Washington State Energy Profile



Washington Quick Facts

  • By capacity, the Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest power plant in the United States, and the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world. It typically supplies about 21 million megawatthours of electricity annually to 8 western states and parts of Canada.
  • Washington generated more electricity from hydropower than any other state and accounted for 31% of the nation's total utility-scale hydroelectric generation in 2022.
  • Washington has the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation and can process a combined total of almost 650,000 barrels of crude oil per day at the state's 5 refineries. 
  • In 2021, Washington consumed less natural gas than about half of the states, and in 2020, the state used less per capita than all but four other states and the District of Columbia. The largest share of the state's natural gas comes from Canada, either directly or through the state of Idaho.
  • Washington is part of the West Coast Electric Highway, and more than 66,000 all-electric vehicles are registered in the state, the fourth-most in the nation. As of February 2023, Washington had more than 1,600 public access electric vehicle charging stations with about 4,100 charging ports.

Last Updated: March 16, 2023



Data

Last Update: March 16, 2023 | Next Update: April 20, 2023

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Washington Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.7 million 2.3% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 4.0 million 2.4% Jan-23  
Economy Washington U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 667.6 billion 10 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 57,435 million 16 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 71,889 8 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 53,658 million miles 21 2020  
Land in Farms 14.7 million acres 19 2017  
Climate Washington U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 47.1 degrees Fahrenheit 35 2022  
Precipitation 42.4 inches 24 2022  
Prices  
Petroleum Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 76.45 /barrel Dec-22  
Natural Gas Washington U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 7.88 /thousand cu ft $ 7.68 /thousand cu ft Dec-22 find more
Residential $ 13.11 /thousand cu ft $ 14.75 /thousand cu ft Dec-22 find more
Coal Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.65 /million Btu Dec-22  
Electricity Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.03 cents/kWh 14.96 cents/kWh Dec-22 find more
Commercial 9.63 cents/kWh 12.42 cents/kWh Dec-22 find more
Industrial 7.07 cents/kWh 8.63 cents/kWh Dec-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 649,700 barrels/calendar day 3.6% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 30,834 MW 2.7% Dec-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 970 trillion Btu 1.0% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Dec-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2021 find more
Coal -- -- 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,778 thousand MWh 2.7% Dec-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Washington U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.2 % 1.0 % Dec-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 17.4 % 38.8 % Dec-22 find more
Coal-Fired 3.4 % 20.1 % Dec-22 find more
Nuclear 8.8 % 19.0 % Dec-22 find more
Renewables 70.0 % 20.4 % Dec-22  
Stocks Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 533 thousand barrels 4.2% Dec-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,622 thousand barrels 2.9% Dec-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 37,371 million cu ft 0.5% Dec-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers NM NM Dec-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Dec-22 find more
Fueling Stations Washington Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,880 stations 1.7% 2019  
Propane 74 stations 2.7% 2022  
Electricity 1,777 stations 3.3% 2022  
E85 12 stations 0.3% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 48 stations 1.4% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Washington U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,779 trillion Btu 17 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 231 million Btu 37 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 19,932 million 18 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,582 48 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 465 trillion Btu 2.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 331 trillion Btu 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 479 trillion Btu 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 505 trillion Btu 2.1% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,946 million 1.9% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,277 million 1.9% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,193 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,515 million 2.3% 2020 find more
by Source Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 119 million barrels 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 352 billion cu ft 1.2% 2021 find more
    »  Coal 2 million short tons 0.4% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,805 million 2.1% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,395 million 1.2% 2021 find more
    »  Coal $ 108 million 0.5% 2021 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 25 thousand barrels 0.4% Dec-22 find more
Natural Gas 11,921 million cu ft 1.2% Dec-22 find more
Coal 228 thousand short tons 0.5% Dec-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Washington U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 33.5 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 1.5 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 57.6 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 3.2 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 4.3 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 25,304 MW 8.2% Dec-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 5,951 thousand MWh 27.2% Dec-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 768 thousand MWh 1.6% Dec-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 122 thousand MWh 2.7% Dec-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 13 thousand MWh 0.4% Dec-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Washington U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 49.7 % 1 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 5,849 thousand barrels 21 2020  
Total Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 84.2 million metric tons 1.6% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 11,048 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2021  
Sulfur Dioxide 15 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2021  
Nitrogen Oxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 16, 2023

Overview

Washington generates more hydroelectric power than any other state.

Washington State borders Canada and is the furthest northwest of the Lower 48 states. The Pacific Ocean forms the state's western boundary.1 The Columbia River, second only to the Mississippi in volume of water flow among the nation's rivers, enters Washington near the state's northeastern corner and flows in an arc through the eastern half of the state. It forms much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon and drains all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier.2 The river provides water for vast hydroelectric projects including Washington's Grand Coulee Dam, one of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the world, and helps make the state the nation's largest hydroelectric power producer.3,4,5 Washington's climate ranges from rainforest in the extreme western part of the state, where the heaviest precipitation in the continental United States occurs, to near desert conditions in areas east of the Cascade Range.6 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass resources, and many areas of the state have significant wind power development potential.7,8 Even though the state has few fossil fuel resources, its five petroleum refineries provide the only crude oil refining capacity in the Pacific Northwest.9,10,11 Washington also is the only Pacific state other than California that generates nuclear power.12

Washington's economy developed around logging, fishing, and agriculture.13 Today, the state's top industries include: real estate; information and information technology; manufacturing, particularly of transportation equipment; and professional, scientific, technical, and business services.14 Washington is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and in the aerospace industry, including the manufacture of aircraft.15 In 2020, the transportation sector accounted for 28% of the state's total energy consumption, while the industrial sector accounted for 27%.16 Most of Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range where the climate is moderated by the Pacific Ocean and summers are cool and winters are mild.17,18 The residential sector accounted for 26% of the state's energy consumption, and the commercial sector accounted for 19% of the state's total energy use.19 Overall, Washington consumes nearly twice as much energy as it produces, but its per capita energy consumption is less than in almost three-fourths of the states.20,21

Electricity

Washington’s Grand Coulee Dam is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world.

In 2022, hydroelectric power accounted for 67% of Washington's total electricity net generation from both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities.22 Washington typically contributes between one-fourth and one-third of all conventional hydroelectric generation in the nation annually, and 9 of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 7 of the 10 by actual generation are hydroelectric facilities.23,24 Most of those hydroelectric plants are located on the Columbia River, and one of them, the Grand Coulee Dam, is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant by capacity in the world.25,26 Grand Coulee Dam's hydroelectric plant typically produces more than 21 million megawatthours of electricity each year and supplies power to 8 western states and parts of Canada.27 In part because of regional drought, Grand Coulee Dam produced about 17 million megawatthours of electricity in 2019, down from a high of more than 26 million megawatts in 2012. Grand Coulee Dam's contribution rose to more than 21 million megawatthours in 2022.28,29 The second-largest power plant in the state—Chief Joseph—is also a hydroelectric facility.30 Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph are among the eight Washington hydroelectric power plants that are owned and operated by the federal government.31 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations, distributes the electricity ¬produced at all federal dams in Washington.32,33

Natural gas, nonhydroelectric renewable resources (mostly wind), nuclear energy, and coal provide almost all the rest of Washington's in-state electricity generation. Natural gas is the second-largest in-state source of net generation, and it fueled 12% of the state's total electricity generation in 2022. Renewable resources other than hydroelectric power accounted for about 9% of state generation. Wind represented more than four-fifths of that share and biomass fueled almost all the rest, with solar energy supplying a small amount. Nuclear provided about 8% of total in-state generation, all¬¬¬¬¬¬ of it from the Columbia Generating Station, which is Washington's only operating nuclear power plant.34,35 It also is the only nonhydroelectric power plant among the state's 10 largest by capacity. In 2021, the Columbia nuclear plant was the state's fifth-largest power plant by capacity, but it was the state's third-largest provider of electricity.36 In 2022, coal fueled about 3% of the total electricity generated in Washington, almost all of it from one coal-fired power plant, the TransAlta Centralia plant.37 One of Centralia's two coal-fired units permanently shut down at the end of 2020, and the other is scheduled for retirement in 2025.38 Overall, Washington's electricity net generation exceeds electricity demand in the state, and the excess power generated is sent to the Western Interconnection, a regional grid that stretches from British Columbia and Alberta in Canada, to the northern part of Baja California, Mexico, and across all or parts of 14 western states.39,40

In 2022, Washington was among the six states in the nation with the lowest average electricity prices.41 The residential sector, where almost three in five households use electricity as their primary heating source, accounted for more than two-fifths of Washington's electricity sales in 2022.42 The commercial sector used almost one-third of the state's electricity, and the industrial sector accounted for almost one-fourth. The transportation sector also used a small amount of electricity for light rail and electric trolley buses.43,44 Washington is part of the West Coast Electric Highway, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest. It is part of the larger West Coast Green Highway that extends from Canada to Mexico.45 More than 66,000 all-electric vehicles are registered in Washington, the fourth-most of any state.46 As of February 2023, the state had more than 1,600 public-access electric vehicle charging stations and about 4,100 charging ports.47

Renewable energy

In 2022, Washington produced one-tenth of the total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity nationwide.

Washington leads the nation in electricity generation from hydroelectric power and accounted for about 31% of the nation's total hydroelectric generation in 2022.48 The state was second in the nation, after Texas, in utility-scale renewable generation from all sources. In 2022, Washington produced one-tenth of the nation's total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity generation.49 Hydroelectric power accounted for almost nine-tenths of the state's total renewable power generation, and wind and biomass provided most of the rest.50 Some renewable energy resources are used in energy applications other than electricity generation, such as biofuel blends used for transportation and space heating as well as wood and solar energy used for space and water heating. About 3% of Washington's households heat with wood.51,52 When biofuels and thermal energy are included with renewable electricity generation, renewable resources account for about 90% of Washington's total energy production.53

Wind power is the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable electricity generation. It has supplied more than 6% of Washington's total electricity net generation in every year since 2013. In 2022, it supplied almost 8% of the state's power.54 Washington's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of the state's wind resources, particularly along the Columbia Gorge, continues.55,56 As of December 2022, Washington had almost 3,400 megawatts of wind-powered capacity.57 The state's largest wind farm is along the Snake River in southeastern Washington. It came online in 2012 and has a capacity of about 343 megawatts.58

In 2022, biomass accounted for about 1% of Washington's total electricity net generation, about 3% of the nation's total net generation from biomass.59 Forests cover about half of Washington's land area, and wood and wood-derived fuels are the main sources of biomass used to fuel electricity generation in the state.60,61 Washington also has two wood pellet manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of about 90,000 tons per year. Wood pellets are used for electricity generation and space heating.62

Solar energy supplies a small amount of Washington's total electricity generation. In 2022, almost all of it came from small-scale, customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) power installations, such as rooftop solar panels.63 One of the state's wind farms includes a 0.5-megawatt solar array, which came online in 2007, but Washington's first utility-scale solar PV project, a 19-megawatt facility, came online in 2018. A 150-megawatt solar project in Klickitat County came online in 2022 and is Washington's largest solar power plant so far. Other large solar projects are planned.64

Washington has several biogas and biofuel projects. There are several dairy farms in the state that use anaerobic digesters to generate electricity from methane captured from manure.65 Washington also has two biofuel manufacturing facilities. One plant can produce about 107 million gallons of biodiesel per year.66 The other facility, completed in late 2022, can produce about 110 million gallons of renewable diesel each year from waste vegetable oils and animal fats.67 In 2020, Washington consumers used about 22 million gallons of biodiesel.68 State law requires that at least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in Washington be biodiesel or renewable diesel. The law also requires that at least 20% of all diesel fuel used in state agency vehicles be biodiesel or renewable diesel.69 There are no commercial fuel ethanol producers in Washington.70 However, oxygenated motor gasoline blended with fuel ethanol is required statewide.71

Much of Washington has geothermal resources. Although the state does not generate electricity from geothermal energy, those resources are used to heat buildings, greenhouses, and water.72 Several of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating.73

Washington established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2006 and revised it in 2019 when it enacted the Clean Energy Transformation Act (CETA). The CETA requires electric utilities that serve retail customers to phase out coal-fired electricity from their energy mix by 2025. CETA also requires that utilities make their electricity supply greenhouse gas emissions neutral by 2030 and allows utilities to meet a portion of the requirement through offsets. By 2045, 100% of all electricity sold to in-state customers must come from renewable or non-emitting sources.74,75

Petroleum

Washington has the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation.

Washington does not have any crude oil reserves or production.76 Even though oil exploration in the state began in 1900, drillers found only small amounts of crude oil, and the state has not produced any crude oil since the early 1960s.77 Nonetheless, Washington is a major oil refining center with the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation.78 Washington's refineries receive crude oil supplies by pipeline, ship, and rail.79,80 The state's five refineries process domestic and foreign crude oils, primarily from Canada, North Dakota, and Alaska.81,82 Collectively, Washington's refineries can process about 650,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which they process into a wide variety of products including transportation fuels. The largest refinery, Cherry Point in northwestern Washington, can process about 242,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.83 That refinery is also one of the few in the country that can produce renewable diesel from biomass-based feedstocks. In 2022, the plant expanded its renewable diesel production capacity to nearly 110 million gallons of renewable diesel per year.84,85

In 2020, Washington's total petroleum consumption was the 16th-highest in the nation, but its per capita consumption of petroleum ranked 37th among the states.86 The transportation sector accounted for 76% of the petroleum consumed in Washington.87 Motor gasoline, which all five of the state's refineries produce, accounts for more than two-fifths of Washington's total petroleum consumption, and distillate fuel oil (diesel) accounts for almost one-fourth. Washington is also the nation's 10th-largest jet fuel consumer and jet fuel accounts for about one-tenth of the state's petroleum consumption.88,89 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer and accounted for 19% of state use.90 The commercial sector consumed 3%, and the residential sector, where about 1 in 20 households heat with petroleum products, used about 2%.91,92

Natural gas

Canada supplies most of the natural gas that Washington uses.

Washington has no natural gas reserves or production.93 However, the state has one underground natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie Gas Storage Facility located in western Washington. It has a total storage capacity of about 47 billion cubic feet and is the 14th-largest natural gas storage field in the nation.94,95,96 Canada supplies most of the natural gas that Washington uses. Almost two-thirds of the natural gas that enters the state comes from Idaho and most of that is originally from Canada. Another more than one-third enters Washington directly from Canada.97 Canada's Sumas Center, near the border between Washington and British Columbia, is a major natural gas trading and transportation hub.98 Nearly two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Washington continues south to Oregon.99

Washington consumes less natural gas than about half of the states, and uses less per capita than all but four other states and the District of Columbia.100 In 2019, the electric power sector accounted for the largest share of Washington's natural gas consumption for the first time. The electric power sector has remained the largest natural gas consumer in the state since then. In 2022, three-tenths of the natural gas delivered to consumers was used to generate electricity.101 The residential sector, where more than one-third of households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, was the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector and accounted for more than one-fourth of the state total.102 The industrial sector accounted for about one-fourth of the natural gas consumed. The commercial sector consumed almost one-fifth, and the transportation sector used a small amount as compressed natural gas vehicle fuel.103

Coal

In 2021, Seattle was the fifth-largest coal export center in the United States.

Washington has nearly 700 million tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, but there are no longer any active coal mines in the state.104 The last coal mine closed in 2006. That mine provided most of the coal used at the state's only coal-fired power plant near Centralia. Currently, coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana supplies the Centralia power plant, but the power plant's last coal-fired unit will retire by 2025.105 Industrial facilities in the state also receive small amounts of coal.106 Washington consumed about 2.2 million tons of coal in 2021, 38% less than in 2020.107 Coal from several western states is exported through Washington's Seattle Customs District. In 2021, Seattle was the fifth-largest coal export center in the nation, and accounted for about 8% of U.S. total coal exports.108

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is one of only eight states with more than 200,000 Native American residents, and Native Americans make up almost 3% of the state's population.109 There are 29 federally recognized tribes in Washington, and almost 6% of the state's land area is tribally held.110,111 Washington's tribal lands do not have fossil fuel resources, but they do have renewable resources.112

Many tribal lands in Washington have abundant biomass resources. The 12 tribes on the Colville Reservation and those on the Yakama Reservation—the two largest reservations in the state—have substantial forestry industries.113,114,115 Additionally, the Yakama reservation of southern Washington is among the top five reservations in the nation for potential electricity generation from biomass.116 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific coast has abundant woody biomass and uses sustainable forest practices. In addition to timber sales and cedar harvests, the tribe explored the feasibility of a wood pellet manufacturing facility on the reservation to manage forest slash, the woody debris from logging.117,118

In 2008, an agricultural cooperative, a salmon habitat restoration organization, and the Tulalip tribe joined together to form the Qualco electric cooperative. The cooperative generates electricity from methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester using manure and agricultural waste from local farms to reduce runoff that would otherwise enter and pollute nearby salmon streams.119,120 In 2022, Qualco Energy received funding from the state's Clean Energy Fund for participation in a hydrogen generation project using Qualco's renewable biogas. Clean burning hydrogen is a fuel that does not produce any CO2 emissions.121

Land that was once part of two Washington reservations—the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation— is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam, the nation's largest hydroelectric power producer.122,123 Today, the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, has some of the best hydropower potential of any reservation in the nation and has more than 3 megawatts of hydroelectric capacity.124,125 The Yakama tribe is developing electric generation projects that will use solar and woody biomass resources and is exploring opportunities to develop its wind resources as well.126 Yakama Power, a tribal-owned utility, has worked toward acquisition of ownership interests in transmission and distribution facilities that serve the reservation.127

Several of Washington's tribal areas have solar and geothermal resources. The Spokane Nation of eastern Washington owns an energy company that constructed a 643-kilowatt community solar facility and has plans to build a 100-megawatt solar facility.128 In 2020, the Spokane Reservation received funding for 140 customer-sited solar PV installations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).129 In 2021, the Lummi Nation received DOE funding to assist in the installation of a 100-kilowatt solar PV system in Bellingham, Washington.130 In 2022, a DOE grant to the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, whose lands are south of Seattle, will help pay for the installation of approximately 130 kilowatts of solar PV.131 Some tribal lands in eastern Washington also have geothermal resource potential.132

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Washington, The Geography of Washington, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed January 31, 2023.
3 U.S. EIA, "The Columbia River Basin provides more than 40% of total U.S. hydroelectric generation," Today in Energy (June 27, 2014).
4 Jaganmohan, Madhumitha, "Largest hydroelectric dams worldwide as of 2021, based on power generation capacity (in gigawatts)," Statista (January 19, 2023).
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Annual, 2021, Table 3.14, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Conventional) Power.
6 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed February 2, 2023.
7 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, accessed February 2, 2023.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Washington 80-Meter Wind Resource Map (October 5, 2010).
9 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed February 2, 2023.
10 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, Coal, Coal in Washington, accessed February 2, 2023.
11 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2022 and Number of Operating Refineries, 2022.
12 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual, 2021, Table 3.13, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy.
13 Washington State Department of Commerce, Choose Washington, A brief history of Washington's economy, accessed February 2, 2023.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Washington, All statistics in table, 2021.
15 Washington Department of Commerce, Key Industries in Washington, Key Sectors Bring Focus to High Growth Industries, accessed February 2, 2023.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
17 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
18 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Western Washington, accessed February 10, 2023.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Washington, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Small-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Conventional hydroelectric, United States, Washington, Annual, 2001-22.
24 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A and 2B.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2021 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 2, 'Plant Data'.
26 Fernandez, Lucia, "Largest hydroelectric dams worldwide as of 2021, based on power generation capacity," Statista (February 8, 2023.
27 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts, revised December 2021.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Plant Level Data, Grand Coulee, Annual, 2001-22.
29 Drought.Gov, Drought in Washington from 2000-Present, accessed February 10, 2023.
30 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A and 2B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2021 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
32 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed February 10, 2023.
33 Bonneville Power Administration, Fact Sheet, BPA's foundational statutes (August 2020).
34 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, updated March 9, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-22.
36 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A, 2B, 10.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-22.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2021 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only) and (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
39 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2021, Table 10.
40 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, About WECC, accessed February 11, 2023.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average retail price of electricity, All sectors, All states, Annual, 2022.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Washington, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2022.
44 King County Metro, Electric Trolley Buses, accessed March 9, 2023.
45 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed February 11, 2023.
46U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Registrations by State (June 2022).
47 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Washington, Public access, All charger types, accessed February 11, 2023.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2022.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Geography-Check all, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Annual, 2022.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
51 Washington Department of Enterprise Services, Biodiesel Use by Washington State Agencies, Jan-Dec 2021, p. 12.
52 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
53 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020, Washington.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, All fuels, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-22.
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