Washington State Energy Profile



Washington Quick Facts

  • The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest hydroelectric power producer in the United States, and can provide electricity to 2.3 million households a year.
  • Washington is the leading producer of electricity from hydroelectric sources and routinely accounts for 25% of the nation's utility-scale net hydroelectricity generation.
  • Although not a crude oil producing state, Washington ranks fifth in the nation in crude oil refining capacity for making gasoline and other petroleum products. 
  • Washington's only natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie facility, can hold up to 44 billion cubic feet of gas and ranks among the top 20 U.S. gas storage reservoirs.
  • Washington produces more electricity than it consumes, and exports its surplus power to Canada and 13 other western states.
  • Washington is home to more than 100,000 Native Americans and their tribal lands are located in areas with substantial renewable energy resources.

Last Updated: November 16, 2017



Data

Last Update: November 16, 2017 | Next Update: December 21, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Washington Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.3 million 2.3% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 3.7 million 2.3% Aug-17  
Economy Washington U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 469.7 billion 14 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 58,430 million 10 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 53,493 13 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 59,653 million miles 19 2015  
Land in Farms 14.7 million acres 18 2012  
Climate Washington U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.6 degrees Fahrenheit 35 2016  
Precipitation 49.5 inches 6 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 43.44 /barrel Jul-17  
Natural Gas Washington U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.21 /thousand cu ft $ 4.63 /thousand cu ft Jul-17 find more
Residential $ 15.37 /thousand cu ft $ 17.75 /thousand cu ft Jul-17 find more
Coal Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.08 /million Btu Jul-17  
Electricity Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.87 cents/kWh 13.12 cents/kWh Jul-17 find more
Commercial 8.46 cents/kWh 11.00 cents/kWh Jul-17 find more
Industrial 4.68 cents/kWh 7.33 cents/kWh Jul-17 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2016 find more
Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 633,700 barrels/calendar day 3.4% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 31,053 MW 2.9% Jul-17  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 935 trillion Btu 1.1% 2015 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2016 find more
Coal -- -- 2015 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 10,279 thousand MWh 2.6% Jul-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Washington U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 12.1 % 35.6 % Jul-17 find more
Coal-Fired 4.7 % 32.1 % Jul-17 find more
Nuclear 8.3 % 17.8 % Jul-17 find more
Renewables 74.5 % 13.6 % Jul-17  
Stocks Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 409 thousand barrels 2.5% Jul-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,729 thousand barrels 1.4% Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 39,738 million cu ft 0.5% Jul-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 144 thousand barrels 0.5% Jul-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jul-17 find more
Fueling Stations Washington Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,901 stations 1.7% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 90 stations 2.8% 2017  
Electricity 675 stations 4.3% 2017  
Ethanol 4 stations 0.1% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 18 stations 1.4% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Washington U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,988 trillion Btu 16 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 278 million Btu 33 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 21,798 million 18 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,044 46 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 443 trillion Btu 2.2% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 368 trillion Btu 2.0% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 555 trillion Btu 1.8% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 623 trillion Btu 2.3% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,209 million 1.7% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,243 million 1.7% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,487 million 1.3% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 11,859 million 2.3% 2015 find more
by Source Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 141.5 million barrels 2.0% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 308.0 billion cu ft 1.1% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 3.5 million short tons 0.4% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 13,145 million 2.1% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,119 million 1.5% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 146 million 0.4% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 8 thousand barrels 0.4% Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas 9,980 million cu ft 0.9% Jul-17 find more
Coal 317 thousand short tons 0.5% Jul-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Washington U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 35.0 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 2.3 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 54.3 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3.0 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 5.3 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 24,799 MW 12.1% Jul-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 6,910 thousand MWh 26.3% Jul-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 555 thousand MWh 2.4% Jul-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 188 thousand MWh 3.5% Jul-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 15 thousand MWh 0.6% Jul-17  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Washington U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 43.9 % 2 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 6,876 thousand barrels 20 2015  
Total Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 73.0 million metric tons 1.4% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 11,586 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 14 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 16, 2017

Overview

Washington's economy developed around the fishing and logging industries during the 19th century.1 The state's top industries now have expanded to include finance, real estate, information, and manufacturing. The state benefits from access to abundant and affordable energy.2,3 Washington's significant renewable energy resources, especially hydroelectric power, are a major contributor to the state's energy supply.4 The Columbia River, second in the United States to only the Mississippi River in the volume of its water flow, enters Washington near the state's northeastern corner and flows in an arc through the eastern half of the state, before forming much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon. Draining all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier, the river provides water for vast hydroelectric projects.5 The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest hydropower producer in the United States and also the nation's largest electricity generating facility of any kind when measured by capacity.6 Washington has produced relatively little of its limited fossil fuel resources. However, the state is the crude oil refining center for the Pacific Northwest.7,8,9 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass, and many areas of the state are favorable for wind power development.10,11

Washington is the crude oil refining center for the Pacific Northwest.

Washington is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and the transportation equipment manufacturing industry, primarily aircraft.12 The industrial sector and the transportation sector each account for almost one-third of end-use energy consumption in the state. The residential sector accounts for about one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption, in part because Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range where the summers are cool and comparatively dry, and the winters are mild.13,14,15 Overall energy consumption in Washington is well below the national average on a per capita basis, and the state produces more electricity than it needs to meet domestic demand.16,17

Petroleum

Early oil exploration activity in Washington was largely unsuccessful. Only small amounts of oil reserves were found, and no oil production has been reported since the early 1960s.18 Nonetheless, Washington is a major crude oil refining center with the fifth-largest refining capacity in the nation.19 The five refineries in Washington receive crude oil supplies at the state's extensive port facilities, with much of the oil coming from Alaska.20,21 However, Alaskan production is declining, and Washington's refineries have become increasingly dependent on crude oil from foreign suppliers, primarily Canada.

Refineries also receive crude oil by rail from the Bakken shale formation in North Dakota.22,23,24,25 Changing market conditions and environmental concerns have halted some planned projects that would increase deliveries of crude oil by rail from North Dakota.26

Washington’s jet fuel consumption is among the highest in the nation.

Motor gasoline accounts for more than half of Washington's consumption of petroleum products, followed by distillate fuel oil, which accounts for almost one-third of consumption.27 The use of oxygenated motor gasoline is required throughout the state.28 Motor gasoline is produced at Washington's five oil refineries.29,30,31,32,33 The largest oil refinery in the state can process about 227,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. The other four refineries each process between about 40,000 and 145,000 barrels of crude oil per day.34 Some refineries produce CARB (California Air Resources Board) motor gasoline, as well as conventional motor gasoline.35 Most of those refineries also produce jet fuel, and Washington is among the top 10 states in the nation in jet fuel consumption.36,37 Several large U.S. Air Force bases and U.S. Navy installations located in the state contribute to the considerable amount of jet fuel consumed.38

Natural gas

A small amount of natural gas was produced in south-central Washington in the mid-20th century, but there has been no production in the state since then. Exploration wells drilled in Washington have resulted in the development of the state's only natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie facility, which ranks among the top 20 U.S. natural gas storage reservoirs.39 Because Washington has no natural gas production, it has imported record amounts of natural gas in recent years. The state relies heavily on natural gas produced in Canada that is transported by pipeline to U.S. markets. About two-fifths of the natural gas entering the state comes from Canada.40,41 The Sumas Center, in Canada near the border between Washington and British Columbia, is the principal natural gas trading and transportation hub for the U.S. Northwest.42 The Northwest Pipeline bidirectional system supplies natural gas from Canada, from the Rocky Mountain region, and from the San Juan Basin in the U.S. Southwest to markets in Washington. The separate Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline enters the state from Idaho, bringing natural gas, primarily from Canada, to the eastern part of Washington.43,44,45 About two-thirds of the natural gas entering Washington flows south to Oregon and beyond.46

In the past, the residential sector—where more than one-third of Washington households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating—had been the state's biggest natural gas-consuming sector, followed closely by the industrial sector.47 Since 2013, the electric power sector has consumed the largest share.48

Coal

While Washington's recoverable coal reserves are estimated at nearly 700 million short tons,49 the state's last remaining coal mine closed in 2006.50 The mine had provided most of the coal used at the large coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington. Coal to fuel the Centralia power plant is now delivered by train from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana.51,52 A small amount of coal is also delivered to industrial facilities in the state.53 Western coal is shipped by rail through Washington's Seattle Customs District, the fifth-largest coal export center in the nation and the largest on the West Coast. The coal shipments are then sent to export terminals in Canada.54 Several proposals for the construction of coal export terminals in Washington have been made; however, the developer of the proposed Gateway Pacific deep-water coal export terminal at Cherry Point in Whatcom County withdrew its permit application in February 2017 following opposition to the project.55 The only other coal export terminal project under consideration is the Millennium Bulk Terminals near Longview, which would be the largest coal export terminal In North America. Washington's Department of Ecology denied a key water quality permit for the terminal in September 2017, which has delayed completion of the project.56

Electricity

Washington generates about one-fourth of the total hydroelectric power produced in the United States.

Washington is the leading U.S. producer of hydroelectric power, routinely contributing more than one-fourth of the nation's total net hydroelectric generation.57 Eight of the state's 10 largest power plants are hydroelectric facilities, and most of them are located on the Columbia River.58,59 One of them, the Grand Coulee Dam, is the seventh largest power plant and the sixth largest hydroelectric plant in the world.60 The dam's generators produce enough electricity to supply power to 2.3 million households a year.61

The biggest hydroelectric facilities in the state were built more than 60 years ago, making them among the oldest generating facilities in the nation. The facilities were built by federal entities that continue to own or operate them.62,63,64 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations, is the marketer of electricity produced at the federal dams in Washington.65,66 Hydroelectric power typically accounts for about two-thirds of Washington's electricity generation, providing abundant and lower-cost electricity to the region, compared to power prices in other states.67,68,69 70

Natural gas-fired power plants, the state's one nuclear power plant, wind turbines, a single coal-fired power plant, and, to a lesser extent, biomass, account for almost all of Washington's remaining net electricity generation.71 The state's two largest nonhydroelectric power plants are the Centralia coal-fired power plant and the Columbia nuclear power plant.72 The Centralia power plant has two coal-fired units. However, both units are scheduled to be decommissioned, one in 2020 and the other in 2025.73 Conversion of the units to natural gas or biomass fuel is being considered.74,75 Nuclear power provides less than one-tenth of Washington's net electricity generation, but more than wind, coal, or biomass generation.76 The Columbia nuclear power plant has been in operation since 1984 and is the state's third largest generating facility. It is located near the Columbia River in the south-central part of the state on the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site.77

Washington's net electricity generation exceeds the electricity demand of the state's residential, commercial, and industrial consumers.78 Because of its significant hydroelectric generating capacity, Washington is an exporter of electricity to the Canadian power grid and supplies power to 13 other western states. Large amounts of hydroelectric power leave Washington via the Western Interconnection, which runs from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, through Washington, Oregon, and California to the northern part of Baja California, Mexico.79 Because of the relatively low operating costs of hydroelectric power generation, the state has the lowest average retail electricity prices in the nation.80 More than half of all Washington households use electricity as their primary heating source.81

Renewable energy

Washington ranks second in the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources.

Washington ranks second in the nation, after California, in the amount of electricity generated from renewable resources. More than three-fourths of the state's net electricity generation originates from renewable resources, predominantly hydroelectric power, and Washington produced more than one-seventh of the total electricity generated nationwide from renewables in 2016.82 Some renewable resources provide energy in forms other than electricity, such as biofuels and thermal energy from the wood used in wood stoves.83 When the production of those other types of energy are included, renewable resources account for more than nine-tenths of Washington's total overall energy production.84

Hydroelectric power provides more than two-thirds of Washington's net electricity generation and almost nine-tenths of the state's renewable power generation.85 Nonhydroelectric renewable energy sources, mainly wind and biomass, provide almost one-tenth of the state's total net electricity generation.86 Washington is among the top 10 states in the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources other than hydropower.87 Washington's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of the state's wind resources, particularly along the Columbia Gorge, has continued.88 More than 1,700 turbines with over 3,000 megawatts of capacity make wind power the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable generation. 89,90 Washington is also a substantial producer of electricity from wood and wood waste, as over half of the state's land area is forested.91 Washington accounts for 3% of the nation's net electricity generation from biomass.92,93 Despite its large biomass resource, Washington generates almost five times more electricity from wind than from biomass.94,95 The state has little electricity generation from solar energy, most of it from rooftop and other small-scale solar power installations.

Washington has largely undeveloped low and high-temperature geothermal resources, primarily in the Columbia Basin and in the southern Cascade Range.96 Although low-temperature geothermal resources do not have a large impact on the energy economy, they have direct-use applications, such as providing heat for buildings, greenhouses, water, and geothermal heat pumps. Some of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating. More than 900 low-temperature geothermal wells have been drilled in the Columbia Basin. Undeveloped high-temperature geothermal areas in Washington's volcanic Cascade Range have an estimated electric generation potential of up to 300 megawatts, which if fully developed could produce enough electricity for about 265,000 homes.97

Washington has abundant wave energy and other hydrokinetic resources for generating electricity, and there are ongoing efforts to develop those resources.98 Wave energy generators have been tested off the state's coastline and in Puget Sound.99 Oscilla Power was awarded a $1 million grant in 2017 to design, build, and test a community-scale wave energy converter.100

Washington has several programs focused on energy independence, energy conservation, and energy efficiency. The state provides loans for the development of production and distribution facilities for biofuels created from agricultural product wastes from Washington's nearly 15 million acres of farmland and for electricity generation fueled by methane from dairy cow waste.101,102 Facilities in Washington have the capacity to produce 110 million gallons of biodiesel fuel per year.103

In 2006, Washington enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and an energy efficiency resource standard that require utilities with at least 25,000 retail customers to obtain 15% of their electricity from qualified new renewable resources by 2020 and to undertake cost-effective energy conservation. Eligible renewables that meet the RPS requirement include wind, solar, geothermal, landfill gas, wave, ocean or tidal power, methane gas from sewage treatment plants, biodiesel, biomass energy, and limited hydropower.104

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is 1 of 14 states with more than 100,000 Native American residents.105 The 29 federally recognized tribes in the state control about 2.5 million acres of tribal lands.106,107 Like much of Washington, tribal lands in the state are located in areas with substantial renewable resource potential.108,109 The largest reservation in the state, the Colville Reservation that is home to 12 individual tribes, aims to create a tribal utility that will use distributed generation and renewable energy projects to support the tribal goals of self-reliance and environmental sustainability.110

Washington’s tribal lands have large biomass resources.

Washington tribal lands have substantial biomass resources. The Yakama and Coeur d'Alene tribal lands of Washington are among the top five reservations in the nation for potential electricity generation from solid biomass.111 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific coast has abundant woody biomass and is working toward the development of wood pellet manufacturing on the reservation.112 The Tulalip Tribes' power company joined with an agricultural cooperative and a nonprofit organization founded to restore salmon habitat to form an electric cooperative that generates electricity from the methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester. Using the manure and agricultural waste from local farms, the project reduces farm waste runoff from entering nearby salmon streams.113

Land that was once part of two Washington reservations, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation, is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam.114 Hydropower capacity and generation potential on the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, is among the highest of any reservation in the nation.115 The Yakama tribe is developing electric generation projects that will use woody biomass resources and is looking into opportunities to develop its solar and wind resources as well.116,117

Other renewable resource opportunities may exist on Washington's tribal lands. The greatest potential for geothermal electricity generation on the state's tribal lands is in the south-central part of Washington, but tribal lands in the northeastern and the northwestern parts of the state may also have geothermal resources.118

Endnotes

1 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, History, Native American Resistance and Territorial Status, accessed October 19, 2017.
2 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, Economy, accessed October 19, 2017.
3 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington Personal Income and GDP, accessed October 19, 2017.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
5 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed October 19, 2017.
6 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Electricity in the United States Top 10, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities by annual net electricity generation, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities by electricity generation capacity, Data for 2015, updated February 1, 2017.
7 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed October 19, 2017.
8 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, accessed October 19, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, accessed October 19, 2017.
10 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools, Biomass Maps, accessed October 19, 2017.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Washington Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, accessed October 19, 2017.
12 Washington Department of Commerce, Key Sectors Bring Focus to High Growth Industries, accessed October 19, 2017.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015; Washington Tables CT3, CT4, CT5, CT6, CT7, CT8.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
15 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed October 19, 2017.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Washington Electricity Profile, 2015, Table 1, 2015 Summary statistics (Washington).
18 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, Oil and Gas in Washington accessed October 19, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity as of January 1, 2017.
20 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2017.
21 Washington State Department of Commerce, Petroleum Supply and Use in Washington State, An Overview of Recent Developments in the Petroleum Market (October 2013), p. 23.
22 Learn, Scott, "Oil trains—pipelines on wheels—headed to Northwest terminals and refineries from North Dakota fracking," OregonLive (May 13, 2013).
23 de Place, Eric, The Northwest's Pipeline on Rails, Sightline Institute (July 6, 2015), p. 4-5.
24 Washington State Department of Commerce, Petroleum Supply and Use in Washington State, An Overview of Recent Developments in the Petroleum Market (October 2013), p. 23.
25 U.S. EIA, Crude Imports, Washington, Monthly, accessed October 27, 2017.
26 "Shell Calls off Oil-by-rail Project in Anacortes," The Bellingham Herald (October 6, 2016).
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
28 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map (June 2015).
29 BP United States, Cherry Point Refinery, accessed October 19, 2017.
30 Phillips 66, Ferndale Refinery, accessed October 19, 2017.
31 Shell United States, About Shell Puget Sound Refinery, accessed October 13, 2017.
32 U.S. Oil & Refining Co., Company History, accessed October 19, 2017.
33 Andeavor, Anacortes Refinery, accessed October 19, 2017.
34 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2017 (June 21, 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 19.
35 Andeavor, Anacortes Refinery, accessed October 19, 2017.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F2, Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2016.
38 Globemaster US Military Aviation Database, Airbases, Washington State Search Results, accessed October 19, 2017.
39 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed October 20, 2017.
40 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports by State, Import Volume, Annual, accessed October 20, 2017.
41 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington, Annual, accessed October 20, 2017.
42 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports, Point of Energy, 2016.
43 Williams, West Operations, Northwest Pipeline, accessed October 20, 2017.
44 TransCanada, About Gas Transmission Northwest LLC, accessed October 20, 2017.
45 TransCanada, GTN System Maps, accessed October 20, 2017.
46 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington, Annual, accessed October 20, 2017.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Washington, Annual, accessed October 20, 2017.
49 U.S. EIA, U.S. Coal Reserves, Table 15, November 4, 2016.
50 Bernton, Hal, "State's last coal mine shuts; Centralia hit hard," The Seattle Times (December 1, 2006).
51 "Centralia Power Plant New CCGT Unit, WA, United States of America," power-technology.com, accessed October 20, 2017.
52 TransAlta, Centralia, accessed October 20, 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (October 2, 2017), Washington, Table DS-42, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2nd Quarter 2017, p. 44.
54 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, April---June 2017 (October 2017), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, p. 16.
55 Washington Department of Ecology, Gateway Pacific Terminal at Cherry Point Proposal, accessed October 20, 2017.
56 Washington Department of Ecology, "Key Permit Denied for Proposed Coal Terminal," Press Release (September 26, 2017)
57 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.10.B.
58 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
59 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Columbia River Basin Water Management, accessed October 23, 2017.
60 U.S. EIA, "The world's nine largest operating power plants are hydroelectric facilities," Today in Energy (October 18, 2016).
61 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts, April 2015.
62 Bonneville Power Administration, About BPA, A History of Service, accessed October 23, 2017.
63 U.S. EIA, "Hydroelectric Generators are Among the United States' Oldest Power Plants," Today in Energy (March 13, 2017).
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), accessed October 23, 2017.
65 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed October 23, 2017.
66 Bonneville Power Administration, About Us, accessed October 23, 2017.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B; (February 2013, February 2014, February 2015, February 2016), Tables 1.6.B, 1.13.B.
68 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Average Retail Price of Electricity to Residential Sector, accessed October 23, 2017.
69 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
71 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2B, Ten Largest Plants by Generation, 2015.
72 TransAlta USA, Centralia, accessed October 23, 2017.
73 TransAlta USA, Centralia (updated February 12, 2016).
74 Caster, Peter, "TransAlta Continues with Conversion Plans Despite Veto," The Chronicle (July 13, 2017).
75 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
76 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Columbia Generating Station (updated February 10, 2017).
77 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
78 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, About WECC, accessed October 23, 2017.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
80U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System 2015, Production Technical Notes, p. 11.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System 2015, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
84 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
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