US Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile



US Virgin Islands Quick Facts

  • The U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority plans to increase propane use at its electric generating facilities to reduce its imported fuel costs and CO2 emissions.
  • The average price of electricity paid by U.S. Virgin Island consumers is typically about three times higher than the average power price in the 50 U.S. states.
  • The USVI has a goal to reduce its petroleum use by 60% from nearly 2.5 million barrels per year in 2008 to less than 1 million barrels per year by 2025.
  • During the September 2017 hurricanes, 80% to 90% of the U.S. Virgin Islands' transmission and distribution systems were damaged or destroyed.
  • The USVI Legislature requires renewable energy sources to fuel 30% of USVI's peak demand electric generating capacity by 2025;  about 20% of the island's generation capacity is  already derived from solar.

Last Updated: October 18, 2018



Data

Last Update: October 18, 2018 | Next Update: November 15, 2018

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry US Virgin Islands United States Period
Population 0.1 million 325.7 million 2017  
Gross Domestic Product $ 4 billion $ 18,121 billion 2015  
Prices  
Electricity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Residential NA 13.12 cents/kWh Jul-18  
Commercial NA 10.98 cents/kWh Jul-18  
Industrial NA 7.34 cents/kWh Jul-18  
Reserves  
Reserves US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels NA 2018  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 322 trillion cu ft 2017  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 254,896 million short tons 2015  
Capacity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,064 million kW 2015  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,718 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 11,318 thousand short tons 2015  
Total Exports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 1,784 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 73,958 thousand short tons 2015  
Supply  
Production US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy 0 trillion Btu 84 trillion Btu 2015  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 14,461 thousand barrels/day 2017  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 896,941 thousand short tons 2015  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 67 billion kWh 2015  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 2,727 billion kWh 2015  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources 0 billion kWh 544 billion kWh 2015  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 249 billion kWh 2015  
    »  Other Renewables 0 billion kWh 295 billion kWh 2015  
Consumption  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 93 trillion Btu 2015  
Total Petroleum Products 20.0 thousand barrels/day 19,687.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Motor Gasoline 6.5 thousand barrels/day 9,317.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Distillate Fuel 4.2 thousand barrels/day 3,877.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1.4 thousand barrels/day 1,340.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Jet Fuel 1.7 thousand barrels/day 1,614.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Kerosene * 9 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Residual Fuel * 326 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Other Petroleum Products 6 thousand barrels/day 3,204 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 27,244 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 798,115 thousand short tons 2015  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels 16 million metric tons 5,269 million metric tons 2015  
Petroleum 16 million metric tons 2,295 million metric tons 2015  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,488 million metric tons 2015  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,485 million metric tons 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 18, 2018

Overview

The U.S. Virgin Islands is shifting from fuel oil to propane to generate electricity and produce public drinking water.

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), part of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, is a U.S. territory located in the Caribbean Sea, about 600 miles southeast of Miami, Florida.1 The USVI has no fossil energy resources,2 but does have some renewable resources, particularly solar energy.3 The USVI imports petroleum products to meet most of its energy needs, including the fuel to operate vehicles and boats, generate electricity, and run the ocean water desalination plants that produce its public water supply.4

The USVI has a total area of 134 square miles, about twice the size of Washington, DC. The islands are hilly and forested. With limited land suitable for farming, most food is imported.5 The largest island is St. Croix. It lies about 40 miles south of the three other inhabited islands: St. John, St. Thomas, and Water Island. Located between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to the west and the British Virgin Islands to the east,6 the USVI has a subtropical climate with easterly trade winds and little seasonal variation in its warm temperatures. The Caribbean hurricane season, which runs from June to November, sometimes brings destructive storms.7 On average, a hurricane passes near the USVI about every three years, and one directly hits the islands about every eight years. In September 2017, the UVSI was struck by two back-to-back storms, Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which were both category 5 hurricanes with sustained winds of more than 156 miles per hour.8 The hurricanes significantly damaged most of the USVI's electric distribution and transmission lines and also damaged several power generating facilities.9

The territory's population was estimated at about 107,000 in 2017.10 Most of the USVI's population is evenly divided between St. Thomas and St. Croix; fewer than 5,000 people live on St. John and Water Island.11 Tourism, trade, and service industries account for about three-fifths of the USVI's gross domestic product (GDP), and government accounts for about one-fifth. In the industrial sector, manufacturing was second only to tourism in economic importance until the February 2012 closure of the Hovensa crude oil refinery on St. Croix. Tourism remains the leading industry, and manufacturing is now focused on rum distilling, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.12,13 The USVI's economy is typically about six times more energy-intensive than the U.S. economy,14,15 and per capita energy consumption is usually about seven times higher than the average in the states.16

Petroleum

The USVI has no known crude oil reserves and does not produce crude oil,17 although a recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered crude oil resources in a subsea formation south of the islands.18 The Hovensa petroleum refinery on St. Croix, once one of the 10 largest crude oil refineries in the world, was a substantial part of the USVI's economy and provided most of the islands' petroleum products until it was shut down in February 2012.19 The owners of the idled refinery announced in 2018 they plan to invest $1.4 billion into the plant and restart a portion of the refinery.20 Since the closure, refined petroleum products are imported primarily through the port of Christiansted on St. Croix. Major supply sources include nations in the Caribbean Basin.21,22

About 40% of all petroleum products in the USVI are consumed in the transportation sector, mostly in the form of gasoline and jet fuel. Diesel fuel, propane, and residual fuel oil used for electricity generation and drinkable water production account for about 30% of the island's petroleum use, while other refined products make up the remaining 30% of petroleum consumption.23 The USVI's government set a goal to reduce petroleum use by 60% from nearly 2.5 million barrels per year in 2008 to less than 1 million barrels per year by 2025.24 The electric and water utility began a $150 million project to enable use of propane in its generators.25,26,27,28,29,30 Fuel oil was the main energy source for generating electricity in the USVI in 2017 and 2018, but some propane was also used.31

Electricity

The USVI has two separate island grids that must each maintain generation backup and reserves.

The USVI has two separate electricity grids, each with its own generation, managed by the Water and Power Authority (WAPA), an independent governmental agency. Generating units include combustion and steam turbines powered with fuel oil or propane, as well as some solar photovoltaic (PV) resources owned by independent power producers (IPPs) and residents. The St. Thomas system, with about 138 megawatts of generating capacity, supplies electricity to nearby St. John and Water Island by underwater cable. The St. Croix system, with about 100 megawatts of capacity, is separated from the St. Thomas system by 40 miles of ocean, so each system serves its own grid. Average loads are less than half of the systems' capacities, because both isolated systems maintain their own generation backup and reserves. Seabed depth makes any potential electrical connection between the St. Thomas and St. Croix systems difficult. During the September 2017 hurricanes, 80% to 90% of the USVI's transmission and distribution systems were damaged or destroyed.32,33,34

Historically, all electricity generation on the islands was fueled with imported petroleum. In recent years, fuel surcharges for diesel and residual fuel oil resulted in USVI electricity rates up to five times higher than the U.S. average price for electricity.35,36,37 The electricity rate in mid-2018 was three times higher in the USVI than the average U.S. rate.38,39 After petroleum prices increased in 2008, WAPA explored conversion of its generating facilities to imported liquefied natural gas (LNG),40 but in 2013 the utility opted to build less expensive shipping and storage facilities needed to fuel its generators with propane.41 The turbine conversions for the project have given WAPA's generators fuel flexibility, and allows them to burn propane, fuel oil, or natural gas.42 In late 2016, WAPA completed conversion of the main generating units on St. Croix,43 but decided some generators in the St. Thomas plant needed replacement.44,45 Propane is expected to cut generating plant emissions up to 20% and help the USVI meet clean air standards, and enable WAPA to cut future fuel surcharges by 30%.46,47,48

About one-third of WAPA's electricity is typically consumed by the residential sector, and another one-third is consumed by large commercial power users like hotels. Nearly one-sixth of electricity goes to large industrial users such as distilleries and ports.49 Average USVI household monthly electricity consumption is roughly half the U.S. average. WAPA plans to achieve nearly two-fifths of its share of fossil fuel reductions needed to meet the USVI government's 60% petroleum reduction target through improved efficiency in electricity generation and consumption.50,51 Waste heat recovery and other efficiency improvements have been installed in WAPA generators,52 government buildings have been retrofitted to save energy, street light bulbs are being switched to energy-saving light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs, and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) has been installed throughout the electricity distribution system.53,54

Renewable energy

The USVI government's goal to reduce fossil fuel use led the government to work with U.S. federal agencies and local industries to take advantage of the islands' substantial renewable energy potential, including solar, wind, and biomass technologies such as waste-to-energy and landfill gas.55,56 In 2009, the USVI's legislature voted to require that 30% of WAPA's peak demand generating capacity be from renewable sources by 2025, and increase thereafter until a majority of capacity is renewables-sourced.57,58 In 2018, the USVI could derive up to 20% of its electric generation capacity from renewables, with about one-third of that capacity coming from large installed solar energy facilities and the other two-thirds coming from the net metering of surplus power supplied to the grid by small rooftop solar panels.59

Solar panels on consumer rooftops can provide up to 15 megawatts of the USVI’s distributed generation capacity.

The USVI has strong solar power potential on all its islands and has installed approximately 8.2 megawatts of large scale solar power generation capacity.60,61 The USVI's first large solar facility was a 450-kilowatt, 1,800-panel array at King Airport on St. Thomas installed in 2011.62 The largest solar facilities are Estate Donoe on St. Thomas, inaugurated in 2015,63,64 and Estate Spanish Town, which opened on St. Croix in 2014. Each has more than 4 megawatts of capacity.65,66 Those projects are run by independent power producers (IPPs). During the September 2017 hurricanes, the Estate Spanish Town solar facility was damaged, but in August 2018 the new owner of the facility announced it would be restored.67 Other solar facilities are under construction or planned.68,69,70 The University of the Virgin Islands plans to construct a 3.3-megawatt solar PV system.71,72,73 In addition, distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar generation on consumer rooftops provided about 15 megawatts of generating capability from net metering in 2018.74,75,76 Because of concerns about grid stability with variable renewables, the USVI's net metering law currently caps total net metered connections at 10 megawatts on the St. Thomas grid and 5 megawatts on the St. Croix system.77 The USVI's government also provides rebates for residential solar water heaters.78 Solar water heaters are required in all new construction and in major renovations.79

The USVI has some commercial wind energy potential.80,81 The most promising locations for utility-scale wind projects are on high ridges and exposed capes.82 Wind speeds were found suitable for commercial-scale turbines at sites around Longford on St. Croix and the Bovoni Peninsula on St. Thomas.83 WAPA is considering a 10-megawatt wind energy farm on St. Thomas, which would be the first large-scale wind project in the USVI.84 In 2018, legislation was introduced in the U.S. Congress that would authorize wind energy development off the coasts of all five U.S. territories. Under the legislation, the U.S. Interior Department's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management would lease offshore tracts, where feasible, to energy companies for building wind turbines.85

The USVI also has renewable potential in waste-to-energy, landfill gas, and biomass energy.86 Studies estimate that combustion of landfill waste could provide up to 8 megawatts of generating capacity and also reduce waste volumes, 87 but proposals for waste-to-energy plants at landfills on St. Thomas and St. Croix were deemed too costly by the government.88 A small landfill gas project was constructed at St. Thomas' Bovoni landfill, but that landfill operates under an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) consent decree that requires the landfill to eventually close.89,90

Natural gas

The USVI does not produce natural gas and has no known natural gas reserves,91 although the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered natural gas resources in the same subsea formation south of the islands that is also thought to contain petroleum resources.92 To reduce dependence on petroleum fuels, island officials have considered ways to access natural gas, but the islands' small energy demand makes building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal difficult to justify economically.93 The territory's electric utility considered converting generators to burn LNG but opted for less costly propane.94 Several of the USVI utility's generators are now tri-fuel capable and can burn propane, natural gas or petroleum fuels.95 Virgin Island authorities are looking for possible regional solutions to obtain LNG economically, working with governments of other Caribbean islands that face a similar challenge.96,97,98,99

Coal

The USVI has no known coal reserves and does not produce or use coal.100

Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed September 24, 2018.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, accessed September 24, 2018.
3 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. vi.
4 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Total Petroleum Consumption, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2015.
5 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Geography and Economy, updated September 18, 2018.
6 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed September 24, 2018.
7 VI Now, Weather in the Virgin Islands, accessed September 24, 2018.
8 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 1-2.
9 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2-3.
10 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, People and Society (July 2017 estimate).
11 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed September 24, 2018.
12 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy, updated September 25, 2018.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "GDP for U.S. Virgin Islands Increases in 2016," Press Release (December 1, 2017).
14 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Total Primary Energy Consumption, U.S. Virgin Islands, United States, 2015.
15 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy, GDP, Country Comparison to the World, July 2016 Estimate.
16 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Indicators, Total Energy, Total Primary Energy Consumption, Population, U.S. and U.S. Virgin Islands, 2011-15.
17 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed September 24, 2018.
18 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
19 "Hovensa Shutdown Leads to Significant Drop in US Virgin Islands' GDP," Caribbean Journal (August 19, 2013).
20 Eaton, Collin, "Ex-Hess executive to lead restart of idled Caribbean refinery," Reuters (September 21, 2018).
21 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, monthly reports 2017 and 2018 through June 2018.
22 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Energy, Refined petroleum products - imports (2014 estimate).
23 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Total Petroleum Consumption, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2016.
24 Johnson, Casey, U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-52565 (September 2011), p. v.
25 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
26 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Vitol/PoweringVI, accessed September 24, 2018.
27 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Receives First Shipment of Propane Fuel as Completion of Fuel Conversion Project on St. Croix Nears," Press Release (October 21, 2015).
28 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2.
29 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "Delivery of New Generating Units; Subbase Roadway Traffic Limited on July 3 and 4th," Press Release (June 30, 2018).
30 Shimel, Judi, "Judge Finds Encouragement in WAPA Compliance Update," The St. Thomas Source (September 21, 2018).
31 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, WAPA Monthly Megawatt Hours Production (Solar, LPG and Fuel Oil), accessed September 25, 2018.
32 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 5, 6.
33 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
34 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2-3.
35 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 4.
36 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Inspector General, Energy Production in the Virgin Islands, Report No. VI-EV-VIS-0002-2009 (December 2009), p. 1, 2.
37 Hodge, Hugo V., Jr., Report to the Public Service Commission on WAPA'S LPG Project Status (November 2014), slide 5.
38 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "What's My Rate per Kilowatt Hour?" Effective July 1, 2018.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (September 2018), Table 5.6.B.
40 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 47.
41 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
42 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
43 "After multiple delays, St. Croix is now powered by propane," The Virgin Islands Consortium (October 27, 2016).
44 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Board Approves Acquisition of New Generators for RHPP," Press Release (November 16, 2016).
45 "WAPA Has the Solution, But Can It Get the Financing?" St. Thomas Source (May 18, 2017).
46 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Propane Project, Project Fact Sheets, accessed September 25, 2018.
47 Needham, John, "Clean, Affordable Power Arrives on U.S. Virgin Islands," Butane-Propane News (September 14, 2016).
48 Gilbert, Ernice, "USVI Power Bills to Go Up as WAPA Readies Base Rate Increases for Residential and Commercial Customers," The Virgin Islands Consortium (January 12, 2017).
49 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (December 2009), p. 3.
50 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
51 Rhymer, Gregory, "Virgin Islands Water & Power Authority," Presentation, 2013 Economic Development Summit, slide 10.
52 DeCesaro, Jennifer, "U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 3, 2015).
53 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
54 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed August 1, 2017.
55 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
56 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, Renewable Energy Opportunities, p. vi.
57 U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Virgin Islands-Renewables Portfolio Targets, accessed September 25, 2018.
58 28th Legislature of the Virgin Islands, Act No. 7075 (2009), Section 1152, p. 14, 15.
59 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2.
60 Archibald, Wayne, et al., "Islands in the Sun," IEEE Electrification Magazine (March 2015), p. 60.
61 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2.
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiatives, Islands, "U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy" (January 2015), p. 2.
63 "WAPA, Main Street Power Dedicate Solar Power Plant on St. Thomas," The Virgin Islands Consortium (February 26, 2015).
64 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "St. Thomas Solar Power Generation Plant Ribbon Cutting Ceremony," Press Release (February 25, 2015).
65 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Dedicates St. Croix's Estate Spanish Town Solar Facility and Gregory E. Willocks Substation," Press Release (October 27, 2014).
66 NRG, "NRG Energy Celebrates the Spanish Town Estate Solar Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands," Press Release (October 29, 2014).
67 Walton, Rod, "BMR Energy Acquiring, Fixing Maria-damaged Solar Farm in Virgin Islands," Power Engineering (August 8, 2018).
68 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
69 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed September 25, 2018.
70 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, WAPA Projects, accessed September 27, 2018.
71 University of the Virgin Islands, "$3M USDA Grant to Support Solar Development at UVI," Press Release (May 13, 2014).
72 Buchanan, Don, "UVI Solar Project Stagnant, but Maybe Not Dead," St. Thomas Source (March 11, 2017).
73 Knight, April "UVI Board Oks New Maritime Degree," The St. Thomas Source (June 3, 2018).
74 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
75 DeCesaro, Jennifer, "U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 3, 2015).
76 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2.
77 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Net Metering, updated March 25, 2015.
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program, updated January 21, 2016.
79 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction, updated May 6, 2015.
80 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
81 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (March 2015), p. 3.
82 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands 50-Meter Wind Power Resource Map, accessed September 26, 2018.
83 Roberts, Joseph Owen and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014, NREL/TP-7A40-63094 (December 2014), Executive Summary.
84 National Wind Watch, "$50 Million Wind Farm Plan Breezes Through WAPA Board," August 26, 2017.
85 Offshore Wind for Territories Act, Extensions of Remarks, Congressional Record (August 10, 2018) p. E1137.
86 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
87 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
88 Nowakowski, Kelsey, "Growing Pains: Large-Scale Composting in the Virgin Islands," St. Thomas Source (May 22, 2016).
89 United States of America v. Government of the U.S. Virgin Islands et al., Partial Consent Decree with Government of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Virgin Islands Waste Management Authority Regarding Bovoni Landfill, U.S. District Court for the District of the USVI, Civil No. 3:10-cv-00048 (February 14, 2012).
90 Shimel, Judi "Court Hearing Reveals VIWMA Leadership in Disarray," The St. Croix Source (March 1, 2018).
91 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed September 25, 2018.
92 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
93 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 45, 47.
94 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Vitol/PoweringVI, accessed September 25, 2018.
95 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Executive Director Testifies Before House Energy Subcommittee Hearing on Hurricane Recovery," Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017) p. 2.
96 "Caribbean ripe for LNG bunkering as 2020 emissions cap looms: speakers," Platts (June 21, 2017).
97 "Dominican Republic energy group signs LNG supply agreement with Barbados," Caribbean News Now! (May 13, 2017).
98 Hines, Horace, "LNG terminal will be a hub for Caribbean-Shirley," Jamaica Observer (November 15, 2016).
99 Crowley Maritime Corp., "Crowley Awarded New Contract to Supply Commercial LNG to Molinos de Puerto Rico," Press Release (August 4, 2016).
100 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed September 25, 2018.


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