South Carolina State Energy Profile



South Carolina Quick Facts

  • Natural gas deliveries to South Carolina's electric power sector have more than doubled in the past decade, increasing from 74.3 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2009 to 186.3 billion cubic feet in 2019.
  • South Carolina’s per capita natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest one-third of the states. About one in four households in the states rely on natural gas for heating.
  • South Carolina’s four nuclear power plants supplied slightly more than half of the state’s electricity net generation in 2019, and the state was the third-largest generator of nuclear power in the nation.
  • South Carolina’s industrial sector is the largest end-use energy sector and accounts for about one-third of the state’s total energy consumption.
  • South Carolina ranks among the top one-fourth of the states in retail sales of electricity per capita, and more than 70% of state households heat with electricity.

Last Updated: November 19, 2020



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.2 million 1.6% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 2.4 million 1.5% Jul-21  
Economy South Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 241.7 billion 26 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 38,705 million 20 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 47,502 45 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 57,939 million miles 23 2019  
Land in Farms 4.7 million acres 38 2017  
Climate South Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 64.7 degrees Fahrenheit 7 2020  
Precipitation 59.9 inches 9 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.63 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential -- $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity South Carolina U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.24 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 10.81 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 6.02 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 24,132 MW 2.1% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 736 trillion Btu 0.7% 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 8,946 thousand MWh 2.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) South Carolina U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 22.8 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 16.6 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 53.8 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 7.3 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 111 thousand barrels 0.9% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 831 thousand barrels 0.8% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 651 thousand barrels 2.8% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,633 stations 2.3% 2019  
Propane 51 stations 1.9% 2021  
Electricity 311 stations 0.8% 2021  
E85 42 stations 1.1% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 9 stations 0.7% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary South Carolina U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,628 trillion Btu 24 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 316 million Btu 22 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 19,580 million 23 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,796 26 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 365 trillion Btu 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 272 trillion Btu 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 517 trillion Btu 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 475 trillion Btu 1.7% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,568 million 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,773 million 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,006 million 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,234 million 1.6% 2019 find more
by Source South Carolina Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 102 million barrels 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 334 billion cu ft 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 7 million short tons 1.1% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,320 million 1.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,632 million 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 518 million 2.0% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 17 thousand barrels 1.1% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 15,228 million cu ft 1.4% Jun-21 find more
Coal 620 thousand short tons 1.3% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) South Carolina U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 23.5 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.6 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 70.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,975 MW 1.1% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 235 thousand MWh 0.9% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 235 thousand MWh 0.6% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 187 thousand MWh 4.0% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 43 thousand MWh 0.8% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption South Carolina U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.2 % 27 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,689 thousand barrels 21 2019  
Total Emissions South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 73.6 million metric tons 1.4% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions South Carolina Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 25,110 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 21 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 13 thousand metric tons 1.0% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 19, 2020

Overview

South Carolina is located on the U.S. East Coast halfway between New York City and Miami. Although the state does not have any economically recoverable fossil fuel reserves, it does have renewable resources.1,2 South Carolina's topography gradually rises from its Atlantic Ocean islands in the southeast to the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest. Hurricanes and tropical storms occasionally strike South Carolina or come close to its coastline, and they can damage the state's power plants, electric grid, and other energy infrastructure. South Carolina ranks seventh among states that have taken the most direct hits from these storms, according to meteorological records. The coastal plain, which covers two-thirds of South Carolina, is known as the Low Country and extends westward across the swamps and flatlands of the outer coastal plain to the fertile low hills of South Carolina's inner coastal plain until it reaches the Fall Line, an area of waterfalls and rapids. The remaining one-third of the state, known as the Up Country, includes the forested hills of the Piedmont region and South Carolina's mountains.3,4,5 The state is crossed by many large rivers that flow from the Up Country to the ocean, and South Carolina's rivers and lakes provide considerable hydropower potential.6 With almost two-thirds of South Carolina forested, the wood waste from the state's forests, lumber mills, and wood products industry yields significant amounts of biomass.7 Methane from landfills in more densely populated areas provides South Carolina with an additional biomass resource.8 However, South Carolina's primary energy production comes from its nuclear power plants.9

The industrial sector is the largest end-use energy sector in the state.

South Carolina's industrial sector is the largest end-use energy sector and accounts for about one-third of the state's total energy consumption.10 The state's manufacturing activities are a major contributor to South Carolina's economy, and include automotive and aeronautical assembly; chemicals; fabricated metal products and primary metals; paper and wood products; machinery; plastics; electrical equipment, computers, and electronic products; food products and processing; and textiles.11,12 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy-consuming sector and uses slightly less than three-tenths of the state's energy, primarily as motor gasoline.13,14 South Carolina's coastal islands, beaches, and mild winters draw tourists and new residents, pushing the state into the top 10 in population growth in 2019 and contributing to increases in residential and commercial energy consumption. The residential sector consumes about one-fifth of the state's energy and the commercial sector consumes about one-sixth.15,16,17

Electricity

In 2019, South Carolina ranked third in the nation in nuclear power generation.

Nuclear energy is the leading source of electricity generation in South Carolina and produced just more than half of in-state electricity in 2019.18 In 2019, South Carolina ranked third in the nation, after Illinois and Pennsylvania, in both nuclear generating capacity and annual nuclear power generation.19 There are seven operating reactors at four nuclear power plants in the state, all of which are among South Carolina's five largest power plants by actual annual electricity generation.20,21 The state's largest power plant is the three-reactor Oconee nuclear facility, and two other nuclear stations—the two-reactor Catawba and one-reactor Summer—are among South Carolina's 10 largest power plants in terms of generating capacity.22 The state's one-reactor Robinson nuclear facility was the first nuclear power plant in the Southeast and the largest U.S. generating plant when it came online in 1971.23 Construction of two additional nuclear reactors at the Summer Nuclear Generation Station ceased in July 2017 and the project was abandoned, due in part to higher-than-expected construction costs.24,25

In 2019, coal-fired power plants supplied about one-seventh of the state's electricity generation.26 Two of South Carolina's five largest power plants by capacity are coal-fired. However, the state's coal-fired generation supplies less than half as much electricity as it did a decade earlier.27,28 During the same period, the contribution from natural gas-fired power plants has nearly tripled, accounting for about one-fourth of the state's net generation in 2019 and exceeding the amount of coal-fired generation for the second year in a row. Almost all of the state's remaining electricity generation was provided by renewable resources, including hydropower facilities, biomass-fueled power plants that use wood waste or landfill gas, and solar energy.29

South Carolina generates more electricity than it consumes and sends its surplus power across the regional grid to other states.30 South Carolina ranks among the top one-fourth of the states in total retail sales of electricity per capita, in part because of the high demand for air conditioning during the state's hot and humid summer months.31,32 The largest share of electricity retail sales—about 40% of the state's total—are in the residential sector, where 7 in 10 South Carolina households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.33,34 South Carolina ranks among the top 10 states in residential sector per capita electricity sales.35

Petroleum

South Carolina has no crude oil reserves or production, and there are no petroleum refineries in the state.36,37 All petroleum products arrive from out of state, and most enter South Carolina at the Port of Charleston or by way of two major refined product pipelines from the Gulf Coast—the Colonial and Plantation pipelines.38,39,40

South Carolina’s per capita motor gasoline expenditures rank among the top 10 states.

South Carolina's total and per capita petroleum consumption ranks near the middle of all the states.41 Nearly 9 out of 10 barrels of the petroleum used in the state is consumed by the transportation sector.42 South Carolina ranks among the top 10 states in per capita motor gasoline expenditures, in part because of gasoline sales to nonresidents who travel on the state's major interstate corridors along the Eastern Seaboard.43,44,45 South Carolina does not require the use of reformulated gasoline that is blended with ethanol. The sale of conventional gasoline without ethanol is allowed statewide, although most gasoline sold in the United States is blended with at least 10% ethanol.46,47,48 South Carolina has no ethanol production plants, but the state accounts for about 2% of U.S. ethanol consumption.49,50 South Carolina has one biodiesel plant with an annual production capacity of about 5 million gallons, and the state accounts for almost 1% of U.S. biodiesel use.51,52 Only 4 in 100 South Carolina households rely on petroleum products, mainly propane, for home heating.53

Natural gas

South Carolina has no economically recoverable natural gas reserves or production.54,55 All natural gas consumed in the state arrives by way of interstate pipelines. Several major interstate pipeline systems transport natural gas from the Gulf Coast through Georgia and deliver it to South Carolina. Half of the supply that enters South Carolina continues on to markets in North Carolina and further north and in Georgia to the south.56,57

Natural gas consumption by South Carolina’s electric power sector has more than doubled in the past decade.

Natural gas use in South Carolina has increased the most in the electric power sector, where consumption has more than doubled in the last decade.58,59,60 South Carolina's electric power sector use of natural gas has exceeded that of any other energy-consuming sector since 2009 and accounted for more than half of the state's total natural gas consumption in 2019. Industrial sector natural gas demand had steadily increased every year from 2000 to 2018, but declined slightly in 2019 when it accounted for almost three-tenths of the state's total natural gas use.61

The residential sector accounts for almost one-tenth of the state's natural gas use. Winters are generally mild, and overall demand for heating in the state is relatively low. About one in four households in the state use natural gas for home heating.62,63,64 South Carolina's per capita natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest one-third of the states.65

Coal

South Carolina does not have any economically recoverable coal reserves or any coal production.66 Coal is used in the state almost exclusively for electricity generation, but the amount of coal-fired generation in South Carolina has dropped by more than half over the past decade. Almost all the coal for the state's coal-fired power plants arrives by rail from Kentucky, Illinois, and West Virginia. A small amount of coal also is delivered to industrial plants in the state.67,68 The Port of Charleston received minor shipments of U.S. coal imports in 2019, but no coal exports.69

Renewable energy

Hydropower, biomass, and solar energy are South Carolina’s primary renewable resources for electricity generation.

Hydropower, biomass, and solar energy are South Carolina's primary renewable resources for generating electricity and accounted for about 6% of the state's net generation during 2019.70 There are about 30 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) hydroelectric generating plants in South Carolina, including several large pumped storage facilities—one of which is the fourth-largest generating facility in the state. Most of the conventional hydroelectric facilities, which accounted for about 3% of net generation in 2019, are located in the northwestern part of the state.71,72,73,74

Biomass fueled about 2% of South Carolina's net generation in 2019.75 With about 13 million acres of forest, forestry is a leading industry in South Carolina and there are 9 utility-scale power plants in the state that burn wood and wood waste for generating electricity.76,77,78 The state's biomass resources also provide feedstock for two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 611,000 tons per year.79

Landfill gas is used to produce electricity at about a dozen generating facilities in South Carolina. In 2001, Santee Cooper became the first utility in the state to produce electricity with methane gas from landfills.80,81 The state's first anaerobic digester project came online in 2011, and generates power from methane gas captured at a hog farm.82,83 An anaerobic digester project that uses poultry waste to generate electricity began operations in 2013.84,85 South Carolina also has biomass resources in the form of agricultural residues from corn, wheat, and soybean crops.86

An increasing amount of South Carolina's renewable electricity generation comes from solar energy.87 Utility-scale solar power accounted for nearly 1% of state net generation and increased nearly 70% from 2018 to 2019, when about two dozen solar farms came online. All of the state's new utility-scale generating capacity in 2020 and the capacity scheduled to come online in 2021 and 2022 will be powered by solar energy.88,89

South Carolina does not have substantial onshore wind energy resources, but it does have greater offshore wind potential.90 While South Carolina does not have any installed utility-scale wind generating capacity, more than a dozen manufacturers and assemblers of wind turbine components are located in the state.91 South Carolina also has low-temperature geothermal resources, but they are tapped mostly for use in geothermal heat pumps to provide heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings.92

In 2014, South Carolina's legislature authorized the creation of a voluntary Distributed Energy Resource Program for electric utilities and required the Public Service Commission to develop net metering rules. The voluntary goal seeks to increase in-state renewable electricity generating capacity and allow participating utilities to recover costs connected to their renewable generation target. The program's target is for 2% of a participating utility's aggregate generating capacity to be fueled by renewable resources by 2021. Half of the 2% generation target should come from larger facilities with generating capacities of between 1 and 10 megawatts. The other half should come from facilities with smaller generating capacities of less than 1 megawatt, and one-fourth of that small-scale generation must come from systems of less than 20 kilowatts.93,94

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), South Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, accessed September 28, 2020.
2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, accessed September 28, 2020.
3 Donegan, Brian, "North Carolina Second Only to Florida for U.S. Tropical Storms and Hurricanes," The Weather Channel, (September 11, 2018).
4 NETSTATE, South Carolina, The Geography of South Carolina, accessed September 28, 2020.
5 World Atlas, South Carolina Geography, accessed September 28, 2020.
6 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, South Carolina State Water Assessment, Chapter 9, Special Topics (2009).
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forests of South Carolina 2018, accessed September 28, 2020.
8 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed September 28, 2020.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
11 South Carolina Department of Commerce, Industries, accessed September 28, 2020.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, South Carolina, All statistics in table, South Carolina, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
16 South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, South Carolina Beaches, accessed September 28, 2020.
17 U.S. Census Bureau, "2019 U.S. Population Estimates Continue to Show the Nation's Growth Is Slowing," Press Release, (December 30, 2019).
18 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
19 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020) Tables 1.9.B, 6.2.A.
20 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, accessed September 28, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018.
23 "Robinson Nuclear, a pioneer in nuclear energy," Duke Energy (October 22, 2013).
24 SCANA, "South Carolina Electric & Gas Company to cease construction and will file plan of abandonment of the new nuclear project," Press Release (July 31, 2017).
25 Collins, Jeffrey, "1 Year After Nuclear Plants Abandoned, Fallout Continues," Associated Press (July 28, 2018).
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
27 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
30 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018, South Carolina.
31 U.S. EIA, 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10, Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
33 U.S. Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, South Carolina, 2001-19.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Carolina.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
36 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, accessed September 30, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, PAD District 1, 2020.
38 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed September 30, 2020.
39 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed September 30, 2020.
40 Kinder Morgan, Product Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed September 30, 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
42 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2018.
44 South Carolina Office of Regulatory Staff, Energy Office, South Carolina Energy Statistical Highlights (October 2015), p. 10.
45 U.S. Department of Commerce, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2018, Table 5.4.2.
46 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed September 30, 2020.
47 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
48 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
49 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Environment, Renewable Energy Capacity, Renewable Energy Consumption, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (September 30, 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state.
52 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Carolina.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2013-18.
55 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Supply & Distribution, Production, Natural Gas - Marketed, accessed September 30, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Pipeline, accessed October 15, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, South Carolina, 2014-19.
58 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Carolina, 1997-2019.
59 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2019.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
61 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Carolina, Annual, 1997-2019.
62 Mizzell, Hope, "Low Country, Upstate and a Lot of Weather in Between-South Carolina's Climate," CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed October 1, 2020.
63 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Carolina.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Carolina, Annual, 2014-19.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
66 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, accessed October 1, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
68 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, South Carolina, Table DS-35, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, Previous Quarterly Coal Data, 4th Quarter 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2020, South Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
72 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed October 4, 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, South Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
76 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forests of South Carolina, 2018.
77 South Carolina Forestry Commission, "Forestry generates $21.2 billion impact on SC's economy," Press Release (November 8, 2019).
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2020, South Carolina, Technology: Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
79 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, June 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2020, South Carolina, Technology: Landfill Gas.
81 Straight, Jeff, "Let's Talk Trash: Turning Methane Gas into Renewable Energy," Santee Cooper (July 14, 2020).
South Carolina Public Service Authority (Santee Cooper) Integrated Resource Plan (November 2012), p. 27.
82 Biomass Magazine, Burrows Hall Farm, accessed October 4, 2020.
83 "Piggy power: Electricity from hog waste a S.C. first," Associated Press (January 30, 2011).
84 Biomass Magazine, Collins Chick Farm, accessed October 15, 2020.
85 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database, South Carolina, accessed October 4, 2020.
86 Harris, Robert A., et al., Final Report to the South Carolina Forestry Commission on Potential for Biomass Energy Development in South Carolina, p. 25, accessed October 4, 2020.
87 Solar Energy Industries Association, South Carolina Solar, accessed October 4, 2020.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2020, Inventory of Planned Generators as of July 2020, South Carolina, Technology: Select All.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Carolina, 2001-19.
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in South Carolina, Maps & Data, accessed October 4, 2020.
91 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in South Carolina, accessed October 4, 2020.
92 South Carolina Energy Office, Renewable Energy, Geothermal, accessed October 4, 2020.
93 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Carolina Distributed Energy Resource Program, updated June 18, 2018.
94 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Research, South Carolina, accessed October 4, 2020.


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