Oregon State Energy Profile



Oregon Quick Facts

  • In 2017, 76% of Oregon's utility-scale net electricity generation came from conventional hydroelectric power plants and other renewable energy resources.
  • Oregon wind farms have about 1,900 turbines with more than 3,200 megawatts of installed generating capacity. 
  • Oregon is one of the top three hydroelectric power producers in the nation, accounting for more than 12% of U.S. hydroelectric generation in 2017.
  • There are almost 600 electric vehicle charging stations in Oregon, with a total of about 1,400 charging outlets.
  • The Puget Sound refineries in Washington provide more than nine-tenths of the refined petroleum products used in Oregon. 

Last Updated: November 15, 2018



Data

Last Update: January 17, 2019 | Next Update: February 21, 2019

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Oregon Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.1 million 1.3% 2017  
Civilian Labor Force 2.1 million 1.3% Nov-18  
Economy Oregon U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 236.2 billion 25 2017  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 47,181 million 19 2017  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 46,361 28 2017  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 36,719 million miles 29 2016  
Land in Farms 16.3 million acres 17 2012  
Climate Oregon U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.1 degrees Fahrenheit 34 2017  
Precipitation 36.1 inches 33 2017  
Prices  
Petroleum Oregon U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 65.20 /barrel Oct-18  
Natural Gas Oregon U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.94 /thousand cu ft $ 4.08 /thousand cu ft Oct-18 find more
Residential $ 11.33 /thousand cu ft $ 12.26 /thousand cu ft Oct-18 find more
Coal Oregon U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 33.72 /short ton 2017  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.34 /million Btu $ 2.04 /million Btu Oct-18  
Electricity Oregon U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.24 cents/kWh 12.87 cents/kWh Oct-18 find more
Commercial 9.03 cents/kWh 10.74 cents/kWh Oct-18 find more
Industrial 6.15 cents/kWh 6.91 cents/kWh Oct-18 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2017 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2017 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2017 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2017 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 14 wells * 2017 find more
Capacity Oregon Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 16,583 MW 1.5% Oct-18  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 457 trillion Btu 0.5% 2016 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Oct-18 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 659 million cu ft * 2017 find more
Coal -- -- 2017 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,160 thousand MWh 1.3% Oct-18  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Oregon U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Oct-18 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 38.1 % 38.1 % Oct-18 find more
Coal-Fired 2.5 % 26.9 % Oct-18 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.3 % Oct-18 find more
Renewables 59.3 % 15.8 % Oct-18  
Stocks Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 89 thousand barrels 0.5% Oct-18  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 682 thousand barrels 0.7% Oct-18 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 29,080 million cu ft 0.4% Oct-18 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 61 thousand barrels 0.3% Oct-18 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Oct-18 find more
Fueling Stations Oregon Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 925 stations 0.8% 2016  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 57 stations 1.8% 2017  
Electricity 481 stations 3.0% 2017  
Ethanol 5 stations 0.2% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 74 stations 5.8% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Oregon U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 977 trillion Btu 32 2016 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 239 million Btu 39 2016 find more
Total Expenditures $ 11,786 million 30 2016 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,885 43 2016 find more
by End-Use Sector Oregon Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 230 trillion Btu 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial 189 trillion Btu 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial 258 trillion Btu 0.8% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation 300 trillion Btu 1.1% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 2,560 million 1.1% 2016 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,833 million 1.0% 2016 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,765 million 1.0% 2016 find more
    »  Transportation $ 5,628 million 1.2% 2016 find more
by Source Oregon Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 65.0 million barrels 0.9% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas 235.9 billion cu ft 0.9% 2016 find more
    »  Coal 1.1 million short tons 0.2% 2016 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 6,427 million 1.2% 2016 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,304 million 1.0% 2016 find more
    »  Coal $ 44 million 0.1% 2016 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Oct-18 find more
Natural Gas 11,001 million cu ft 1.2% Oct-18 find more
Coal 62 thousand short tons 0.1% Oct-18 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Oregon U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 38.8 % 48.0 % 2017  
Fuel Oil 1.8 % 4.7 % 2017  
Electricity 50.3 % 39.0 % 2017  
Propane 1.7 % 4.7 % 2017  
Other/None 7.5 % 3.6 % 2017  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 12,260 MW 5.7% Oct-18  
Ethanol Plant Operating Capacity 42 million gal/year 0.3% 2018  
Renewable Energy Production Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 1,981 thousand MWh 10.5% Oct-18  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 407 thousand MWh 1.5% Oct-18  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 80 thousand MWh 1.6% Oct-18  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 16 thousand MWh 0.7% Oct-18  
Ethanol Production 1,019 Thousand Barrels 0.3% 2016  
Renewable Energy Consumption Oregon U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 47.7 % 1 2016  
Ethanol Consumption 3,897 thousand barrels 30 2016  
Total Emissions Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 38.2 million metric tons 0.7% 2016  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Oregon Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 7,991 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2017  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2017  
Nitrogen Oxide 12 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2017  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 15, 2018

Overview

Oregon's economy and energy resources are closely tied to its mild climate and abundant rainfall. Heavy sustained runoff from the snowpack in high elevations, as well as high annual rainfall, make it possible to generate substantial amounts of hydroelectric power.1 Large dams along the Columbia River generate most of the hydroelectric power not only in Oregon, but throughout the Pacific Northwest. The Columbia River, which forms much of the state's northern border, cuts through both the Cascade Range and the Coast Range of Oregon, forming the Columbia Gorge, an area of high wind energy potential.2,3 The Basin and Range high desert country in southern and eastern Oregon, as well as the Cascades in western Oregon, are promising sites for both wind and geothermal energy development.4,5,6 The mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in the western part of the state contribute to rapid tree growth, which, along with agricultural waste-products, are ample sources of biomass for power generation.7,8

Manufacturing made up about one-fifth of Oregon's gross domestic product in 2017, a share that is almost two times larger than the contribution of manufacturing to the U.S. economy as a whole. Computers and electronics are the state's most important manufactured products.9 Although the energy-intensive lumber business, including the manufacture of related forest products, is one of Oregon's principal industries, the state's total energy consumption per capita is less than three-fourths of all states.10,11 Most of Oregon's population lives in mild climate zones in the Willamette Valley and along the Pacific Coast west of the Cascades, and Oregon's residential sector energy use per capita ranks 44th in the nation.12,13,14 About 9 in 10 Oregon households use electricity or natural gas for home heating, and many of the rest heat with wood.15 Petroleum accounts for about one-third of the end-use energy consumption in Oregon. The transportation sector, the state's major petroleum consumer, is Oregon's leading energy-consuming end-use sector, followed by the industrial sector.16,17

Electricity

Hydroelectric power typically provides more than half of the net electricity generated in Oregon.

Hydroelectric power typically provides more than half of the net electricity generated in Oregon. In years with large amounts of precipitation hydropower's share is much greater than half. In 1995, hydroelectric power contributed more than nine-tenths of the state's net generation, and, in 2017, it accounted for nearly two-thirds.18,19 Oregon's four largest electricity generating facilities—John Day, The Dalles, Bonneville, and McNary—are all hydroelectric plants located on the Columbia River. They account for two-thirds of the generating capacity from the 10 largest power plants in the state.20 Smaller hydroelectric plants generate power along several rivers flowing from the Cascade Mountains.21

Natural gas accounts for the second-largest share of electricity generation in Oregon, but its use varies greatly depending on how much cheaper hydropower is available. In 2016, natural gas-fired power plants provided about one-fourth of the state's net electricity generation, and in 2017, natural gas fueled one-fifth of Oregon's net generation. The state's only coal-fired power plant provides less than 3% of Oregon's in-state net generation.22 Other renewable resources, including wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal power, provide almost all the rest of Oregon's in-state net electricity generation.23 There are no nuclear power plants in Oregon.24

Even though half the homes in the state heat with electricity, Oregon's net electricity generation is greater than its consumption.25,26 Some surplus electricity is delivered to other states by way of the Western Interconnection—one of North America's principal power grids. The Western Interconnection reaches from western Canada down to Baja California in Mexico and stretches from the Pacific Ocean eastward across the Rocky Mountains to the Great Plains.27 Major transmission lines of the Western Interconnection connect Oregon's electricity grid to California's grid, allowing for large interstate electricity transfers between the Pacific Northwest and the Southwest. The 846-mile Pacific Intertie Direct Current transmission line, which runs from the Oregon-Washington border to Los Angeles, is capable of moving up to 3,100 megawatts of power in either direction.28 Although it was originally designed to transmit electricity south during California's peak summer demand season, flow is sometimes reversed at night and in the winter when power demand to meet heating needs increases in the Pacific Northwest.29

Oregon has collaborated with Washington, California, and British Columbia to create the West Coast Green Highway.

Oregon has collaborated with Washington, California, and British Columbia, Canada, to create the West Coast Green Highway, an effort to promote fuel-efficient and electric-fueled vehicles.30,31 The now complete West Coast Electric Highway corridor is a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located every 25 to 50 miles along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest. It is part of the West Coast Green Highway system that spans more than 1,300 miles from British Columbia to Baja, Mexico.32,33,34 As of October 2018, there were almost 600 public electric charging stations in service across Oregon, with more than 1,300 charging outlets.35 In 2013, Oregon joined with seven other states across the nation to form the collaborative Multi-State Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Action Plan.36 Oregon has a goal of registering 50,000 electric vehicles in the state by 2020.37 As of July 2018, almost 19,000 electric vehicles were registered in Oregon.38

Renewable energy

In 2017, wind power accounted for almost one-seventh of Oregon’s in-state net electricity generation.

Renewable resources, led by hydroelectric power, contributed more than three-fourths of the net electricity generated in Oregon in 2017.39 In years with increased or prolonged precipitation or snowmelt, renewable resources can contribute more than four-fifths of net electricity generation because of the state's abundant hydroelectric generating capacity.40,41 Oregon is one of the top three producers of hydroelectric power in the nation, and hydroelectric power typically provides at least half of the net electricity generated in the state.42 Electricity generation from renewable resources other than hydroelectric power has increased markedly in recent years. From 2009 through the end of 2017, utility-scale electricity generation from nonhydroelectric renewable resources doubled.43 Most of that generation came from wind.44 With facilities in the Columbia Gorge and eastern Oregon hills, Oregon has about 1,900 turbines with more than 3,200 megawatts of installed wind capacity.45,46 In 2017, wind power accounted for almost one-seventh of Oregon's in-state net electricity generation from all sources.47

Most of the rest of Oregon's renewable-sourced electricity is generated from biomass, primarily wood and wood waste, but there are also several small landfill gas facilities.48,49 Biomass is widely used as a renewable thermal energy source in Oregon.50,51 Forest covers almost half of the state, and many industrial facilities in Oregon use woody biomass to provide heat and to generate electricity.52,53 Additionally, Oregon has seven operating wood pellet manufacturing facilities, which have a combined capacity of nearly 3% of the nation's total.54 Oregon had a biomass tax credit program for the production, collection, and transportation of biomass used for energy production, but the program ended in 2017.55

Smaller amounts of electricity are generated from Oregon's solar and geothermal resources. Before 2017, the majority of Oregon's solar generation came from rooftop and other small-scale solar power installations. However, utility-scale solar generation increased six-fold in 2017, and now exceeds distributed (small-scale, customer-sited) generation.56 Solar resources are greater east of Oregon's Cascade Mountain Range than on the state's coast or in the Willamette Valley.57,58 Although Oregon currently has only small amounts of electricity generated from geothermal energy, the state's Cascade Mountains are an active volcanic region.59,60,61 Oregon's geothermal potential is ranked third in the nation, after Nevada and California, and the state's high-temperature geothermal areas could provide as much as 2,200 megawatts of generating capacity.62 Oregon's largest geothermal power plant, a 33-megawatt electricity-generating facility, has operated in Malheur County since 2012, and a few smaller facilities came online between 2010 and 2015. Additional geothermal projects are in development and several others have been proposed.63,64 Oregon residents have used low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resources for more than a century in direct heat applications. Almost the entire state east of the Cascade Range has ample low- to mid-temperature geothermal resources. Oregon has more than 2,000 thermal wells and springs that furnish direct heat to buildings, communities, and other facilities.65,66

Oregon is in the early stages of tapping its marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory deployed buoys off the Oregon coast during the summer of 2017 to record wave and tide movements in support of projects designed to convert energy from waves into electricity.67 Oregon State University was also awarded $40 million by the U.S. Department of Energy to build a wave energy test facility, which is expected to be operational by 2020.68

Oregon's renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS), enacted in 2007 and revised in 2016, requires that, by 2040, the state's largest utilities—those with more than 3% of the state's retail electricity sales—acquire 50% of the electricity they sell from renewable energy sources that became operational or were significantly upgraded after January 1, 1995. Smaller utilities have a target of 10% renewable electricity by 2025, and the smallest utilities, those serving less than 1.5% of the state's power demand, have a target of 5%. Oregon allows electricity generated from wind, solar, hydropower, wave, tidal, ocean thermal, geothermal, hydrogen, municipal solid waste, and biomass energy to be used to comply with its RPS.69

Natural gas

Oregon has the only natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest.

Oregon has few natural gas reserves and accounts for only about 0.002% of the nation's natural gas production.70,71 The Mist field in northwestern Oregon is the only natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest. Numerous reservoirs have been found in the field since its discovery in 1979. The Mist field also includes underground natural gas storage capacity in some of its depleted natural gas reservoirs.72,73 Oregon has 7 underground natural gas storage fields with a combined capacity of almost 30 billion cubic feet.74,75 Natural gas is put into storage when prices and demand are low and removed from storage reservoirs during colder months to meet peak customer demand. Natural gas also is used to meet the needs of electricity suppliers as they respond to intermittent generation from renewable energy resources, particularly wind.76,77 Exploration wells continue to be drilled in the Mist field; however, production has declined markedly from its high of 4.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year in the mid-1980s. Natural gas production from the Mist field in 2017 was less than 700 million cubic feet.78,79

Natural gas supplies enter Oregon by way of interstate pipelines, primarily from western Canada through Washington and from domestically produced natural gas that arrives through Nevada. Almost all of the natural gas that enters Oregon continues on to California markets, and some is sent to Idaho.80,81 Several liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals were proposed in Oregon, but, because of changing market conditions, only one proposal remains active, and the developers of that proposed LNG terminal—Jordan Cove at Coos Bay—have pursued federal permits to build an export facility rather than an import terminal.82,83,84

Oregon's per capita natural gas consumption is among the lowest one-third of states . The electric power sector uses the largest share of natural gas consumed in Oregon. The industrial sector is the next largest user, followed by the residential sector.85 Almost two in five Oregon households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.86

Petroleum

The Puget Sound refineries in Washington provide more than nine-tenths of the refined petroleum products used in Oregon.

Oregon does not have any crude oil reserves or production and has not had an operating oil refinery since 2008.87,88,89 The Puget Sound refineries in the state of Washington provide more than nine-tenths of the refined petroleum products used in Oregon. Those products arrive in the state by way of the Olympic Pipeline and by barge. Refineries in Utah and in British Columbia also provide refined petroleum products to Oregon, and small amounts come by tanker from California and the Pacific Rim countries.90

Federal regulations require the use of oxygenated motor gasoline throughout Oregon. Fuel ethanol is used as an oxygenate and is blended with the motor gasoline sold in the state.91,92 Oregon has one corn-based fuel ethanol production plant and another small plant that uses food waste as its feedstock. Additional fuel ethanol supplies are brought in from out of state.93,94,95,96 Diesel fuel sold in the state must be blended with at least 5% biodiesel. Limited amounts of biodiesel are produced at facilities in Oregon.97,98

Coal

Oregon’s only coal-fired power plant is scheduled to stop burning coal by the end of 2020.

Coal was mined in southwest Oregon from the mid-19th century until the 1920s and again, briefly, during the Second World War. There are no active commercial coal mines in Oregon today.99,100 Limited amounts of coal are shipped by rail from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming to fuel about 3% of Oregon's electricity generation.101,102 The state's only coal-fired power plant is scheduled to stop burning coal by the end of 2020. It may be converted to use woody biomass.103 Small amounts of coal are shipped from Utah to industrial plants in Oregon.104

Endnotes

1 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed October 13, 2018.
2 Geology.com, Oregon Map Collection, accessed October 13, 2018.
3 Sharp, Justin, and Clifford F. Mass, "Columbia Gorge Gap Winds: Their Climatological Influence and Synoptic Evolution," Weather and Forecasting, Volume 19, Issue 6 (December 2004), p. 970-992.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Oregon, accessed October 13, 2018.
5 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Geologic Provinces, Basin and Range and Owyhee Uplands, accessed October 13, 2018.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
7 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed October 13, 2018.
8 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy in Oregon, Bioenergy, accessed October 13, 2018.
9 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, United States, Oregon, 2016, 2017.
10 Business Oregon, Forestry and Wood Products Industry, accessed October 13, 2018.
11 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
12 U. S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Oregon Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
13 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed October 13, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Advanced Search, Oregon, B25040 House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2016.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
18 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
19 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
20 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2016, Tables 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2016, and 2B,Ten largest plants by generation, 2016.
21 The Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Map of power generation in the Northwest, Hydropower projects, accessed October 15, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B.
23 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
24 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oregon, updated August 23, 2018.
25 U. S Census Bureau, American FactFinder, B25040, Oregon, House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
26 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
27 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Learn More About Interconnections, Western Interconnection, accessed October 15, 2018.
28 Bonneville Power Administration, Factsheet, Celilo Converter Station, DOE/BP-3655 (October 2005).
29 Bonneville Power Administration, "Direct current line still hot after 40 years," Press Release (May 26, 2010).
30 West Coast Green Highway, Partners, accessed October 17, 2018.
31 West Coast Green Highway, Welcome to the West Coast Green Highway Website, accessed October 17, 2018.
32 Lundahl, Erika, "The West Coast Electric Highway Enables Zero Emission Road Trips," Yes! (July 20,2018).
33 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed October 17, 2018.
34 West Coast Green Highway, About West Coast Green Highway, accessed October 17, 2018.
35 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Oregon Electric, accessed October 17, 2018.
36 ZEV Task Force, Multi-State ZEV Action Plan 2018-2021 (June 2018), p. 3.
37 Oregon Department of Energy, Zero Emissions Vehicles, accessed October 17, 2018.
38 Go Electric Oregon, accessed November 2, 2018.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
40 "Rain record in the Rose City: Portland sees 3rd wettest water year on the books," KATU (September 26, 2017).
41 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Oregon Electricity Profile 2016, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2016, and Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
43 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.11.B and (March 2010) Table 1.14.B.
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.11.B, 1.14B.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 6.2.B.
46 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Oregon, accessed October 18, 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.15.B.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
50 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 2.
51 Oregon Department of Energy, Bioenergy, accessed October 16, 2018.
52 Oregon Department of Forestry, About Oregon's Forests, accessed October 16, 2018.
53 Oregon Department of Energy, Bioenergy, accessed October 16, 2018.
54 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1. Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, July 2018.
55 Oregon Department of Energy, Changes to the Biomass Collector or Producer Tax Credit Program (August 2017).
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
57 U.S. Department of Energy, Solar Energy Potential, accessed October 29, 2018.
58 Oregon Department of Energy, Solar, accessed October 29, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.16.B.
60 U.S. Geological Survey, Volcano Hazards Program, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Why Study Cascade Volcanoes?, accessed October 29, 2018.
61 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geothermal Resources of the United States (October 13, 2009).
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
64 Renewable Northwest Project, Renewable Energy Projects, Oregon Geothermal, accessed October 16, 2018.
65 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (October 13, 2009).
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
67 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "NREL Deploys Wave and Tidal Measurement Buoys," Press Release (June 14, 2017).
68 Oregon State University, "Wave Energy Centers Receives $40 Million to Construct World's Premier Test Facility," Press Release (December 21, 2016).
69 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Oregon Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated June 6, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Miscellaneous, Annual, 2016.
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Dry Production, 2017.
72 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Oil, Gas and Geothermal Program, accessed October 14, 2018.
73 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation and Reclamation, Oil and Gas Permits and Production Information, Mist Gas Field, accessed October 14, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2017, and Number of Depleted Fields, 2017.
75 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2017.
76 NW Natural, Natural Gas Storage, accessed October 14, 2018.
77 NW Natural, "NW Natural to Proceed with North Mist Expansion Project Permitting," Press Release (February 6, 2015).
78 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation and Reclamation, Oil and Gas Permits and Production Information, Oil and Gas Permits Spreadsheet and Mist Gas Field, accessed October 14, 2018.
79 U.S. EIA, Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1979-2017.
80 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Oregon, 2017.
81 Williams Company, Northwest Pipeline, accessed October 14, 2018.
82 Oregon Department of Energy, State of Oregon Biennial Energy Plan 2013-15, p. 20.
83 Powell, Tarika, "Trump Administration Pushes Jordan Cove Energy Project," Sightline Institute (July 16, 2018).
84 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals, Proposed, updated July 13, 2018.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Oregon, Annual, 2017.
86 U. S Census Bureau, American FactFinder, B25040, Oregon, House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
87 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, as of December 31, 2016.
88 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2017.
89 U.S. EIA, Oregon Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2018.
90 Oregon Department of Energy, State of Oregon Biennial Energy Plan 2015-17, p. 15-16.
91 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, updated January 2018.
92 Oregon Department of Energy, Renewable Fuels, accessed October 17, 2018.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F4, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2016.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2016.
95 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated September 6, 2018.
96 Summit Natural Energy, What We Do, accessed October 14, 2018.
97 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Oregon Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel, accessed October 14, 2018.
98 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (September 2018), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, July 2018.
99 Duncan, Donald C., Geology and Coal Deposits in Part of the Coos Bay Coal Field, Oregon, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 982-B (Washington, 1953), p. 53.
100 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation and Reclamation, Program Overview, Surface Mining Program, accessed October 14, 2018.
101 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Oregon Table DS-36, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
102 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
103 Ramakrishnan, Jayati, "No decision yet on future of Boardman coal plant," East Oregonian (March 29, 2018).
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Oregon Table DS-36, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.


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