Washington State Energy Profile



Washington Quick Facts

  • The Grand Coulee Dam on Washington's Columbia River is the largest power plant by generation capacity in the United States, and the seventh-largest hydropower plant in the world. It can provide 4.2 million households with electricity for one year.
  • Washington generated the most electricity from hydropower of any state and accounted for 24% of the nation's annual utility-scale hydroelectricity generation in 2019.
  • Although not a crude oil producing state, Washington has the fifth-largest crude oil refining capacity in the nation and can process almost 652,000 barrels of crude oil per day at the state's five refineries. 
  • In 2019, Washington had the fourth-lowest average electricity retail prices in the nation, and 56% of the state's households used electricity as their primary home heating fuel.
  • In 2018, Washington consumed more natural gas than about two-fifths of the states, but used less per capita than all but four other states. The largest share of the state's natural gas comes from Canada, either directly or through the state of Idaho.

Last Updated: January 21, 2021



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Washington Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.7 million 2.3% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.9 million 2.4% Feb-21  
Economy Washington U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 599.6 billion 10 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 65,458 million 10 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 68,322 7 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 62,530 million miles 20 2019  
Land in Farms 14.7 million acres 19 2017  
Climate Washington U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.0 degrees Fahrenheit 35 2020  
Precipitation 44.9 inches 17 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas Washington U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential NA $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity Washington U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 9.76 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 9.01 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 5.36 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 651,700 barrels/calendar day 3.4% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 30,670 MW 2.7% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,040 trillion Btu 1.1% 2018 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 10,574 thousand MWh 3.0% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Washington U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 10.3 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 3.4 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 8.2 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 77.9 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 782 thousand barrels 4.8% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,383 thousand barrels 1.8% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 40,262 million cu ft 0.6% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 96 thousand barrels 0.4% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations Washington Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,896 stations 1.7% 2018  
Propane 81 stations 3.0% 2021  
Electricity 1,429 stations 3.5% 2021  
E85 3 stations 0.1% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 10 stations 0.8% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Washington U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,079 trillion Btu 16 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 276 million Btu 32 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 26,321 million 17 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,498 40 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 479 trillion Btu 2.2% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 377 trillion Btu 2.0% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 543 trillion Btu 1.7% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 680 trillion Btu 2.4% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,747 million 1.8% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,482 million 1.8% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,623 million 1.2% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 15,470 million 2.6% 2018 find more
by Source Washington Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 152 million barrels 2.0% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 348 billion cu ft 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 5 million short tons 0.8% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 17,218 million 2.3% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,033 million 1.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 189 million 0.7% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 1 thousand barrels 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 8,234 million cu ft 0.9% Jan-21 find more
Coal 241 thousand short tons 0.5% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Washington U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 34.2 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 1.6 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 56.3 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.0 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 4.9 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 25,128 MW 9.5% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 7,511 thousand MWh 28.7% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 599 thousand MWh 1.6% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 126 thousand MWh 2.6% Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 10 thousand MWh 0.4% Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Washington U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 46.0 % 2 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 7,353 thousand barrels 17 2019  
Total Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 78.0 million metric tons 1.5% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Washington Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 14,628 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 19 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 16 thousand metric tons 1.2% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: January 21, 2021

Overview

Washington generates more hydroelectric power than any other state.

Washington benefits from access to abundant low-cost energy, and its significant renewable energy resources, especially hydroelectric power, are major contributors to the state's economy.1,2,3 Washington is the nation's largest producer of hydroelectric power and is home to one of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the world.4,5 The Columbia River, second only to the Mississippi in volume of water flow among the nation's rivers, enters Washington near the state's northeastern corner and flows in an arc through the eastern half of the state. It forms much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon and drains all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier.6 The river provides water for vast hydroelectric projects including the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest hydropower producer in the United States.7 The state's climate ranges from the rainforest in the extreme western part of Washington, where the heaviest precipitation in the continental United States occurs, to near desert conditions in areas east of the Cascade Range.8 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass resources, and many areas of the state are conducive to wind power development.9,10 The state has few fossil fuel resources, but it has the only crude oil refining capacity in the Pacific Northwest.11,12,13 Washington also is the only Pacific state other than California that generates nuclear power.14

Washington's economy developed around logging, fishing, and agriculture.15 Today the state's top industries include: real estate; information and information technology; manufacturing, particularly of transportation equipment; and professional, scientific, and technical services.16 Washington is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and in the aerospace industry, including the manufacture of aircraft.17 The transportation sector accounts for about one-third of end-use energy consumption in the state, while the industrial sector accounts for more than one-fourth, and the commercial sector accounts for almost one-fifth. Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range where the summers are cool and comparatively dry and the winters are mild.18,19 The residential sector accounts for almost one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption.20,21 Overall, Washington consumes twice as much energy as it produces, but its per capita energy consumption is less than in three-fifths of the states.22,23

Electricity

The Grand Coulee Dam in Washington is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world.

Washington usually contributes more than one-fourth of all conventional hydroelectric generation in the nation, but, in part because of drought, Washington contributed slightly less in 2019.24,25 Eight of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity are hydroelectric facilities.26 Most of those are located on the Columbia River, and one of them, the Grand Coulee Dam, is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world.27,28 That dam's generators supply power to 11 western states and Canada. That dam typically produces more than 21 million megawatthours of electricity each year.29 However, in part because of regional drought, it produced less than 17 million megawatthours of electricity in 2019.30,31 The second-largest power plant in the state—Chief Joseph—is also a hydroelectric facility. Both of those power plants began to produce power more than 60 years ago. They were built by federal entities that continue to own and operate them.32 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations in the nation, distributes the electricity produced at federal dams in Washington.33,34

Hydroelectric power typically accounts for more than two-thirds of Washington's electricity generation. But, in 2019, hydropower accounted for only 62% of the state's net generation, the smallest share of state generation in at least 30 years.35 Natural gas, nuclear energy, nonhydroelectric renewable resources, and coal fueled almost all the rest. Natural gas was the second-largest source of in-state net generation. In 2019, it fueled about 15% of state generation, which was an increase from 9% the previous year.36 Nuclear power supplied about 8% of the state's net generation in 2019. The Columbia nuclear plant, one of the state's two largest nonhydroelectric power plants, has been in operation since 1984. It is located near the Columbia River in south-central Washington.37 Although it is the state's fifth-largest power plant by capacity, the Columbia nuclear plant is the state's third-largest provider of power, after hydroelectricity and natural gas. Renewable resources other than hydroelectric power accounted for almost 8% of state generation in 2019. Wind accounted for about four-fifths of the state's nonhydroelectric renewable electricity and biomass fueled almost all the rest.38 Most of the rest of the electricity generated in Washington is fueled by coal, and all of it comes from one plant. The TransAlta Centralia coal-fired power plant, the state's third-largest by capacity, produced less than 7% of Washington's net generation in 2019.39,40 One of Centralia's two coal-fired units was retired on the last day of 2020 and the other is scheduled for retirement in 2025.41 Washington's net generation exceeds state electricity demand and the excess power is sent to the Western Interconnection, a regional grid that ranges from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, to the northern part of Baja California, Mexico, as well as across all or parts of 14 western states.42,43

In part because of the relatively low operating costs of hydroelectric power generation, Washington had the nation's fourth-lowest average electricity retail price in 2019. Only Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Idaho had lower average prices.44 About two-fifths of retail sales of electricity in the state go to the residential sector, where almost three in five households use electricity as their primary heating source.45 The commercial sector accounts for nearly one-third of electricity retail sales and the industrial sector accounts for almost three-tenths. A small amount of the state's sales is to the transportation sector.46 Washington is part of the West Coast Electric Highway, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest, and is part of the West Coast Green Highway that extends from Canada to Mexico.47 As of December 2020, there were more than 1,100 public electric charging stations with more than 3,300 charging outlets in service across Washington.48

Renewable energy

In 2019, Washington produced about one-tenth of the total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity nationwide.

Washington led the nation in utility-scale (1-megawatt or larger) electricity generation from renewable resources in 2018, and was third in the nation, after California and Texas, in 2019.49 The change primarily was the result of decreased hydroelectric generation in Washington coupled with increased renewable generation in both California and Texas.50 Typically, more than three-fourths of the state's net generation originates from renewable energy, mostly hydroelectric power. In 2019, Washington produced about one-tenth of the total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity nationwide.51,52 Hydroelectric power accounted for almost nine-tenths of the state's renewable power generation, and wind provided most of the rest.53 Some renewable energy resources are used directly, such as biofuels in transportation and thermal energy for space and water heating. About 4% of the state's households heat with wood.54 When thermal and biofuel energy are included, renewable resources account for 90% of Washington's total energy production.55

Washington's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of the state's wind resources, particularly along the Columbia Gorge, has continued. More than 1,700 wind turbines with about 3,100 megawatts of capacity make wind power the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable generation.56,57 The state's largest wind farm is along the Snake River in southeastern Washington. It came online in 2012 and can produce up to about 343 megawatts of power.58 Wind's share of the state's total net generation is variable, but it has contributed 6% or more since 2013.59

Biomass accounted for 1.5% of Washington's net generation in 2019, but that was almost 3% of the nation's total net generation from biomass.60 About half of the state's land area is forested, and the main sources of biomass used to fuel electricity generation in Washington are wood and wood waste.61,62 The state also has two wood pellet manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of about 90,000 tons per year.63

Only a small amount of electricity is generated from solar energy in Washington. Almost all of it comes from rooftop and other small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) solar photovoltaic (PV) power installations.64 One of the state's wind farms has an associated 0.5-megawatt solar array that came online in 2007, but Washington's first utility-scale solar PV project came online in 2018.65 A 180-megawatt solar farm has been proposed that would be built on the site of the state's last coal mine, which closed in 2006.66

Washington has several biogas and biofuel projects. Anaerobic digesters in the state are used to capture methane from dairy cow waste to fuel electricity generation.67 Two facilities in Washington have the capacity to produce 114 million gallons of biodiesel fuels per year, about one-fifth of the state's annual consumption.68,69 At least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in the state must be biodiesel.70 There are no commercial fuel ethanol producers in Washington.71 However, the use of oxygenated motor gasoline blended with fuel ethanol is required throughout the state.72

Although Washington doesn't generate electricity from geothermal sources, those resources are used to provide heat. Hundreds of low-temperature geothermal wells have been drilled in the state. Some of the state's geothermal resources are used to heat buildings, greenhouses, and water. Several of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating.73

Washington's Energy Independence Act, enacted in 2006, established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and an energy efficiency resource standard. Utilities with at least 25,000 retail customers were required to obtain at least 15% of their electricity from qualified new renewable resources by 2020 and to undertake cost-effective energy conservation.74 In 2019, Washington updated its RPS and required utilities to eliminate electricity generation from fossil fuels. All electricity sales must be from renewables or non-emitting sources by 2045.75

Petroleum

Washington has the fifth-largest oil refining capacity in the nation.

Washington does not have any crude oil reserves or production.76 Early oil exploration activities in Washington began in 1900 and were largely unsuccessful. Only small amounts of oil were found, and the state has not produced oil since the early 1960s.77 Nonetheless, Washington is a major crude oil refining center with the fifth-largest refining capacity of any state in the nation.78 Each of the five refineries in Washington receive crude oil supplies at the state's extensive port facilities.79 Crude oil is delivered to some refineries by pipeline from Canada.80 Domestic and foreign crude oils, primarily from Canada, North Dakota, and Alaska, are processed at the state's refineries.81,82 Collectively, Washington's oil refineries can process about 650,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. The largest refinery can process about 242,000 barrels of crude oil per day.83 That refinery is also capable of manufacturing diesel from biomass-based feedstocks.84

Washington's per capita consumption of petroleum is less than in half of the other states.85 The transportation sector accounts for about four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state. Motor gasoline, which is produced at all five of the state's refineries, accounts for half of Washington's petroleum product consumption, and distillate fuel oil accounts for one-fifth.86,87 Washington is also among the top 10 states in the nation in jet fuel consumption.88 Several large U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy installations located in the state contribute to the substantial amount of jet fuel consumed.89 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in the state and uses about 16%.90 The commercial sector uses less than 3%, and the residential sector, where about 1 in 20 households heat with petroleum products, accounts for less than 2% of state petroleum consumption.91,92

Natural gas

Washington has no natural gas reserves or production.93 Several wells were drilled in Washington in the first 60 years of the 20th century, but there was no significant natural gas production. However, exploration wells drilled in Washington resulted in the development of the state's only natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie Gas Storage Facility, the 14th-largest natural gas storage reservoir in the nation.94,95

Canada supplies most of the natural gas that enters Washington.

Washington relies on natural gas produced in Canada. About three-tenths of the natural gas that enters the state comes directly from Canada, and almost all the rest comes from Canada by way of Idaho.96 The Sumas Center in Canada near the border between Washington and British Columbia is a major natural gas trading and transportation hub for the U.S. Northwest.97 Nearly two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Washington continues south to Oregon and most of that continues on to California.98

In 2018, Washington consumed more natural gas than about two-fifths of the states, but used less per capita than all but four other states.99 In 2019, natural gas use in all sectors increased and the electric power sector became the largest natural gas consumer in the state for the first time. Almost one-third of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state was used for power generation in 2019. The residential sector, where more than one-third of households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, was the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector and accounted for more than one-fourth of deliveries.100 The industrial sector followed and used almost one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to consumers. Industry has used relatively level amounts of natural gas each year for more than a decade.101 The commercial sector consumed most of the rest, and a small amount of natural gas was used as vehicle fuel.102

Coal

Although Washington has nearly 700 million tons of recoverable coal reserves, there are no longer any active coal mines in the state.103 The last coal mine closed in 2006. That mine had provided most of the coal used at the state's only coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington. Currently, coal from the Powder River Basin supplies the Centralia power plant, but the last coal-fired unit there will be retired by 2025.104,105 A small amount of coal is delivered to industrial facilities in the state.106 Coal from several western states is shipped by rail through Washington's Seattle Customs District. Seattle is among the top five coal export centers in the nation, and it is the largest on the U.S. West Coast.107 Coal shipments are sent from Seattle to nearby export terminals in Canada for shipment overseas.108

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is one of only seven states with more than 200,000 Native American residents, and Native Americans make up almost 3% of the state's population.109 The 29 federally recognized tribes in Washington control almost 6% of the state's land area.110,111,112 Washington's tribal lands do not have significant fossil fuel resources.113 However, several of the state's tribal lands are located in areas with substantial renewable resources.114

Washington’s tribal lands have large biomass resources.

The tribal lands in western Washington have abundant biomass resources. The 12 tribes on the Colville Reservation and those on the Yakama Reservation—the two largest reservations in the state—have substantial forestry industries.115,116 However, the increase in wildfires in recent years has threatened the reservations' commercial timberlands.117,118 The Yakama and Coeur d'Alene tribal lands in Washington are also among the top five reservations in the nation for potential electricity generation from biomass.119 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific coast has abundant woody biomass, and has completed feasibility and engineering studies to develop a wood pellet manufacturing facility on the reservation.120 In 2008, the Tulalip Tribes' power company, an agricultural cooperative, and a salmon habitat restoration organization formed an electric cooperative to generate electricity from the methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester. The project uses manure and agricultural waste from local farms to reduce runoff that would otherwise enter nearby salmon streams.121,122

Some of Washington's hydroelectric power potential is on tribal land. Historically, land that was once part of two Washington reservations—the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation—was taken for what is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam.123 Potential hydropower capacity on the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, is among the highest of any reservation in the nation.124 The Yakama tribe is developing electric generation projects that will use solar and woody biomass resources and is exploring opportunities to develop its wind resources as well.125 Yakama Power, a tribal-owned utility, has worked toward acquisition of ownership interests in transmission facilities that serve the reservation.126

There are additional renewable resources on Washington's tribal lands. The Spokane Nation of eastern Washington is developing its solar resources. The tribe has constructed a 643-kilowatt community solar facility and has plans to construct a 100-megawatt solar facility within the next four years.127 The greatest potential for geothermal electricity generation on the state's tribal lands is in south-central Washington, but tribal lands in the eastern part of the state also have large areas with geothermal resource potential.128,129

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity Data Browser, Average retail price of electricity, All sectors, Washington, Annual, 2001-19.
2 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
3 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P5B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Renewable and Total Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2018.
4 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Conventional hydroelectric, All states, Annual, 2001-19.
5 "The 10 biggest hydroelectric power plants in the world," Power Technology, updated July 27, 2020.
6 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed December 15, 2020.
7 U.S. EIA, "The Columbia River Basin provides more than 40% of total U.S. hydroelectric generation," Today in Energy (June 27, 2014).
8 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed December 15, 2020.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, accessed December 15, 2020.
10 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Washington 80-Meter Wind Resource Map (October 5, 2010).
11 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed December 15, 2020.
12 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, Coal, Coal in Washington, accessed December 15, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2020.
14 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, updated March 19, 2020.
15 Washington State Department of Commerce, Choose Washington, A brief history of Washington's economy, accessed December 15, 2020.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Washington, All statistics in table, 2019.
17 Washington Department of Commerce, Key Industries in Washington, Key Sectors Bring Focus to High Growth Industries, accessed December 15, 2020.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
19 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Western Washington, accessed December 15, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation, Hydroelectric Power, United States, Washington, Annual, 2001-19.
24 Drought.Gov, Drought in Washington, 2000-2021, accessed January 11, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019, Washington.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 2, 'Plant Data'.
27 "The 10 biggest hydroelectric power plants in the world," Power Technology, updated July 27, 2020.
28 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts, revised February 2019.
29 National Integrated Drought Information System, Pacific Northwest Drought Early Warning System, accessed December 29, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Plant Level Data, Grand Coulee, Annual, 2001-19.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
32 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed December 15, 2020.
33 Bonneville Power Administration, BPA Facts, DOE/BP-4998, updated October 2020.
34 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-19.
36 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Columbia Generating Station, updated October 17, 2018.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-19.
38 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2019, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, All fuels, Nuclear, Coal, Annual, 2001-19.
40 Fitzgerald, Celene, "TransAlta Retires One of Two Coal-Burning Units," The Daily Chronicle (January 8, 2021)..
41 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
42 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, About, accessed December 17, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average retail price of electricity, All sectors, All states, Annual, 2019.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Washington, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2019.
46 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed December 17, 2020.
47 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Washington, accessed December 17, 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Texas, California, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Annual, 2018-19.
50 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2019.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
54 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018, Washington.
55 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Washington, accessed December 18, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed December 18, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Wind Technology Data' (Operable Units Only).
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Annual, 2001-19.
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Washington, All fuels, Biomass, Annual, 2001-19.
60 Washington Forest Protection Association, Forest Facts & Figures, accessed December 18, 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
62 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, September 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-19.
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