US Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile



US Virgin Islands Quick Facts

  • In 2020, propane generated about two-thirds of the U.S. Virgin Islands' electricity, fuel oil about one-third, and solar energy about 2%. 
  • The average price of electricity paid by U.S. Virgin Island residents was about 43 cents per kilowatthour in mid-2021, which was more than three times higher than the U.S. average power price of 14 cents.
  • The U.S. Virgin Islands requires that solar-powered water heaters provide 70% of a building's heated water needs in all new construction and major renovations.
  • The Hovensa petroleum refinery resumed operations in February 2021, but was shut down a few months later and then sold in December 2021 to a new company that plans to restart the facility.
  • In 2020, less than 10% of the U.S. Virgin Islands' electricity generating capacity was fueled by renewables, with almost two-thirds of that capacity coming from customer-installed, small rooftop solar panel systems and about one-third from large solar energy facilities.

Last Updated: January 20, 2022



Data

Last Update: July 21, 2022 | Next Update: August 18, 2022

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry US Virgin Islands United States Period
Population 0.1 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 2 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Residential NA 14.77 cents/kWh Apr-22  
Commercial NA 11.92 cents/kWh Apr-22  
Industrial NA 7.83 cents/kWh Apr-22  
Reserves  
Reserves US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 42 billion barrels 2019  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 465 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 252,057 million short tons 2019  
Capacity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,143 million kW 2020  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,768 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,551 billion cu ft 2020  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 5,137 thousand short tons 2020  
Total Exports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 2,048 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 5,284 billion cu ft 2020  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 69,067 thousand short tons 2020  
Supply  
Production US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 101 trillion Btu 2019  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 535,434 thousand short tons 2020  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 4,049 billion kWh 2020  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 2,427 billion kWh 2020  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources * 837 billion kWh 2020  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 285 billion kWh 2020  
    »  Other Renewables * 552 billion kWh 2020  
Consumption  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 100 trillion Btu 2019  
Total Petroleum Products * 38 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Motor Gasoline * 17 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Distillate Fuel * 9 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Liquefied Refinery Gases * 2 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Jet Fuel * 4 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Kerosene * * 2019  
    »  Residual Fuel * 1 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Other Petroleum Products -- 6 thousand barrels/day 2019  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 30,482 billion cu ft 2020  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 477,395 thousand short tons 2020  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels 2 million metric tons 5,144 million metric tons 2019  
Petroleum 2 million metric tons 2,383 million metric tons 2019  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,686 million metric tons 2019  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,076 million metric tons 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: January 20, 2022

Overview

The U.S. Virgin Islands imports petroleum to meet nearly all of its energy needs.

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), part of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, became a U.S. territory in 1917 and is located in the Caribbean Sea, about 1,100 miles southeast of Miami, Florida.1,2 The USVI has no fossil energy reserves, but does have some renewable resources, particularly solar energy.3,4 The USVI imports petroleum products to meet nearly all of its energy needs, including the fuels to operate vehicles and boats, to generate electricity, and to run the ocean water desalination plants that produce its public water supply.5,6,7,8,9

The USVI consists of four main islands that have a total area of 133 square miles, about twice the size of Washington, DC. The islands are hilly and forested. With limited land suitable for farming, the territory imports most of its food.10 The largest island is St. Croix. It lies about 40 miles south of the territory's three other inhabited islands: St. John, St. Thomas, and Water Island. The highest peak in the USVI is Crown Mountain, at nearly 1,600 feet, on St. Thomas.11 The territory's population was estimated at about 106,000 in 2021.12 Most of the USVI's population is evenly divided between St. Thomas and St. Croix at about 51,000 each, with about 4,300 residents on St. John and slightly more than 100 people on Water Island.13

Located between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to the west and the British Virgin Islands to the east, the USVI has a subtropical climate with easterly trade winds and little seasonal variation in its warm temperatures. The Caribbean hurricane season, which runs from June to November, sometimes brings destructive storms.14 On average, a hurricane passes near the USVI every three years, and one directly hits the islands about every eight years. In September 2017, the USVI was struck by two back-to-back storms, Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which were both category 5 hurricanes with sustained winds of more than 156 miles per hour.15 The hurricanes significantly damaged most of the USVI's electric distribution and transmission lines and also damaged several power generating facilities. The cost to rebuild from the destruction was an estimated $7.5 billion, which was about two times the value of the territory's annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the time.16,17

Tourism, trade, and service industries account for about three-fifths of the USVI's GDP, and government spending accounts for about one-third. Manufacturing was second only to tourism in economic importance until the February 2012 closure of the Hovensa crude oil refinery on St. Croix. The islands' leading economic activity is tourism, which typically brings in between 2.5 million and 3 million visitors a year, although tourism declined following the two destructive 2017 hurricanes and the COVID-19 global pandemic in 2020 and 2021. Manufacturing is now focused on rum distilling, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.18,19 The USVI's per capita energy consumption is slightly higher than the U.S. average.20,21,22

Petroleum

The USVI has no known crude oil reserves and does not produce crude oil, although a U.S. Geological Survey assessment in 2013 identified the potential for undiscovered crude oil resources in a subsea formation south of the islands.23,24 The Hovensa petroleum refinery on St. Croix, once one of the 10 largest crude oil refineries in the world, was a substantial part of the USVI's economy and provided most of the islands' petroleum products until it was shut down in 2012.25 The refinery reopened in February 2021 to produce marine fuel that meets new international low-sulfur requirements that took effect in 2020. However, regulators shut down the refinery a few months later after it polluted nearby homes and drinking water. The refinery was sold in the fall of 2021 to a new company that plans to restart operations. When the refinery went back online in February 2021 it was able to process about 210,000 barrels of crude oil per day, less than half the 500,000 barrels per day that were previously refined.26,27

The U.S. Virgin Islands is shifting from fuel oil to propane to generate electricity and produce public drinking water.

Nearly all of the energy consumed in the USVI is imported petroleum products.28,29 Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel, and propane account for about four-fifths of all petroleum products consumed in the USVI, where they are used for electricity generation and the production of drinking water supplies. Jet fuel, motor gasoline, and kerosene make up the remaining one-fifth of the island's petroleum consumption.30 The islands' electric and water utility converted some of its fuel oil-powered generation units to propane, which make the units less expensive to operate and also help the utility meet clean air quality requirements.31,32,33,34,35 In 2010, the USVI's government set a goal to reduce petroleum use in the territory by 60% by 2025. In 2015, the government recommitted to meet that goal.36,37,38

Electricity

The USVI’s two separate island grids each maintain their own backup generation.

The USVI has two separate electricity grids, located on the two main islands, each with its own generating facilities, managed by the Water and Power Authority (WAPA), an independent governmental agency. Generating units include combustion and steam turbines powered with fuel oil or propane, as well as some solar power facilities owned by independent power producers (IPPs) and residents with rooftop solar panels. More than half of the USVI's petroleum-fueled generating units are more than 25 years old. WAPA is replacing some of its older generators with combinations of smaller units for more efficient balancing with renewable energy sources.

The St. Thomas electric system, with about 160 megawatts of generating capacity, supplies electricity to St. Thomas as well as both nearby islands St. John and Water by underwater cables. Separated from the St. Thomas system by 40 miles of ocean, the St. Croix system, with about 140 megawatts of capacity, supplies St. Croix Island. Seabed depth makes any potential electrical connection between the St. Thomas and St. Croix systems difficult. For both electric systems, the average power demand loads are less than half of their generating capacities, which allows them to maintain their own backup generation and reserves. During the back-to-back hurricanes in September 2017, 80% to 90% of the USVI's transmission and distribution systems were damaged or destroyed.39,40,41,42,43 To mitigate future disruption of the islands' grids, WAPA added backup generating units that include battery storage.44,45,46 The territory is also building underground electrical lines and installing composite electrical poles that can survive winds up to 200 miles per hour. As of October 2021, WAPA installed just over half of the planned 8,500 composite poles across the territory, and was on track to finish the project in early 2024.47,48,49,50

In 2020, the industrial sector consumed about 43% of the Virgin Islands' electricity, followed closely by the residential sector at 42%, and the commercial sector at 15%.51 Imported petroleum products fuel nearly all of the electricity generation on the islands. In 2020, propane generated about two-thirds of the islands' electricity, fuel oil about one-third, and solar power about 2%. The USVI has some of the highest electricity rates in the world, in part because of petroleum fuel surcharges.52,53,54 The islands' residential electricity price in mid-2021 was about 43 cents per kilowatthour (which included a fuel surcharge of 17 cents), more than three times higher than the U.S. residential average price of about 14 cents.55,56

After petroleum prices increased in 2008, WAPA explored converting its generating facilities to operate on imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), but the utility opted to go with propane because it was less expensive to build the storage facilities and other infrastructure needed for propane compared for LNG.57,58 The turbine conversions for the project increase the fuel flexibility for WAPA's generators, and allow several of them to burn propane, fuel oil, or natural gas.59,60 Increased propane use is expected to cut carbon dioxide emissions at generating plants by 35%, help the USVI meet clean air standards, and reduce future fuel surcharges. However, WAPA has come under criticism because fuel conversion projects have taken longer than expected to complete, costs have exceeded original estimates, and residential electricity prices remain high.61,62,63,64,65,66

Renewable energy

Solar power accounts for all of the USVI’s renewable electricity.

In 2020, renewables were less than 10% of the USVI's electricity generating capacity, all of it from solar power. Customer-installed, small rooftop panel systems account for almost two-thirds of USVI's solar generating capacity, while the other one-third comes from larger solar energy facilities.67 In 2009, the USVI's legislature approved a renewables portfolio target that renewable sources should account for 25% of WAPA's peak demand generating capacity by 2020, 30% by 2025, and 50% by 2044.68,69 The 2020 goal was not met. However, the USVI plans to add wind energy capacity in the coming years and also considered other biomass energy sources.70,71

The USVI has significant solar power potential on its islands with more than 8 megawatts of installed large-scale solar power generating capacity.72,73 The USVI's first large solar facility was a 450-kilowatt, 1,800-panel array installed in 2011 at King Airport on St. Thomas.74 The territory's largest solar facility is the Donoe solar farm on St. Thomas, which first came online in 2015 with 4.2 megawatts of generating capacity. Hurricane Irma destroyed much of the solar farm in September 2017. The private company that owns the solar farm is rebuilding it with 14,000 solar panels, a larger generating capacity of 6.4 megawatts, and the ability to withstand winds up to 180 mph.75,76

The Spanish Town solar farm, which opened on St. Croix in 2014 with 4 megawatts of generating capacity, was also damaged by Hurricane Irma. The facility was offline for slightly more than a year while it and the island's grid were repaired. The solar farm came back online in November 2018. As with Donoe, the Spanish Town facility is privately owned and WAPA purchases its power.77,78,79 Additional solar and wind generating capacity, along with battery energy storage systems, are under construction or planned.80,81 Customer-sited, small-scale solar generation on rooftops also provide about 17 megawatts of generating capacity through WAPA's net metering program.82

Because of concerns about grid stability with intermittent generation from renewables, the USVI's net metering law initially capped total net metered connections at 10 megawatts on the St. Thomas grid and 5 megawatts on the St. Croix system. Those limits were reached in 2017, and the program closed to new customers. However, in 2019, the islands' governor initiated a new net-metering program that allows more residents to participate, but requires new customers to receive less compensation for their excess power and pay higher grid-access fees.83,84,85,86 The USVI government also provides rebates for residential solar water heaters, Energy Star appliances, and other energy efficient and renewable energy products.87,88 USVI building code policy requires that solar water heaters provide at least 70% of a building's water heating needs in all new construction and major renovation projects.89

The USVI has some commercial wind energy potential, but no installed capacity.90,91 The most promising locations for large wind projects are on the islands' high ridges and exposed capes.92 A 2014 study found that wind speeds suitable for commercial-scale turbines at sites around Longford on St. Croix and the Bovoni Peninsula on St. Thomas.93 By mid-2024, WAPA plans to install 16.5 megawatts of wind generating capacity on St. Croix and 12 megawatts on St. Thomas.94,95,96

The USVI also considered developing other renewable generation using waste-to-energy, landfill gas, and biomass energy.97,98 Studies estimate that combustion of landfill waste could provide up to 8 megawatts of generating capacity and also reduce waste volumes, but proposals for waste-to-energy plants at landfills on St. Thomas and St. Croix have been deemed too costly.99,100

Natural gas

The USVI does not produce natural gas and has no known natural gas reserves. However, a 2013 U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered natural gas resources in the same subsea formation south of the islands that may also contain petroleum resources.101,102 To reduce dependence on petroleum fuels, island officials considered ways to import liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, the islands' small energy demand makes building an LNG import terminal difficult to justify economically.103 The territory's electric utility considered converting its generators to burn LNG but opted for less costly propane.104 Some of the utility's generators are now tri-fuel capable and can burn propane, natural gas, or petroleum products.105

Coal

The USVI has no known coal reserves and does not produce or use coal.106

Endnotes

1 VI Now, General U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed December 19, 2021.
2 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed December 19, 2021.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, accessed December 19, 2021.
4 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. vi.
5 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption (Mb/d), 2015-19.
6 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Energy, Refined petroleum products-imports, accessed December 19, 2021.
7 Observatory of Economic Complexity, U.S. Virgin Islands, Imports, accessed December 29, 2021.
8 U.S. EIA, U.S. Net Imports by Country, Virgin Islands (U.S.), 2015-20.
9 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Primary energy, Consumption, 2015-19.
10 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Geography and Economy, accessed December 19, 2021.
11 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed December 19, 2021.
12 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, People and Society, Population, accessed December 19, 2021.
13 VIMovingCenter, Virgin Islands Demographics, accessed December 19, 2021.
14 VI Now, Weather in the Virgin Islands, accessed December 19, 2021.
15 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 1-2.
16 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2-3.
17 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy-overview, accessed December 19, 2021.
18 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy, accessed December 19, 2021.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Gross Domestic Product for the U.S. Virgin Island (USVI), 2019," Press Release (May 26, 2021).
20 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Primary energy, Total energy consumption (quad Btu), 2019.
21 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, People and Society, Population, accessed December 19, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
23 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, accessed December 19, 2021.
24 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
25 "Hovensa Shutdown Leads to Significant Drop in US Virgin Islands' GDP," Caribbean Journal (August 19, 2013).
26 Sanicola, Laura, "Limetree Bay refinery to shut indefinitely after just a few months of operating," Reuters (June 21, 2021).
27 Sanicola, Laura, "Bankruptcy judge approves $62 million Limetree Bay sale to Jamaican company," Reuters (December 22, 2021).
28 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Primary energy, Consumption, 2015-19.
29 U.S. EIA, U.S. Net Imports by Country, Virgin Islands (U.S.), 2015-20.
30 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption (MB/d), 2019.
31 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020), p. 4, 12, 16.
32 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2.
33 Shimel, Judi, "Judge Finds Encouragement in WAPA Compliance Update," The St. Thomas Source (September 21, 2018).
34 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, News & Info, Megawatt Hours Production Report (November 2021).
35 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Generation" section, p. 43.
36 Johnson, Caley, U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-52565 (September 2011), p. v.
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed December 21, 2021.
38 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Regulation and planning" section, p. 50.
39 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 48-50.
40 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 5-6.
41 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
42 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2-3.
43 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Challenges" section, p. 48.
44 "WAPA Enters into Contract to Install Standby Generators on St. John," The St. John Source (August 22, 2019).
45 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Enters Into Contract for Installation of Standby Generators on St. John with Battery Storage," Press Release (August 21, 2019).
46 "WAPA Signs Contract for Four New Generators, Battery Storage System at Harley Plant," The St. John Source (July 22, 2020).
47 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Awards Federally Funded Composite Pole Installation Contracts for St. Thomas and St. John," Press release (October 8, 2020).
48 Source staff, "WAPA Board Approves Contracts for Underground Equipment, More Composite Poles," The St. John Source (October 29, 2020).
49 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "Composite Pole Installations Continue Territory-Wide," Press Release (October 13, 2021).
50 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "Work to Commence on Golden Grove Underground Electrical Project on October 12," Press Release (October 1, 2021).
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 29, 2021), Table 12.8, Virgin Island Sale of Electricity to Ultimate Customers (megawatthours).
52 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Megawatthours Production Report (November 2021).
53 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (May 2020), p. 1.
54 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "WAPA energy rates" section, p. 46-47.
55 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Rates, Electric Rate, As of July 1, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (October 2021), Table 5.3.
57 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 47, 56.
58 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
59 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
60 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
61 Needham, John, "Clean, Affordable Power Arrives on U.S. Virgin Islands," Butane-Propane News (September 14, 2016).
62 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 4, 12, 16.
63 Rao, A.J., "Residents slam WAPA study, demand relief," The Virgin Islands Daily News (December 5, 2019).
64 Gardner, James, "PSC Approves 2.3-Cent Increase in Electric LEAC," The St. Thomas Source (June 22, 2021).
65 Lee, Bethaney, "PSC says WAPA Rate Decrease Not Likely," The St. Thomas Source (June 25, 2020).
66 Cobb, Sian, "WAPA Board Oks Contract for New Fuel Supplier," The St. Thomas Source (December 23, 2021).
67 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 50.
68 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Renewables Portfolio Targets, updated May 6, 2015.
69 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 42.
70 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 49-50.
71 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (May 2020), p. 1.
72 Archibald, Wayne, et al., "Islands in the Sun," IEEE Electrification Magazine (March 2015), p. 60.
73 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2.
74 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiatives, Islands, "U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy" (January 2015), p. 2.
75 Buchanan, Don, "Rebuilt St. Thomas Solar Farm to Be Online Before Year's End," The St. Thomas Source (April 28, 2021).
76 BMR Energy, BMR Energy St. Thomas Solar Project, accessed December 28, 2021.
77 NRG, "NRG Energy Celebrates the Spanish Town Estate Solar Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands," Press Release (October 29, 2014).
78 Walton, Rod, "BMR Energy Acquiring, Fixing Maria-damaged Solar Farm in Virgin Islands," Power Engineering (August 8, 2018).
79 BMR Energy, BMR Energy's St. Croix Spanish Town Project, accessed December 28, 2021.
80 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 17.
81 Cobb, Stan, "Energy Office Aims to Expand Solar, Lower Electric Costs," The St. Thomas Source (November 20, 2020).
82 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 50 .
83 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Net Metering, updated March 25, 2015.
84 Buchanan, Don, "New Net-Metering Program May Find Few Takers," The St. John Source (October 23, 2019).
85 "V.I. Entities off the WAPA Grid Must Register for the Net Energy Billing Program: VIEO," Virgin Islands Free Press (September 23, 2020).
86 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Net Energy Billing (NEB) Program Overview, accessed December 28, 2021.
87 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program, updated January 21, 2016.
88 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Rebate (EERE) Program, accessed December 28, 2021.
89 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction, updated June 2, 2020.
90 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (March 2015), p. 3.
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in U.S. Virgin Islands, Maps & Data, accessed December 28, 2021.
93 Roberts, Joseph Owen, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014, NREL/TP-7A40-63094 (December 2014), Executive Summary.
94 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 17.
95 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Governing Board Approves Wind Project for Bovoni Point, St. Thomas," Press Release (March 29, 2021).
96 Advance Power LLC, Project Overview, accessed December 28, 2021.
97 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
98 O'Connor, Brian, "WAPA Pulls Plug on Biogas Project," The Virgin Islands Daily News," (October 24, 2016).
99 Scanlon, Bill, "Helping the Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
100 Nowakowski, Kelsey, "Growing Pains: Large-Scale Composting in the Virgin Islands," St. Thomas Source (May 22, 2016).
101 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, Consumption, accessed December 27, 2021.
102 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
103 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 45, 47.
104 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Generation section" section, p. 43.
105 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
106 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, Consumption, accessed December 27, 2021.


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