South Carolina State Energy Profile



South Carolina Quick Facts

  • Natural gas deliveries to South Carolina's electric power sector have more than doubled in the past decade, increasing from 87 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2010 to 185 billion cubic feet in 2020.
  • South Carolina’s per capita natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest 10 states, due it part to the state's mild winters. About one in four households in the state rely on natural gas for heating.
  • South Carolina’s four nuclear power plants supplied 55% of the state’s total electricity net generation in 2020, and the state was the third-largest producer of nuclear power in the nation.
  • South Carolina’s industrial sector, which includes the manufacture of motor vehicles, chemicals, and paper products, is the largest end-use energy sector and accounts for about one-third of the state’s total energy consumption.
  • South Carolina ranks among the top 10 states in residential sector per capita electricity sales, and more than 70% of state households heat with electricity and nearly all of them have electric air conditioning.

Last Updated: December 16, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 15, 2022 | Next Update: October 20, 2022

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.2 million 1.6% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 2.4 million 1.4% Jul-22  
Economy South Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 270.1 billion 24 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 40,651 million 22 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 52,074 44 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 53,972 million miles 20 2020  
Land in Farms 4.7 million acres 38 2017  
Climate South Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 63.7 degrees Fahrenheit 7 2021  
Precipitation 47.3 inches 13 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 113.73 /barrel Jun-22  
Natural Gas South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 10.02 /thousand cu ft $ 10.12 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Residential $ 29.20 /thousand cu ft $ 22.73 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Coal South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.32 /million Btu Jun-22  
Electricity South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.21 cents/kWh 15.42 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Commercial 11.65 cents/kWh 12.90 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Industrial 7.68 cents/kWh 8.96 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 24,197 MW 2.1% Jun-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 732 trillion Btu 0.8% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,346 thousand MWh 2.5% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) South Carolina U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 27.5 % 40.9 % Jun-22 find more
Coal-Fired 14.4 % 19.3 % Jun-22 find more
Nuclear 51.4 % 17.3 % Jun-22 find more
Renewables 7.3 % 21.8 % Jun-22  
Stocks South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 95 thousand barrels 0.8% Jun-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 788 thousand barrels 0.9% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 542 thousand barrels 2.5% Jun-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-22 find more
Fueling Stations South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,633 stations 2.3% 2019  
Propane 44 stations 1.8% 2022  
Electricity 338 stations 0.7% 2022  
E85 41 stations 1.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 8 stations 0.6% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary South Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,533 trillion Btu 23 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 299 million Btu 20 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 16,657 million 23 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,247 21 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 359 trillion Btu 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 254 trillion Btu 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 487 trillion Btu 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 433 trillion Btu 1.8% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,465 million 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,534 million 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,581 million 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 7,077 million 1.7% 2020 find more
by Source South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 93 million barrels 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 333 billion cu ft 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 6 million short tons 1.2% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 7,942 million 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,480 million 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 433 million 2.2% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 23 thousand barrels 1.4% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas 20,606 million cu ft 1.8% Jun-22 find more
Coal 560 thousand short tons 1.3% Jun-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) South Carolina U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 23.5 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.6 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 70.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 3,002 MW 1.0% Jun-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 222 thousand MWh 0.8% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 264 thousand MWh 0.5% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 199 thousand MWh 4.2% Jun-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 49 thousand MWh 0.8% Jun-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption South Carolina U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 11.3 % 27 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 5,921 thousand barrels 19 2020  
Total Emissions South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 69.4 million metric tons 1.3% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 23,081 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 19 thousand metric tons 1.9% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 11 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: December 16, 2021

Overview

South Carolina is located on the U.S. East Coast halfway between New York City and Miami. The state does not have any economically recoverable fossil fuel reserves, and its primary energy production comes from its nuclear power plants. The state does have renewable energy resources as well.1,2,3 South Carolina's topography gradually rises from its Atlantic Ocean islands in the southeast to the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest. Hurricanes and tropical storms occasionally strike South Carolina or come close to its coastline, and they can damage the state's power plants, electric grid, and other energy infrastructure. South Carolina ranks seventh among states that have taken the most direct hits from these storms, according to meteorological records. The coastal plain, which covers two-thirds of South Carolina, is known as the Low Country and extends westward across the swamps and flatlands of the outer coastal plain to the fertile low hills of South Carolina's inner coastal plain until it reaches the Fall Line, an area of waterfalls and rapids. The remaining one-third of the state, known as the Up Country, includes the forested hills of the Piedmont region and South Carolina's mountains.4,5,6 The state is crossed by many large rivers that flow from the Up Country to the ocean, and South Carolina's rivers and lakes provide considerable hydropower potential.7 With about three-fifths of South Carolina forested, the wood waste from the state's forests, lumber mills, and wood products industry yields significant amounts of biomass.8 Methane from landfills in more densely populated areas provides South Carolina with an additional biomass resource.9

South Carolina uses more than twice as much energy as it produces.

South Carolina consumes more than twice as much energy as it produces, and its energy consumption and energy production each rank around the midpoint of the states.10,11,12 The industrial sector is the largest end-use energy-consuming sector and accounts for about one-third of the state's total energy use.13 The state's manufacturing activities are a major contributor to South Carolina's GDP and include: motor vehicle assembly; chemicals; electrical equipment and computers; paper and wood products; plastics and rubber; machinery; and food products.14,15 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy-consuming sector and accounts for about three-tenths of the state's energy use, primarily as motor gasoline.16,17 South Carolina's coastal islands, beaches, and mild winters draw tourists and new residents, pushing the state into the top 10 in population growth from 2010 to 2020 and contributing to increases in residential and commercial energy consumption. The residential sector consumes about one-fifth of the state's energy and the commercial sector accounts for about one-sixth.18,19,20

Electricity

In 2020, South Carolina ranked third in the nation in nuclear power generation.

Nuclear energy is the leading source of electricity generation in South Carolina and produced 55% of total in-state electricity in 2020.21 South Carolina ranks third in the nation, after Illinois and Pennsylvania, in both nuclear power generating capacity and the amount of electricity generated by nuclear energy.22 There are seven operating reactors at four nuclear power plants in the state.23 South Carolina's three largest power plants in terms of actual annual electricity generation are the three-reactor Oconee nuclear facility, the two-reactor Catawba station and the single-reactor Summer plant.24 The one reactor at the Robinson generating station was the first nuclear power plant in the Southeast and the largest U.S. generating plant when it came online in 1971.25 Construction of two additional nuclear reactors at the Summer nuclear power station ceased in July 2017 and the expansion project was halted, due in part to higher-than-expected construction costs.26,27

Natural gas-fired generation in South Carolina exceeded coal-fired electricity for the first time in 2018 and accounted for 24% of the state's total generation 2020. The amount of electricity generated in the state from natural gas more than doubled between 2014 and 2020.28 Natural gas fuels 4 of South Carolina's 10 largest power plants by both capacity and generation.29 In 2020, the state's four coal-fired power plants accounted for the 13% of total generation, less than half as much electricity as coal provided in 2014. The state's second-largest coal-fired power plant, with 1,150 megawatts in generating capacity, is scheduled to close at the end of 2028.30,31 Almost all of the state's remaining electricity generation, about 8%, was provided by renewable resources at hydropower facilities, solar panel generating systems, and biomass-fueled power plants that use wood waste or landfill gas.32

South Carolina generates about 15% more electricity than it consumes and sends its surplus power across the regional grid to other states.33 South Carolina ranks among the top one-fourth of the states in per capita electricity retail sales, in part because of the high demand for air conditioning during the state's hot and humid summer months.34,35 The residential sector accounts for the largest share of electricity retail sales—about 40% of the state's total. About 7 in 10 South Carolina households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating and nearly all households use electricity for air conditioning.36,37 South Carolina ranks among the top 10 states in residential sector per capita electricity sales.38

Petroleum

South Carolina has no crude oil reserves or production, and there are no petroleum refineries in the state.39,40 All petroleum products arrive from out of state, and most enter South Carolina at the Port of Charleston or by way of two major refined product pipelines from the Gulf Coast: the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline (formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline).41,42,43,44

South Carolina’s per capita motor gasoline expenditures rank among the top one-fourth of the states.

South Carolina's total and per capita petroleum consumption rank near the middle of all the states.45 The transportation sector consumes nearly 9 out of 10 barrels of the petroleum used in the state.46 South Carolina ranks among the top one-fourth of states in per capita motor gasoline expenditures, in part because of gasoline sales to nonresidents who travel on the state's major interstate corridors along the Eastern Seaboard.47,48,49 South Carolina does not require the use of reformulated gasoline blended with ethanol. The sale of conventional gasoline without ethanol is allowed statewide, although most gasoline sold in the United States is blended with at least 10% ethanol.50,51,52 South Carolina has no fuel ethanol production plants, but the state accounts for about 2% of U.S. ethanol consumption.53,54 South Carolina has one biodiesel plant with an annual production capacity of about 5 million gallons, and the state accounts for almost 1% of U.S. biodiesel use.55,56 Only 4 in 100 South Carolina households rely on petroleum products, mainly propane, for home heating.57

Natural gas

South Carolina has no economically recoverable natural gas reserves or production.58,59 All natural gas consumed in the state arrives by way of interstate pipelines. Several major interstate pipeline systems transport natural gas from the Gulf Coast through Georgia and deliver the supply into South Carolina. About two-fifths of the natural gas that enters South Carolina continues on to markets in North Carolina and further north and in Georgia to the south.60,61

Natural gas consumption by South Carolina’s electric power sector has more than doubled in the last decade.

South Carolina's per capita natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest 10 states, but its total natural gas use is more than in two-fifths of the states.62 Over the past decade, natural gas use in South Carolina has increased the most in the electric power sector, where consumption more than doubled from 2010 to 2020.63,64,65 South Carolina's electric power sector use of natural gas has exceeded that of any other energy-consuming sector since 2009 and accounted for slightly more than half of the state's total natural gas consumption in 2020. Industrial sector natural gas demand steadily increased every year from 2000 to 2019, but declined slightly in 2020 when it accounted for almost three-tenths of the state's total natural gas use.66 The residential sector accounts for almost one-tenth of the state's natural gas consumption. Winters are generally mild, and overall demand for heating in the state is relatively low. About one in four households in the state use natural gas for home heating. The commercial sector makes up about 7% of the state's natural gas use.67,68,69

Renewable energy

Hydropower, solar energy, and biomass are South Carolina's primary renewable resources for generating electricity and accounted for about 8% of its total in-state net generation in 2020.70 There are 33 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) hydroelectric generating plants in South Carolina, including several large pumped storage facilities—one of which is the fourth-largest generating facility by capacity in the state. South Carolina is third among the states for the most pumped storage hydropower capacity, with 12% of the U.S. total. Most of the conventional hydroelectric facilities, which accounted for about 4% of net generation in 2020, are located in the northwestern part of the state.71,72,73,74,75

More electricity was generated in South Carolina from solar power than biomass for the first time in 2020.

An increasing amount of South Carolina's renewable electricity generation comes from solar energy, which surpassed biomass-fueled generation for the first time in 2020. Total solar power accounted for 2% of the state's total net generation in 2020, with solar electricity generation nearly tripling since 2018. All of the state's new utility-scale generating capacity in 2020 and 2021—about 470 megawatts—is powered by solar energy.76,77

South Carolina ranks in the top 10 states in total biomass generation, and biomass fueled about 2% of the state's total net generation in 2020.78,79 With about 13 million acres of forest that cover nearly two-thirds of the state, forestry is a leading industry in South Carolina, and there are 9 utility-scale power plants in the state that burn wood and wood waste for generating electricity.80,81,82,83 The state's biomass resources also provide feedstock for two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 611,000 tons per year.84

South Carolina has 10 landfill gas-fueled generating facilities. In 2001, Santee Cooper became the first utility in the state to produce electricity with methane gas from landfills.85,86 The state's first anaerobic digester project came online in 2011, and generates power from methane gas captured at a hog farm.87,88 An anaerobic digester project that uses poultry waste to generate electricity began operations in 2013.89,90 South Carolina also has biomass resources in the form of agricultural residues from corn, wheat, and soybean crops.91

South Carolina does not have substantial onshore wind energy resources, but it does have offshore wind potential.92 While the state does not have any installed utility-scale wind generating capacity, it has several manufacturers and assemblers of wind turbine components.93 South Carolina also has low-temperature geothermal resources, but they are tapped mostly for use in geothermal heat pumps to provide heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings.94

In 2014, South Carolina's legislature authorized the creation of a voluntary Distributed Energy Resource Program for electric utilities and required the Public Service Commission to develop net metering rules. The voluntary goal seeks to increase in-state renewable electricity generating capacity and allow participating utilities to recover costs connected to their renewable generation target. The program's target is for 2% of a participating utility's aggregate generating capacity to be fueled by renewable resources by 2021. As of September 2021, renewables fueled 24% of the state's total utility-scale generating capacity at facilities that are one megawatt or larger.95,96

Coal

South Carolina has no coal production and no economically recoverable coal reserves.97 Coal is used in the state almost exclusively for electricity generation, although the amount of coal-fired generation in South Carolina has declined over the past decade. In 2020, in-state coal generation was about one-third of what it was in 2010. Almost all the coal for the state's coal-fired power plants arrives by rail from Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. The industrial sector also receives a small amount of coal deliveries in the state.98,99 The Port of Charleston used to handle significant shipments of coal, but now it only has minor amounts of imports and exports. Coal imports at Charleston peaked at nearly 2 million tons in 2006, but were just 38,000 tons in 2020. Coal exports were even less-about 1,000 tons in 2020.100

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), South Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, Environment, accessed November 2, 2021.
2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, accessed November 2, 2021.
3 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed November 2, 2021.
4 Donegan, Brian, "North Carolina Second Only to Florida for U.S. Tropical Storms and Hurricanes," The Weather Channel, (September 11, 2018).
5 NETSTATE, South Carolina, The Geography of South Carolina, accessed November 2, 2021.
6 World Atlas, Maps of South Carolina, updated February 25, 2021.
7 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, South Carolina State Water Assessment, Chapter 9, Special Topics (2009).
8 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forests of South Carolina 2019.
9 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed November 2, 2021.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P5B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Renewable and Total Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
14 South Carolina Department of Commerce, Industries, accessed November 2, 2021.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, South Carolina, All statistics in table, South Carolina, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
19 South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, South Carolina Beaches, accessed November 2, 2021.
20 Liu, Michelle, "South Carolina growth clustered among coast, Charlotte areas," AP News (August 12, 2021).
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
22 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.13, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy, Table 4.7.A, Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units by Technology and by State, 2020 and 2019 (Megawatts).
23 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, accessed November 3, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
25 Duke Energy, Nuclear Education, Robinson Nuclear, a pioneer in nuclear energy (October 22, 2013).
26 SCANA, "South Carolina Electric & Gas Company to cease construction and will file plan of abandonment of the new nuclear project," Press Release (July 31, 2017).
27 Collins, Jeffrey, "1 Year After Nuclear Plants Abandoned, Fallout Continues," Associated Press (July 28, 2018).
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
29 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020, and Table 2B, The largest power plants by generation, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2021, Plant State: South Carolina, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
33 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020, South Carolina.
34 U.S. EIA, 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10, Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
36 U.S. Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, South Carolina, 2001-20.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Carolina.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, accessed November 5, 2021.
40 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, PAD District 1, 2016-21.
41 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, August 2020 to August 2021.
42 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed November 5, 2021.
43 Kinder Morgan, Product Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed November 5, 2021.
44 Kinder Morgan, Form 10-K, For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, Products Pipeline, Southeast Refined Products, PPL Pipeline, p. 10.
45 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2019.
48 South Carolina Office of Regulatory Staff, Energy Office, South Carolina Energy Statistical Highlights (October 2015), p. 10.
49 U.S. Department of Commerce, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2019, Table 5.4.2.
50 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed November 5, 2021.
51 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
52 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
53 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Environment, Renewable Energy Capacity, Renewable Energy Consumption, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
57 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Carolina.
58 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2014-19.
59 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Supply & Distribution, Production, Natural Gas - Marketed, accessed November 15, 2021.
60 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Pipeline, accessed November 15, 2021.
61 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, South Carolina, 2015-20.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
63 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Carolina, 1997-2020.
64 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
66 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Carolina, Annual, 1997-2020.
67 Mizzell, Hope, "Low Country, Upstate and a Lot of Weather in Between-South Carolina's Climate," CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed November 15, 2021.
68 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Carolina.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Carolina, Annual, 2015-20.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2021, Plant State: South Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
72 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed November 15, 2021.
73 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020.
74 National Hydropower Association, 2021 Pumped Storage Report, p. 34.
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2021, Inventory of Planned Generators as of September 2021, Plant State: South Carolina, Technology: Select All.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 29, 2021), Table 3.19, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Biomass.
80 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forests of South Carolina, 2018.
81 Morning AgClips, "Forestry generates $21.2 billion impact on SC's economy," (November 13, 2019).
82 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2021, South Carolina, Technology: Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
83 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Timber Product Output and Use for South Carolina, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, August 2021.
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2021, Plant State: South Carolina, Technology: Landfill Gas.
86 Straight, Jeff, "Let's Talk Trash: Turning Methane Gas into Renewable Energy," Santee Cooper (July 14, 2020).
87 Biomass Magazine, Burrows Hall Farm, accessed November 16, 2021.
88 "Piggy power: Electricity from hog waste a S.C. first," Associated Press (January 30, 2011).
89 Biomass Magazine, Collins Chick Farm, accessed November 16, 2021.
90 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database, South Carolina, accessed November 16, 2021.
91 Harris, Robert A., et al., Final Report to the South Carolina Forestry Commission on Potential for Biomass Energy Development in South Carolina, p. 25, accessed November 16, 2021.
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in South Carolina, Maps & Data, accessed November 16, 2021.
93 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Wind Prospector, Wind Manufacturing Facilities, accessed November 16, 2021.
94 South Carolina Energy Office, Renewable Energy, Geothermal, accessed November 16, 2021.
95 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Carolina Distributed Energy Resource Program, updated June 18, 2018.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2021, Plant State: South Carolina, Technology: Select All.
97 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, accessed November 15, 2021.
98 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-20.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, South Carolina, Table DS-34, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, Previous Quarterly Coal Data, 4th Quarter 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map