Washington State Energy Profile



Washington Quick Facts

  • The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest hydroelectric power plant in the United States by generation capacity, and can provide electricity to 2.3 million households a year.
  • Washington is the top U.S. producer of electricity from hydroelectric sources and routinely accounts for 25% of the nation's annual utility-scale net hydroelectricity generation.
  • Although not a crude oil producing state, Washington has the fifth largest U.S. oil refining capacity for making petroleum products with the ability to process 638,000 barrels of oil a day at the state's five refineries. 
  • Just over one-half of Washington households rely on electricity as their primary heating fuel and one-third of households depend on natural gas.
  • Because of the relatively low operating costs of hydroelectric power generation, Washington had the nation’s second lowest average retail electricity price, after Louisiana, in 2017.

Last Updated: November 15, 2018



Data

Last Update: November 15, 2018 | Next Update: December 20, 2018

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Washington Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.4 million 2.3% 2017  
Civilian Labor Force 3.8 million 2.3% Sep-18  
Economy Washington U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 506.4 billion 13 2017  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 58,765 million 12 2017  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 56,283 10 2017  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 61,018 million miles 20 2016  
Land in Farms 14.7 million acres 18 2012  
Climate Washington U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 46.8 degrees Fahrenheit 38 2017  
Precipitation 48.6 inches 11 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 62.87 /barrel Aug-18  
Natural Gas Washington U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.36 /thousand cu ft $ 4.88 /thousand cu ft Aug-18 find more
Residential $ 15.81 /thousand cu ft $ 18.63 /thousand cu ft Aug-18 find more
Coal Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 33.72 /short ton 2017  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.05 /million Btu Aug-18  
Electricity Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.80 cents/kWh 13.30 cents/kWh Aug-18 find more
Commercial 8.67 cents/kWh 11.01 cents/kWh Aug-18 find more
Industrial 5.23 cents/kWh 7.24 cents/kWh Aug-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2016 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2016 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2016 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2017 find more
Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 633,700 barrels/calendar day 3.4% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 30,960 MW 2.8% Aug-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,008 trillion Btu 1.2% 2016 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Aug-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2017 find more
Coal -- -- 2017 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,500 thousand MWh 2.3% Aug-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Washington U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Aug-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 17.4 % 40.2 % Aug-18 find more
Coal-Fired 8.7 % 28.1 % Aug-18 find more
Nuclear 8.9 % 17.6 % Aug-18 find more
Renewables 64.4 % 13.3 % Aug-18  
Stocks Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 490 thousand barrels 3.0% Aug-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,895 thousand barrels 1.9% Aug-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 42,217 million cu ft 0.6% Aug-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Aug-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Aug-18 find more
Fueling Stations Washington Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,862 stations 1.7% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 90 stations 2.8% 2017  
Electricity 675 stations 4.3% 2017  
Ethanol 4 stations 0.1% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 18 stations 1.4% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Washington U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,058 trillion Btu 16 2016 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 283 million Btu 30 2016 find more
Total Expenditures $ 21,276 million 17 2016 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,922 40 2016 find more
by End-Use Sector Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 441 trillion Btu 2.2% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial 363 trillion Btu 2.0% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial 554 trillion Btu 1.8% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation 700 trillion Btu 2.5% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,335 million 1.8% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,218 million 1.8% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,364 million 1.4% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation $ 11,358 million 2.5% 2016 find more
by Source Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 154.7 million barrels 2.1% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 301.4 billion cu ft 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 3.2 million short tons 0.4% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 12,645 million 2.3% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,904 million 1.5% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 126 million 0.4% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Aug-18 find more
Natural Gas 11,641 million cu ft 1.0% Aug-18 find more
Coal 549 thousand short tons 0.9% Aug-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Washington U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 34.3 % 48.0 % 2017  
Fuel Oil 1.6 % 4.7 % 2017  
Electricity 56.3 % 39.0 % 2017  
Propane 3.0 % 4.7 % 2017  
Other/None 4.8 % 3.6 % 2017  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 24,702 MW 11.5% Aug-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 5,423 thousand MWh 25.3% Aug-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 554 thousand MWh 2.0% Aug-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 142 thousand MWh 2.6% Aug-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 19 thousand MWh 0.6% Aug-18  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2016  
Renewable Energy Consumption Washington U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 45.3 % 2 2016  
Ethanol Consumption 6,881 thousand barrels 19 2016  
Total Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 76.0 million metric tons 1.4% 2015  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 10,229 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2016  
Sulfur Dioxide 11 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2016  
Nitrogen Oxide 13 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2016  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 15, 2018

Overview

Washington generates more hydroelectric power than any other state.

Washington is the nation's largest producer of hydroelectric power.1 The state benefits from access to abundant and low-cost energy.2 Washington's significant renewable energy resources, especially hydroelectric power, are a major contributor to the state's energy production.3,4 The Columbia River, second in the United States to only the Mississippi River in the volume of its water flow, enters Washington near the state's northeastern corner and flows in an arc through the eastern half of the state, and forms much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon. Draining all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier, the river provides water for vast hydroelectric projects.5 The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest hydropower producer in the United States and also the nation's largest electricity generating plant of any kind when measured by capacity.6,7 Washington has produced relatively little of its fossil fuel resources. However, the state is the crude oil refining center for the Pacific Northwest.8,9,10 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass resources, and many areas of the state are favorable for wind power development.11,12

Washington's economy developed around the fishing and logging industries during the 19th century.13 The state's top industries now have expanded to include finance, real estate, information technology, and manufacturing.14,15 Washington is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and in the manufacture of aircraft and other transportation equipment.16 The transportation sector accounts for almost one-third of end-use energy consumption in the state, while the industrial sector accounts for more than one-fourth and the commercial sector accounts for almost one-fifth. The residential sector accounts for just over one-fifth of the state's end-use energy consumption, in part because Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range where the summers are cool and comparatively dry, and the winters are mild.17,18,19 Overall energy consumption in Washington is slightly below the national average on a per capita basis, and the state produces more electricity than it needs to satisfy in-state demand.20,21

Electricity

The Grand Coulee Dan in Washington is the seventh largest power plant in the world.

Washington is the top U.S. producer of hydroelectric power, and routinely contributes more than one-fourth of the nation's total net hydroelectric generation.22 Eight of the state's 10 largest power plants are hydroelectric facilities, and most of them are located on the Columbia River.23,24 One of them, the Grand Coulee Dam, is the seventh largest power plant and the sixth largest hydroelectric plant in the world.25 The dam's generators, which supply power to 11 western states, produce enough electricity to power 2.3 million households a year.26

The biggest hydroelectric facilities in Washington were built more than 60 years ago, and are among the oldest generating facilities in the nation. Those facilities were built by federal entities that continue to own or operate them.27,28,29 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations, distributes the electricity produced at the federal dams in Washington.30,31 Hydroelectric power typically accounts for about two-thirds of Washington's electricity generation, and provides lower-cost electricity to the region, compared to power prices in other states.32,33,34

Natural gas-fired power plants, the state's one nuclear power plant, wind turbines, one coal-fired power plant, and biomass-fired power facilities, account for almost all of Washington's remaining net electricity generation.35,36 The state's two largest nonhydroelectric power plants are the Centralia coal-fired power plant and the Columbia nuclear power plant.37 Centralia produced less than 5% of Washington's net generation in 2017, and both of the plant's coal-fired units are scheduled to retire, one in 2020 and the other in 2025.38 Natural gas or renewable-generated electricity is expected to replace the lost power.39,40 The Columbia nuclear power plant has been in operation since 1984 and is the state's third largest generating facility. It is located near the Columbia River in the south-central part of the state on the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site.41,42 The Columbia nuclear power plant is the third largest source of electricity in Washington, after hydroelectricity and natural gas. Wind is the fourth largest source and the state's largest source of non-hydroelectric renewable electricity.43

Washington's net electricity generation exceeds the electricity demand of the state's residential, commercial, and industrial consumers.44 Because of its significant hydroelectric generating capacity, Washington is an exporter of electricity to the Canadian power grid and supplies power to 14 other western states. Large amounts of hydroelectric power leave Washington via the Western Interconnection, which runs from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, through Washington, Oregon, and California to the northern part of Baja California, Mexico.45 Because of the relatively low operating costs of hydroelectric power generation, Washington had the nation's second lowest average retail electricity price, after Louisiana, in 2017.46 Just over half of Washington households use electricity as their primary heating source.47

Washington has collaborated with Oregon, California, and British Columbia, Canada, to create the West Coast Green Highway, an effort to promote fuel-efficient and electric-fueled vehicles.48,49 When complete, the West Coast Electric Highway, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located every 25 to 50 miles along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest, will be part of the West Coast Green Highway system that will span more than 1,300 miles from British Columbia to Baja, Mexico.50,51 As of November 2018, there were almost 850 public electric charging stations in service across Washington, with nearly 2,200 charging outlets.52

Renewable energy

Washington ranks second in the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources.

Washington ranks second in the nation, after California, in the amount of electricity generated from renewable resources.53 On average, about 80% of the state's net electricity generation originates from renewable energy, mostly hydroelectric power, and Washington produced about one-eighth of the total electricity generated nationwide from renewables in 2017.54 Some renewable resources provide energy in forms other than electricity, such as biofuels and thermal energy from the wood used in wood stoves.55 When the production of those other types of energy is included, renewable resources account for 90% of Washington's total energy production.56 Washington has two wood pellet manufacturing plants with a total production capacity of about 80,000 tons per year.57

Hydroelectric power accounts for about nine-tenths of the state's renewable power generation. Wind and biomass provide most of the rest.58 Washington is among the top 10 states in the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources other than hydropower.59 The state's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of Washington's wind resources, particularly along the Columbia Gorge, has continued. More than 1,700 turbines with about 3,100 megawatts of capacity make wind power the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable generation.60,61

Washington is also a substantial producer of electricity from wood and wood waste, as more than half of the state's land area is forested.62 Washington accounts for about 3% of the nation's net electricity generation from biomass.63,64 Despite its large biomass resource, Washington generates almost four times more electricity from wind than from biomass.65 The state has little electricity generation from solar energy, and almost all of it comes from rooftop and other small-scale solar power installations. However, the state's largest solar energy project is planned at the site of a former coal mine. The 180-megawatt solar farm is scheduled to come online in 2020.66,67

Washington has largely undeveloped low- and high-temperature geothermal resources, primarily in the Columbia Basin and in the southern Cascade Range.68,69 Although low-temperature geothermal resources do not have a large impact on the energy economy, they do have direct-use applications, such as providing heat for buildings, greenhouses, water, and geothermal heat pumps. Some of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating. More than 900 low-temperature geothermal wells have been drilled in the Columbia Basin. Undeveloped high-temperature geothermal areas in Washington's volcanic Cascade Range have an estimated electric generation potential of up to 300 megawatts, which if fully developed could produce enough electricity for about 265,000 homes.70,71

Washington has abundant wave energy and other hydrokinetic resources for generating electricity, and there are ongoing efforts to develop them.72 Wave energy generators have been tested off the state's coastline and in Puget Sound.73 Oscilla Power was awarded a $1 million grant in 2017 to design, build, and test a community-scale wave energy converter.74

Washington has several programs focused on energy independence, energy conservation, and energy efficiency. The state provides loans for the development of production and distribution facilities for biofuels created from agricultural product wastes from Washington's nearly 15 million acres of farmland and for electricity generation fueled by methane from dairy cow waste.75,76 Facilities in Washington have the capacity to produce 110 million gallons of biodiesel fuels per year.77

In 2006, Washington enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and an energy efficiency resource standard that require utilities with at least 25,000 retail customers to obtain 15% of their electricity from qualified new renewable resources by 2020 and to undertake cost-effective energy conservation. Eligible renewables that meet the RPS requirement include wind, solar, geothermal, landfill gas, wave, ocean or tidal power, methane gas from sewage treatment plants, biodiesel, biomass energy, and limited hydropower. Eligible hydropower is limited to incremental generation from efficiency improvements made after 1999.78

Petroleum

Washington has the fifth largest oil refining capacity in the nation.

Early oil exploration activity in Washington began in 1900 and was largely unsuccessful. Only small amounts of oil reserves were found, and the state has not had any oil production since the early 1960s.79 Nonetheless, Washington is a major crude oil refining center with the fifth-largest refining capacity of any state in the nation.80 The five refineries in Washington receive crude oil supplies at the state's extensive port facilities, with much of the oil coming from Alaska.81,82,83 However, Alaskan production has declined, and Washington's refineries have become increasingly dependent on crude oil from foreign suppliers, primarily Canada.84,85

Washington refineries also receive crude oil by rail from production in the Bakken shale formation in North Dakota.86,87 Market conditions and environmental concerns have halted some planned projects that would increase deliveries of crude oil by rail.88

Motor gasoline accounts for two-fifths of Washington's consumption of petroleum products, followed by distillate fuel oil, which accounts for almost one-fifth of consumption.89 The use of oxygenated motor gasoline is required throughout the state.90 Motor gasoline is produced at Washington's five oil refineries.91,92,93,94,95 The largest oil refinery in the state can process about 227,000 barrels of crude oil per day. The other four refineries each process between 41,000 and 145,000 barrels of crude oil per day.96 Most of these refineries also produce jet fuel, and Washington is among the top 10 states in the nation in jet fuel consumption.97,98 Several large U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy installations located in the state contribute to the large amount of jet fuel consumed.99

Natural gas

Canada supplies about one-third of the natural gas that enters Washington.

A small amount of natural gas was produced in south-central Washington in the mid-20th century, but there has been no production in the state since then. Exploration wells drilled in Washington resulted in the development of the state's only natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie facility, which ranks among the top 20 largest U.S. natural gas storage reservoirs.100,101 Washington has imported record amounts of natural gas in recent years. The state relies heavily on natural gas produced in Canada that is transported by pipeline to U.S. markets. About one-third of the natural gas that enters the state comes from Canada.102,103 The Sumas Center, in Canada near the border between Washington and British Columbia, is the principal natural gas trading and transportation hub for the U.S. Northwest.104 About two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Washington continues south to Oregon and other states.105 electric power sector is typically the largest natural gas-consuming sector in Washington, followed closely by the industrial sector. However, the residential sector can sometimes consume more natural gas during colder years to meet higher heating demand.106 About one-third of Washington households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel.107

Coal

Washington's recoverable coal reserves are estimated at nearly 700 million short tons,108 but the state has not produced coal since 2006, when its last coal mine closed.109,110 That mine had provided most of the coal used at the large coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington. Coal to fuel the Centralia power plant is now delivered by train from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana.111,112 A small amount of coal is also delivered to industrial facilities in the state.113

Seattle is the fifth-largest coal export center in the United States.

Coal from several western states is shipped by rail through Washington's Seattle Customs District, the fifth-largest coal export center in the nation and the largest on the U.S. West Coast.114 Coal shipments are then sent to nearby export terminals in Canada.115 Several proposals have been made for the construction of coal export terminals in Washington. However, the developer of the proposed Gateway Pacific deep-water coal export terminal at Cherry Point in Whatcom County withdrew its permit application in February 2017 following opposition to the project.116 The only other coal export terminal project under consideration is the Millennium Bulk Terminals near Longview, which would be the largest coal export terminal in North America. Up to 44 million metric tons of coal a year from mines in western states could be transported to the terminal by rail for export to Asian countries.117 Washington's Department of Ecology denied a key water quality permit for the terminal in September 2017.118 In August 2018, Washington's Pollution Control Hearings Board upheld the decision to deny the project a permit.119 The sponsors of the export terminal, who filed their initial permit applications in 2012, have sued to allow the project to proceed.120,121

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is 1 of 9 states with more than 200,000 Native American residents.122 The 29 federally recognized tribes in Washington control about 7% of the state's land area.123,124 Washington's tribal lands do not have significant fossil fuel resources.125 However, like much of Washington, the state's tribal lands are located in areas with substantial renewable resource potential.126 The 12 tribes that live on the Colville Reservation, which is the largest reservation in the state, plan to create a utility that will use distributed generation and renewable energy projects to support the tribal goals of self-reliance and environmental sustainability.127

Washington’s tribal lands have large biomass resources.

Washington tribal lands have abundant biomass resources. The Yakama and Coeur d'Alene tribal lands in Washington are among the top five reservations in the nation for potential electricity generation from solid biomass.128 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific coast has abundant woody biomass and is working toward the development of wood pellet manufacturing on the reservation.129,130 The Tulalip Tribes' power company joined with an agricultural cooperative and a nonprofit organization, founded to restore salmon habitat, to form an electric cooperative that generates electricity from the methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester. Using the manure and agricultural waste from local farms, the project reduces farm waste runoff that would otherwise enter nearby salmon streams.131,132

Land that was once part of two Washington reservations, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation, is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam.133 Potential hydropower capacity and generation on the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, is among the highest of any reservation in the nation.134 The Yakama tribe is developing electric generation projects that will use woody biomass resources and is looking into opportunities to develop its solar and wind resources as well.135,136

The greatest potential for geothermal electricity generation on the state's tribal lands is in the south-central part of Washington, but tribal lands in the northeastern and the northwestern parts of the state may also have geothermal resources.137

Endnotes

1 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.10.B.
2 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, Economy, accessed October 19, 2018.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual, 2017.
4 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P5B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Renewable and Total Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2016.
5 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed October 19, 2018.
6 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Electricity in the United States, Top 10, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities (power plants) by electricity generation capacity, Data for 2016, updated December 14, 2017.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam, accessed October 19, 2018.
8 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed October 19, 2018.
9 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, Coal, Coal in Washington, accessed October 19, 2018.
10 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, accessed October 19, 2018.
11 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Data & Tools, Biomass Maps, accessed October 19, 2018.
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Washington, Maps & Data, accessed October 19, 2018.
13 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, History, Native American Resistance and Territorial Status, accessed October 19, 2018.
14 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, Economy, accessed October 19, 2018.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington Personal Income and GDP, accessed October 19, 2018.
16 Washington Department of Commerce, Key Sectors Bring Focus to High Growth Industries, accessed October 19, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
19 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed October 19, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
21 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Washington Electricity Profile, 2016, Table 1, 2016 Summary statistics (Washington).
22 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.10.B.
23 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2016, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2016.
24 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Columbia River Basin Water Management, accessed October 22, 2018.
25 U.S. EIA, "The world's nine largest operating power plants are hydroelectric facilities," Today in Energy (October 18, 2016).
26 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts, January 2018.
27 Bonneville Power Administration, History, accessed October 22, 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, "Hydroelectric Generators Are Among the United States' Oldest Power Plants," Today in Energy (March 13, 2017).
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Washington, accessed October 22, 2018.
30 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed October 22, 2018.
31 Bonneville Power Administration, About Us, accessed October 22, 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Average Retail Price of Electricity to Residential Sector, accessed October 22, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.6.B.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual 2014-17.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual 2017.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Washington, accessed October 22, 2018.
37 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2016, Table 2B, Ten Largest Plants by Generation, 2016.
38 TransAlta USA, Centralia, accessed October 22, 2018.
39 Vartan, Starre, "Major Coal-Fired Power Plant in Washington to Go Solar," EcoWatch (June 13, 2018).
40 Caster, Peter, "TransAlta Continues with Conversion Plans Despite Veto," The Chronicle (July 13, 2017).
41 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Columbia Generating Station (updated February 10, 2017).
42 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2016, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2016.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual, 2017.
44 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
45 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, About WECC, accessed October 22, 2018.
46 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.6.B.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
48 West Coast Green Highway, Partners, accessed October 17, 2018.
49 West Coast Green Highway, Welcome to the West Coast Green Highway Website, accessed October 17, 2018.
50 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed October 17, 2018.
51 West Coast Green Highway, About West Coast Green Highway, accessed October 17, 2018.
52 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Oregon Electric, accessed October 17, 2018.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total) All solar, United States and Washington, Annual, 2017.
55 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System 2016, Production Technical Notes, Section 5. Renewable Energy and Nuclear Energy, p. 11.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2016, Washington.
57 U.S. Pellet Plants, Operational, Biomass Magazine, updated September 21, 2018.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual, 2017.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.11.B.
60 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Washington, accessed October 23, 2018.
61 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual, 2017.
62 Washington Forest Protection Association, Sustainable Forestry, Diversity of Forestland Ownership, accessed October 23, 2018.
63 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant and Biomass Power Plant Map Layers, accessed October 23, 2018.
64 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.15.B.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual, 2017.
66 Brown, Alex, "TransAlta Unveils Plans for Largest Solar Project in State at Site of Former Coal Mine," The Daily Chronicle (March 13, 2018).
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Washington, Annual, 2017.
68 Boschmann, Darrick E., Jessica L. Czajkowski, and Jeffrey D. Bowman, Geothermal Favorability Model of Washington State, Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Open File Report 2014-02, Washington State Department of Natural Resources (July 2014) p. 10.
69 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Geothermal Resources, accessed October 23, 2018.
70 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program Washington, DOE/GO-102004-2035 (February 2005).
71 Morey, Mark, "Geothermal technology picking up steam in Washington state," Yakima Herald (June 2, 2017).
72 U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Wave Energy Map, accessed October 23, 2018.
73 Kelly, Heather, "Turning ocean waves into energy," CNN (April 19, 2016).
74 Washington Department of Commerce, "Commerce awards $2.3 million for clean energy research and development," Press Release (June 20, 2017).
75 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 State Agriculture Overview, Washington, accessed October 24, 2018.
76 Washington State Department of Agriculture, WSDA Energy Freedom Program 2016 Update (December 2016).
77 "USA Plants," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 13, 2017.
78 State of Washington, Department of Commerce, Energy Independence Act (EIA or I-937), accessed October 24, 2018.
79 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, Oil and Gas in Washington accessed October 19, 2018.
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82 Washington State Department of Commerce, Petroleum Supply and Use in Washington State, An Overview of Recent Developments in the Petroleum Market (October 2013), p. 23.
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88 "Shell Calls off Oil-by-rail Project in Anacortes," The Bellingham Herald (October 6, 2016).
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90 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map (January 2018).
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92 Phillips 66, Ferndale Refinery, accessed October 19, 2018.
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95 Andeavor, Anacortes Refinery, accessed October 19, 2018.
96 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2018 (June 25, 2018), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2018, p. 20.
97 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2016.
98 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F2, Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2016.
99 MilitaryBases.com, Washington Military Bases, accessed October 19, 2018.
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103 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington, Annual, 2017.
104 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports, Point of Entry, 2017.
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107 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
108 U.S. EIA, U.S. Coal Reserves (November 2, 2018), Table 15. Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2017.
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115 Rubin, Jeff, "Canada's next salvo in the trade war should target U.S. coal shipped from Metro Vancouver," Vancouver Sun (June 28, 2018).
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120 Hale, Zack, "Judge allows federal lawsuit over Millennium coal terminal to proceed," The Daily News (May 31, 2018).
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129 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Tribal Energy Program, Projects in Washington, Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategy, September 1, 2011 through December 31, 2014, Final Report, p. 14.
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133 U.S. Government Printing Office, Senate Report 113-202, To provide for equitable compensation to the Spokane Tribe of Indians of the Spokane Reservation for the use of tribal land for the production of hydropower by the Grand Coulee Dam, and for other purposes (June 26, 2014), Background.
134 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 48.
135 University of Washington, Yakama Power Utility and Renewable Energy Projects (May 18, 2010).
136 Yakama Power, Generation, accessed October 24, 2018.
137 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 45.


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