US Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile



US Virgin Islands Quick Facts

  • The U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority is increasing its use of propane for generating electricity to reduce its imported fuel costs and carbon dioxide emissions. In 2019, fuel oil generated about two-thirds of the territory's electricity, propane about one-third, and solar power slightly more than 1%. 
  • The average price of electricity paid by U.S. Virgin Island residents was about 41 cents per kilowatthour in mid-2020, which was about three times higher than the average power price in the 50 U.S. states.
  • The U.S. Virgin Islands requires that 70% of a building's heated water needs in all new construction and major renovations be provided by solar water heaters.
  • A portion of the Hovensa petroleum refinery, which closed in 2012, is scheduled to reopen and make marine fuels that meet new international low-sulfur requirements that took effect in 2020.
  • The U.S. Virgin Islands has a goal for 25% of the islands' peak demand electricity generating capacity to be fueled by renewable energy sources by 2020 and 30% by 2025.

Last Updated: December 17, 2020



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry US Virgin Islands United States Period
Population 0.1 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 2 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Residential NA 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21  
Commercial NA 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21  
Industrial NA 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21  
Reserves  
Reserves US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 42 billion barrels 2019  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 4,656 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 252,057 million short tons 2019  
Capacity US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,114 million kW 2018  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,850 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,742 billion cu ft 2019  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 6,697 thousand short tons 2019  
Total Exports US Virgin Islands United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 591 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 4,656 billion cu ft 2019  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 93,765 thousand short tons 2019  
Supply  
Production US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 96 trillion Btu 2018  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 706,307 thousand short tons 2019  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 4,208 billion kWh 2018  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation 1 billion kWh 2,657 billion kWh 2018  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources * 749 billion kWh 2018  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 293 billion kWh 2018  
    »  Other Renewables * 457 billion kWh 2018  
Consumption  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Energy * 101 trillion Btu 2018  
Total Petroleum Products 16 thousand barrels/day 19,958 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Motor Gasoline 1 thousand barrels/day 9,327 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Distillate Fuel 9 thousand barrels/day 3,932 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Liquefied Refinery Gases 2 thousand barrels/day 1,299 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Jet Fuel 2 thousand barrels/day 1,682 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Kerosene * 5 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Residual Fuel 2 thousand barrels/day 342 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Other Petroleum Products 0 thousand barrels/day 3,371 thousand barrels/day 2017  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 31,099 billion cu ft 2019  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 588,415 thousand short tons 2019  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source US Virgin Islands United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels 2 million metric tons 5,284 million metric tons 2018  
Petroleum 2 million metric tons 2,385 million metric tons 2018  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,639 million metric tons 2018  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,260 million metric tons 2018  

Analysis

Last Updated: December 17, 2020

Overview

The U.S. Virgin Islands is shifting from fuel oil to propane to generate electricity and produce public drinking water.

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), part of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, has been a U.S. territory since 1917 and is located in the Caribbean Sea, about 1,100 miles southeast of Miami, Florida.1,2 The USVI has no fossil energy reserves, but does have some renewable resources, particularly solar energy.3,4 The USVI imports petroleum products to meet most of its energy needs, including the fuels to operate vehicles and boats, generate electricity, and to run the ocean water desalination plants that produce its public water supply.5,6

The USVI consists of four main islands that have a total area of 133 square miles, about twice the size of Washington, DC. The islands are hilly and forested. With limited land suitable for farming, most food is imported.7 The largest island is St. Croix. It lies about 40 miles south of the territory's three other inhabited islands: St. John, St. Thomas, and Water Island. The highest peak in the USVI is Crown Mountain, at nearly 1,600 feet, on St. Thomas.8 Located between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to the west and the British Virgin Islands to the east, the USVI has a subtropical climate with easterly trade winds and little seasonal variation in its warm temperatures. The Caribbean hurricane season, which runs from June to November, sometimes brings destructive storms.9 On average, a hurricane passes near the USVI every three years, and one directly hits the islands about every eight years. In September 2017, the USVI was struck by two back-to-back storms, Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which were both category 5 hurricanes with sustained winds of more than 156 miles per hour.10 The hurricanes significantly damaged most of the USVI's electric distribution and transmission lines and also damaged several power generating facilities. The cost to rebuild from the destruction was an estimated $7.5 billion, which is about two times the value of the territory's annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP).11,12

The territory's population was estimated at about 106,000 in 2020.13 Most of the USVI's population is evenly divided between St. Thomas and St. Croix, and about 4,300 residents are on St. John. Fewer than 200 people live on Water Island.14 Tourism, trade, and service industries account for about three-fifths of the USVI's GDP, and government spending accounts for about one-third. Manufacturing was second only to tourism in economic importance until the February 2012 closure of the Hovensa crude oil refinery on St. Croix. The islands' leading economic activity is tourism, which typically brings in between 2.5 million and 3 million visitors a year, although tourism declined following the two destructive 2017 hurricanes. Manufacturing is now focused on rum distilling, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.15,16 The USVI's per capita energy consumption is slightly higher than the average of the 50 U.S. states.17,18,19

Petroleum

The USVI has no known crude oil reserves and does not produce crude oil, although a U.S. Geological Survey assessment in 2013 identified the potential for undiscovered crude oil resources in a subsea formation south of the islands.20,21 The Hovensa petroleum refinery on St. Croix, once one of the 10 largest crude oil refineries in the world, was a substantial part of the USVI's economy and provided most of the islands' petroleum products until it was shut down in 2012.22 A portion of the refinery was scheduled to reopen in late 2019 to produce the marine fuel that meets new international low-sulfur requirements that took effect in 2020.23 However, the restart of the refinery has been delayed, in part, because of the drop in global petroleum demand during the Covid-19 pandemic.24 When the refinery is restarted it will be able to process about 200,000 barrels of crude oil per day, less than half the 500,000 barrels per day that were previously refined. The Virgin Islands' refined petroleum products are imported primarily through the port of Christiansted on St. Croix. Major supply sources include Europe and nations in the Caribbean Basin and South America.25,26

Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel, and propane account for about four-fifths of all petroleum products consumed in the USVI, where they are used for electricity generation and the production of drinking water supplies. Jet fuel, motor gasoline, and kerosene make up the remaining one-fifth of the island's petroleum consumption.27 The islands' electric and water utility has converted some of its fuel oil-powered generation units to propane, which make the units less expensive to operate and also help the utility meet clean air quality requirements.28,29,30,31,32 In 2010, the USVI's government set a goal of reducing petroleum use in the territory by 60% by 2025. In 2015, the government reaffirmed to meet that petroleum reduction goal.33,34,35

Electricity

The USVI’s two separate island grids each maintain their own backup generation and reserves.

The USVI has two separate electricity grids, each with its own generation, managed by the Water and Power Authority (WAPA), an independent governmental agency. Generating units include combustion and steam turbines powered with fuel oil or propane, as well as some solar power facilities owned by independent power producers (IPPs) and residents with rooftop solar panels. More than half of the USVI's generating units that run on fossil fuels are more than 25 years old. Some of WAPA's older generators are being replaced with combinations of smaller units that will allow more efficient balancing with renewable energy sources, which generate electricity at variable levels. The St. Thomas system, with about 138 megawatts of generating capacity, supplies electricity to nearby St. John Island and to Water Island by underwater cable. The St. Croix system, with about 100 megawatts of capacity, is separated from the St. Thomas system by 40 miles of ocean, so each system serves its own grid. Average loads are less than half of the systems' capacities, because both isolated systems maintain their own backup generation and reserves. Seabed depth makes any potential electrical connection between the St. Thomas and St. Croix systems difficult. During the back-to-back hurricanes in September 2017, 80% to 90% of the USVI's transmission and distribution systems were damaged or destroyed.36,37,38,39 To mitigate future disruption of the islands' grid, WAPA has added backup generating units that include battery storage.40,41,42 The territory is also building underground electrical lines and composite electrical poles that can survive winds up to 200 miles per hour.43,44

Historically, most electricity generation on the islands was fueled with imported petroleum. In 2019, about two-thirds of the islands' electricity was generated by fuel oil, about one-third by propane, and slightly more than 1% by solar power. Fuel surcharges for diesel and residual fuel oil have resulted in USVI having electricity rates up to five times higher than the U.S. average price for electricity.45,46,47 The islands' residential electricity price in mid-2020 was about 41 cents per kilowatthour (which included a fuel surcharge of 15 cents), more than three times higher than the U.S. average price of 13 cents.48,49 After petroleum prices increased in 2008, WAPA explored converting its generating facilities to operate on imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), but the utility opted to build the less expensive shipping and storage facilities needed to fuel its generators with propane.50,51 The turbine conversions for the project have given WAPA's generators fuel flexibility, and allow several of them to burn propane, fuel oil, or natural gas.52,53 Increased propane use is expected to cut generating plant emissions up to 20%, helping the USVI to meet clean air standards and enabling WAPA to cut future fuel surcharges by 30%. However, the utility has come under criticism because fuel conversion projects have taken longer to complete, costs have exceeded original estimates, and residential electricity prices remain high.54,55,56,57

Slightly more than one-third of WAPA's electricity is consumed by the residential sector, and just under one-third is consumed by large power users that each use more than 25 kilowatts. Nearly one-fifth of electricity sales go to commercial users that each consume less than 25 kilowatts. Primary customers, which are very large electric users, and street lighting account for about one-sixth of electricity use.58,59,60

Renewable energy

About 20% of the USVI’s electricity generation capacity comes from renewables.

The USVI government's goal to reduce fossil fuel use led the government to work with U.S. federal agencies and local industries to develop the islands' substantial renewable energy potential, including solar, wind, and biomass.61,62 In 2009, the USVI's legislature approved a renewables portfolio target that aims to have 25% of WAPA's peak demand generating capacity come from renewable sources by 2020, 30% by 2025, and increasing after that until a majority of the islands' generating capacity is fueled by renewable energy.63 In 2018, about 20% of the USVI's electric generation capacity came from renewables, with about one-third of that capacity coming from large solar energy facilities and the other two-thirds coming from customer-installed, small rooftop solar panel systems.64

The USVI has significant solar power potential on its islands and has installed more than 8 megawatts of large-scale solar power generating capacity.65,66 The USVI's first large solar facility was a 450-kilowatt, 1,800-panel array at King Airport on St. Thomas installed in 2011.67 The largest solar facility in the Virgin Islands is the Donoe solar farm on St. Thomas, which came online in 2015 with 4.2 megawatts of generating capacity. Much of the solar farm was destroyed by Hurricane Irma in September 2017. WAPA, which does not own Donoe but buys its electricity, said in late 2019 that the solar farm would be redeveloped to have a larger generating capacity of 5 megawatts.68 The Spanish Town solar farm, which opened on St. Croix in 2014 with 4 megawatts of generating capacity, was also damaged by Hurricane Irma. The facility was offline for months while it and the island's grid were repaired. As with Donoe, the Spanish Town facility is privately owned and WAPA purchases its power.69,70,71 More than 50 megawatts of solar and wind generating capacity, along with battery energy storage, are under construction or planned.72,73,74 In addition, customer-sited, small-scale solar generation on rooftops provided about 15 megawatts of generating capacity through WAPA's net metering program in 2018.75,76,77

Because of concerns about grid stability with intermittent generation from renewables, the USVI's net metering law initially capped total net metered connections at 10 megawatts on the St. Thomas grid and 5 megawatts on the St. Croix system. Those limits were reached in 2017 and the program was closed to new customers. The island's governor initiated a new net-metering program in 2019 to allow more residents to participate, but required new customers to receive less compensation for their excess power and pay higher grid-access fees.78,79 The USVI's government also provides rebates for residential solar water heaters.80 Solar water heaters that provide at least 70% of a building's water heating needs are required in all new construction and in major renovations.81

The USVI has some commercial wind energy potential.82,83 The most promising locations for utility-scale wind projects are on the islands' high ridges and exposed capes.84 Wind speeds were found suitable for commercial-scale turbines at sites around Longford on St. Croix and the Bovoni Peninsula on St. Thomas.85 By mid-2024, WAPA plans to install 16.5 megawatts of wind generating capacity on St. Croix and 12 megawatts on St. Thomas.86,87,88

The USVI has also considered developing other renewables in waste-to-energy, landfill gas, and biomass energy.89 Studies estimate that combustion of landfill waste could provide up to 8 megawatts of generating capacity and also reduce waste volumes, but proposals for waste-to-energy plants at landfills on St. Thomas and St. Croix were deemed too costly.90,91

Natural gas

The USVI does not produce natural gas and has no known natural gas reserves, although a recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered natural gas resources in the same subsea formation south of the islands that is also thought to contain petroleum resources.92,93 To reduce dependence on petroleum fuels, island officials have considered ways to access natural gas, such as importing LNG. However, the islands' small energy demand makes building an LNG terminal difficult to justify economically.94 The territory's electric utility, WAPA, considered converting generators to burn LNG but has opted for less costly propane.95 Some of the utility's generators are now tri-fuel capable and can burn propane, natural gas, or petroleum products.96

Coal

The USVI has no known coal reserves and does not produce or use coal.97

Endnotes

1 VI Now, General U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed November 20, 2020.
2 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed November 20, 2020.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, accessed November 20, 2020.
4 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. vi.
5 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption (Mb/d), 2017.
6 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Energy, Refined petroleum products-imports, 2015 estimate.
7 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Geography and Economy, accessed November 20, 2020.
8 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed November 20, 2020.
9 VI Now, Weather in the Virgin Islands, accessed November 20, 2020.
10 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 1-2.
11 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2-3.
12 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy-overview, accessed November 20, 2020.
13 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, People and Society, Population, July 2020 estimate.
14 VIMovingCenter, Virgin Islands Demographics, accessed November 21, 2020.
15 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy, accessed November 21, 2020.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "U.S. Virgin Islands GDP increases 1.5 percent in 2018; Growth driven by post-disaster recovery activities," Press Release (December 17, 2019).
17 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Primary energy, Total energy consumption (quad Btu), 2017.
18 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, People and Society, Population, July 2020 estimate.
19 U.S. EIA, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed November 21, 2020.
21 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
22 "Hovensa Shutdown Leads to Significant Drop in US Virgin Islands' GDP," Caribbean Journal (August 19, 2013).
23 Kossler, Bill, "Company: Limetree Bay on Schedule to Start Refining," The St. John Source (September 26, 2019).
24 Sanicola, Laura, "Exclusive: BP may cut oil supply to Caribbean refinery if it stays idle - sources," Reuters (October 16, 2020).
25 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, monthly reports, 2020 and 2019.
26 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Energy, Refined petroleum products-imports, 2016 estimate.
27 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, U.S. Virgin Islands, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption (MB/d), 2017.
28 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 4, 12, 16.
29 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2.
30 Shimel, Judi, "Judge Finds Encouragement in WAPA Compliance Update," The St. Thomas Source (September 21, 2018).
31 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, News & Info, Megawatt Hours Production Report, (October 2020).
32 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, Generation, p. 43.
33 Johnson, Caley, U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-52565 (September 2011), p. v.
34 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed November 21, 2020.
35 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, Regulation and planning, p. 50.
36 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 5, 6.
37 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
38 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2-3.
39 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, Challenges, p. 48.
40 "WAPA Enters into Contract to Install Standby Generators on St. John," The St. John Source (August 22, 2019).
41 Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Enters Into Contract for Installation of Standby Generators on St. John with Battery Storage," Press Release (August 21, 2019).
42 "WAPA Signs Contract for Four New Generators, Battery Storage System at Harley Plant," The St. John Source (July 22, 2020).
43 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Awards Federally Funded Composite Pole Installation Contracts for St. Thomas and St. John," Press release (October 8, 2020).
44 Source staff, "WAPA Board Approves Contracts for Underground Equipment, More Composite Poles," The St. John Source (October 29, 2020).
45 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (May 2020), p. 1.
46 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 4.
47 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, WAPA energy rates, p. 46-47.
48 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Rates, Electric Rate, As of July 1, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2020), Table 5.6.B.
50 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 47.
51 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
52 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
53 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
54 Needham, John, "Clean, Affordable Power Arrives on U.S. Virgin Islands," Butane-Propane News (September 14, 2016).
55 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 4, 12, 16.
56 Rao, A.J., "Residents slam WAPA study, demand relief," The Virgin Islands Daily News (December 5, 2019).
57 Source staff, "WAPA Board OKs Petition for Base Rate Increase," The St. Thomas Source (April 30, 2019).
58 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, WAPA sales by customer type between 2010 and 2016, p. 46.
59 Virgin Islands Energy Office, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy, Highlights (December 2009) p. 2.
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (May 2020), p. 1.
61 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
62 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, Renewable Energy Opportunities, p. vi.
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Renewables Portfolio Targets, updated May 6, 2015.
64 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
65 Archibald, Wayne, et al., "Islands in the Sun," IEEE Electrification Magazine (March 2015), p. 60.
66 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2.
67 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiatives, Islands, "U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy" (January 2015), p. 2.
68 Source staff, "St. Thomas Solar Farm Being Rebuilt Bigger Than Before," The St. John Source (October 25, 2019).
69 NRG, "NRG Energy Celebrates the Spanish Town Estate Solar Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands," Press Release (October 29, 2014).
70 Walton, Rod, "BMR Energy Acquiring, Fixing Maria-damaged Solar Farm in Virgin Islands," Power Engineering (August 8, 2018).
71 BMR Energy, BMR Energy's St. Croix Spanish Town Project, accessed November 22, 2020.
72 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, Increase utility-scale renewables, p. 58.
73 Cobb, Stan, "Energy Office Aims to Expand Solar, Lower Electric Costs," The St. Thomas Source (November 20, 2020).
74 "WAPA undergrounds electricity supply equipment in St Croix," Smart Energy International (October 7, 2020).
75 DeCesaro, Jennifer, "U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 3, 2015).
76 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 2.
77 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, Generation assets by type and capacity, p. 43.
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands-Net Metering, updated March 25, 2015.
79 Buchanan, Don, "New Net-Metering Program May Find Few Takers," The St. John Source (October 23, 2019).
80 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program, updated January 21, 2016.
81 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction, updated June 2, 2020.
82 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
83 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (March 2015), p. 3.
84 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in U.S. Virgin Islands, Maps & Data, accessed November 22, 2020.
85 Roberts, Joseph Owen, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014, NREL/TP-7A40-63094 (December 2014), Executive Summary.
86 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Strategic Transformation Plan (June 2020) p. 17.
87 National Wind Watch, "$50 Million Wind Farm Plan Breezes Through WAPA Board," August 26, 2017.
88 Advance Power LLC, Project Overview, accessed November 25, 2020.
89 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
90 Scanlon, Bill, "Helping the Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
91 Nowakowski, Kelsey, "Growing Pains: Large-Scale Composting in the Virgin Islands," St. Thomas Source (May 22, 2016).
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, Consumption, accessed November 23, 2020.
93 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
94 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 45, 47.
95 USVI Hurricane Recovery and Resilience Task Force Report (September 6, 2018), Individual Chapters: Energy, Generation, p. 43.
96 Julio A. Rhymer Sr., Executive Director/CEO, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Statement Before the Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy, Congressional Testimony (November 2, 2017), p. 3.
97 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves, Supply, Consumption, accessed November 21, 2020.


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