Washington State Energy Profile



Washington Quick Facts

  • By capacity, the Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest power plant in the United States and the ninth-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world. In 2023, it supplied about 15.6 million megawatthours of electricity to 8 western states and parts of Canada.
  • Washington generated more electricity from hydropower than any other state and accounted for 25% of the nation's total utility-scale hydroelectric generation in 2023.
  • Washington has the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation and can process a combined total of almost 650,000 barrels of crude oil per day at the state's 5 refineries. 
  • In 2021, Washington consumed less natural gas than about half of the states and, by volume, less per capita than all but four other states and the District of Columbia. The largest share of the state's natural gas comes from Canada, either directly or through the state of Idaho.
  • Washington is part of the West Coast Electric Highway, and more than 90,200 battery electric vehicles are registered in the state, the fourth-most in the nation. As of February 2024, Washington had more than 2,150 electric vehicle charging locations and more than 5,950 charging ports.

Last Updated: April 18, 2024



Data

Last Update: May 16, 2024 | Next Update: June 20, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Washington Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.8 million 2.3% 2023  
Civilian Labor Force 4.0 million 2.4% Mar-24  
Economy Washington U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 801.5 billion 9 2023  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 68,564 million 13 2023  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 79,659 6 2023  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 58,483 million miles 20 2022  
Land in Farms 13.9 million acres 19 2023  
Climate Washington U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.5 degrees Fahrenheit 34 2023  
Precipitation 35.7 inches 29 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 74.83 /barrel Feb-24  
Natural Gas Washington U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 5.11 /thousand cu ft $ 4.52 /thousand cu ft Feb-24 find more
Residential $ 15.45 /thousand cu ft $ 13.25 /thousand cu ft Feb-24 find more
Coal Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.48 /million Btu Feb-24  
Electricity Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.40 cents/kWh 16.10 cents/kWh Feb-24 find more
Commercial 10.74 cents/kWh 12.81 cents/kWh Feb-24 find more
Industrial 6.51 cents/kWh 7.81 cents/kWh Feb-24 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 648,200 barrels/calendar day 3.6% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 30,884 MW 2.6% Feb-24  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 931 trillion Btu 0.9% 2021 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Feb-24 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2022 find more
Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 7,816 thousand MWh 2.4% Feb-24  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Washington U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Feb-24 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 21.3 % 40.9 % Feb-24 find more
Coal-Fired 3.9 % 13.8 % Feb-24 find more
Nuclear 10.3 % 20.2 % Feb-24 find more
Renewables 64.1 % 24.5 % Feb-24  
Stocks Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 662 thousand barrels 5.5% Feb-24  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,424 thousand barrels 2.7% Feb-24 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 35,934 million cu ft 0.5% Feb-24 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 109 thousand barrels 0.5% Feb-24 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Feb-24 find more
Fueling Stations Washington Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,846 stations 1.7% 2021  
Propane 64 stations 2.6% Apr-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 2,153 stations 3.4% Apr-24  
E85 5 stations 0.1% Apr-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 8 stations 0.3% Apr-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Washington U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,898 trillion Btu 17 2021 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 245 million Btu 37 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 25,940 million 16 2021 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,351 45 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 479 trillion Btu 2.3% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial 345 trillion Btu 2.0% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial 469 trillion Btu 1.4% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation 604 trillion Btu 2.2% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,333 million 1.9% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,650 million 1.8% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,577 million 1.1% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation $ 14,381 million 2.4% 2021 find more
by Source Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 135 million barrels 1.9% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas 351 billion cu ft 1.1% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 2,482 thousand short tons 0.5% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 16,104 million 2.1% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,955 million 1.1% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 140 million 0.5% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Feb-24 find more
Natural Gas 11,899 million cu ft 1.3% Feb-24 find more
Coal 213 thousand tons 0.8% Feb-24 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Washington U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 33.0 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 1.3 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 58.3 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 3.2 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 4.2 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 25,350 MW 7.5% Feb-24  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 4,191 thousand MWh 21.4% Feb-24  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 737 thousand MWh 1.3% Feb-24  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 86 thousand MWh 2.3% Feb-24  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 37 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-24  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Washington U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 44.8 % 2 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,452 thousand barrels 20 2021  
Total Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 73.8 million metric tons 1.5% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 10,787 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 14 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 12 thousand metric tons 1.0% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: April 18, 2024

Overview

Washington generates more hydroelectric power than any other state.

Washington State is the nation's largest hydroelectric power producer.1 It is the furthest northwest of the Lower 48 states, with the Pacific Ocean forming the state's western boundary. The Columbia River, second only to the Mississippi in volume of water flow among the nation's rivers, runs in an arc through the eastern half of the state.2,3 It forms much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon and drains all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier.4,5 The river provides water for vast hydroelectric projects, including Washington's Grand Coulee Dam, one of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the world.6,7 Washington's climate ranges from temperate rainforest in the extreme western part of the state, where the heaviest precipitation in the continental United States occurs, to near desert conditions in areas east of the Cascade Range.8 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass resources, and many areas of the state have significant wind power development potential.9,10 Even though the state has few fossil fuel resources, its five petroleum refineries provide Washington with the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity among the states.11,12,13

Washington's economy developed around logging, fishing, and agriculture.14 Today, the state is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and in the aerospace industry, including the manufacture of aircraft.15 Among the top contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP) are private service-providing industries, manufacturing, particularly of transportation equipment, and information.16 The transportation sector accounts for about one-third of the state's total energy consumption, while the industrial sector accounts for one-fourth.17 Most of Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range where the climate is moderated by the Pacific Ocean and summers are cool and winters are mild.18,19 The residential sector uses one-fourth of the state's energy, and the commercial sector accounts for almost one-fifth of the state's total energy use.20 Overall, Washington consumes more than twice as much energy as it produces, but its per capita energy consumption is less than in almost three-fourths of the states.21,22

Electricity

Washington’s Grand Coulee Dam is the ninth-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world.

In 2023, hydroelectric power accounted for 60% of Washington's total electricity net generation from both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities.23 Washington typically contributes between one-fourth and one-third of all conventional hydroelectric generation in the nation annually. Nine of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 7 of the 10 by actual generation are hydroelectric facilities.24,25 Most of those hydroelectric plants are located on the Columbia River, and one of them, the Grand Coulee Dam, is the ninth-largest hydroelectric power plant by capacity in the world.26,27 Grand Coulee Dam's hydroelectric plant typically produces more than 21 million megawatthours of electricity each year and supplies power to 8 western states and parts of Canada.28,29 The second-largest power plant in the state—Chief Joseph—is also a hydroelectric facility.30 Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph are among the eight Washington hydroelectric power plants that are owned and operated by the federal government.31 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations, distributes the electricity produced at all federal dams in Washington.32,33

Natural gas, nonhydroelectric renewable resources (mostly wind), nuclear energy, and coal provide almost all the rest of Washington's in-state electricity generation. Natural gas is the second-largest in-state source of net generation, and it fueled about 18% of the state's total electricity generation in 2023. Renewable resources other than hydroelectric power accounted for about 10% of state generation. Wind represented almost four-fifths of that share. Biomass and solar energy supplied the rest of the renewable generation. Nuclear energy provided about 8% of Washington's total in-state generation, all of it from the Columbia Generating Station, which is the state's only operating nuclear power plant.34,35 It also is the only nonhydroelectric power plant among the state's 10 largest by capacity. The Columbia nuclear plant is the state's fifth-largest power plant by capacity, but it is the state's third-largest provider of electricity.36 In 2023, coal fueled about 4% of the total electricity generated in Washington, almost all of it from one coal-fired power plant, the TransAlta Centralia plant.37 One of Centralia's two coal-fired units permanently shut down at the end of 2020, and the other is scheduled for retirement in 2025.38 Overall, Washington's electricity net generation exceeds electricity demand in the state. The excess power generated is sent to the Western Interconnection, a regional grid that stretches from British Columbia and Alberta in Canada, to the northern part of Baja California, Mexico, and across all or parts of 14 western states.39,40

In 2023, Washington had the ninth-lowest average electricity prices in the nation.41 The residential sector, where almost three in five households use electricity as their primary heating source, accounted for 44% of Washington's electricity sales in 2023.42 The commercial sector used 33% of the state's electricity, and the industrial sector accounted for 23%. A small amount of electricity was also used for light rail and electric buses.43,44 Washington is part of the West Coast Electric Highway, a network of public charging locations for electric vehicles located along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest and is part of the larger West Coast Green Highway that extends from Canada to Mexico.45 More than 90,200 battery electric vehicles are registered in Washington, the fourth-most of any state.46 As of February 2024, the state had more than 2,150 electric vehicle charging locations and more than 5,950 charging ports.47 In 2023, Washington's light-duty electric vehicles consumed about 309,000 megawatthours of electricity.48

Renewable energy

In 2023, Washington produced about 8% of the total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity nationwide.

Washington leads the nation in electricity generation from hydroelectric power and accounted for about 25% of the nation's total hydroelectric generation in 2023.49 The state was third in the nation, after Texas and California, in utility-scale renewable generation from all sources. In 2023, Washington produced about 8% of the nation's total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity generation.50 Hydroelectric power accounted for 86% of the state's total renewable power generation, and wind, biomass, and solar provided the rest.51 Some renewable energy resources are used in energy applications other than electricity generation, such as biofuel blends used for transportation and space heating as well as wood and solar energy used for space and water heating. About 3% of Washington's households heat with wood.52,53 When biofuels and thermal energy are included with renewable electricity generation, renewable resources account for about 90% of Washington's total energy production.54

In addition to the 8 federal hydroelectric facilities, including the nation's largest, there are almost 70 additional power-producing dams in Washington. There are also more than 300 megawatts of pumped hydroelectric storage capacity in the state, all of it at the Grand Coulee Dam.55 Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir through turbines that generate electricity. It consumes more power than it generates, but it provides power in periods of high demand.56,57 Washington also has significant tidal energy resources in Puget Sound.58 Deployment of a floating tidal turbine is planned as part of a state project.59 Washington and its neighbor Oregon also have the greatest nearshore wave energy resources in the region.60

Wind power is the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable electricity generation. It has supplied more than 6% of Washington's total net generation in every year since 2013. In 2023, it supplied almost 8% of the state's power.61 Washington's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of the state's wind resources continues.62,63 As of December 2023, Washington had almost 3,400 megawatts of wind-powered capacity.64 A 126-megawatt wind farm is scheduled to come online in late 2025.65 The state's largest wind farm is along the Snake River in southeastern Washington. It came online in 2012 and has a capacity of about 343 megawatts.66

In 2023, biomass accounted for about 1% of Washington's total electricity net generation and almost 3% of the nation's total net generation from biomass.67 Forests cover about half of Washington's land area, and wood and wood-derived fuels are the main sources of biomass used to fuel electricity generation in the state.68,69 In early 2024, 86% of the state's biomass generating capacity was at wood-fueled facilities.70 Washington also has two wood pellet manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of about 100,000 tons per year.71 Wood pellets are used for electricity generation and space heating.72

Solar energy supplies less than 1% of Washington's total electricity generation. Although the amount of generation from utility-scale solar installations was more than four times greater in 2023 than in 2022, almost three-fifths of the state's solar power came from small-scale, customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) power installations, such as rooftop solar panels.73 One of the state's wind farms includes a 0.5-megawatt solar array and came online in 2007, but Washington's first utility-scale solar PV project, a 19-megawatt facility, came online in 2018. A 150-megawatt solar project in Klickitat County came online in 2022 and is Washington's largest solar power plant so far. Other large solar projects are in development and an 80-megawatt one is scheduled to come online in late 2024.74

Washington has several biogas and biofuel projects. There are several dairy farms in the state that use anaerobic digesters to generate electricity from methane captured from manure.75 Washington also has two biofuel manufacturing facilities. One plant can produce about 107 million gallons of biodiesel per year.76 The other facility, completed in late 2022, can produce about 110 million gallons of renewable diesel each year from waste vegetable oils and animal fats.77 In 2021, Washington consumers used almost 23 million gallons of biodiesel.78 State law requires that at least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in Washington be biodiesel or renewable diesel. The law also requires that at least 20% of all diesel fuel used in state agency vehicles be biodiesel or renewable diesel.79 There are no commercial fuel ethanol producers in Washington.80 However, oxygenated motor gasoline blended with fuel ethanol is required statewide.81

Much of Washington has geothermal resources. Although the state does not generate electricity from geothermal energy, those resources are used to heat buildings, greenhouses, and water.82 Several of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating.83

Washington established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2006 and revised it in 2019 when it enacted the Clean Energy Transformation Act (CETA). The CETA requires electric utilities that serve retail customers in the state phase out coal-fired electricity from their energy mix by 2025. CETA also requires that utilities make their electricity supply greenhouse gas emissions neutral by 2030, which means they may use limited amounts of electricity generated from natural gas if it is offset by other actions, and it allows utilities to meet a portion of the requirement through offsets. By 2045, 100% of all electricity sold to in-state customers must come from renewable or non-emitting sources.84,85

Petroleum

Washington has the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation.

Washington does not have any crude oil reserves or production.86 Even though oil exploration in the state began in 1900, drillers found only small amounts of crude oil, and the state has not produced any crude oil since the early 1960s.87 Nonetheless, Washington is a major oil refining center with the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation.88 Washington's refineries receive crude oil supplies by pipeline, ship, and rail.89 The state's five refineries process domestic and foreign crude oils, primarily from Canada, North Dakota, and Alaska.90,91 Collectively, Washington's refineries can process about 648,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into a wide variety of products, including transportation fuels.92 The largest refinery, Cherry Point in northwestern Washington, can process about 250,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. That refinery is also one of the few in the country that can produce renewable diesel from biomass-based feedstocks. In 2022, the plant expanded its renewable diesel production capacity to nearly 110 million gallons of renewable diesel per year.93,94

Petroleum supplies almost two-fifths of the total energy consumed in Washington.95 In 2021, Washington's total petroleum consumption was the 16th-highest in the nation, but its per capita consumption of petroleum ranked 31st among the states.96 The transportation sector accounts for 80% of the petroleum consumed in Washington.97 Motor gasoline, which all five of the state's refineries produce, accounts for about half of Washington's transportation sector petroleum use, and distillate fuel oil (diesel) accounts for about one-fifth. Washington is also the nation's ninth-largest jet fuel consumer, and jet fuel along with residual fuel oil account for almost all the rest of the transportation sector's petroleum consumption.98 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in Washington and accounts for almost 16% of state use.99 The commercial sector consumes almost 3%, and the residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 20 households heat with petroleum products, uses about 2%.100,101

Natural gas

Canada supplies most of the natural gas that Washington uses.

Washington has no natural gas reserves or production.102 However, the state has one underground natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie Gas Storage Facility located in western Washington. It has a total storage capacity of about 47 billion cubic feet and is the 14th-largest natural gas storage field in the nation.103,104,105 Canada supplies most of the natural gas that Washington uses. Almost two-thirds of the natural gas that enters the state comes from Idaho and most of that is originally from Canada. Another more than one-third enters Washington directly from Canada.106 Canada's Sumas Center, near the border between Washington and British Columbia, is a major natural gas trading and transportation hub.107 Nearly two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Washington continues south to Oregon.108

Washington consumes less natural gas by volume than more than half of the states, and uses less per capita than all but four other states and the District of Columbia.109 In 2019, the electric power sector accounted for the largest share of Washington's natural gas consumption for the first time and has remained the largest natural gas consumer in the state since then. In 2022, three-tenths of the natural gas delivered to consumers was used to generate electricity.110 The residential sector, where more than one-third of households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector and typically uses more than one-fourth of the state total.111 The industrial sector accounts for about one-fourth of the natural gas consumed. The commercial sector uses almost one-fifth, and the transportation sector uses a small amount as compressed natural gas vehicle fuel.112

Coal

In 2021, Seattle was the fifth-largest coal export center in the United States.

Washington has nearly 700 million tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, but there are no longer any active coal mines in the state.113 The last coal mine closed in 2006. Before closing, that mine provided most of the coal used at the state's only coal-fired power plant near Centralia. Currently, coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana supplies the Centralia power plant, but the power plant's last coal-fired unit will retire by 2025.114,115 Industrial facilities in the state also receive small amounts of coal.116 Washington consumed almost 2.5 million tons of coal in 2022.117 Coal from several western states is exported through Washington's Seattle Customs District. Seattle is the fifth-largest coal export center in the nation, and accounted for more than 5% of U.S. total coal exports in 2023.118

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is one of eight states with more than 200,000 Native American residents, and Native Americans make up almost 3% of the state's population.119 There are 29 federally recognized tribes in Washington, and almost 6% of the state's land area is tribally held.120,121 Although Washington's tribal lands do not have fossil fuel resources, they do have renewable resources.122

Many tribal lands in Washington have abundant biomass resources. The 12 tribes on the Colville Reservation and those on the Yakama Reservation—the two largest reservations in the state—have substantial forestry industries.123,124,125 The Yakama reservation of southern Washington is among the top five reservations in the nation in electricity generation potential from biomass.126 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific coast also has abundant woody biomass and uses sustainable forest practices and has explored the feasibility of a wood pellet manufacturing facility on the reservation to manage forest slash, the woody debris from logging.127,128

The Tulalip tribe joined an agricultural cooperative and a salmon habitat restoration organization, to form the Qualco electric cooperative. The cooperative generates electricity from methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester using manure and agricultural waste from local farms to reduce runoff that would otherwise enter and pollute nearby salmon streams.129 In 2022, Qualco Energy received funding from the state's Clean Energy Fund for participation in a hydrogen generation project using Qualco's renewable biogas. Clean burning hydrogen is a fuel that does not produce any CO2 emissions.130

Land that was once part of two Washington reservations—the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation— is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam, the nation's largest hydroelectric power producer.131,132 Today, the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, has some of the best hydropower potential of any reservation in the nation and has a hydroelectric power plant with more than 3 megawatts of hydroelectric capacity on its tribal lands.133,134 The Yakama tribe is developing electric generation projects that will use solar and woody biomass.135 Yakama Power, a tribal-owned utility, has worked toward acquisition of ownership interests in transmission and distribution facilities that serve the reservation.136

Several of Washington's tribal areas have solar and geothermal resources. The Spokane Nation of eastern Washington with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installed about 650 kilowatts of solar on 32 buildings—9 public and 23 residences—on the reservation between 2017 and 2023.137 In 2020, the Spokane Reservation received funding from DOE for 980 kilowatts of solar PV installations on 140 tribal residences.138 A 2022 Lummi Nation project has received DOE funding to assist in the installation of a 100-kilowatt rooftop solar PV system at the tribe's new Health and Wellness Center in Bellingham, Washington.139 In 2022, a DOE grant to the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, whose lands are south of Seattle, helped pay for the installation of approximately 130 kilowatts of solar PV.140 Some tribal lands in eastern Washington also have geothermal resource potential.141

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Annual, 2022, Table 3.14, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Conventional) Power.
2 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed March 6, 2024.
3 NETSTATE, Washington, The Geography of Washington, updated February 25, 2016.
4 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed March 6, 2024.
5 American Rivers, Columbia River, accessed March 6, 2024.
6 U.S. EIA, "The Columbia River Basin provides more than 40% of total U.S. hydroelectric generation," Today in Energy (June 27, 2014).
7 Zaidi, Amnah, "25 Largest Dams In The World," yahoo!finance (September 6, 2023).
8 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed March 6, 2024.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, accessed March 6, 2024.
10 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Washington, accessed March 6, 2024.
11 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed March 6, 2024.
12 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, Coal, Coal in Washington, accessed March 6, 2024.
13 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2023 and Number of Operating Refineries, 2023.
14 Washington State Department of Commerce, Choose Washington, A brief history of Washington's economy, accessed March 6, 2024.
15 Washington Department of Commerce, Key Industries in Washington, Key Sectors Bring Focus to High Growth Industries, accessed March 6, 2024.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Washington, All statistics in table, 2022.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2021.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
19 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Western Washington, accessed March 6, 2024.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Washington, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Small-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2023.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Conventional hydroelectric, United States, Washington, Annual, 2001-23.
25 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2022, Tables 2A and 2B.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2022 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 2, 'Plant Data'.
27 Zaidi, Amnah, "25 Largest Dams In The World," yahoo!finance (September 6, 2023).
28 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts, revised December 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Plant Level Data, Grand Coulee, Annual, 2001-22.
30 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2022, Full data tables 1-17 (XLS), Tables 2A and 2B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2022 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
32 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed March 8, 2024.
33 Bonneville Power Administration, Fact Sheet, BPA's foundational statutes (August 2020).
34 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, updated March 9, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2022-23.
36 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2022, Tables 2A, 2B, 10.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2023.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2022 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only) and (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
39 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2022, Table 10.
40 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, About, accessed March 8, 2024.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average retail price of electricity, All sectors, All states, Annual, 2023.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2022 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Washington, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2023.
44 King County, Transitioning to a zero-emissions fleet, accessed March 8, 2024.
45 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed March 8, 2024.
46U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table F39: Electric light-duty vehicles overview, 2022.
47 U.S. EIA, Monthly Energy Review (March 2024), Appendix F.1, Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure, monthly state file, XLS.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2024), Table D.3, Estimated State and Regional Consumption of Electricity from Light-Duty Vehicles, Annual, 2023.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2023.
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