Connecticut State Energy Profile



Connecticut Quick Facts

  • One of the three storage sites that make up the 1-million-barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, which was created to offset disruptions in heating fuel supplies, is located in Groton, Connecticut, and it holds 300,000 barrels of heating oil.
  • About 42% of Connecticut households use heating oil or other petroleum products for home heating, the fourth-highest share for any state, and 36% of households use natural gas.
  • In 2022, the Millstone nuclear power plant generated 37% of Connecticut’s electricity. The state had the seventh-highest share of electricity provided by nuclear power in the nation.
  • In 2022, Connecticut’s electric power sector used a record amount of natural gas, which fueled 55% of the state's total electricity net generation.
  • Connecticut has one of the least energy-intensive state economies and uses less energy to produce one dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) than all other states except New York, Massachusetts, and California.

Last Updated: November 16, 2023



Data

Last Update: July 18, 2024 | Next Update: August 15, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Connecticut Share of U.S. Period
Population 3.6 million 1.1% 2023  
Civilian Labor Force 1.9 million 1.1% May-24  
Economy Connecticut U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 340.2 billion 23 2023  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 40,708 million 26 2023  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 87,447 3 2023  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 29,666 million miles 34 2022  
Land in Farms 0.4 million acres 49 2023  
Climate Connecticut U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 52.3 degrees Fahrenheit 27 2023  
Precipitation 61.0 inches 1 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Connecticut U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 83.16 /barrel Apr-24  
Natural Gas Connecticut U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.44 /thousand cu ft $ 3.43 /thousand cu ft Apr-24 find more
Residential $ 16.27 /thousand cu ft $ 14.93 /thousand cu ft Apr-24 find more
Coal Connecticut U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 2.54 /million Btu Apr-24  
Electricity Connecticut U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 29.58 cents/kWh 16.88 cents/kWh Apr-24 find more
Commercial 20.82 cents/kWh 12.66 cents/kWh Apr-24 find more
Industrial 15.90 cents/kWh 7.82 cents/kWh Apr-24 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2022 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2022 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2022 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Connecticut Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,966 MW 0.8% Apr-24  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 200 trillion Btu 0.2% 2022 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-24 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2022 find more
Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,238 thousand MWh 1.0% Apr-24  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Connecticut U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Apr-24 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 48.6 % 39.5 % Apr-24 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 12.0 % Apr-24 find more
Nuclear 46.8 % 18.5 % Apr-24 find more
Renewables 3.3 % 29.3 % Apr-24  
Stocks Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Apr-24  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,078 thousand barrels 1.2% Apr-24 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-24 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,014 thousand barrels 4.6% Apr-24 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Apr-24 find more
Fueling Stations Connecticut Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,070 stations 1.0% 2021  
Propane 19 stations 0.8% Jun-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 1,089 stations 1.7% Jun-24  
E85 2 stations * Jun-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 6 stations 0.2% Jun-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Connecticut U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 708 trillion Btu 37 2022 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 196 million Btu 43 2022 find more
Total Expenditures $ 18,124 million 30 2022 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 5,022 29 2022 find more
by End-Use Sector Connecticut Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 235 trillion Btu 1.2% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial 178 trillion Btu 1.1% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial 69 trillion Btu 0.2% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation 226 trillion Btu 0.8% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,979 million 1.8% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,406 million 1.4% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,123 million 0.4% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation $ 7,616 million 0.9% 2022 find more
by Source Connecticut Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 60 million barrels 0.8% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas 298 billion cu ft 0.9% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,446 million 1.0% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,368 million 1.2% 2022 find more
    »  Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Apr-24 find more
Natural Gas 10,757 million cu ft 1.2% Apr-24 find more
Coal 0 thousand tons 0.0% Apr-24 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Connecticut U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 36.3 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 36.3 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 18.3 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 6.0 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 3.1 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 567 MW 0.2% Apr-24  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 30 thousand MWh 0.2% Apr-24  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 184 thousand MWh 0.2% Apr-24  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 30 thousand MWh 0.8% Apr-24  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 136 thousand MWh 1.7% Apr-24  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2022  
Renewable Energy Consumption Connecticut U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 5.5 % 38 2022  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 3,708 thousand barrels 31 2022  
Total Emissions Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 36.6 million metric tons 0.7% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Connecticut Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 10,757 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 5 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 16, 2023

Overview

Connecticut is located in southern New England on hilly terrain between New York's Hudson River Valley and Rhode Island's Narragansett Bay.1 Although Connecticut does not have any fossil fuel reserves, it does have renewable resources.2 The river that shares its name forms a broad valley that runs through the center of the state and flows south, dividing Connecticut in two.3 That river and other Connecticut rivers provide the state with hydropower resources that have been used since colonial times.4 To the south, the hills of northern Connecticut give way to the coastal lowlands along the Long Island Sound, which forms the state's southern border.5 Winds that sweep along the shoreline of Long Island Sound provide the state with moderate wind energy resources.6 Connecticut's population is concentrated in an area that stretches from the southwestern part of the state up through its center along the Connecticut River where the state capital, Hartford, is located.7 Municipal solid waste and landfill gas supplied by the state's many urban areas, along with wood and wood waste, provide Connecticut with abundant biomass resources.8,9

Connecticut is the fourth most densely populated state in the nation and the third-smallest in land area. On a per capita basis Connecticut uses less energy than all but three other states-Rhode Island, New York, and Massachusetts.10,11,12 The residential sector leads Connecticut's end-use energy consumption and accounts for about 34% of the energy use in the state. The transportation sector accounts for about 31% of state energy consumption, and the commercial sector follows at about 26%. The industrial sector consumes the least amount of energy at about 9% of the state total.13 The state's economy uses less energy to produce each dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) than all other states except New York, Massachusetts, and California.14 The largest contributors to Connecticut's GDP, at about one-fourth, are finance, insurance, real estate, rentals, and leasing, all of which use relatively little energy.15 In 2022, Connecticut had the highest annual per capita personal income of any state—$82,938.16

Electricity

Connecticut ranks among the 10 states with the highest share of electricity generated from nuclear power.

In 2022, natural gas fueled 56% of Connecticut's total electricity net generation. The amount of the state's natural gas-fired generation increased to about 24,500 megawatts in 2022 from about 16,500 megawatts in 2012, as nearly 1,400 megawatts in natural gas-fired generating units came online during the decade. Seven of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity are natural gas-fired. Nuclear power provided 37% of in-state generation in 2022, the seventh-largest share of any state.17,18,19,20 Connecticut has one nuclear power plant, the 2,073-megawatt Millstone nuclear power station located in Waterford. The plant began operations in 1970 and has two reactors.21,22

Solar power provides the largest amount of Connecticut's remaining in-state electricity, accounting for about 3% of net generation in 2022. Biomass-fueled and petroleum-fired units, along with hydroelectric power, provided almost 3% of the state's net generation. There was also a minor amount of generation from wind energy.23

Prior to 2009, coal typically supplied more than one-tenth of the state's electricity. However, coal-fired power generation in Connecticut ended in mid-2021, when the state's remaining coal-fired power plant, the 258-megawatt Bridgeport Harbor facility, was retired.24,25,26 In 2022, Connecticut was one of six states that did not generate any electricity from burning coal.27

Petroleum fuels 2 of Connecticut's 10-largest power plants by capacity, and some of the state's other petroleum-fired generating capacity is at large dual-fueled power plants able to burn petroleum products or natural gas.28 Although about one-fifth of Connecticut's generating capacity is petroleum-fired, the use of petroleum has declined in the past decade with the increased use of natural gas and renewable energy resources for generation.29 In 2022, petroleum contributed 0.4% of the state's net generation.30 Higher-cost petroleum-fired generation is used when natural gas supplies are constrained and there is high electricity demand, usually in winter.31,32

Connecticut has the fourth-highest average electricity retail price among the Lower 48 states, after California, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.33 Connecticut's per capita electricity consumption is less than in all but five states.34 Air conditioning demand in the New England region is low during the mild summer months, and only about 1 in 3 Connecticut households have central air conditioning.35,36 About one-fifth of the state's households use electricity as a primary source for home heating in winter.37 Connecticut has generated more electricity than it needs since 2009. Almost three-tenths of Connecticut's generation is excess power that is sent to other states over the regional electric grid.38

Renewable energy

In 2022, about two-thirds of the solar power generation in Connecticut was from small-scale facilities, mostly rooftop solar panels.

Renewable resources at both utility- and small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) facilities provided about 6% of Connecticut's electricity net generation in 2022. Solar power accounted for slightly more than half of the state's renewable electricity generation, followed by biomass at about one-fifth. Hydroelectric sources provided about one-sixth and a minor amount came from wind power.39 All utility-scale renewable electricity generation in Connecticut came from hydroelectric power and biomass until December 2013, when a small amount of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generation came online.40 By the summer of 2023, nearly 1,200 megawatts of utility-scale and small-scale solar power generating capacity was installed in Connecticut.41 In 2022, about two-thirds of the state's solar power came from small-scale, customer-sited facilities like rooftop solar panels.42

Most of Connecticut's biomass generating capacity is at facilities fueled by municipal solid waste. Those facilities have 101 megawatts of capacity. Additionally, there is a single 38-megawatt biomass power plant that uses wood recovered from construction, demolition, forestry, and land clearing activities. There is one landfill gas-fired power facility in the state with 1.6 megawatts of generating capacity.43,44

Connecticut's 13 conventional hydroelectric facilities provide 119 megawatts of generating capacity. The state also has a pumped storage hydroelectric facility with about 30 megawatts of generating capacity.45 The Rocky River Generating Station in New Milford, Connecticut, was completed in 1929 and was the first pumped storage hydroelectric project built in the United States. The power station pumps water from the Housatonic River into the Candlewood Lake reservoir and later releases it to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The facility uses reversible pumps that also act as generators, an innovation at the time the facility was built.46

Connecticut's first and only onshore utility-scale wind project—two turbines with 5 megawatts of combined generating capacity—went online in the northwestern corner of the state in late 2015.47,48 However, the state's strongest wind power resources are offshore along the Long Island Sound coastline.49 Connecticut's governor signed legislation into law in June 2019 requiring the state's Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to solicit proposals to procure 2,000 megawatts of offshore wind by 2030.50 The state signed contracts to acquire 300 megawatts of offshore wind power generation from the Revolution Wind project and 800 megawatts from the Park City Wind project, which is Phase 1 of the Vineyard Wind project. Both wind power projects are located off the coastlines of nearby states.51,52,53,54 However, the company behind the Park City Wind project canceled its contract to sell electricity to Connecticut in October 2023 because of rising construction costs, and plans to rebid the power at a higher price.55 To help mitigate the rising costs of offshore wind power projects, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts agreed in October 2023 to jointly purchase 6,000 megawatts of offshore wind power from energy companies starting in 2024.56 Revolution Wind is expected to be fully operational in early 2025 and Park City Wind is scheduled to be completed in mid-2024.57,58

Connecticut's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was established in 1998 and has been revised several times since then. The RPS requires that increasing amounts of electricity sold in the state be generated from renewable resources, including solar and wind power, biomass, and wave or tidal power, reaching 44% of electricity sales by 2030.59,60 Connecticut's governor issued an executive order for 100% of the state's electricity supply to be generated by renewable resources by 2040.61,62 To encourage the use of renewable resources and energy efficiency, Connecticut requires both of its investor-owned utilities to offer net metering. In 2021, state regulators changed how customers are credited for the excess solar power they generate and put back on the grid.63,64

Connecticut promotes the use of alternative fuels for transportation, including biofuels and electricity, through financial incentives and regulatory relief.65 There are nearly 700 public electric vehicle charging stations in the state with about 1,900 charging ports, the second-largest amount among the New England states.66 Connecticut does not have any fuel ethanol production, but about 145 million gallons of ethanol were consumed in the state in 2021.67,68 In addition to the many fueling stations that sell motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, there are two E85 (85% ethanol, 15% motor gasoline) public fueling stations in the state.69 Connecticut has one biodiesel production plant, which is the largest in New England. The plant is located in New Haven and can produce about 35 million gallons per year, which is more than four times greater than the state's annual biodiesel use of about 7.9 million gallons.70,71,72,73

Petroleum

Connecticut receives much of its petroleum products through its three deepwater ports.

Connecticut does not have any crude oil reserves and does not produce or refine petroleum.74,75 Much of the gasoline, heating oil, and other petroleum products that enter Connecticut travel through the port of New Haven, one of the state's three deepwater ports. Connecticut's other two deepwater ports—New London and Bridgeport—also receive petroleum products.76,77 A pipeline originating in New Haven delivers refined petroleum products to central Connecticut and terminates in south-central Massachusetts.78

The transportation sector uses about seven-tenths of the petroleum consumed in Connecticut, primarily as motor gasoline and distillate fuel oil.79,80 Connecticut is one of several New England states that requires the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming pollutants, and its total ethanol consumption is the second highest among the New England states.81,82 The residential sector accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum used in the state.83 About 42% of Connecticut households use heating oil or other petroleum products for home heating, the fourth-largest share of any state. The commercial and industrial sectors together account for one-tenth of state petroleum use.84,85

Connecticut, like the other New England states, requires the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) heating oil that has a maximum sulfur content of 15 parts per million.86 Connecticut is home to one of the storage sites for the Northeast's emergency heating oil stockpile. In 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to protect residents and businesses in the northeastern United States against heating fuel supply disruptions during the winter. The reserve holds 1 million barrels of USLD at three storage sites, including one in Groton, Connecticut, where 300,000 barrels of heating fuel are stored.87 The Groton site's first release of emergency supplies occurred in November 2012 because of regional fuel delivery shortages resulting from Hurricane Sandy.88

Natural gas

Connecticut does not have any natural gas reserves or production.89,90 Interstate pipelines bring in the natural gas the state uses.91 Natural gas arrives in Connecticut from the Appalachian region, Canada, the U.S. Gulf Coast, and the U.S. Mid-Continent region.92,93,94,95 Almost all of the natural gas that enters Connecticut comes through the state of New York. Minor amounts are delivered through Massachusetts. Nearly three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Connecticut is consumed in the state, and the rest is transported on to Rhode Island or back into New York.96

A record amount of natural gas was used by Connecticut’s electric power sector in 2022.

In 2022, Connecticut's electric power sector used a record amount of natural gas, accounting for almost three-fifths of the state's total consumption. The commercial sector consumed about one-fifth and the residential sector used about one-sixth. The industrial sector accounted for less than one-tenth of the state's natural gas consumption. The transportation sector consumes a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.97 Slightly more than one-third of Connecticut households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.98 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Connecticut and throughout New England, assurance of a sufficient natural gas supply has become a critical energy issue for the region.99 Like other New England states, Connecticut does not have any underground natural gas storage facilities and depends on underground storage capacity in nearby states to help meet peak natural gas demand in the winter.100

Coal

Connecticut’s last coal-fired power plant was retired in the summer of 2021.

Connecticut has no coal reserves or production.101 No domestically produced coal has been received in the state since 2011.102,103 The state's use of coal for electricity generation declined significantly during the past decade.104 The 258-megawatt coal-fired electric generating unit at Bridgeport Harbor Station was the only coal-fired power plant still operating in the state until it closed in the summer of 2021.105,106 Connecticut's industrial sector has not consumed any coal since 2005.107

Endnotes

1 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed October 15, 2023.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Connecticut Profile Data, Reserves and Environment, accessed October 15, 2023.
3 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed October 15, 2023.
4 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Dams In Connecticut: Their History, Use and Regulation, updated October 2020.
5 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed October 15, 2023.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Connecticut, Maps & Data, accessed October 15, 2023.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, Connecticut: 2020 Census: 2020 Census, State Profile, Population and Housing, Population Density in Connecticut Counties: 2020.
8 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed October 15, 2023.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020), updated April 26, 2021.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed October 15, 2023.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2021.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2021.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, SAGDP2 GDP in current dollars, SAGDP2N, Gross domestic product (GDP) by state, Connecticut, All statistics in table, 2022.
16 U.S Bureau of Economic Analysis, Bearfacts, State, Connecticut, Personal Income and Gross Domestic Product (September 29, 2023).
17 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-22.
18 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
19 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine, Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle, Natural Gas Internal Combustion Engine, Other Natural Gas.
20 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile 2021, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2021).
22 Yale School of Public Health, The History of the Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, accessed October 19, 2023.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-22.
24 "Connecticut's last coal-fired power plant expected to shut down," The New Haven Register (February 11, 2016).
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-21.
26 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal; Inventory of Retired Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
27 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 19, 2023), Table 3.8, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Coal.
28 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile 2021, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Select All, Petroleum Liquids.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-22.
31 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, 2018 Connecticut Comprehensive Energy Strategy (February 8, 2018), Electric Power Sector, ISO-NE Winter Reliability Program, p. 153.
32 U.S. EIA, "Oil-fired generators helped meet electric demand in New England this January," Today in Energy (February 10, 2022).
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 5.6.B.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Housing characteristics, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
36 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed October 20, 2023.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2022 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Connecticut.
38 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile, 2021, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2021.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-22.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2022 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: All.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2023), Table 6.2.B.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-22.
43 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
44 Greenleaf Power, Plainfield Renewable Energy, accessed October 20, 2023.
45 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
46 American Society of Civil Engineers, Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydraulic Plant, accessed October 20, 2023.
47 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
48 Windpower, Colebrook South (USA), accessed October 20, 2023.
49 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Connecticut, Maps & Data, accessed October 20, 2023.
50 Spiegel, Jan Ellen, "Connecticut takes a major step into offshore wind," CT Mirror (June 4, 2019).
51 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, "Regional Wildlife Science Entity Launched to Research and Monitor Effects of Offshore Wind Development on Wildlife, Ecosystems," Press Release (July 22, 2021).
52 Revolution Wind, About Revolution Wind, accessed October 20, 2023.
53 Dunavin, Davis "Offshore Wind HQ Established In Bridgeport, Auguring 800-Megawatt Project," WSHU (July 19, 2021).
54 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, "BOEM Announces Environmental Review of Wind Energy Project Proposed for Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts," Press Release (June 28, 2021).
55 Crowley, Brendan, "Avangrid Cancels Park City Wind Contract, Pays State $16m Penalty," CT Examiner (October 3, 2023).
56 DiSavino, Scott, "New England states join to buy offshore wind power as US industry struggles," Reuters (October 4, 2023).
57 Orsted, Revolution Wind Fact Sheet, accessed October 20, 2023.
58 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Massachusetts, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine.
59 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, Connecticut Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated November 2022.
60 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Connecticut, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated November 18, 2022.
61 State of Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont, "Governor Lamont Signs Executive Order Strengthening Connecticut's Efforts to Mitigate Climate Change," Press Release (September 3, 2019).
62 Prevost, Lisa, "Connecticut plan lays out options for reaching zero-carbon power by 2040," Energy News Network (January 13, 2021).
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Connecticut, Residential Renewable Energy Solutions, updated February 23, 2023.
64 Prevost, Lisa, "Five takeaways from Connecticut's new residential solar program changes," Energy News Network (February 17, 2021).
65 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Connecticut Laws and Incentives, accessed October 20, 2023.
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, Electric Charging Station Locations, accessed October 20, 2023.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2021, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2021.
69 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, E85 Fueling Station Locations, accessed October 20, 2023.
70 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity, (August 7, 2023), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS format.
71 American Green Fuels LLC, About and Our Facility, accessed October 20, 2023.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2021, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2016-21.
75 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2023 (June 21, 2023), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2022.
76 Connecticut Port Authority, Impacts on the Connecticut Maritime Industry (July 2019), p. 9-13.
77 U.S. EIA, Company Level Imports, Previous Issues, Monthly, July 2022-July 2023.
78 Buckeye Partners, L.P., System Map, accessed October 24, 2023.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2021.
81 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel Ethanol Consumption Estimates, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, All U.S. states.
86 New England Fuel Institute, Guidance, Exemptions and Enforcement Discretion for New England's ULSHO Transition, accessed October 24, 2023.
87 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), About NEHHOR, accessed October 24, 2023.
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), Releases, accessed October 24, 2023.
89 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2016-21.
90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2017-22.
91 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Connecticut, 2017-22.
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Mississippi, accessed October 25, 2023.
93 Enbridge, Algonquin Gas Transmission, accessed October 25, 2023.
94 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Pipeline Interactive Website, accessed October 25, 2023.
95 Iroquois Gas Transmission System, Iroquois Interactive Map, accessed October 25, 2023.
96 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Connecticut, 2017-22.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Connecticut, Annual, 2017-22.
98 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2022 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Connecticut.
99 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed October 25, 2023.
100 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, by State, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2017-22.
101 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), Tables 1, 15.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2022 (October 3, 2023), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Connecticut.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, 2011-21, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Connecticut.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, Coal, Annual, 2001-22.
105 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of September 2023, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
106 PSEG Power, "PSEG Power retires Bridgeport Harbor Station coal plant, effective May 31," Press Release (June 1, 2021).
107 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table CT6, Industrial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, Selected Years, 1960-2021, Connecticut.


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