US Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile



US Virgin Islands Quick Facts

  • In 2023, propane generated almost three-fifths of the U.S. Virgin Islands' (USVI) electricity, fuel oil about two-fifths, and solar power supplied about 2%.
  • The average price of electricity paid by USVI residents was about 42 cents per kilowatthour at the end of 2023, which was almost three times higher than the U.S. average power price of 16 cents per kilowatthour.
  • Since 2009, the USVI requires that solar-powered water heaters provide 70% of a building's heated water needs in all new construction and major renovations.
  • Nearly all of the energy consumed in the USVI is provided by imported petroleum products, with about 70% of petroleum consumption consisting of distillate fuel and residual fuel.
  • In 2022, the industrial sector accounted for about 42% of USVI’s electricity consumption, followed closely by the residential sector at almost 42%, and the commercial sector at 16%.

Last Updated: March 21, 2024



Data

Last Update: May 16, 2024 | Next Update: June 20, 2024

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry US Virgin Islands United States Period
Population 0.1 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 2 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Residential NA 16.68 cents/kWh Mar-24  
Commercial NA 12.76 cents/kWh Mar-24  
Industrial NA 7.73 cents/kWh Mar-24  
Reserves  
Reserves US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 44 billion barrels 2021  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 465 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 251,539 million short tons 2021  
Capacity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,201 million kW 2022  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,768 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 3,024 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 6,313 thousand short tons 2022  
Total Exports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 2,048 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 6,904 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 85,956 thousand short tons 2022  
Supply  
Production US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 99 trillion Btu 2022  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 36,353 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 593,608 thousand short tons 2022  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 4,292 billion kWh 2022  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 2,553 billion kWh 2022  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources * 973 billion kWh 2022  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 255 billion kWh 2022  
    »  Other Renewables * 718 billion kWh 2022  
Consumption  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 95 trillion Btu 2022  
Total Petroleum Products 16 thousand barrels/day 20,010 thousand barrels/day 2022  
    »  Motor Gasoline 1 thousand barrels/day 8,810 thousand barrels/day 2022  
    »  Distillate Fuel 9 thousand barrels/day 4,026 thousand barrels/day 2022  
    »  Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2 thousand barrels/day 1,375 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Jet Fuel 2 thousand barrels/day 1,560 thousand barrels/day 2022  
    »  Kerosene 0 thousand barrels/day 5 thousand barrels/day 2022  
    »  Residual Fuel 2 thousand barrels/day 329 thousand barrels/day 2022  
    »  Other Petroleum Products 0 thousand barrels/day 1,923 thousand barrels/day 2022  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 32,288 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 515,555 thousand short tons 2022  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels 2 million metric tons 4,941 million metric tons 2022  
Petroleum 2 million metric tons 2,260 million metric tons 2022  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,742 million metric tons 2022  
Coal 0 million metric tons 939 million metric tons 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 21, 2024

Overview

The U.S. Virgin Islands imports petroleum products to meet nearly all of its energy needs.

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), part of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, became a U.S. territory in 1917 and is located in the Caribbean Sea, about 1,100 miles southeast of Miami, Florida.1,2 The USVI has no fossil energy reserves, but does have some renewable resources, particularly solar energy.3,4,5 The USVI imports petroleum products to meet nearly all of its energy needs, including the fuels to operate vehicles and boats, to generate electricity, and to run the ocean water desalination plants that produce its public water supply.6,7,8

The USVI consists of four main islands that have a total area of 133 square miles, about twice the size of Washington, DC. The islands are hilly and forested. With limited land suitable for farming, the territory imports most of its food.9 The largest island is St. Croix. It lies about 40 miles south of the territory's three other inhabited islands: St. John, St. Thomas, and Water Island. The highest peak in the USVI is Crown Mountain, at nearly 1,600 feet, on St. Thomas.10 The territory's population was estimated at about 106,000 in 2021.11 Most of the USVI's population is evenly divided between St. Thomas and St. Croix, with each home to about 48% of the territory's residents. St. John has about 4%, and less than 200 people live on Water Island.12,13

Located between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to the west and the British Virgin Islands to the east, the USVI has a subtropical climate with easterly trade winds and little seasonal variation in its warm temperatures. The Caribbean hurricane season, which runs from June to November, sometimes brings destructive storms.14 On average, a hurricane passes near the USVI every three years, and one directly hits the islands about every eight years. In September 2017, the USVI was struck by back-to-back storms, Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which were both category 5 hurricanes with sustained winds of more than 156 miles per hour. The hurricanes significantly damaged most of the USVI's electric distribution and transmission lines and also damaged several power generating facilities.15

Tourism, trade, and service industries account for about three-fifths of the USVI's GDP, and government spending accounts for about one-third of GDP. Manufacturing was second only to tourism in economic importance until the February 2012 closure of the Hovensa crude oil refinery on St. Croix. The islands' leading economic activity is now tourism. However, tourism declined following the two destructive 2017 hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of tourists visiting the USVI in 2023 totaled about 2.4 million, about 15% higher than the nearly 2.1 million tourists in 2019, the year before the pandemic disrupted travel. Manufacturing in the territory includes rum distilling, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.16,17,18,19 The USVI's per capita energy consumption is about one-tenth that of the 50 U.S. states.20,21

Petroleum

The USVI has no known crude oil reserves and does not produce crude oil, although a U.S. Geological Survey assessment in 2013 identified the potential for undiscovered crude oil resources in a subsea formation south of the islands.22,23 The Hovensa refinery on St. Croix, once one of the 10 largest crude oil refineries in the world, was a substantial part of the USVI's economy and provided most of the islands' petroleum products until it was shut down in 2012.24 The refinery reopened in February 2021 to produce marine fuel that meets new international low-sulfur requirements that took effect in 2020. When the refinery went back online it was able to process about 210,000 barrels of crude oil per day, less than half the 500,000 barrels per day that were previously refined. However, regulators shut down the refinery a few months later after it polluted nearby homes and drinking water. The refinery was sold in the fall of 2021 to two new companies that plan to restart it. In November 2022, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ordered the refinery's owners to obtain a new air pollution permit before the facility could resume operations.25,26,27 A federal appeals court ruled in July 2023 that EPA exceeded its authority and could not require the refinery's owners to obtain a new pollution permit before resuming operations.28 The refinery had not restarted as of early 2024 because the EPA ordered the removal of chemicals discovered at the facility.29,30,31

The U.S. Virgin Islands’ utility is shifting from fuel oil to propane to generate electricity and produce public drinking water.

Nearly all of the energy consumed in the USVI is provided by imported petroleum products.32 Distillate fuel oil and residual fuel account for about 70% of all petroleum products consumed in the USVI, where they are used for electricity generation and in the desalination of drinking water supplies. Jet fuel, propane, motor gasoline, and kerosene make up the remaining 30% of the island's petroleum consumption.33 The islands' Water and Power Authority (WAPA) utility is converting many of its fuel oil-powered generating units to propane, which make the units less expensive to operate and also helps the utility meet clean air quality requirements.34,35,36,37,38

Electricity

The USVI’s two separate island grids each maintain their own backup generation capacity.

The USVI has two separate electricity grids, one each on the two main islands, each with its own generating facilities. The generating units are managed by WAPA, an independent governmental agency. Generating capacity includes combustion and steam turbines powered with fuel oil or propane, as well as some solar-powered facilities owned by independent power producers and houses and businesses with customer-sited rooftop solar panels. More than half of the USVI's petroleum-fueled generating units are more than 25 years old. WAPA is replacing some of its older generators with groups of smaller units for more efficient balancing with renewable energy sources. Seabed depth makes any potential electrical connection between the St. Thomas and St. Croix systems difficult. The St. Thomas electric system, with about 175 megawatts of generating capacity, supplies electricity to St. Thomas and by underwater cables to nearby St. John Island and Water Island. Separated from the St. Thomas system by 40 miles of ocean, the St. Croix system, with about 150 megawatts of capacity, supplies St. Croix Island. The electric systems on both islands have lower power demand than their generating capacities, giving them their own backup generation capacity and reserves.39,40,41

During the back-to-back hurricanes in September 2017, 80% to 90% of the USVI's transmission and distribution systems were damaged or destroyed.42 To mitigate future disruption of the islands' grids, WAPA added backup generating units that include battery storage.43,44,45 The territory is also building underground electrical lines and installing composite electrical poles that can survive winds up to 200 miles per hour. As of September 2023, WAPA installed nearly 90% of the planned 8,600 composite poles across the territory and plans to finish the project in 2024.46,47,48

Imported petroleum products fuel nearly all of the utility-scale electricity generation on the islands. In 2023, propane fueled almost three-fifths of the islands' electricity at WAPA-owned or leased generating facilities, fuel oil accounted for about two-fifths, and solar power supplied 2%.49 The industrial sector consumed about 42% of the USVI's total electricity, followed closely by the residential sector at 39%, and the commercial sector at 16%.50 The USVI has some of the highest electricity rates in the world, in part because of petroleum fuel surcharges. The islands' residential electricity price at the end of 2023 was about 42 cents per kilowatthour, which included a fuel surcharge of 22 cents per kilowatthour, almost three times higher than the U.S. residential average electricity price of about 16 cents.51,52,53

After petroleum prices increased in 2008, WAPA explored converting its generating facilities to operate on imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), but the utility opted to go with propane because it was less expensive to build the storage facilities and other infrastructure needed for propane compared with LNG.54,55 Converting existing generating facilities increased the fuel flexibility for WAPA's generators, and allow many of the generating facilities to use propane or fuel oil.56,57 WAPA says the increased propane use is expected to cut carbon dioxide emissions at generating plants by 35%, help the USVI meet clean air standards, and reduce fuel surcharges. However, the utility has come under criticism because fuel conversion projects have taken longer than expected to complete, costs have exceeded original estimates, and residential electricity prices remain high.58,59,60,61

Renewable energy

Solar power accounts for all of the USVI’s renewable electricity.

Less than 10% of the USVI's electricity generating capacity is fueled by renewable resources, all of it solar power. Customer-installed, small-scale rooftop panel systems account for about four-fifths of USVI's solar generating capacity, while the other one-fifth comes from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar energy facilities.62 In 2009, the USVI's legislature approved a renewables portfolio target for renewable energy sources to fuel 25% of WAPA's peak demand generating capacity by 2020, 30% by 2025, and 50% by 2044.63,64

The USVI has more than 8 megawatts of installed commercial solar power generating capacity.65 The USVI's first large solar facility was a 450-kilowatt, 1,800-panel array installed in 2011 at King Airport on St. Thomas.66 The territory's largest solar facility is the Donoe solar farm on St. Thomas, which first came online in 2015 with 4.2 megawatts of generating capacity. Hurricane Irma destroyed much of the Donoe solar farm in September 2017. The solar farm was rebuilt it in 2022 with 14,000 solar panels, a larger generating capacity of 6.4 megawatts, and the ability to withstand winds up to 180 mph. The solar panels have stronger clamps and bolts holding them to the reinforced mounting systems, which have support piles that were installed deeper into the ground.67,68

The Spanish Town solar farm, which opened on St. Croix in 2014 with 4 megawatts of generating capacity, was also damaged by Hurricane Irma. The facility was offline for slightly more than a year while it and the island's grid were repaired. The solar farm came back online in November 2018. Donoe and Spanish Town solar facilities are privately owned and WAPA purchases their power.69,70,71 Additional solar and wind generating capacity, along with battery energy storage systems, are under construction or planned.72,73,74 In March 2023, WAPA approved purchase agreements for electricity from five renewable energy projects: two wind power farms and three solar farms. The two wind projects would provide up to 35 megawatts of electricity on St. Croix and up to 20 megawatts on St. Thomas. The purchase agreements for the solar projects would provide up to 24 megawatts of power on St. Thomas, 22 megawatts on St. Croix, and 20 megawatts on St. John.75 New solar farms and adjoining battery energy storage systems are expected to meet about 30% of the territory's electricity demand.76,77

Customer-sited, small-scale solar generation on rooftops provides about 17 megawatts of generating capacity through WAPA's net metering program.78 Because of concerns about grid stability with intermittent generation from renewables, the USVI's net metering law initially capped total net metered connections at 10 megawatts on the St. Thomas grid and 5 megawatts on the St. Croix grid. Those limits were reached in 2017, and the program closed to new customers. However, in 2019, the territory initiated a new net-metering program that allows more residents to participate, but requires new customers to receive less compensation for their excess power and pay higher grid-access fees.79,80,81,82 The USVI government provides rebates for residential solar water heaters, Energy Star appliances, and other energy efficient and renewable energy products.83,84 Since 2009, USVI's building code requires that solar water heaters provide at least 70% of a building's water heating needs in all new construction and major renovation projects.85

The USVI has some commercial wind energy potential, but no utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) wind generating capacity has been installed yet, although two privately-owned wind farms are planned that will sell their power to the WAPA. The most promising locations for large wind projects are on the islands' high ridges and exposed capes.86,87,88,89 A 2014 study found that wind speeds were suitable for commercial-scale turbines at sites around Longford on St. Croix and the Bovoni Peninsula on St. Thomas.90 In 2022, the U.S. Congress passed legislation that was signed into law opening the offshore waters around the USVI, along with the other U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico, to wind power development. The U.S. Department of the Interior will hold wind lease sales in the territories' waters by September 2025, depending on interest from energy companies.91

The USVI also considered developing other renewable generation using waste-to-energy, landfill gas, and biomass energy.92,93,94 Studies estimate that combustion of landfill waste could provide up to 8 megawatts of generating capacity and also reduce waste volumes.95,96

Natural gas

The USVI does not produce natural gas and has no known natural gas reserves. However, a 2013 U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered natural gas resources in the same subsea formation south of the islands that may also contain crude oil resources.97,98 To reduce dependence on petroleum fuels, island officials considered ways to import liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, the islands' small energy demand makes building an LNG import terminal difficult to justify economically.99 The territory's electric utility considered converting its generators to burn LNG but opted for less costly propane.100,101,102

Coal

The USVI has no known coal reserves and does not produce or use coal.103

Endnotes

1 VI Now, General U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed February 20, 2024.
2 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed February 20, 2024.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, accessed February 20, 2024.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USVI Energy Road Map, Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future, p. 8-10.
5 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed February 20, 2024.
6 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption (Mb/d), 2017-21.
7 Observatory of Economic Complexity, U.S. Virgin Islands, Imports, accessed February 20, 2024.
8 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Primary energy, Consumption, 2017-21.
9 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Geography and Economy, accessed February 20, 2024.
10 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed February 20, 2024.
11 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Population, 2017-21.
12 VIMovingCenter, Virgin Islands Demographics, accessed February 20, 2024.
13 Wikiwant, Water Island, U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed February 20, 2024.
14 VI Now, Weather in the Virgin Islands, accessed February 20, 2024.
15 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 1-3.
16 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy, accessed February 20, 2024.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Gross Domestic Product for the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2021," Press Release (May 22, 2023).
18 U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Tourism, "U.S. Virgin Islands Marks Impressive Year-End Achievements and Sets Ambitious Goals for 2024," Press Release (December 21, 2023).
19 USVI Bureau of Economic Research, Tourism, Air Visitor Arrivals January to December 2022-2023, Cruise Visitor Arrivals January to December 2022-2023.
20 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands and United States, Primary energy, Total energy consumption (quad Btu), 2017-21.
21 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands and United States, Population, 2017-21.
22 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, accessed February 21, 2024.
23 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
24 "Hovensa Shutdown Leads to Significant Drop in US Virgin Islands' GDP," Caribbean Journal (August 19, 2013).
25 Sanicola, Laura, "Limetree Bay refinery to shut indefinitely after just a few months of operating," Reuters (June 21, 2021).
26 Sanicola, Laura, "Bankruptcy judge approves $62 million Limetree Bay sale to Jamaican company," Reuters (December 22, 2021).
27 Joselow, Maxine, "EPA orders troubled St. Croix refinery to obtain new permit," The Washington Post (November 17, 2022).
28 Mindock, Clark, "EPA can't force Virgin Islands refinery to obtain new permit, U.S. court says," Reuters (July 25, 2023).
29 Carlson, Suzanne, "Refinery, terminal remain at odds over shared services," The Virgin Islands Daily News (December 29, 2023).
30 "EPA Discovers Liquified Petroleum Not Previously Reported by STX Refinery," The St. Thomas Source (November 18, 2023).
31 EPA, Chemical Removal Status at the Refinery on St. Croix, November 2023.
32 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Primary Energy, U.S. Virgin Islands, Consumption, 2017-21.
33 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Petroleum and other liquids, U.S. Virgin Islands, Consumption (MB/D), 2017-21.
34 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020), p. 12, 16.
35 "Bryan Announces Progress on WAPA Acquisition of Vitol Propane Terminal Facilities," The St. Thomas Source (December 23, 2023).
36 Simon, Janeka, "WAPA Extends Diesel Supply Contract While Transitioning to Propane Generators," The Virgin Islands Consortium (October 30, 2023).
37 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, News & Info, Megawatthours Production Report (December 2023).
38 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Generation" section, p. 43.
39 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), Table 3.6, Unit Characteristics for VIWAPA and Leased Units on STT and STX, p. 49, Table 3-7, RE Projects for STT and STX, p. 50.
40 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2-4.
41 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Challenges" section, p. 43, 48-49.
42 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 4.
43 "WAPA Enters into Contract to Install Standby Generators on St. John," The St. John Source (August 22, 2019).
44 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Enters Into Contract for Installation of Standby Generators on St. John with Battery Storage," Press Release (August 21, 2019).
45 "WAPA Signs Contract for Four New Generators, Battery Storage System at Harley Plant," The St. John Source (July 22, 2020).
46 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Awards Federally Funded Composite Pole Installation Contracts for St. Thomas and St. John," Press release (October 8, 2020).
47 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "Investments in Facilities, Systems, and People," p. 6.
48 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "Authority Announces Almost 90% of Total Composite Poles Installed Throughout US Virgin Islands," Press Release (September 13, 2023).
49 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Megawatthours Production Report (December 2023).
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 19, 2023), Table 12.8, Virgin Island Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers (megawatthours).
51 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "WAPA energy rates" section, p. 46-47.
52 Carlson, Suzanne, "WAPA fuel surcharge to remain flat, power still unreliable," The Virgin Islands Daily News (September 20, 2023).
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2024), Table 5.3.
54 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 47, 56.
55 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
56 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
57 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
58 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 4, 12, 16.
59 Buchanan, Don, "IG Finds Fault with WAPA Propane Project, Senator Wants Investigation," The St. Thomas Source (December 1, 2021).
60 "WAPA Board OKs Spot Purchases of Propane Amid Vitol Dispute," The St. Thomas Source (December 26, 2022).
61 Ellis, Susan, "WAPA, Part 3: The USVI Shops for Alternative Energy Sources," The St. Thomas Source (September 1, 2023).
62 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), Tables 3-6, 3-7, p. 49-50.
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Renewables Portfolio Targets, updated May 6, 2015.
64 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 42.
65 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiatives, Islands, "U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy" (January 2015), p. 2.
67 BMR Energy, BMR Energy St. Thomas Solar Project, accessed February 22, 2024.
68 Kirkpatrick, Sara, "BMR Energy reconstructs damaged solar plant in Donoe," The Virgin Islands Daily News (October 28, 2022).
69 NRG, "NRG Energy Celebrates the Spanish Town Estate Solar Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands," Press Release (October 29, 2014).
70 Walton, Rod, "BMR Energy Acquiring, Fixing Maria-damaged Solar Farm in Virgin Islands," Power Engineering (August 8, 2018).
71 BMR Energy, BMR Energy's St. Croix Spanish Town Project, accessed February 22, 2024.
72 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 17.
73 Cobb, Stan, "Energy Office Aims to Expand Solar, Lower Electric Costs," The St. Thomas Source (November 20, 2020).
74 Pickerek, Kelly, "BMR Energy gets to work on third solar project in U.S. Virgin Islands," Solar Power World (August 30, 2022).
75 Buchanan, Don, "WAPA Moves on Five Alternative Energy Projects," The St. Croix Source (March 30, 2023).
76 Kamoji, Jerusha, "U.S. Virgin Islands cover 30% of electricity needs with six solar-plus-battery facilities," PV Magazine (December 6, 2023).
77 Honeywell, "Honeywell to Help Decarbonization of U.S. Virgin Islands Through Battery Energy Storage," Press Release (December 5, 2023).
78 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, VIWAPA Final IRP Report (July 12, 2020), p. 50 .
79 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Net Metering, updated March 20, 2023.
80 Buchanan, Don, "New Net-Metering Program May Find Few Takers," The St. John Source (October 23, 2019).
81 "V.I. Entities off the WAPA Grid Must Register for the Net Energy Billing Program: VIEO," Virgin Islands Free Press (September 23, 2020).
82 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Net Energy Billing (NEB) Program Overview, accessed February 23, 2024.
83 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rebate Program, updated June 23, 2023.
84 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Rebate (EERE) Program, accessed February 23, 2024.
85 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction, updated June 2, 2020.
86 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
87 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (March 2015), p. 3.
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in U.S. Virgin Islands, Maps & Data, accessed February 23, 2024.
89 Buchanan, Don, "WAPA Moves on Five Alternative Energy Projects," The St. Croix Source (March 30, 2023).
90 Roberts, Joseph Owen, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014, NREL/TP-7A40-63094 (December 2014), Executive Summary.
91 Webster, Joseph, and Elina Carpen, "Does the IRA make US offshore wind the "next big thing?" Atlantic Council (October 25, 2022).
92 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
93 O'Connor, Brian, "WAPA Pulls Plug on Biogas Project," The Virgin Islands Daily News," (October 24, 2016).
94 Buchanan, Don, "Company Proposes to Make Energy from Garbage," The St. Thomas Source (May 10, 2023).
95 Scanlon, Bill, "Helping the Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
96 Nowakowski, Kelsey, "Growing Pains: Large-Scale Composting in the Virgin Islands," St. Thomas Source (May 22, 2016).
97 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, Consumption, accessed February 24, 2024.
98 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
99 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 45, 47.
100 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, "Generation section" section, p. 43.
101 Carlson, Suzanne, "V.I. government makes $45 million payment to Vitol for WAPA," The Virgin Islands Daily News (May 2, 2023).
102 "Bryan Announces Progress on WAPA Acquisition of Vitol Propane Terminal Facilities," The St. Thomas Source (December 23, 2023).
103 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, Consumption, accessed February 24, 2024.


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