Tennessee State Energy Profile



Tennessee Quick Facts

  • The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is the nation's largest public power corporation by generating capacity. It owns more than 90% of Tennessee's electric generating capacity and about three-fifths of the power plants, including the 10 largest power plants in the state.
  • TVA's Watts Bar 2 generating plant, which began commercial operations in October 2016, is the nation's first new nuclear power reactor to enter service in the 21st century. Tennessee's two nuclear power plants provided 45% of in-state electricity in 2022.
  • Tennessee's one petroleum refinery, located in Memphis, can process about 180,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, which is about 1% of U.S. total refining capacity.
  • The amount of natural gas consumed by Tennessee's electric power sector in 2022, when natural gas fueled 21% of in-state generation, was double the volume from a decade earlier.
  • Tennessee is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power producer in the nation. Hydroelectric power contributed 12% of the state’s generation in 2022.

Last Updated: September 21, 2023



Data

Last Update: June 20, 2024 | Next Update: July 18, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Tennessee Share of U.S. Period
Population 7.1 million 2.1% 2023  
Civilian Labor Force 3.4 million 2.0% Apr-24  
Economy Tennessee U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 523.2 billion 15 2023  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 69,772 million 12 2023  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,049 36 2023  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 83,219 million miles 12 2022  
Land in Farms 10.7 million acres 25 2023  
Climate Tennessee U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 60.0 degrees Fahrenheit 12 2023  
Precipitation 48.7 inches 13 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Tennessee U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 78.97 /barrel Mar-24  
Natural Gas Tennessee U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 4.05 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Residential NA $ 13.85 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Coal Tennessee U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.49 /million Btu $ 2.49 /million Btu Mar-24  
Electricity Tennessee U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.17 cents/kWh 16.68 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Commercial 12.60 cents/kWh 12.76 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Industrial 6.53 cents/kWh 7.73 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2020 find more
Capacity Tennessee Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 180,000 barrels/calendar day 1.0% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 20,940 MW 1.8% Mar-24  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 561 trillion Btu 0.6% 2021 find more
Crude Oil 0 thousand barrels per day 0.0% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 3,016 million cu ft * 2022 find more
Coal * * 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 6,443 thousand MWh 2.0% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Tennessee U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 20.2 % 40.3 % Mar-24 find more
Coal-Fired 15.7 % 11.9 % Mar-24 find more
Nuclear 47.9 % 19.6 % Mar-24 find more
Renewables 16.6 % 27.6 % Mar-24  
Stocks Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 40 thousand barrels 0.4% Mar-24  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 940 thousand barrels 1.0% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 2,253 million cu ft * Mar-24 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 502 thousand barrels 2.2% Mar-24 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Mar-24 find more
Fueling Stations Tennessee Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,550 stations 3.2% 2021  
Propane 47 stations 2.0% May-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 862 stations 1.4% May-24  
E85 87 stations 2.0% May-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 11 stations 0.4% May-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Tennessee U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,102 trillion Btu 14 2022 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 315 million Btu 20 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 36,357 million 15 2022 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,016 26 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Tennessee Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 505 trillion Btu 2.6% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial 420 trillion Btu 2.5% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial 514 trillion Btu 1.7% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation 664 trillion Btu 2.4% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 6,495 million 2.0% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,418 million 2.2% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial $ 4,280 million 1.5% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation $ 20,164 million 2.3% 2022 find more
by Source Tennessee Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 139 million barrels 1.9% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas 428 billion cu ft 1.3% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 9,436 thousand short tons 1.8% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 22,319 million 2.1% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,499 million 1.3% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 740 million 2.8% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 11 thousand barrels 0.8% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas 9,397 million cu ft 1.0% Mar-24 find more
Coal 524 thousand tons 2.4% Mar-24 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Tennessee U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 30.9 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 0.3 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 63.1 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 3.7 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 2.1 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,382 MW 1.0% Mar-24  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 239 million gal/year 1.4% 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 949 thousand MWh 4.1% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 98 thousand MWh 0.2% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 20 thousand MWh 0.5% Mar-24  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 7 thousand MWh 0.1% Mar-24  
Fuel Ethanol Production 4,186 thousand barrels 1.2% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Tennessee U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 9.1 % 30 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 8,024 thousand barrels 13 2021  
Total Emissions Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 92.7 million metric tons 1.9% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Tennessee Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 26,586 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 17 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 11 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: September 21, 2023

Overview

Tennessee stretches almost 500 miles across from the state's eastern border with Virginia and North Carolina to its western border at the Mississippi River.1 Tennessee's westernmost city, Memphis, is one of the world's busiest hubs for barge, air, truck, and rail cargo traffic.2 Wide bends in the Tennessee River divide the state into three regions: the largely mountainous east, a central basin rimmed by highlands, and the low, rolling plains of western Tennessee.3 The eastern part of the state produces coal, natural gas, and crude oil, although those fossil energy reserves are modest.4 Both the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River, which flows in an arc from Kentucky across north-central Tennessee, have histories of destructive floods.5,6 In the 20th Century, a series of dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to control those rivers brought hydroelectricity to the region.7 The federal TVA, the largest government-owned electricity provider by generating capacity in the nation, operates many hydroelectric, nuclear, natural gas-fired, coal-fired, and renewable-energy powered electricity generating facilities in the state. The TVA serves almost all of Tennessee's 95 counties and parts of six other states.8,9,10

Tennessee ranks among the top one-third of states in total energy consumption.

Tennessee consumes nearly four times more energy than it produces, and ranks among the top one-third of the states in total energy consumption and near the middle of the states in per capita energy use.11,12,13 The long travel distances across Tennessee, combined with the state's role as a logistics hub and popular tourism destination spot, make the transportation sector the second-largest energy consumer, accounting for three-tenths of the state's total energy consumption. Manufacturing is a leading contributor to the state's economy, and the industrial sector accounts for one-fourth of the state's energy use.14 The industrial activities that make the largest impact on Tennessee's gross domestic product (GDP) include the manufacture of food, beverages, and tobacco products; motor vehicles and automotive parts; chemicals; fabricated metal products; and electrical equipment.15 Tennessee ranks near the middle of the states and is above the U.S. average in its energy consumption per dollar of GDP.16

Tennessee's climate is relatively mild, but it is greatly influenced by the state's topography. Much of the state experiences hot summers and mild winters. However, the mountains of eastern Tennessee, which include part of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, have much colder winters.17 The residential sector, where both heating and air conditioning are widely used, accounts for slightly less than one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption. The commercial sector is responsible for one-fifth of the state's energy use.18,19

Electricity

The TVA owns more than 90% of Tennessee’s electricity generating capacity.

About 20,000 megawatts, or 92%, of Tennessee's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generating facilities, including the 10 largest power plants in the state by capacity and the 9 largest by actual yearly generation, are owned and operated by the TVA.20,21 TVA facilities in Tennessee include 19 hydroelectric dams, 7 natural gas-fired power plants, 4 coal-fired power plants, 2 nuclear power plants, and 1 pumped-storage hydroelectric plant. The TVA also operates one wind farm and several small solar power facilities in the state.22,23

The largest power plant by capacity in Tennessee is the 2,470-megawatt coal-fired Cumberland generating facility, but the plant ranks third in annual electricity generation. The TVA owns the power plant and plans to shut it down by 2028 and replace it with natural gas-fired generation for economic and environmental reasons. The state's next two largest power plants by capacity are both nuclear powered and each generates more electricity than the Cumberland plant.24,25,26

In 2022, nuclear power provided 45% of the state's total net generation. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired electricity for the first time in 2020, but coal-fired generation returned to the second spot in 2021. However, in 2022, natural gas again fueled the second-largest amount of in-state electricity, accounting for 21% of the state's generation. Coal contributed more than half of the state's electricity generation as recently as 2011, but its share declined to 20% in 2022 with the retirement of nearly 2,700 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity in the past decade. Hydroelectric power contributed 12% of the state's generation in 2022, and solar energy, biomass, petroleum, and wind energy provided almost all the rest of Tennessee's net generation.27,28

Tennessee helped usher in the nuclear age with the nation's first nuclear fuel enrichment plant, built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Knoxville as part of the World War II Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb.29 Today, Tennessee has two nuclear power generating sites, the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant and the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, both located in southeastern Tennessee with two reactors each.30 The Watts Bar power plant has some of the nation's newest nuclear power reactors. Watts Bar Unit 1 began operating in 1996, and Watts Bar Unit 2 entered service in 2016—becoming the nation's first, and, so far only new nuclear reactor to come online in the 21st century. It was the nation's newest nuclear power reactor until the Vogtle nuclear power plant's Unit 3 reactor in Georgia started commercial operation in July 2023.31,32 The TVA is pursuing a federal permit for a possible new nuclear power plant using small modular reactors at a site near Oak Ridge33,34

Despite its many TVA generating facilities, Tennessee imports about one-fourth of its electricity supply to meet the state's power needs.35 Tennessee is among the top 15 states in both residential sector and total electricity sales.36 The average electricity price in Tennessee is below the national average, and the average price for the residential sector is among the lowest 15 states.37 About 6 out of 10 households in Tennessee use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.38

Renewable energy

Tennessee is the seventh-largest conventional hydroelectric power producer in the nation.

Renewable resources, mostly hydropower, supplied about 14% of Tennessee's total in-state electricity net generation in 2022. The state is the seventh-largest conventional hydroelectric power producer in the nation and the third-largest east of the Mississippi River.39,40 There are 26 hydroelectric power plants operating in Tennessee, plus a large pumped storage hydroelectric facility.41 Hydroelectric power accounted for 12% of the state's total generation and nearly 90% of the state's renewable generation.42

The TVA's 1,616-megawatt Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant, which began operating in 1978, is the fourth-largest power plant and the largest hydroelectric facility by generating capacity in Tennessee.43,44 During periods of low power demand, which are usually at night, less costly electricity is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. Then, during periods when power demand and electricity prices are higher, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows down through generating turbines on its way back to the lower reservoir, producing electricity. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity is most needed and prices are highest.45

Solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities contribute the second-largest share of renewable energy generation in Tennessee, providing about 7% of the state's renewable generation in 2022. Almost 90% of that solar generation was at utility-scale facilities that have a capacity of 1 megawatt or larger. The rest came from smaller, customer-sited generating systems of less than 1 megawatt, mostly solar panels installed on residential and business rooftops.46 By mid-2023, Tennessee had about 510 megawatts of total solar power generating capacity.47 Most of the state's utility-scale solar PV generating facilities are located in southwestern Tennessee. The state's largest solar farm, with 150 megawatts of capacity from 500,000 solar panels, came online in March 2022. Another 550 megawatts of solar capacity is expected to come online in 2024, including a large 254-megawatt solar farm at the end of the year.48,49,50

Biomass in the form of wood, wood waste, and landfill gas accounted for about 6% of the state's renewable net generation and nearly 1% of total generation in 2022, all from six utility-scale biomass facilities. One of those biomass facilities, with 5 megawatts of capacity fueled by landfill gas, closed at the end of 2022.51,52 Tennessee's biomass resources are also used as feedstock for the state's three wood pellet manufacturing plants, which can produce about 175,000 tons of pellets annually. Wood pellets are burned for electricity generation and for heating.53,54

Although Tennessee does not have a renewable portfolio standard requiring that a certain amount of its electricity come from renewable energy sources, the state was among the first in the Southeast to develop renewable generation beyond hydroelectric power.55 The region's first major wind farm, located on Buffalo Mountain near Oliver Springs in eastern Tennessee, began operating as a 2-megawatt generating facility in 2000 and has expanded to 15 wind turbines with 27 megawatts of capacity.56,57 However, in 2022, wind power was not a large contributor to Tennessee's energy mix, providing less than 0.1% of the state's net generation.58 The state's best wind resources are along the Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee.59

Tennessee is also a biofuels producer. It is the largest fuel ethanol-producing state in the Southeast and the 14th-largest in the nation.60 The state has three fuel ethanol plants—two use corn as feedstock and a third, smaller plant uses recycled waste beverages, cosmetics, and health care products—that have a combined production capacity of about 240 million gallons of ethanol per year, which is about one-fourth less than the state's annual ethanol consumption of 336 million gallons.61,62,63,64 In addition, Tennessee has one biodiesel plant with a production capacity of 36 million gallons annually, about one-fourth greater than the 29 million gallons of biodiesel used yearly in the state. Tennessee is the 16th-biggest biodiesel-producing state.65,66,67

Petroleum

Tennessee has minor proved crude oil reserves and produces a small amount of crude oil.68,69 The first commercial crude oil production in Tennessee occurred in 1866, but only small amounts of crude oil have been produced in the state. Tennessee's oil output peaked at slightly over 1 million barrels in 1982 and 1983, but declined since then. In 2021, the state's annual oil output fell to 141,000 barrels, the lowest level since 1969 after the lingering economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The state's oil output increased in 2022 to 146,000 barrels as the economy improved and petroleum demand increased.70,71,72,73 Most of the oil wells in Tennessee are in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern part of the state.74

Tennessee has one petroleum refinery, located in Memphis, which can process about 180,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and accounts for about 1% of U.S. refining capacity.75 The refinery receives most of its light, low-sulfur crude oil supply via a pipeline from the oil storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma. The Memphis refinery also receives additional crude oil transported by barge on the Mississippi River.76,77 The refinery's products include motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. Refined petroleum products are shipped out by truck and barge, and a pipeline delivers jet fuel directly to the Memphis airport.78,79 Tennessee also receives motor gasoline and diesel fuel from the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline that serve the state as they transport petroleum products from the Gulf Coast region to Mid-Atlantic and Northeast states.80,81

About 88% of Tennessee's petroleum consumption is in its transportation sector, and about six out of ten petroleum barrels consumed in the state are motor gasoline.82,83 Conventional gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, although almost all motor gasoline sold in the state contains at least 10% ethanol.84,85 The industrial sector accounts for 9% of the state's petroleum consumption and the commercial sector uses 2%. The residential sector, where about 4 in 100 Tennessee households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating, consumes a small amount of petroleum.86

Natural gas

Tennessee has no significant proved natural gas reserves and its natural gas production is small.87,88 Most of the state's natural gas-producing wells are located in northeastern Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau.89 Natural gas exploration permits issued in the past decade have focused on exploration in the Chattanooga Shale play, which underlies the northeastern part of the state.90,91

Tennessee's natural gas needs are met by several interstate pipelines that supply the state as they transport natural gas to markets in the East and the Midwest.92,93 Historically, most of the state's natural gas supply entered Tennessee from the south through Mississippi, but, in 2015, volumes from the south began to decline as more natural gas entered the state from the Marcellus and Utica shale regions in Mid-Atlantic states. Fourth-fifths of the natural gas that enters Tennessee now comes by pipeline through Kentucky, and almost all of the rest arrives by way of Mississippi. Nearly 90% of the natural gas that enters Tennessee continues on to other states, mainly Mississippi and Alabama. The state has two underground natural gas storage fields with a combined capacity of 2.4 billion cubic feet, which is less than 0.1% of U.S. total storage capacity.94,95

Tennessee’s electric power sector natural gas consumption in 2022 was double the level from a decade earlier.

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to end users in Tennessee and accounted for 37% of state natural gas demand in 2022. With the growth of natural-gas fired generation in the state, the electric power sector's consumption of natural gas doubled in the past decade and accounted for 30% of the state total in 2022. About 18% of the natural gas delivered to consumers went to the residential sector, where about one in three Tennessee households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating. The commercial sector accounted for 15% of the state's natural gas consumption, and a very small amount of natural gas was used in the transportation sector.96,97

Coal

Tennessee's estimated recoverable coal reserves are small, accounting for about 0.2% of the U.S. total, but the state no longer produces coal. The state's few mines last produced coal in early 2020.98,99,100 Commercial coal mining began in Tennessee in the mid-1800s and expanded as railroads were built across the state. Coal production in Tennessee peaked in 1972 at around 11 million tons, and then steadily declined. The state's total coal production at its last two operating mines-one underground mine and one surface mine-fell to 92,000 tons in 2020.101,102,103,104 Only bituminous coal was mined in the state, and almost all the producing mines were located in the northeastern corner of Tennessee near the Kentucky border. There are untapped lignite coal reserves in western Tennessee.105,106,107 About 90% of the coal consumed in the state is used for electric power generation, and the rest is used at industrial facilities. Tennessee's coal-fired power plants rely on coal delivered by rail and river barge from other states, primarily Kentucky and Illinois.108,109

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Tennessee, accessed August 21, 2023.
2 Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development, Location and Infrastructure, Make It Here, Take It Anywhere, accessed August 21, 2023.
3 Freeworldmaps.Net, Physical Map of Tennessee, accessed August 21, 2023.
4 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
5 Tennessee Valley Authority, Flood Damage Reduction, accessed August 21, 2023.
6 Hodges, James A., Tennessee, Drainage and soils, Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed August 21, 2023.
7 Tennessee Valley Authority, Flood Damage Reduction, accessed August 21, 2023.
8 Tennessee Valley Authority, About TVA, accessed August 21, 2023.
9 Tennessee Valley Authority, Energy, accessed August 21, 2023.
10 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Service Area, Power Generation and Transmission, Fiscal Year 2021.
11 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2021.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2021.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Tennessee, All statistics in table, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2021.
17 Logan, Joanne, "Tennessee, A Tale of Three Climates," Tennessee's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climate' Series, accessed August 21, 2023.
18 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2020 RECs Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for space heating in U.S. homes by state, 2020 and Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2022, 2022 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Select All, Utility Name: Tennessee Valley Authority.
21 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A, 2B.
22 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2021.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2023, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: All.
24 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A, 2B.
25 Tennessee Valley Authority, Cumberland Fossil Plant, accessed August 22, 2023.
26 Tennessee Valley Authority, "TVA Retiring Cumberland, Continues Transition to Clean Energy Future," Press Release (January 10, 2023).
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-22.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of August 2032, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
29 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Manhattan Project, Oak Ridge Visitor Center & Basic Info, updated May 5, 2022.
30 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tennessee, accessed August 22, 2023.
31 Tennessee Valley Authority, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, accessed August 22, 2023.
32 U.S. EIA, "First new U.S. nuclear reactor since 2016 is now in operation," Today in Energy (August 1, 2023).
33 Tennessee Valley Authority, "TVA Board Authorizes New Nuclear Program to Explore Innovative Technology," Press Release (February 10, 2022).
34 McAlee, Hope, "TVA partnership to design nuclear reactor for Clinch River site," WATE-TV (March 24, 2023).
35 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 10.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 5.6.B.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-22.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 1.10.B.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2023, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-22.
43 Tennessee Valley Authority, Raccoon Mountain, accessed August 23, 2023.
44 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2021, Table 2A.
45 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Hydropower explained, Hydroelectric power is produced with moving water, Pumped-storage hydropower facilities, updated April 20, 2023.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-22.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2023), Table 6.2.B.
48 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Tennessee, accessed August 23, 2023.
49 McCarthy, Darby, "TVA, Meta commission Tennessee's newest large-scale solar energy project," News Channel 5 (May 22, 2022).
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2023, Inventory of Planned Generators as of August 2023, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-22.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2023, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass, Inventory of Retired Generators as of August 2023, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
53 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, May 2023.
54 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
55 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
56 Tennessee Valley Authority, Wind Q+A, accessed August 24, 2023.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2023, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-22.
59 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Tennessee, Maps & Data, accessed August 24, 2023.
60 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Biofuels, in Thousand Barrels, Ranked by State, 2021.
61 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 7, 2023), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS file.
62 " Ethanol Producer Magazine, Plants List, updated accessed August 24, 2023.
63 Dynamic Recycling, Ethanol Processing, accessed August 24, 2023.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity (August 7, 2023), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLSX format.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Biofuels, in Thousand Barrels, in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2021.
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2017-22.
69 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2021, Table 6, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of crude oil and lease condensate, 2021.
70 Historical Tennessee fracking information, 1866-2015, History, Ballotpedia, accessed August 25, 2023.
71 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2022.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Tennessee, 1960-2021.
73 U.S. EIA, "U.S. crude oil production forecast to rise in 2022 and 2023 to record-high levels," Today in Energy (February 16, 2022).
74 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Tennessee, accessed August 25, 2023.
75 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2023 (June 21, 2023), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2023, Tennessee.
76 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed August 25, 2023.
77 Plains, View Our Assets, accessed August 25, 2023.
78 International Port of Memphis, Valero Memphis Refinery, accessed August 25, 2023.
79 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed August 25, 2023.
80 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Us, System Map, accessed August 25, 2023.
81 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed August 25, 2023.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2021.
84 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
85 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
86 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2016-21.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2017-22.
89 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Tennessee, accessed August 26, 2023.
90 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Oil and Gas Data, Oil and Gas Well Permit, Oil & Gas Well Data Viewer, Oil & Gas Well Map Viewer, accessed August 26, 2023.
91 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, updated April 13, 2015.
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Tennessee, accessed August 26, 2023.
93 Pipeline 101, Where are Gas Pipelines Located?, accessed August 26, 2023.
94 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Tennessee, Annual, 2016-21.
95 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Total Storage Capacity, 2016-21.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Tennessee, Annual, 2017-22.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2021, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
99 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2021, (April 2022), Table 2, Coal production by state.
100 U.S. EIA, Weekly Coal Production, Historical data files, 2020-23.
101 Tennessee Encyclopedia, Mining, accessed August 27, 2023.
102 Mining Artifacts, Tennessee Mines, accessed August 27, 2023.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2021 and 2020.
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Tennessee, 1960-2021.
105 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Tennessee, accessed August 27, 2023.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
107 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
108 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2021, and Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2021 and 2020.
109 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, and destination and method of transportation, Tennessee, Table DS-37, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2021.


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