Puerto Rico Territory Energy Profile



Puerto Rico Quick Facts

  • In September 2017, Hurricanes Maria and Irma destroyed much of Puerto Rico's electric grid, so that even undamaged generators could not supply power. Electricity generation dropped by 60% in the fourth quarter of 2017 from the same period in 2016.
  • Imported petroleum products fuel transportation, electricity generation, and industry in Puerto Rico, typically supplying three-fourths of the energy consumed in the commonwealth.
  • In the fiscal year ending June 30, 2017, 47% of Puerto Rico’s electricity came from petroleum, 34% from natural gas, 17% from coal, and 2% from renewable energy.
  • Two wind farms supplied 41% of Puerto Rico's renewable generation in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2017; one of them, the 95-megawatt Santa Isabel facility, is the largest wind farm in the Caribbean.
  • As of June 2017, Puerto Rico had 127 megawatts of utility-scale solar photovoltaic generating capacity and 88 megawatts of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) capacity. In the first six months of 2017, more electricity came from solar energy than any other renewable source.

Last Updated: July 19, 2018



Data

Last Update: August 16, 2018 | Next Update: September 20, 2018

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry Puerto Rico United States Period
Population 3.3 million 325.7 million 2017  
Gross Domestic Product $ 103 billion $ 18,121 billion 2015  
Prices  
Electricity Puerto Rico United States Period
Residential 21.24 cents/kWh 13.02 cents/kWh Jun-18  
Commercial 22.46 cents/kWh 10.82 cents/kWh Jun-18  
Industrial 19.23 cents/kWh 7.18 cents/kWh Jun-18  
Reserves  
Reserves Puerto Rico United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels NA 2018  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 322 trillion cu ft 2017  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 254,896 million short tons 2015  
Capacity Puerto Rico United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity 6 million kW 1,064 million kW 2015  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports Puerto Rico United States Period
Natural Gas Imports 52 billion cu ft 2,718 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal Imports 1,682 thousand short tons 11,318 thousand short tons 2015  
Total Exports Puerto Rico United States Period
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 1,784 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 73,958 thousand short tons 2015  
Supply  
Production Puerto Rico United States Period
Total Energy * 84 trillion Btu 2015  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 14,461 thousand barrels/day 2017  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 896,941 thousand short tons 2015  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Puerto Rico United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation 20 billion kWh 67 billion kWh 2015  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation 20 billion kWh 2,727 billion kWh 2015  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources * 544 billion kWh 2015  
    »  Hydroelectric * 249 billion kWh 2015  
    »  Other Renewables * 295 billion kWh 2015  
Consumption  
by Source Puerto Rico United States Period
Total Energy * 93 trillion Btu 2015  
Total Petroleum Products 106.0 thousand barrels/day 19,687.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Motor Gasoline 42.0 thousand barrels/day 9,317.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Distillate Fuel 11.0 thousand barrels/day 3,877.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3.0 thousand barrels/day 1,340.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Jet Fuel 2.7 thousand barrels/day 1,614.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Kerosene 0 thousand barrels/day 9 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Residual Fuel 36 thousand barrels/day 326 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Other Petroleum Products 11 thousand barrels/day 3,204 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas 52 billion cu ft 27,244 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 1,458 thousand short tons 798,115 thousand short tons 2015  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source Puerto Rico United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels 28 million metric tons 5,269 million metric tons 2015  
Petroleum 22 million metric tons 2,295 million metric tons 2015  
Natural Gas 3 million metric tons 1,488 million metric tons 2015  
Coal 3 million metric tons 1,485 million metric tons 2015  

Analysis



Last Updated: July 19, 2018

Overview

The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico consists of the easternmost islands of the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Florida. Puerto Rico has no proved reserves or production of conventional fossil fuels. The commonwealth has some renewable solar, wind, hydropower, and biomass resources but relies primarily on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy needs.1,2,3,4

Energy use per capita is typically one-third as much in Puerto Rico as it is in the 50 states.

The population is concentrated on the main island of Puerto Rico, with smaller populations on the islands of Vieques and Culebra. There are also small, uninhabited islands scattered around the main island.5 Puerto Rico has coastal plains, sandy beaches, and a forested and mountainous interior, with the highest peak exceeding 4,000 feet. Rivers flowing down the mountains offer some hydropower resources.6 The tropical marine climate has little seasonal variation, and rain occurs year round. The Caribbean hurricane season, from June to November, sometimes brings destructive storms, such as Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which devastated much of the commonwealth's electricity infrastructure in September 2017 and left island residents without public power, in some cases for months.7,8,9,10

The commonwealth's population reached 3.8 million in 2000, but it has declined in the 21st century.11 Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, and some have chosen to move to the U.S. mainland since an ongoing recession began in 2006,12,13,14 The commonwealth's population has declined by one-tenth, or nearly 400,000 people, since 2010, and estimates are that up to 200,000 of those who left after Hurricane Maria will not return, further complicating Puerto Rico's economic situation and hurricane recovery.15,16,17

Agriculture, mainly sugar cane, dominated Puerto Rico's economy until the middle of the 20th century.18 Although rum is still produced, sugar cane production had ceased in Puerto Rico until a recent government program reintroduced it,19,20,21 and agriculture is a relatively small part of the economy now. Manufacturing has led the private sector,22 with industries that include pharmaceuticals and medical devices, electronics, aviation, and renewable energy, but the manufacturing sector has contracted since 2000.23,24,25,26 Employment in the commonwealth government has fallen, but the government still employs one in five workers.27 In 2016, with the commonwealth facing more than $100 billion in debts and unfunded liabilities, Congress established a financial oversight board, a process for debt restructuring, and other provisions to stabilize Puerto Rico's economy.28,29,30,31

On average, the commonwealth's residents use much less energy than is used by consumers in the 50 U.S. states. Puerto Rico's energy consumption per capita in recent years has been about one-third of the states' per capita consumption, and its energy intensity—the energy expended per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP)—is less than two-thirds of the states' energy intensity.32,33,34

Petroleum

A 2013 U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered crude oil resources in a subsea formation south of the islands,35 but Puerto Rico has no proved petroleum reserves and neither produces nor refines crude oil. About three-fourths of the energy used in Puerto Rico comes from petroleum products,36,37 which are all imported, principally through the ports of San Juan, Guayanilla, and Ponce.38,39 The last of Puerto Rico's five petroleum refineries, located at Yabucoa, was shut down in 2009,40 joining four other island refineries that were closed between 1992 and 2005.41 Storage and shipping facilities on the Yabucoa site continue to be used as a refined products terminal.42

More than nine-tenths of Puerto Rico's petroleum imports are residual fuel, motor gasoline, and distillate fuel that serve the commonwealth's electric power and transportation sectors.43 Puerto Rico allows use of conventional motor gasoline,44,45 which makes up more than one-third of annual petroleum product imports. About 40% of Puerto Rico's electricity generating capacity is fired with No. 6 residual fuel oil and 30% with No. 2 diesel fuel.46 To reduce both costs of and emissions from petroleum fuels, the commonwealth's electric utility, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA; in Spanish, Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica, or AEE), has planned to substitute propane or natural gas to fuel several generating plants.47 However, the relatively low price of crude oil in 2015 and 2016, combined with PREPA's bankruptcy in 2017,48 have slowed conversion planning.49,50,51 Other petroleum products imported include jet fuel and small amounts of propane.52 Despite the commonwealth's low per capita total energy consumption, Puerto Rico's per capita consumption of petroleum is about three-fourths of the average for the 50 states,53,54 primarily because of the commonwealth's dependence on residual fuel oil and diesel fuel for half of the islands' electricity.55

Natural gas

The 2013 U.S. Geological Survey assessment also identified the potential for undiscovered natural gas resources in a subsea formation south of Puerto Rico, but the commonwealth has no proved natural gas reserves and does not produce natural gas.56 Nearly all natural gas is imported as liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the Peñuelas terminal and regasification facility at Guayanilla Bay on the southwestern coast.57,58,59 The facility was built to supply the adjacent 507-megawatt EcoEléctrica electricity generating plant.60 LNG is imported almost exclusively from Trinidad and Tobago.61,62 Beginning in 2012, LNG imports through Peñuelas increased to support PREPA's conversion of the nearby oil-fired Costa Sur (South Coast) generating station to dual-fuel capability with natural gas.63,64 In August 2017, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved expansion of the Peñuelas regasification capacity so it could meet all of Costa Sur's natural gas needs.65 Small amounts of LNG from the U.S. mainland also enter Puerto Rico in standardized cryogenic containers to supply fuel to some industrial customers,66,67,68 but otherwise natural gas is consumed only in electricity production. Puerto Rico's typical per capita natural gas consumption is about one-fifth of the average in the 50 states.69,70,71 LNG imports dropped by one-fourth in 2017 from 2016, in part because of the damage done to Puerto Rico's electrical grid in September 2017 by hurricanes.72 FERC has approved a truck-loading facility at the Peñuelas terminal so that LNG could also be used in transportation, but that facility is still in the planning stage.73,74

Puerto Rico has increased LNG imports to replace petroleum in electricity generation.

PREPA has long planned to add more natural gas-fired generating capability.75,76 PREPA plans originally called for a pipeline to take natural gas from the Peñuelas terminal to the north coast, where three PREPA oil-fired generating stations are located.77 But public opposition arose to routing the pipeline through Puerto Rico's rugged central mountains,78,79 and the plan was dropped in 2012 after officials found the terminal could not handle all of PREPA's expected natural gas needs.80 PREPA subsequently contracted for installation of a floating terminal with regasification capability four miles offshore from the Aguirre generating station on the southern coast.81 FERC approved the facility in 2015,82 and PREPA has pursued permits and negotiated financial arrangements since, but the process has stalled with PREPA's financial problems.83,84,85,86,87 PREPA is also considering the feasibility of transporting natural gas by pipeline from the Aguirre terminal to its north coast generating plants, building a second LNG regasification and storage terminal on the north coast, or fueling some smaller peaking generators with LNG imported in cryogenic containers.88

Coal

Puerto Rico has no coal resources and produces no coal.89 The commonwealth has one coal-fired electricity generating plant, at Guayama.90,91 The plant uses circulating fluidized-bed combustion and began operation in 2002. Typically, about 1.6 million short tons of coal are imported annually from Colombia to supply the 454-megawatt plant.92 In 2017, coal deliveries were 30% lower than in 2016 after Hurricane Maria damaged the generating plant and transmission grid. The plant resumed supplying generation in February 2018.93,94,95 Ash from coal combustion is recycled on site into a partially solidified aggregate that is used in asphalt and concrete for road construction and other applications.96,97,98 The commonwealth's per capita coal consumption is typically about one-fifth of per capita coal consumption in the 50 states.99,100,101

Electricity

Puerto Rico's electricity is supplied by PREPA, a government agency that owns the electricity transmission and distribution systems for the main island, Vieques, and Culebra, as well as 85% of the electricity generating capacity.102,103,104 PREPA was founded in the 1920s as a government irrigation system, but its responsibilities grew over the years to encompass island electrification.105,106 PREPA serves about the same number of customers as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, the largest municipal utility in the continental U.S.107 Until 2012, Puerto Rico obtained two-thirds of its electricity from petroleum, generated mainly at six PREPA stations with steam turbines, combustion turbines, combined cycle technology, or some combination of the three. The other one-third of PREPA's power supply was almost evenly divided between natural gas and coal generation, provided by two independent power producers, plus a small fraction from hydroelectric generators.108,109 In 2012, natural gas firing capability was added to PREPA's Costa Sur petroleum-fired generating station in Guayanilla.110

Imported petroleum costs keep Puerto Rican power prices higher than those of any states except Hawaii and Alaska.

For the fiscal year ending in June 2017, petroleum supplied just under half of the island's electricity, and natural gas supplied nearly one-third. Coal continued to supply about one-sixth of electricity, while renewables supplied about 2.4%.111 PREPA's electricity generators were 28 years older than the U.S. average and experienced outage rates 12 times higher than the U.S. average.112 In September 2017, Hurricanes Irma and Maria, hitting two weeks apart, destroyed much of Puerto Rico's electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure.113,114,115 In general, generating facilities were not as badly damaged as the transmission system,116,117 but PREPA's largest generating plants are in the south while the largest population concentrations are in the north, making the system dependent on its 2,400 miles of transmission and 30,000 miles of distribution lines.118,119 Many customers were without power for months; in December 2017, PREPA supplied less than half as much power to residential and commercial customers as it did in December 2016.120 At the end of May 2018, though most customers had power restored, the electric utility still had 11,000 of its nearly 1.5 million customers without electricity.121,122,123 With the widespread loss of grid connections, electricity generation dropped by 60% in the last three months of calendar 2017 from the same period in 2016. Generation in this period came almost exclusively from facilities fueled by petroleum and natural gas. During 2018, coal, wind, solar, biomass, and hydroelectric power facilities were gradually brought back on line as transmission and distribution lines were restored,124 though some generating facilities are not expected to be in service before 2019.125

The commercial sector consumes nearly half of PREPA's retail electricity, and the residential sector consumes more than one-third. The industrial sector, including agriculture, accounts for just over one-eighth of consumption, with the balance consumed for public uses like street lighting.126 Per capita, Puerto Rico's electricity consumption is typically a little more than two-fifths of the average in the 50 states.127,128 In the last decade, high world petroleum prices have driven Puerto Rican power prices as high as three times the U.S. states' average retail price.129 In 2015 and 2016, PREPA electricity rates declined along with international petroleum prices, but, at the end of 2017, PREPA rates, which vary monthly with fuel and purchased power costs, still averaged higher than rates in 48 of the 50 states.130,131 Only Hawaii and Alaska had higher average rates.132

After the damage wreaked on the electrical system by Hurricane Maria, PREPA is evaluating additional options for grid resilience, such as measures to make key grid infrastructure more resistant to storms and deployment of microgrids.133,134 To reduce fuel costs, PREPA has planned to add natural gas capability at its largest generating stations,135 but conversions beyond Costa Sur depend on construction of LNG import terminals and natural gas distribution infrastructure.136 Plans are under way for conversion of PREPA's largest generating station, Aguirre, to use LNG supplied from a floating off-shore terminal.137,138 PREPA is considering a variety of alternative fuel and supply options to reduce costs and emissions at its two large San Juan-area plants, San Juan and Palo Seco, as well as options for its diesel-fueled turbines at Cambalache and Mayagüez.139,140 Decisions on PREPA's future directions are awaiting PREPA's bankruptcy reorganization, which has been complicated by the need to recover from Hurricane Maria,141 as well as proposed privatization of the government-owned utility142,143,144 and resolution of its regulatory relationship with the Puerto Rico Energy Commission (PREC) , which sets wholesale and retail electricity rates.145,146 In 2018, the Puerto Rico legislature approved privatizing at least part of PREPA, but issues such as which portions can be sold off and under what conditions were still being resolved.147,148,149,150,151,152,153

Renewable energy

Puerto Rico is home to the largest wind and solar farms in the Caribbean.

Puerto Rico has renewable resources from wind, rivers, and the sun and is home to both the largest solar photovoltaic (PV) facility and the largest wind farm in the Caribbean.154,155 In fiscal year 2016-17, ending June 30, 2017, about 2.4% of PREPA's electricity came from renewable energy sources, with two-fifths of that from wind and nearly as much from solar. The rest came from hydroelectric and landfill gas facilities. In the first six months of 2017, solar generation exceeded wind generation as new solar facilities ramped up production and regional wind speeds declined.156,157,158 Most renewable generating facilities survived Hurricane Maria with modest amounts of damage, but two facilities on Puerto Rico's east coast, where the eye of the storm came ashore, were badly damaged. They were Puerto Rico's second largest solar farm at Humacao, which had begun generation only in December 2016, and the second largest wind farm at Naguabo.159,160,161,162,163,164 However, none of the island's renewable facilities were able to connect to the devastated grid until November 2017. Small amounts of hydroelectric and solar power restarted in late 2017, but no wind power was reconnected until February 2018, and landfill gas generation restarted only in April.165

Solar power has been Puerto Rico's fastest growing renewable resource.166 In 2014, Puerto Rico's legislature passed Law 57, which required PREPA to expedite connections for distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generation.167 In June 2017, three-fourths of Puerto Rico's solar generation came from utility-scale facilities and one-fourth from distributed solar panels on the islands' homes and businesses.168 The largest solar farm, the Oriana facility at Isabela, has 45 megawatts of capacity and came into service in late 2016, as did the first 20 megawatts of a 40-megawatt solar facility at Humacao. PREPA's solar generation doubled in the six months from October 2016 to April 2017.169,170,171 As of June 2017, Puerto Rico had 5 utility-scale solar farms in full operation, 1 partially commercial and partially preoperational, and another in preoperational testing, plus 14 more solar projects in negotiations with PREPA. In addition, there were more than 8,500 customers with nearly 88 megawatts of distributed capacity connected with net metering. Ten of those distributed facilities have 1 megawatt or more of capacity; they power water filtration plants, manufacturing operations, and two U.S. military installations.172,173 From June 2016 to June 2017, net generation from distributed facilities rose by nearly three-fifths.174,175 Puerto Rico also requires solar hot water heaters in all new single-family housing units.176 The commonwealth used funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for a weatherization assistance program that installed more than 11,000 solar hot water heaters in existing homes.177

Puerto Rico has two utility-scale wind farms. The 23-megawatt facility at Naguabo and the first phase of the 101-megawatt facility at Santa Isabel both began service in 2012.178,179 Other wind projects have been proposed, but Puerto Rico's onshore wind resource is limited, and proposed sites have faced local opposition.180,181,182,183 The commonwealth has some offshore wind resources but limited areas where the sea is shallow enough to accommodate wind turbines.184

Puerto Rico's 21 hydroelectric generating units, which were built beginning in 1915, are sited on reservoirs that often supply drinking and irrigation water as well as electricity.185,186,187,188 In addition to typical generation variability due to rainfall, competing water uses and turbine and reservoir maintenance can also impact output from Puerto Rico's hydroelectric facilities, often leading to far less use for electricity generation than most hydroelectric plants in the continental U.S.189 In the last four years, they have supplied on average about one-sixth of Puerto Rico's renewable electricity. Two generators using landfill gas are located at Fajardo and Toa Baja. Fajardo began generating electricity in late 2015 and is in commercial operation. Toa Baja is still in startup.190 Biomass electricity output more than doubled in the first nine months of 2017 compared to the same period in 2016, producing 3% of Puerto Rico's renewable electricity.191,192 PREPA has encouraged development of municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and other waste-to-energy facilities, but proposed facilities have faced local opposition,193,194,195,196 and only one proposal is still active with PREPA.197 Moreover, many of the island's landfills violate federal standards and their situation has been made more difficult by the wastes from hurricane cleanup.198,199 For the longer term, Puerto Rico has explored the use of biofuels, primarily those derived from agricultural wastes, and technologies that could harvest energy from the waves, currents, and ocean depths surrounding the islands. 200,201

In 2010, Puerto Rico's legislature enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) that required PREPA to obtain 12% of its electricity from renewable sources starting in 2015, scaling up to 15% by 2020 and 20% by 2035.202 The 2015 goal was not met. From 2008 to 2012, PREPA signed 68 long-term power purchase agreements with solar, wind, and biomass energy developers for about 1,600 megawatts of renewable capacity. Of those, 11 contracted projects have been built, 10 were canceled, and 47 contracts are inactive or in renegotiation.203 In 2014, PREPA renegotiated some contracts to require energy storage equal to 30% of project capacity to increase grid stability.204,205 Three of Puerto Rico's five solar farms incorporate batteries that are charged during daylight hours and supply the grid overnight.206,207,208,209 As part of of an ongoing integrated resource planning (IRP) process, PREPA and the PREC have been discussing future RPS goals and how they can be met.210,211,212

Endnotes

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3 Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica, indicadores.pr, Generación, consumo, costo, ingresos y clientes del sistema eléctrico de Puerto Rico, Mes 04/01/2018.
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6 U.S. Geological Survey, Caribbean Water Science Center: Puerto Rico Hydroelectric-Power Water Use, updated December 12, 2012.
7 Rivera, Magaly, Welcome to Puerto Rico, Geography of Puerto Rico, accessed June 6, 2018.
8 Staletovich, Jenny, "Final Numbers on Maria in Puerto Rico: $90 Billion in Damage, Some Cat 5 Winds," Miami Herald (April 9, 2018)
9 Johnson, Alex, et al., "Hurricane Irma Skirts Puerto Rico, Leaves 1 Million Without Power," NBC News (September 7, 2017).
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14 Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica, Distribución Porcentual de la Generación Neta de Energía por tipo Por Año Fiscal, 2013-17.
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16 Hernández, Arelis R., "Exodus From Puerto Rico Grows as Island Struggles to Rebound From Hurricane Maria," Washington Post (March 6, 2018).
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18 Bram, Jason, et al., Trends and Developments in the Economy of Puerto Rico, Federal Reserve Bank of New York (March 2008), p. 2-3.
19 Bridgman, Benjamin, et al., What Ever Happened to the Puerto Rican Sugar Manufacturing Industry? Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (December 2012), p. 1.
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35 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
36 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Total Petroleum Consumption 2015, Puerto Rico, Quadrillion Btu, 2012-15.
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38 U.S. EIA, Puerto Rico Territory Energy Profile, Data, Reserves & Supply, and Imports & Exports, accessed June 7, 2018.
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47 Siemens Industry, Integrated Resource Plan Volume I: Supply Portfolios and Futures Analysis, prepared for PREPA, Draft for PREC Review( August 17, 2015), p. 3-1, 5-1 to 5-3.
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55 Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica, Distribución Porcentual de la Generación Neta de Energía por tipo Por Año Fiscal, 2013-17.
56 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
57 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Dry Natural Gas Production, Puerto Rico and United States, Production, 2012-15.
58 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Natural Gas, Consumption, Puerto Rico, 2012-15.
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61 U.S. Department of Energy, Regulation and International Engagement, Division of Natural Gas Regulation, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, First Quarter Report 2017, DOE/FE-0589, p. 50.
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63 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Imports of Dry Natural Gas 2014, Puerto Rico, Bcf, 2009-14.
64 Siemens Industry, Integrated Resource Plan Volume I: Supply Portfolios and Futures Analysis, prepared for PREPA, Draft for PREC Review (August 17, 2015), p. 5-1 to 5-4.
65 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Weekly Update (October 5, 2017).
66 Crowley Maritime Corp., "Crowley Adds 16 ISO Tanks to LNG Equipment Fleet," Press Release (July 20, 2015).
67 Crowley Maritime Corp., "Crowley, Pivotal Reach New Multi-Year LNG Supply Contract," Press Release (February 13, 2018).
68 Crowley Maritime Corp., "Crowley Awarded Contract to Supply Additional Containerized LNG to Major Pharmaceutical Company in Puerto Rico," Press Release (May 11, 2017).
69 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Dry Natural Gas Consumption, Puerto Rico and United States, 2012-15.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Consumers, Annual, 2012-17.
72 U.S. Department of Energy, Regulation and International Engagement, Division of Natural Gas Regulation, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, Fourth Quarter Report 2017, DOE/FE-0604, p. 68, 89.
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