Definitions, Sources and Explanatory Notes

 Category:   Petroleum Prices
 Topic:   Refiner Petroleum Product Prices by Sales Type

  Definitions

Key Terms Definition
Aviation Gasoline (Finished) A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline.
Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories.
Kerosene A light petroleum distillate that is used in space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters and is suitable for use as a light source when burned in wick-fed lamps. Kerosene has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit, and a minimum flash point of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, the two grades recognized by ASTM Specification D 3699 as well as all other grades of kerosene called range or stove oil, which have properties similar to those of No. 1 fuel oil. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.
Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel A kerosene-based product having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D (Grades JP-5 and JP-8). It is used for commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines.
Motor Gasoline A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
No. 1 Distillate A light petroleum distillate that can be used as either a diesel fuel (see No. 1 Diesel Fuel) or a fuel oil.
  • No. 1 Diesel Fuel: A light distillate fuel oil that has distillation temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It is used in high-speed diesel engines generally operated under frequent speed and load changes, such as those in city buses and similar vehicles.
  • No. 1 Fuel Oil: A light distillate fuel oil that has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396. It is used primarily as fuel for portable outdoor stoves and portable outdoor heaters.
  • No. 2 Diesel Fuel A fuel that has distillation temperatures of 500 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It is used in high-speed diesel engines that are generally operated under uniform speed and load conditions, such as those in railroad locomotives, trucks, and automobiles.
    No. 2 Diesel Fuel, High Sulfur No. 2 diesel fuel that has a sulfur level above 500 ppm.
    No. 2 Diesel Fuel, Low Sulfur No. 2 diesel fuel that has a sulfur level between 15 ppm and 500 ppm (inclusive). It is used primarily in motor vehicle diesel engines for on-highway use.
    No. 2 Diesel Fuel, Ultra Low Sulfur No. 2 diesel fuel that has a sulfur level no higher than 15 ppm. It is used primarily in motor vehicle diesel engines for on-highway use.
    No. 2 Distillate A petroleum distillate that can be used as either a diesel fuel (see No. 2 Diesel Fuel) or a fuel oil (see No. 2 Fuel Oil).
    No. 2 Fuel Oil (Heating Oil) A distillate fuel oil that has a distillation temperature of 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396. It is used in atomizing type burners for domestic heating or for moderate capacity commercial/industrial burner units.
    No. 4 Fuel Oil A distillate fuel oil made by blending distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil stocks. It conforms with ASTM Specification D 396 or Federal Specification VV-F-815C and is used extensively in industrial plants and in commercial burner installations that are not equipped with preheating facilities. It also includes No. 4 diesel fuel used for low- and medium-speed diesel engines and conforms to ASTM Specification D 975.
    Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD): PADD 1 (East Coast):
       PADD 1A (New England): Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.
       PADD 1B (Central Atlantic): Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.
       PADD 1C (Lower Atlantic): Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.
    PADD 2 (Midwest): Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Wisconsin.
    PADD 3 (Gulf Coast): Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas.
    PADD 4 (Rocky Mountain): Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming.
    PADD 5 (West Coast): Alaska (North Slope and Other Mainland), Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, Washington.
    Price (Unit Price) Total revenue derived from the sale of product during the reference month divided by the total volume sold; also known as the weighted average price. Total revenue should exclude all taxes but include transportation costs that were paid as part of the purchase price.
    Propane (Consumer Grade) A normally gaseous paraffinic compound (C3H8), which includes all products covered by Natural Gas Policy Act Specifications for commercial and HD-5 propane and ASTM Specification D 1835. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -43.67 degrees Fahrenheit. It does not include the propane portion of any natural gas liquid mixes, i.e., butane-propane mix.
    Refiner A firm or the part of a firm that refines products or blends and substantially changes products, or refines liquid hydrocarbons from oil and gas field gases, or recovers liquefied petroleum gases incident to petroleum refining and sells those products to resellers, retailers, reseller/retailers or ultimate consumers. "Refiner" includes any owner of products that contracts to have those products refined and then sells the refined products to resellers, retailers, or ultimate consumers. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are included in this category.
    Residual Fuel Oil A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations. It conforms to ASTM Specifications D 396 and D 975 and Federal Specification VV-F-815C. No. 5, a residual fuel oil of medium viscosity, is also known as Navy Special and is defined in Military Specification MIL-F-859E, including Amendment 2 (NATO Symbol F-770). It is used in steam-powered vessels in government service and inshore powerplants. No. 6 fuel oil includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering, and various industrial purposes.
    Sale The transfer of title from the seller to a buyer for a price. Excludes intrafirm transfers, products consumed directly by the reporting firm, or sales of bonded fuel. Also excludes products delivered/loaned to exchange partners, except where the amount supplied exceeds the amount received and the differential is invoiced as a sale during the reference month.
    Sales to End Users Sales made directly to the consumer of the product. Includes bulk consumers, such as agriculture, industry, and utilities, as well as residential and commercial consumers.
    Sales for Resale Sales of refined petroleum products to purchasers who are other-than-ultimate consumers; wholesale sales.
    Sulfur A yellowish nonmetallic element, sometimes known as "brimstone." It is present at various levels of concentration in many fossil fuels whose combustion releases sulfur compounds that are considered harmful to the environment. Some of the most commonly used fossil fuels are categorized according to their sulfur content, with lower sulfur fuels usually selling at a higher price.

    For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary.

      Sources

    January 1983 forward: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'/Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report" ( Form/Instructions ,   Background, Survey Methodology and Statistical Details ). Prior to January 1983, backcast estimates based on Form EIA-460, "Petroleum Industry Monthly Report for Product Prices".

      Explanatory Notes

  • Values shown for kerosene-type jet fuel for the current month at the U.S. and PADD levels are initial estimates calculated using prior history of the series as well as present and past values of other related time series, such as spot prices and heating degree days. More details.
  • For all other data, values shown for the current month are preliminary. Values shown for the previous month may be revised to account for late submissions and corrections and are considered final. Annual averages will be available in the April Petroleum Marketing Monthly.
  • For purposes of this survey, No. 2 diesel fuel and No. 2 fuel oil are classified in accordance to what the product was sold as, regardless of the actual specifications of that product (i.e., if a No. 2 distillate was sold as a heating oil or fuel oil, the volume and price would be published in the category "No. 2 Fuel Oil" even if the product conformed to the higher specifications of a diesel fuel.
  • Residual fuel, regardless of use, is classified as having either no more than 1 percent sulfur or greater than 1 percent sulfur.
  • In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel was added.
  • Motor gasoline averages and totals prior to October 1993 include leaded gasoline.
  • Map of PAD Districts and Federal/State motor fuel tax table from the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.