.3 10.6 6.6 6.7 9.7 9.0 10.9 12.1 2.6
Triple-pane glass 1.2 0.2 Q Q 0.2 Q 0.2 Q Q
Window frame material                  
Metal (aluminum) 47.7 5.9 3.5 5.7 8.3 8.0 7.7 7.4 1.2
Wood 41.9 10.4 5.4 3.8 5.8 5.5 5.2 4.6 1.2
Vinyl 25.3 4.3 3.2 3.0 3.9 2.2 3.3 4.3 1.2
Fiberglass 2.0 Q 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.2
Composite 1.4 Q 0.3 Q Q 0.2 0.3 0.3 Q
Number of sliding glass doors                  
0 75.6 17.9 9.7 8.4 10.4 8.5 9.8 8.6 2.3
1 32.3 2.4 2.3 3.3 6.2 5.5 5.0 6.3 1.2
2 7.4 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.7 0.2
3 or more 2.9 Q 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 Q
Energy audit performed on home                  
Yes 8.9 1.7 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.0 Q
No 94.6 16.3 10.1 10.3 14.5 12.9 13.8 13.7 3.0
Don't know 14.7 2.8 1.6 1.5 2.4 1.8 1.7 2.3 0.7
Electricity meter is a smart meter                  
Yes 26.1 4.1 2.9 3.0 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.8 0.7
No 57.9 11.3 6.1 6.2 8.4 7.8 8.5 7.9 1.7
Don't know 34.2 5.3 3.6 3.7 5.6 4.5 4.8 5.3 1.4
Park a car within 20 feet of electrical outlet                  
Yes 56.4 8.1 6.3 5.8 8.4 7.4 9.0 9.5 2.0
No 40.6 9.5 5.2 4.4 5.9 4.8 5.2 4.6 1.0
Not asked (apartments in buildings with 5 or more units) 21.1 3.1 1.1 2.7 4.0 3.8 2.7 2.9 0.9
Natural gas available in neighborhood                  
Yes 81.9 17.1 10.3 9.8 12.6 9.6 10.4 10.0 2.2
Actually use natural gas 68.6 15.5 9.1 8.3 9.9 7.5 8.6 8.1 1.6
Do not use natural gas 13.3 1.6 1.2 1.5 2.7 2.0 1.7 1.9 0.6
No 36.3 3.7 2.3 3.1 5.7 6.4 6.5 7.0 1.6
Distributed solar generation                  
Yes 1.5 Q Q Q 0.2 0.2 Q 0.3 Q
No 86.2 14.5 10.4 9.1 12.7 10.9 13.0 12.9 2.7
Not asked (apartments) 30.5 6.0 2.1 3.6 5.4 4.9 3.6 3.8 1.1
Back-up generator in home                  
Yes 12.6 2.2 1.1 1.4 1.9 1.5 2.0 2.1 0.3
No 84.5 15.4 10.5 8.7 12.4 10.7 12.2 12.0 2.6
Not asked (apartments in buildings with 5 or more units) 21.1 3.1 1.1 2.7 4.0 3.8 2.7 2.9 0.9
Swimming pool                  
Yes 8.3 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.4 0.2
No 79.3 14.0 9.6 8.4 11.8 9.7 11.4 11.8 2.6
Not asked (apartments) 30.5 6.0 2.1 3.6 5.4 4.9 3.6 3.8 1.1
Months swimming pool is used                  
0 to 3 2.7 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 Q
4 to 7 4.7 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 0.9 Q
8 to 12 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.2 0.2 0.2 Q
No swimming pool 79.3 14.0 9.6 8.4 11.8 9.7 11.4 11.8 2.6
Not asked (apartments) 30.5 6.0 2.1 3.6 5.4 4.9 3.6 3.8 1.1
Heated swimming pool and fuel                  
Heated swimming pool 2.5 Q Q Q 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6 Q
Electricity 0.7 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0.2 Q
Natural gas 1.1 Q Q Q 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 Q
Propane 0.3 Q N N Q Q Q Q N
Solar 0.3 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q N
Some other fuel Q Q Q N Q N N N N
Unheated swimming pool 5.4 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.7 Q
No swimming pool 79.3 14.0 9.6 8.4 11.8 9.7 11.4 11.8 2.6
Not asked (apartments) 30.5 6.0 2.1 3.6 5.4 4.9 3.6 3.8 1.1
Hot tub                  
Yes 8.4 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.8 1.4 1.9 2.2 0.3
No 109.8 19.8 12.2 12.4 17.5 14.7 14.9 14.8 3.5
Months hot tub is used                  
0 to 3 4.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 1.0 1.0 Q
4 to 7 1.6 Q Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 Q
8 to 12 2.9 0.4 Q Q 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.7 Q
No hot tub 109.8 19.8 12.2 12.4 17.5 14.7 14.9 14.8 3.5
Hot tub heating fuel                  
Electricity 4.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 Q
Natural gas 1.6 Q Q Q 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.5 Q
Some other fuel 0.3 Q N N Q Q Q Q Q
Hot tub used 0 months 2.5 0.2 Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 Q
No hot tub 109.8 19.8 12.2 12.4 17.5 14.7 14.9 14.8 3.5
Energy-related benefits received by homeowners (more than one may apply)                  
Free or subsidized energy-efficient light bulbs 5.6 1.5 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.6 Q
Free or subsidized home energy audit 2.4 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2 N
Utility or energy supplier rebate for new appliance or equipment 4.2 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 Q
Recycling old appliance or equipment 6.5 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 Q
Tax credit for new appliance or equipment 6.6 1.0 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 0.8 0.2
Some other benefit5 2.6 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 Q

1Housing characteristics data were collected between August 2015 and April 2016.
2Total U.S. includes all primary occupied housing units in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military houses, and group quarters are excluded.
3Housing units are classified using criteria created by the U.S. Census Bureau based on 2010 Census data. Urbanized areas are densely settled groupings of blocks or tracts with 50,000 or more people, while urban clusters have at least 2,500 but less than 50,000 people. All other areas are rural.
4These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
5Some other benefits includes free or subsidized programmable thermostats, subsidized loans for new appliances or equipment, tax credits for new window or insulation, and any other reported benefits.

Q = Data withheld because either the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50% or fewer than 10 cases responded.
N = No cases responded.

Notes:  Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals.  See RECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-457A and EIA-457C of the 2015 Residential Energy Consumption Survey.