Washington State Energy Profile



Washington Quick Facts

  • The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest hydroelectric power producer in the United States, with a total generating capacity of 6,809 megawatts.
  • In 2015, Washington was the leading producer of electricity from hydroelectric sources and accounted for 30% of the nation's utility-scale net hydroelectricity generation.
  • Although not a crude oil producing state, Washington ranked fifth in the nation in crude oil refining capacity as of January 2016.
  • Washington ranked ninth in the nation in net generation of electricity from wind energy in 2015.
  • In 2015, Washington had the lowest average residential retail electricity prices in the nation and the lowest average combined retail electricity price across all sectors.

Last Updated: November 17, 2016



Data

Last Update: September 21, 2017 | Next Update: October 19, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Washington Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.3 million 2.3% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 3.8 million 2.3% Jul-17  
Economy Washington U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 469.7 billion 14 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 58,430 million 10 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 53,493 13 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 59,653 million miles 19 2015  
Land in Farms 14.7 million acres 18 2012  
Climate Washington U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.6 degrees Fahrenheit 35 2016  
Precipitation 49.5 inches 6 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 42.19 /barrel Jun-17  
Natural Gas Washington U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.43 /thousand cu ft $ 4.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Residential $ 14.67 /thousand cu ft $ 15.98 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Coal Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.10 /million Btu Jun-17  
Electricity Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.95 cents/kWh 13.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Commercial 8.54 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Industrial 4.60 cents/kWh 7.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2015 find more
Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 935 trillion Btu 1.1% 2015 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2015 find more
Coal -- -- 2015 find more
Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 633,700 barrels/calendar day 3.4% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 31,032 MW 2.9% Jun-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 10,640 thousand MWh 3.0% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Washington U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 4.7 % 32.1 % Jun-17 find more
Coal-Fired * 30.4 % Jun-17 find more
Nuclear 2.5 % 18.8 % Jun-17 find more
Renewables 92.4 % 17.7 % Jun-17  
Stocks Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 414 thousand barrels 2.6% Jun-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,891 thousand barrels 1.6% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 40,068 million cu ft 0.6% Jun-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-17 find more
Production Facilities Washington
Major Coal Mines None find more
Petroleum Refineries BP West Coast Products (Ferndale), Phillips 66 Company (Ferndale), Shell Oil Products (Anacortes), Tesoro West Coast (Anacortes), U.S. Oil & Refining (Tacoma) find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Grand Coulee (U S Bureau of Reclamation) ; Chief Joseph (USCE-North Pacific Division) ; Transalta Centralia Generation (TransAlta Centralia Gen LLC) ; Rocky Reach (PUD No 1 of Chelan County) ; Boundary (Seattle City of)  
Nuclear Power Plants Columbia Generating Station (Energy Northwest) find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers Washington
Petroleum Ports Anacortes, Seattle, Longview, Port Angeles, Tacoma. find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs None  
Major Pipelines Washington find more
Crude Oil Kinder Morgan  
Petroleum Product Chevron Pipeline, Phillips 66 Pipeline, Enbridge  
Natural Gas Liquids None  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Northwest Pipeline Group, Transcanada - Gas Transmission NW  
Fueling Stations Washington Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,901 stations 1.7% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 90 stations 2.8% 2017  
Electricity 675 stations 4.3% 2017  
Ethanol 4 stations 0.1% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 18 stations 1.4% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Washington U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,988 trillion Btu 16 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 278 million Btu 33 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 21,798 million 18 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,044 46 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 443 trillion Btu 2.2% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 368 trillion Btu 2.0% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 555 trillion Btu 1.8% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 623 trillion Btu 2.3% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,209 million 1.7% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,243 million 1.7% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,487 million 1.3% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 11,859 million 2.3% 2015 find more
by Source Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 141.5 million barrels 2.0% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 308.0 billion cu ft 1.1% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 3.5 million short tons 0.4% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 13,145 million 2.1% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,119 million 1.5% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 146 million 0.4% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas 4,494 million cu ft 0.5% Jun-17 find more
Coal * * Jun-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Washington U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 35.0 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 2.3 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 54.3 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3.0 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 5.3 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 24,799 MW 12.2% Jun-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 9,049 thousand MWh 29.5% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 623 thousand MWh 2.3% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 162 thousand MWh 3.2% Jun-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 13 thousand MWh 0.5% Jun-17  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Washington U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 43.9 % 2 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 6,876 thousand barrels 20 2015  
Total Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 73.0 million metric tons 1.4% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 11,586 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.5% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 14 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 17, 2016

Overview

Washington has the only crude oil refining capacity in the Pacific Northwest.

Washington's economy developed around the fishing and logging industries during the 19th century.1 The state's industrial base has expanded with increased access to abundant and affordable energy.2,3 Washington's greatest energy supply comes from its significant renewable energy resources, especially hydroelectric power.4 The Columbia River, second only to the Mississippi River in the volume of its flow, enters Washington near the state's northeastern corner and flows in an arc through the eastern half of the state, before forming much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon. Draining all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier, the river provides water for some of the nation's largest hydroelectric projects.5 The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest hydropower producer in the United States. The dam's power plant is the nation's largest electricity generating facility of any kind when measured by capacity.6 Energy resources in Washington include little in the way of fossil fuels; however, the state has the only refining capacity in the Pacific Northwest.7,8,9 The climate ranges from the rainforest in the extreme western part of Washington, where the heaviest precipitation in the continental United States occurs, to near desert conditions in areas east of the Cascade Range.10 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass, and many areas of the state are conducive to wind power development.11,12

Washington is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and in the manufacture of transportation equipment, primarily aircraft.13 The industrial sector and the transportation sector each account for almost three-tenths of end-use energy consumption in the state. The residential sector accounts for less than one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption, in part because Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range, where the summers are cool and comparatively dry, and the winters are mild.14,15,16 Overall energy consumption in Washington is well below the national average on a per capita basis, and electric power generation in Washington exceeds the state's needs.17,18

Petroleum

Washington's jet fuel consumption is among the highest in the nation.

Early oil exploration activity in Washington was largely unsuccessful. Only small amounts of oil were found, and no oil production has been reported since the early 1960s.19 Nonetheless, Washington is a principal refining center with the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation.20 The five refineries in Washington receive crude oil supplies, primarily from Alaska, at the state's extensive port facilities.21,22,23 However, Alaskan production is declining, and Washington's refineries have become increasingly dependent on crude oil from other sources. In addition to imports from Canada and other countries, some refineries receive crude oil from the Bakken shale formation in North Dakota.24,25 Changing market conditions and environmental concerns have halted some planned projects that would increase deliveries of crude oil by rail from North Dakota.26

Motor gasoline accounts for nearly half of Washington's consumption of petroleum products.27 The use of oxygenated motor gasoline is required throughout the state.28 Motor gasoline is produced at all five of Washington's oil refineries.29,30,31,32,33 The largest oil refinery in the state can process about 227,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. The other four refineries each process between about 40,000 and 145,000 barrels of crude oil per day.34 Some refineries produce CARB (California Air Resources Board) motor gasoline, as well as conventional motor gasoline.35 Washington's refineries also produce jet fuel, and Washington is among the top 10 states in the nation in jet fuel consumption.36,37 Several large U.S. Air Force bases and U.S. Navy installations located in the state contribute to the considerable amount of jet fuel consumed.38

Natural gas

A small amount of natural gas was produced in south-central Washington in the mid-20th century, but there has not been any production in the state since then. Exploration wells drilled in the state have resulted in the development of Washington's only natural gas storage field.39 Because Washington has no natural gas production, the state relies heavily on natural gas produced in Canada that is transported by pipeline to U.S. markets. About two-fifths of the natural gas entering the state comes from Canada.40,41 The Sumas Center, in Canada near the border between Washington and British Columbia, is the principal natural gas trading and transportation hub for the U.S. Northwest.42 The Northwest Pipeline bidirectional system supplies natural gas from Canada, from the Rocky Mountain region, and from the San Juan Basin in the U.S. Southwest to markets in western Washington. The Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline enters the state from Idaho, bringing natural gas, primarily from Canada, to the eastern part of Washington.43,44,45 About two-thirds of the natural gas entering Washington flows south to Oregon and beyond.46

In the past, the residential sector, where more than one-third of Washington households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating, had been the leading natural gas-consuming sector in Washington, followed closely by the industrial sector.47 Since 2013, the electric power sector has consumed the largest share.48

Coal

Washington's last remaining coal mine was closed in 2006.49 The mine had provided most of the coal used at the large coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington. Fuel for the Centralia power plant is now delivered by train from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana.50,51 A small amount of coal is delivered to industrial facilities in the state.52 Western coal is shipped by rail through Washington's Seattle Customs District, the fifth-largest coal export center in the nation and the largest on the West Coast in 2015. The coal shipments are on the way to export terminals in Canada.53 Several proposals for the construction of coal export terminals in Washington have been made. Only two were still under consideration in 2015. Development of one of the two facilities was suspended in 2016 because its construction would violate a treaty between the Lummi Nation and the U.S. government.54,55

Electricity

Washington is the leading U.S. producer of hydroelectric power, routinely contributing more than one-fourth of the nation's total net hydroelectric generation.56 Eight of the state's 10 largest power plants are hydroelectric facilities, and most of them are located on the Columbia River.57,58 One of them, Grand Coulee, is the seventh largest power plant in the world and the world's sixth largest hydroelectric plant.59 The largest hydroelectric facilities in the state are, at more than 60 years of age, among the oldest generating facilities in the nation. Those facilities were built by federal entities that continue to own or operate them.60,61,62 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations, is the marketer of electricity produced at the federal dams in Washington.63,64 Hydroelectric power typically accounts for between two-thirds and four-fifths of Washington's electricity generation, providing abundant and inexpensive electricity to the region.65,66

Natural gas-fired power plants, the state's one nuclear power plant, wind turbines, a single coal-fired power plant, and, to a lesser extent, biomass, account for almost all of Washington's remaining net electricity generation.67 The state's two largest nonhydroelectric power plants by capacity are the coal-fired power plant and the nuclear generating station.68 Washington's large coal-fired power plant has two coal-fired units. However, those units are scheduled to be decommissioned, one in 2020 and the other in 2025, as part of the state's effort to reach a coal-free future for Washington.69 Conversion of the units to natural gas or construction of a new natural gas-fired power plant at the site is being considered.70,71 Nuclear power provides less than one-tenth of Washington's net electricity generation.72 The state's only nuclear power plant, the Columbia Generating Station, has been in operation since 1984. It is located near the Columbia River in the south-central part of the state on the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site.73,74

Net electricity generation usually exceeds retail electricity sales in Washington.75 Because of its significant hydroelectric generating capacity, the state is an exporter of electricity to the Canadian power grid and supplies U.S. markets as far away as California and the Southwest.76 Large amounts of hydroelectric power leave Washington via the Western Interconnection, which runs from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, through Washington and Oregon to southern California and the northern part of Baja California, Mexico. The entire system covers all or parts of 14 states.77 Because of the relatively low operating costs of hydroelectric power generation, the state has the lowest average retail electricity prices in the nation.78 More than half of all Washington households are heated with electricity.79

Renewable energy

Washington leads the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources.

Washington leads the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources. More than three-fourths of the state's net electricity generation originates from renewable resources, predominantly hydroelectric power, and, in 2015, Washington produced more than one-seventh of the electricity generated nationwide from these resources.80 Some renewable resources provide energy in forms other than electricity, such as biofuels and thermal energy from the wood used in wood stoves.81 When the production of those other types of energy are included, renewable resources account for more than nine-tenths of Washington's total overall energy production.82

Hydroelectric power provides more than two-thirds of Washington's net electricity generation and nine-tenths of the state's renewable power generation, but nonhydroelectric renewable energy sources also provide almost one-tenth of the state's total net electricity generation. Washington is among the top 10 states in the nation in electricity generation from renewable resources other than hydropower.83 More than 3,000 megawatts of installed capacity make wind energy the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable generation. 84,85 Washington's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of resources, particularly along the Columbia Gorge, a high wind resource area, has continued in recent years.86 Washington is also a substantial producer of electricity from wood and wood waste, and the state accounts for almost 3% of the nation's net electricity generation from biomass.87,88 Mountainous areas throughout the state and a major portion of the lowland areas west of the Cascades are covered by timber.89 Despite the large biomass resource, Washington generates almost four times as much electricity from wind as from biomass.90,91g

Washington has largely undeveloped low- and high-temperature geothermal resources, primarily in the Columbia Basin and in the southern Cascade Range.92 Although low-temperature geothermal resources do not support utility-scale projects, they have direct-use applications, such as providing heat for buildings, greenhouses, water, and geothermal heat pumps. Some of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating. More than 900 low-temperature geothermal wells have been drilled in the Columbia Basin. Undeveloped high-temperature geothermal areas in Washington's volcanic Cascade Range have an estimated electric potential of up to 300 megawatts. If fully developed, it is estimated that this 300-megawatt potential could produce about 2.5 billion kilowatthours of electricity per year.93

Washington has several programs focused on energy independence, energy conservation, and energy efficiency. The state provides loans for the development of production and distribution facilities for biofuels created from agricultural product wastes from Washington's almost 15 million acres of farmland and for electricity generation from anaerobic digestion.94,95 Facilities in Washington have the capacity to produce more than 100 million gallons of biodiesel fuels per year.96 The state's Energy Independence Act, enacted in 2006, seeks energy independence for Washington, and the Pacific Northwest region as a whole, through increased energy conservation and through the use of appropriately sited renewable energy projects.97 The act, which created a renewable portfolio standard and an energy efficiency resource standard, requires utilities with at least 25,000 retail customers to obtain 15% of their electricity from qualified new renewable resources by 2020 and to undertake cost-effective energy conservation.98 In 2005, Washington became the first state in the country to adopt high-performance green building standards for new state-funded buildings.99

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is 1 of 14 states with more than 100,000 Native American residents.100 The 29 federally recognized tribes in the state control about 2.5 million acres of tribal lands.101,102 Like much of Washington, tribal lands in the state are located in areas with substantial renewable resource potential.103,104 The largest reservation in the state, the Colville Reservation, is working on creating a tribal utility that will use distributed generation and renewable energy projects to support the tribal goals of self-reliance and environmental sustainability.105 Other tribes in the state share those goals.

Washington tribal lands have substantial biomass resources. The Yakama and Coeur d'Alene tribal lands of Washington are among the top five reservations in the nation in their potential for electricity generation from solid biomass.106 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific Coast has abundant woody biomass and is working toward using it for heat and energy through the development of wood pellet manufacturing on the reservation.107,108 The Tulalip Tribes power company joined with an agricultural cooperative and a nonprofit organization founded to restore salmon habitat to form an electric cooperative that generates electricity from the methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester. Using the manure and agriculture waste from local farms, the project prevents farm waste runoff from entering nearby salmon streams.109

Land that was once part of two Washington reservations, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation, is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam.110 Hydropower capacity and generation potential on the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, is among the highest of any reservation in the nation.111 The Yakama tribe is developing projects that will use woody biomass resources and is investigating opportunities to develop its solar and wind resources as well.112,113

Other renewable resource opportunities may exist on Washington's tribal lands. The greatest potential for significant geothermal electricity generation on the state's tribal lands is in the south-central part of Washington, but tribal lands in the northeastern and the northwestern parts of the state may also have geothermal resources.114

Endnotes

1 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, History, accessed October 11, 2016.
2 Infoplease Encyclopedia, Washington, Economy, accessed October 11, 2016.
3 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Washington, 2014.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
5 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed October 11, 2016.
6 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Electricity in the United States Top 10, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities by annual net electricity generation, Largest U.S. electricity generation facilities by electricity generation capacity (2014 final data).
7 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed October 11, 2016.
8 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, accessed October 11, 2016.
9 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, accessed October 11, 2016.
10 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed October 11, 2016.
11 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools, Biomass Maps, accessed October 11, 2016.
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Washington Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, accessed October 11, 2016.
13 Washington Forest Protection Association, Forest Products, Forest Products Industry Has National and Regional Impact, accessed October 11, 2016.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014; Washington Tables CT3, CT4, CT5, CT6, CT7, CT8.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
16 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed October 11, 2016.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
18 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2014, Table 1, 2014 Summary statistics (Washington).
19 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, Oil and Gas in Washington accessed October 13, 2016.
20 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity as of January 1, 2016.
21 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2016.
22 Washington State Department of Commerce, Petroleum Supply and Use in Washington State, An Overview of Recent Developments in the Petroleum Market (October 2013), p. 23.
23 Washington Ports, Trade Statistics, accessed October 25, 2016.
24 Learn, Scott, "Oil trains—pipelines on wheels—headed to Northwest terminals and refineries from North Dakota fracking," OregonLive (May 13, 2013).
25 de Place, Eric, The Northwest's Pipeline on Rails, Sightline Institute (July 6, 2015), p. 4-5.
26 "Shell Calls off Oil-by-rail Project in Anacortes," The Bellingham Herald (October 6, 2016).
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
28 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map (June 2015).
29 BP United States, Cherry Point Refinery, accessed October 13, 2016.
30 Phillips 66, Ferndale Refinery, accessed October 13, 2016.
31 Shell United States, About Shell Puget Sound Refinery, accessed October 13, 2016.
32 U.S. Oil & Refining Co., Company History, accessed October 13, 2016.
33 Tesoro, Anacortes Refinery, accessed October 13, 2016.
34 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2016 (June 22, 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016, p. 23.
35 Tesoro, Anacortes Refinery, accessed October 13, 2016.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F2, Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2014.
38 Globemaster, US Military Aviation, Airbases, Washington State, accessed October 13, 2016.
39 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, Oil and Gas in Washington accessed October 13, 2016.
40 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports by State, Import Volume, Annual, accessed October 17, 2016.
41 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington, Annual, accessed October 17, 2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Office of Oil and Gas, Natural Gas Market Centers: A 2008 Update (April 2009), p. 3, 11.
43 Williams, West Operations, Northwest Pipeline, accessed October 17, 2016.
44 TransCanada, About Gas Transmission Northwest LLC, accessed October 17, 2016.
45 TransCanada, GTN System Maps, accessed October 17, 2016.
46 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington, Annual, accessed October 17, 2016.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Washington, Annual, accessed October 17, 2016.
49 Bernton, Hal, "State's last coal mine shuts; Centralia hit hard," The Seattle Times (December 1, 2006).
50 "Centralia Power Plant New CCGT Unit, WA, United States of America," power-technology.com, accessed October 17, 2016.
51 TransAlta, Centralia, accessed October 17, 2016.
52 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2014 (April 2016), Washington, Table DS-45, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2014, p. 97.
53 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2015 (August 2016), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, p. 19.
54 Krieger, Emily, and Thomas Webler, Coal in Washington State: Past, Present, and Future, Energy Transitions Laboratory, Western Washington University (August 2015), p. 9, 17-20.
55 State of Washington Department of Ecology, Gateway Pacific Terminal at Cherry Point Proposal, accessed October 17, 2016.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 1.10.B.
57 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2014, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2014.
58 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Columbia River Basin Water Management, accessed October 17, 2016.
59 U.S. EIA, "The world's nine largest operating power plants are hydroelectric facilities," Today in Energy (October 18, 2016).
60 Bonneville Power Administration, About BPA, A History of Service, accessed October 17, 2016.
61 U.S. EIA, "Hydropower has a long history in the United States," Today in Energy (July 8, 2011).
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), accessed October 17, 2016.
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed October 18, 2016.
64 Bonneville Power Administration, History, accessed October 18, 2016.
65 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B; (February 2012, February 2013, February 2014, February 2015), Tables 1.6.B, 1.13.B.
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 5.6.B.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
68 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2014, Table 2, Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2014.
69 NW Energy Coalition, "Legislature passes landmark legislation to transition Washington off polluting coal-fired power," Press Release (April 21, 2011).
70 Trans Alta USA, Centralia (updated February 12, 2016).
71 Trans Alta USA, "$55 Million Community Development, Energy Efficiency Investment Moving Ahead," Press Release (July 30, 2015).
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
73 U.S. EIA, Washington Nuclear Profile 2010 (April 26, 2012).
74 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Columbia Generating Station (Updated April 4, 2016).
75 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2014, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2014.
76 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts (April 2015).
77 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, 2015 State of the Interconnection, Reliability (2015), Introduction.
78 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 5.6.B.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System 2014, Production Technical Notes, p. 11.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System 2014, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2014.
83 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.11.B.
84 American Wind Energy Association, Washington Wind Energy, accessed October 19, 2016.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
86 American Wind Energy Association, Washington Wind Energy, accessed October 19, 2016.
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