Wyoming State Energy Profile



Wyoming Quick Facts

  • Wyoming produces 14 times more energy than it consumes, and it is the biggest net energy supplier among the states.
  • Wyoming has been the top coal-producing state since 1986, accounting for about 39% of all coal mined in the United States in 2019, and the state holds more than one-third of U.S. coal reserves at producing mines.
  • Wyoming was the eighth-largest crude oil-producing state in the nation in 2020, accounting for slightly more than 2% of U.S. total crude oil output. The state was the ninth-largest natural gas producer, and accounted for almost 4% of U.S. marketed gas production.
  • Wyoming’s large energy-producing sector and small population helps make the state first in per capita energy consumption and gives it the second most energy-intensive state economy, after Louisiana.
  • Wind power in Wyoming has more than doubled since 2009 and accounted for 12% of the state's electricity net generation in 2020. The state installed the third-largest amount of wind power generating capacity in 2020, after Texas and Iowa.

Last Updated: March 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: June 17, 2021 | Next Update: July 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Wyoming Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.6 million 0.2% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.3 million 0.2% Apr-21  
Economy Wyoming U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 36.2 billion 50 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 2,113 million 48 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 63,263 12 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 10,208 million miles 45 2019  
Land in Farms 29.0 million acres 11 2017  
Climate Wyoming U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 42.7 degrees Fahrenheit 46 2020  
Precipitation 11.7 inches 44 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Wyoming U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 57.21 /barrel $ 60.67 /barrel Mar-21  
Natural Gas Wyoming U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.34 /thousand cu ft $ 4.09 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Residential $ 8.08 /thousand cu ft $ 10.55 /thousand cu ft Mar-21 find more
Coal Wyoming U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 12.63 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.89 /million Btu Mar-21  
Electricity Wyoming U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.79 cents/kWh 13.29 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Commercial 9.47 cents/kWh 11.13 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Industrial 7.01 cents/kWh 7.01 cents/kWh Mar-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 1,013 million barrels 2.3% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 17,569 billion cu ft 3.8% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 557 million barrels 2.6% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 5,189 million short tons 36.7% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 20,768 wells 4.2% 2019 find more
Capacity Wyoming Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 168,500 barrels/calendar day 0.9% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,686 MW 0.9% Mar-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 7,718 trillion Btu 8.1% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 224 thousand barrels per day 2.0% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 1,460,477 million cu ft 4.0% 2019 find more
Coal 276,912 thousand short tons 39.2% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 3,562 thousand MWh 1.1% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Wyoming U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 3.0 % 33.9 % Mar-21 find more
Coal-Fired 74.1 % 20.0 % Mar-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.5 % Mar-21 find more
Renewables 21.5 % 24.6 % Mar-21  
Stocks Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 507 thousand barrels 3.5% Mar-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 684 thousand barrels 0.6% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 101,777 million cu ft 1.6% Mar-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 47 thousand barrels 0.2% Mar-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Mar-21 find more
Fueling Stations Wyoming Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 322 stations 0.3% 2019  
Propane 24 stations 0.9% 2021  
Electricity 58 stations 0.1% 2021  
E85 8 stations 0.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 5 stations 0.4% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Wyoming U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 541 trillion Btu 42 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 967 million Btu 1 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 4,695 million 46 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 8,651 1 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Wyoming Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 54 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 57 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 314 trillion Btu 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 116 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 529 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 480 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,469 million 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,218 million 0.4% 2019 find more
by Source Wyoming Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 29 million barrels 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 155 billion cu ft 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 23 million short tons 4.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,881 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 417 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 692 million 2.7% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 10 thousand barrels 0.7% Mar-21 find more
Natural Gas 719 million cu ft 0.1% Mar-21 find more
Coal 1,659 thousand short tons 4.8% Mar-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Wyoming U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 59.2 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 22.8 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 12.1 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 5.9 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,904 MW 1.1% Mar-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 73 thousand MWh 0.3% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 692 thousand MWh 1.4% Mar-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Mar-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 1 thousand MWh * Mar-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Wyoming U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 9.8 % 27 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 826 thousand barrels 48 2019  
Total Emissions Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 63.7 million metric tons 1.2% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Wyoming Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 39,199 thousand metric tons 2.3% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 26 thousand metric tons 2.1% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 32 thousand metric tons 2.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 18, 2021

Overview

Wyoming produces 14 times more energy than it consumes, making it the biggest net energy supplier among the states.

Wyoming is a major producer of coal, natural gas, and crude oil—the fossil fuels that were created from the remains of life in the ancient seas that covered the state many millions of years ago.1,2,3 Wyoming has the smallest population of any state, and only Alaska has fewer residents per square mile.4 Wyoming produces 14 times more energy than it consumes, making it the biggest net energy supplier among the states.5 Wyoming is the nation's largest coal-producing state. It also produces more natural gas from federal leases than any other state and the second-highest amount of crude oil from onshore federal leases.6,7

Wyoming's lowest elevation is more than half a mile above sea level, and its mountain peaks are more than two miles high. The state's mountains, which form part of the Continental Divide, channel weather—and often fierce winds—across wide plains. The high elevations give Wyoming a cool climate overall, but temperatures can be extreme. The state's record high is 114°F in the Big Horn Basin in 1900, and the record low is 66°F below zero in Yellowstone National Park in 1933.8 National parks, including Yellowstone and Grand Teton, and national monuments like Devils Tower and Fossil Butte, as well as the Wind River and Bighorn mountain ranges, help make tourism one of Wyoming's major industries.9

Mining and oil and gas extraction are the biggest contributors to Wyoming's gross domestic product (GDP).10,11 Coal is mined primarily in the northeastern part of the state in the Powder River Basin.12 Crude oil and natural gas production is spread across the state, and each fossil fuel was produced alone or together in 21 of Wyoming's 23 counties during 2019.13 Mineral royalties, severance payments, and related taxes typically provide a substantial portion of state revenues.14 Although only 7% of the energy produced in Wyoming is consumed there, Wyoming's large energy-intensive fossil fuel production helps make the state first in per capita energy consumption and give it the second most energy-intensive state economy, after Louisiana.15,16,17 Wyoming's industrial sector uses about three-fifths of the energy consumed in the state, the transportation sector consumes more than one-fifth, and the commercial and residential sectors each account for about one-tenth of state energy consumption.18

Coal

Wyoming has led the nation in coal production since 1986.

Wyoming holds more than one-third of U.S. recoverable coal reserves at producing mines.19 The state has led the nation in coal production since 1986, and accounts for two-fifths of all coal mined in the United States.20,21 However, Wyoming's coal production has declined as U.S. coal-fired power plants have shut down and natural gas-fired and renewable-sourced electricity generation have increased.22,23,24,25

Wyoming has 10 coal fields and 6 of the 10 largest coal mines in the nation.26,27 Seams of low-sulfur subbituminous coal, some more than 100 feet thick, lie at shallow depths, allowing large-scale mechanized surface mining.28 Nearly all of the coal mined in Wyoming is subbituminous, and the state accounts for almost nine-tenths of all U.S. subbituminous coal production. Subbituminous coal has a lower heating value than other types of coal.29 Wyoming also produces some bituminous coal.30,31 Coal mining began in the state in the mid-1860s when the Union Pacific Railroad arrived.32 Today, most of the mined coal in Wyoming is loaded onto unit trains, which can stretch up to a mile-and-a-half long with about 130 coal cars.33 Wyoming's low-sulfur coal is shipped to power plants in 29 states, with power plants in Texas, Missouri, and Illinois the biggest users of Wyoming's coal.34 Little of the state's coal is exported to other countries.35

Petroleum

Wyoming holds about 2% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves, and the state is the eighth-largest crude oil producer, accounting for just over 2% of the nation's total crude oil output.36,37 Wyoming is a crossroads for pipelines bringing Canadian and Rocky Mountain crude oil to refineries in the Rocky Mountain and Midwest regions and for pipelines shipping refined products to markets in those regions.38,39 The state has five operating petroleum refineries that can process almost 169,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, providing one-fourth of the refining capacity in the Rocky Mountain region that includes Colorado, Montana, and Utah.40 Wyoming's refineries produce motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products, and can process Canadian heavy sour crude oils. Those refineries deliver most of their petroleum products to neighboring states.41,42,43,44,45 In June 2020, the owners of the refinery in Cheyenne announced the facility would be converted to renewable diesel production.46

Wyoming’s per capita consumption of petroleum is the third-highest among the states.

Wyoming has the sixth-lowest petroleum consumption among the states. However, because of its small population, high vehicle miles traveled, and large energy-intensive fossil fuel extraction industries, Wyoming ranks as the third-highest state in per capita petroleum consumption, after Louisiana and Alaska.47 Slightly more than three-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Wyoming is used by the transportation sector, and the industrial sector accounts for most of the rest of the state's petroleum consumption.48 Wyoming drivers have the second-highest per capita gasoline expenditures of any state, after North Dakota, which reflects Wyoming's small population, access to few alternative forms of transportation, and high vehicle miles traveled by state residents.49,50 Wyoming does not require ethanol to be blended into its gasoline, although most gasoline sold throughout the state and the rest of the United States contains ethanol.51,52

After reaching its highest level in 30 years in 2019, Wyoming's crude oil production fell sharply in 2020 in response to the drop in petroleum demand and oil prices during the COVID-19 pandemic.53,54 Most of the state's recent oil production comes from two regions in eastern Wyoming: the Niobrara Shale in the southeastern corner of the state and the Powder River Basin in the northeastern corner.55,56 Southwestern Wyoming overlies part of the Green River oil shale, which is a formation rich in kerogen-an organic material found in some sedimentary rocks that can be converted into petroleum liquids when heated. Green River, by some estimates, could be a large energy resource if technology were developed to extract the petroleum economically.57,58,59

Natural gas

Wyoming’s natural gas reserves and marketed production are among the top 10 states.

Wyoming ranks among the top 10 states in both natural gas reserves and marketed natural gas production.60,61 Two-thirds of the state's natural gas is produced on federal lands leased by energy companies.62 Production takes place throughout the state, but most of Wyoming's natural gas has come from fields in the Green River Basin, located in the state's southwest corner.63,64,65 Wyoming has 16 of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields, including the Pinedale and Jonah fields that rank among the top 10.66 Although natural gas exploration has expanded across the state, including into the Powder River Basin, Wyoming's marketed gas production has decreased by almost half from its 2009 peak, due in part to lower natural gas prices In 2020, natural gas output was the lowest in 20 years.67,68,69 In 2018, the federal government approved a large natural gas project in the basin that would drill 3,500 wells over 10 years.70,71,72 The state imposed requirements to control the emissions from drilling to help improve air quality.73,74,75

Wyoming is the third-largest producer of coalbed methane, behind Colorado and New Mexico, but the state's production has steadily declined during the past decade.76,77 Low natural gas prices made some coalbed methane wells uneconomical.78,79 Coalbed methane accounts for about 7% of the state's natural gas production.80

Wyoming consumes about one-tenth of the natural gas it produces. Two-fifths of the state's gas consumption is used in the production and distribution of energy. The state's industrial sector accounts for another two-fifths of gas use, and the residential, commercial, and electric power sectors together account for the remaining one-fifth of natural gas consumption. 81,82 Natural gas is Wyoming's most widely used home heating fuel, found in 6 out of 10 households.83

Most natural gas produced in the state is shipped out through interstate pipelines that cross into Utah, Nebraska, Colorado, and Montana, on its way to both Midwest and West Coast markets.84,85 Several interstate pipelines converge at Opal, Wyoming, a major interstate natural gas trading hub.86,87 Some of the natural gas that remains in the state is placed in underground storage. Wyoming has nine natural gas underground storage sites that can hold a combined 140 billion cubic feet of gas, which is about 1.5% of U.S. total storage capacity.88,89

Electricity

In 2020, coal-fired power plants produced about 80% of Wyoming's electricity generation, which has been declining since the mid-2000's when coal typically accounted for about 95% of the state's generation. Wind power has more than doubled since 2009 and contributed 12% of the state's generation in 2020. Natural gas-fired generating units and hydroelectric facilities accounted for most of Wyoming's remaining in-state electricity supply.90

Wyoming's small population contributes to it being among the 10 states with the lowest total electricity demand, but it has the highest electricity use per capita.91 Wyoming sends slightly more than half of the electricity it generates out of state.92 Several major interstate projects are in development to transmit more electricity supplies from Wyoming to western population centers.93 Within Wyoming, the industrial sector is the largest electricity consumer, and accounts for about three-fifths of the electricity demand in the state. The commercial sector is second and uses just over one-fifth of the state's electricity, and the residential sector accounts for the remaining power demand.94 One out of five Wyoming households relies on electricity as the primary heating source.95 In 2020, Wyoming ranked among the five states with the lowest average electricity retail price.96

The largest uranium mining operations in the nation are located in Wyoming.

Wyoming does not have any nuclear power plants, but it is the state with the largest uranium ore reserves.97,98,99 The largest uranium mining operations in the United States are located in Wyoming, and the state is home to nearly all of the nation's operating capacity for producing the uranium ore that fuels nuclear power plants. The nation's only uranium mill, located in Utah, processes uranium mined in Wyoming.100,101 In 2019, total U.S. uranium production fell to an all-time low, as most utility companies bought lower-cost uranium from other countries.102,103

Renewable Energy

Wyoming installed the third-largest amount of wind power generating capacity in 2020, after Texas and Iowa.

In 2020, renewable energy sources generated about 15% of the electricity in Wyoming, with wind power accounting for four-fifths of the state's renewable electricity.104 Wyoming has some of the greatest wind resources in the nation, especially in the southeastern corner of the state.105 Sustained winds are funneled through the state's mountain passes and out across the high prairie, which enables Wyoming wind farms to operate at high capacity levels.106,107 In 2020, the amount of wind powered-generating capacity installed in Wyoming nearly doubled to almost 1,800 megawatts. Wyoming ranked third, after Texas and Iowa, in the amount of wind powered-generating capacity that came online in 2020.108,109,110 Several more large wind projects are in development or under construction, including the 3,000-megawatt Chokecherry-Sierra Madre project with about 900 turbines in south-central Wyoming.111,112,113,114 There are several large transmission projects in Wyoming to transport the state's wind-generated electricity to other states, including California, which have significant renewable energy requirements.115,116,117

Hydroelectric power is the fourth-largest source of Wyoming's generation, accounting for nearly 3% of the state's total generation and almost one-fifth of the state's renewable generation in 2020.118 The state has 21 hydropower dams.119 Most of Wyoming's hydroelectric dams are relatively small, more than 60 years old, and owned by the federal government.120

Wyoming has significant solar resources, but there was little solar generation in the state until 2019. Almost all of the state's solar generation comes from the 92-megawatt Sweetwater Solar farm, which came online at the end of 2018.121 Large-scale solar power facilities and small-scale solar panels on residential rooftops together provided about 3% of the state's renewable generation in 2020.122,123

Wyoming's geothermal resources are used for direct heating applications, mainly in Yellowstone National Park and Hot Springs State Park. Geothermal energy is also used in the state to heat buildings, water, and some roadways.124 Wyoming does not have adequate geothermal resources for commercial electricity generation, but the state does have buildings heated by geothermal heat pumps.125

Wyoming does not have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) or other requirement or goal to generate a certain amount of the state's electricity from renewable energy.126 However, the state provides net metering for residential, commercial, and industrial customers with renewable energy generating systems smaller than 25 kilowatts to receive credit for their excess electricity put on the grid. Eligible renewable generating systems include solar panels, wind turbines, biomass-fueled generators, and small hydroelectric generators.127

Energy on tribal lands

The Wind River Reservation has produced crude oil and natural gas for over a century.

Wyoming's Wind River Reservation, home to both the Northern Arapahoe and the Eastern Shoshone tribes, is the third-largest Native American reservation in the United States at more than 3,500 square miles.128,129 It is Wyoming's only reservation and occupies most of the Wind River Basin in the west-central area of the state.130,131 The Wind River Reservation has produced crude oil and natural gas for well over a century.132

The state's first oil well was drilled in the Wind River Basin in 1884, south of the reservation's boundary.133 About a half century later, several oil seeps were discovered within the reservation, and crude oil and natural gas production on tribal lands followed.134 Most current crude oil production occurs in the western half of the reservation while most natural gas production occurs in the eastern half.135 The Biden administration's executive order in January 2021 to suspend new leasing agreements and permits for oil and natural gas development on federal lands does not apply to tribal lands.136 In 2012, the tribes and federal government reached a settlement to resolve underpayment of royalties owed on crude oil and natural gas production from reservation land. The settlement included a $157 million payment to the tribes.137,138

There are two utility-scale electricity generating facilities on the reservation. Both are hydroelectric dams; one has a generation capacity of 15 megawatts and the other has 1.6 megawatts. They are owned by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.139

The Wind River Reservation has significant wind energy resources for potential electricity generation, especially along the mountain ridges that border the reservation.140,141 Several areas of the reservation were evaluated for wind projects that could give the two tribes additional sources of energy.142 The Wind River reservation is also one of the top 15 reservations in the nation with the best potential to generate electricity from solar energy resources.143

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
2 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming's Energy Resources, accessed February 18, 2021.
3 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Geologic History of Wyoming, accessed February 18, 2021.
4 World Population Review, U.S. States-Ranked by Population 2021.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Production, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
6 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming Oil and Gas Lease Sales, accessed February 18, 2021.
8 Gray, Steve, "Wicked Wind, Raging Blizzards and Bitter Cold—and That's Just Summer in Wyoming," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed February 18, 2021.
9 Forbes, Best States for Business, Wyoming (December 2019).
10 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Utah, All statistics in table, Wyoming, 2019.
11 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2020, Gross Domestic Production (GDP) by Industry (in millions).
12 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Coal Production & Mining, accessed February 18, 2021.
13 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2020, Production.
14 State of Wyoming, Department of Revenue, DOR Annual Reports, 2020 Annual Report, Mineral Tax Division, p. 5, 41, 54.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Production, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2019 and 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), United States, 2001-19.
22 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Wyoming, 2015-19.
23 U.S. EIA, Weekly U.S. Coal Production, 52 weeks ended, Wyoming, accessed February 18, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, "New electric generating capacity in 2020 will come primarily from wind and solar," Today in Energy (January 14, 2020).
25 U.S. EIA, "More power generation came from natural gas in first half of 2020 than first half of 2019," Today in Energy (August 12, 2020).
26 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming Coal, accessed February 18, 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2019.
28 Wyoming Mining Association, Coal, Origin, accessed February 18, 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, updated October 8, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for subbituminous (short tons), U.S. and Wyoming, 2019.
31 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for bituminous (short tons), U.S. and Wyoming, 2019.
32 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming Coal, accessed February 18, 2021.
33 Trainfanatics.com, Wyoming Coal Trains Keep Moving Day and Night!, accessed February 18, 2021.
34 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Coal Production and Mining, Coal Distribution, accessed February 18, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11, 2021), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014-19.
38 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Liquid Pipelines, accessed February 18, 2021.
39 Jeffries, Brian, Update on Natural Gas, NGLs and Crude, Wyoming Pipeline Authority (August 25, 2015), slides 24, 31-33.
40 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 22, 2020), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
42 HollyFrontier Corp., Refinery Locations, accessed February 18, 2021.
43 Silver Eagle Refining, Evanston, Wyoming—Silver Eagle Refining Plant, accessed February 18, 2021.
44 Par Pacific, Wyoming Refining Company, accessed February 18, 2021.
45 Sinclair Oil, Refineries, Sinclair Wyoming Refining Company and Sinclair Casper Wyoming Refining Company, accessed February 18, 2021.
46 HollyFrontier Corp, "HollyFrontier Announces Expansion of Renewables Business," Press Release (June 1, 2020).
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
49 U.S. EIA, "State-level average annual gasoline expenditures per capita ranged from $400 to $1,400," Today in Energy (August 14, 2019).
50 U.S. EIA, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2018.
51 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
52 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
53 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
54 Erickson, Camille, "Wyoming's economy slammed by pandemic, new report shows," Casper Star-Tribune (September 28, 2020).
55 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Wyoming, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed February 18, 2021.
56 "New wells boost Wyoming's oil production to highest level in 25 years," World Oil (June 6, 2019).
57 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
58 Maffly, Brian, "Company Wants to Run Utility Corridor Through Public Land for Oil-Shale Mine in Uinta Basin," The Salt Lake Tribune (April 7, 2016).
59 Maffly, Brian, "Major Utah oil-shale project clears ‘tremendous milestone,' but at what cost to the environment?" The Salt Lake Tribune (October 2, 2018).
60 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 11, 2021), Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2019.
61 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
62 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming Oil and Gas Lease Sales, accessed February 19, 2021.
63 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2020, Production, accessed February 19, 2021.
64 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Greater Green River Basin, Past Production, updated January 31, 2017.
65 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming's Oil & Gas Basins, Greater Green River Basin Geology, accessed February 19, 2021.
66 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
67 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2020, Production.
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, Wyoming, 1967-2020.
69 Erickson, Camille, "A quiet decline: As the natural gas market falters, Wyoming has a lot to lose," Casper Star-Tribune (December 24, 2020).
70 Richards, Heather, "Feds approve 3,500-well gas project in western Wyoming," Casper Star-Tribune (August 28, 2018).
71 McKim, Cooper, "NPL Oil And Gas Project Prepares For Drilling Later This Year," Wyoming Public Radio (April 5, 2019).
72 Jonah Energy LLC, Normally Pressured Lance (NPL) Overview, accessed March 9, 2021.
73 Nemec, Richard, "Wyoming DEQ Sets Rules to Lower Oil, Gas Emissions," NGI's Shale Daily (January 2, 2019).
74 Erickson, Camille, "Wyoming regulators call ozone action day for Upper Green River Basin," Casper Star-Tribune (January 20, 2020).
75 Richards, Heather, "As federal methane rules wane, Wyoming pressed to do more," Casper Star-Tribune (September 12, 2018).
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