Oklahoma State Energy Profile



Oklahoma Quick Facts

  • In 2021, Oklahoma was the nation's fifth-largest producer of marketed natural gas and the sixth-largest producer of crude oil. Overall, the state consumed only one-third of the energy it produced.
  • As of January 2021, Oklahoma had 5 operable petroleum refineries with a combined daily processing capacity of almost 522,000 barrels per calendar day. That is nearly 3% of the total U.S. crude oil refining capacity.
  • In 2021, wind supplied 41% of Oklahoma's total electricity net generation, surpassing natural gas' share for the first time. Wind accounted for 91% of the state's renewable generation, and the state ranked third in the nation in total electricity net generation from wind.
  • The benchmark price in the domestic spot market for the U.S. crude oil known as West Texas Intermediate (WTI) is set at Cushing, Oklahoma, which is home to about 14% of the nation's commercial crude oil storage capacity.
  • In 2020, Oklahoma was the nation’s fourth-largest consumer of natural gas on a per capita basis. The electric power sector and the industrial sector together use slightly more than four-fifths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in Oklahoma.

Last Updated: May 19, 2022



Data

Last Update: July 21, 2022 | Next Update: August 18, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.0 million 1.2% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 1.9 million 1.1% May-22  
Economy Oklahoma U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 206.8 billion 31 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 18,912 million 33 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 53,156 43 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 42,000 million miles 27 2020  
Land in Farms 34.2 million acres 8 2017  
Climate Oklahoma U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 60.8 degrees Fahrenheit 10 2021  
Precipitation 33.6 inches 30 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Oklahoma U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 102.49 /barrel $ 103.28 /barrel Apr-22  
Natural Gas Oklahoma U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.99 /thousand cu ft $ 6.34 /thousand cu ft Apr-22 find more
Residential NA $ 13.65 /thousand cu ft Apr-22 find more
Coal Oklahoma U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.46 /million Btu $ 2.18 /million Btu Apr-22  
Electricity Oklahoma U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.38 cents/kWh 14.77 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Commercial 8.99 cents/kWh 11.92 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Industrial 5.81 cents/kWh 7.83 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 1,483 million barrels 4.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 27,227 billion cu ft 6.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2,014 million barrels 9.7% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 40,360 wells 8.4% 2020 find more
Capacity Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 522,800 barrels/calendar day 2.8% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 31,122 MW 2.7% Apr-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 4,546 trillion Btu 4.7% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 418 thousand barrels per day 3.6% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 2,786,366 million cu ft 7.7% 2020 find more
Coal 1 thousand short tons * 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 6,456 thousand MWh 2.1% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Oklahoma U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 25.4 % 34.8 % Apr-22 find more
Coal-Fired 4.9 % 18.1 % Apr-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.2 % Apr-22 find more
Renewables 69.7 % 28.0 % Apr-22  
Stocks Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 240 thousand barrels 1.9% Apr-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,400 thousand barrels 1.8% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 251,436 million cu ft 4.2% Apr-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 19 thousand barrels 0.1% Apr-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,253 thousand tons 2.5% Apr-22 find more
Fueling Stations Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,856 stations 1.6% 2019  
Propane 103 stations 4.1% 2022  
Electricity 283 stations 0.6% 2022  
E85 86 stations 2.1% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 97 stations 7.5% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Oklahoma U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,579 trillion Btu 22 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 399 million Btu 10 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 13,106 million 27 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,308 20 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 282 trillion Btu 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 223 trillion Btu 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 648 trillion Btu 2.1% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 426 trillion Btu 1.8% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 3,041 million 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,907 million 1.1% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,026 million 1.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 6,133 million 1.5% 2020 find more
by Source Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 91 million barrels 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 811 billion cu ft 2.7% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 4 million short tons 0.9% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 7,074 million 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,080 million 1.5% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 125 million 0.6% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 2 thousand barrels 0.2% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas 13,255 million cu ft 1.7% Apr-22 find more
Coal 200 thousand short tons 0.7% Apr-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Oklahoma U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 51.0 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 39.5 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 6.7 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.6 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 12,686 MW 4.3% Apr-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 232 thousand MWh 1.1% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 4,248 thousand MWh 7.0% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 23 thousand MWh 0.6% Apr-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 7 thousand MWh 0.1% Apr-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Oklahoma U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 21.4 % 12 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 4,050 thousand barrels 27 2020  
Total Emissions Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 90.8 million metric tons 1.8% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Oklahoma Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 25,817 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 18 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2020  

Analysis



Last Updated: May 19, 2022

Overview

Oklahoma, a major natural gas-and crude oil-producing state, produces three times more energy than it consumes.

Oklahoma is in the heart of the U.S. Mid-Continent oil region, a vast natural gas- and crude oil- producing area that also encompasses Kansas, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico, and is flanked by the Mississippi River to the east and the Rocky Mountain states to the west.1,2 Natural gas and crude oil wells can be seen across much of Oklahoma, and some of the largest natural gas and oil fields in the country are found in the state.3,4 Eastern Oklahoma is also a coal-mining region.5 However, fossil fuels are not the state's only energy resources. Although Oklahoma has mountains in the east and mesas in the west, it is a plains state with open prairie and fertile soils.6,7 Winds that blow across the open plains give the state significant wind energy potential, and wind provides a substantial and increasing share of Oklahoma's electricity generation.8,9 The state's climate is humid and subtropical in the east and semi-arid in the west. While solar potential in Oklahoma is widespread, the available solar energy resource increases across the state from east to west as sunny, arid conditions increase and precipitation decreases.10,11 Overall, the state ranks seventh in the nation in solar power potential.12 With several rivers and large reservoirs, the state also has hydropower resources.13

Oklahoma is the 28th-most populated state in the nation, but it ranks 10th in energy use per capita.14,15 Oklahoma's industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive crude oil and natural gas industries, accounts for about two-fifths of the state's total end-use sector energy consumption, and the transportation sector uses almost three-tenths.16 Oklahoma has long, hot summers and short, less-severe winters compared to the other, more northern, plains states. However, the state is known for its frequent tornados and sees an average of more than 50 each year.17 Despite the summer heat and the widespread use of air conditioning, the state's residential sector accounts for slightly less than one-fifth of the state's total end-use sector energy consumption, and the commercial sector consumes the rest.18,19 In part because Oklahoma is a major crude oil- and natural gas-producing state, the state produces three times more energy than it consumes.20 As a result, much of the energy produced in Oklahoma—particularly natural gas, petroleum, and electricity—is sent to other states.21,22

Natural gas

Oklahoma's proved natural gas reserves are the sixth-largest in the nation, after Texas, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Louisiana, and Alaska. The state has 6% of the nation's total proved reserves and contains all or part of 14 of the 100 largest U.S. natural gas fields as measured by proved reserves.23,24 In 2021, Oklahoma was the nation's fifth-largest producer of marketed natural gas and accounted for 7% of the U.S. total.25 Production was about 2.6 trillion cubic feet in 2021, down from an all-time high of 3 trillion cubic feet in 2019.26 The decline, which was much greater than the national average, was due in part to low natural gas and oil prices.27 Oklahoma typically produces between three and four times more natural gas than it consumes and surplus natural gas is either injected into the state's 12 natural gas storage fields or added to the volumes transported by the interstate pipelines that cross through the state.28,29,30 In 2020, nearly three times as much natural gas flowed out of Oklahoma as entered the state. Most of that natural gas went to northern and eastern markets through Kansas, Texas, and Arkansas.31

The Hugoton–to–Chicago pipeline enabled the first U.S. marketing of natural gas far from its source.

The Hugoton Gas Area is the largest natural gas field in Oklahoma and one of the largest natural gas fields, as measured by proved reserves, in the United States. It covers parts of the western Oklahoma panhandle, the Texas panhandle, and Kansas.32 The initial development of the Hugoton natural gas area was limited by a lack of accessible markets. In 1931, construction of a 24-inch diameter high-pressure pipeline from the Hugoton Gas Area in Oklahoma to the Chicago enabled the nation's first long-distance pipeline transportation and marketing of natural gas far from its source. The ability to market natural gas far from where it was produced was a critical development in the creation of the modern natural gas industry.33 Today a web of interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines covers the state.34 The natural gas produced from the Hugoton field also contains unusually high concentrations of helium. The helium is separated out of the natural gas and piped to the National Helium Reserve in Amarillo, Texas, where it is accessible for use as a coolant and for other scientific and industrial applications.35

Oklahoma has substantial shale gas and coalbed methane resources. In 2020, the state accounted for about 5% of the nation's proved shale gas reserves and was the seventh-largest shale gas producer.36,37 Oklahoma's shale wells produced nearly 11 trillion cubic feet of natural gas between 2007 and 2020. Production steadily increased as a result of advanced horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies until 2020, when Oklahoma shale gas production fell by almost 20% due in part to declining natural gas prices.38 Oklahoma is 1 of 15 states with natural gas production from coal seams.39 That natural gas resource, called coalbed methane, is found in eastern Oklahoma.40 Coalbed methane production in the state declined from a peak of 82 billion cubic feet in 2007, and although there have been sporadic increases, production fell to about 29 billion cubic feet in 2017 before rebounding. In 2020, Oklahoma's annual natural gas production from coalbed methane wells was still only about 49 billion cubic feet, about 6% of the nation's total.41,42

Oklahoma is the nation's fourth-largest consumer of natural gas on a per capita basis.43 Because of the many natural gas fields in Oklahoma, large amounts of natural gas are used for gathering, processing, and distributing natural gas—about one-fifth of the state's total consumption in 2020. The electric power sector typically uses about two-fifths of the total natural gas used in Oklahoma. In 2021, the electric power sector accounted for 45% of the natural gas delivered to end-use consumers in the state. The industrial sector consumed 37%. Although half of Oklahoma households heat with natural gas, the residential sector and the commercial sector together accounted for 18% of the natural gas consumed in the state.44 The transportation sector used a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.45

Petroleum

Cushing, Oklahoma, is the designated delivery and pricing point for the U.S. benchmark crude oil, West Texas Intermediate.

In 2020, Oklahoma had about 4% of the nation's proved crude oil reserves.46 Between 2007 and 2019, the state's proved crude oil reserves quadrupled, reaching their highest point in more than 40 years before declining.47 In 2021, Oklahoma was the sixth-largest crude oil producer among the states and accounted for nearly 4% of the nation's total annual crude oil production.48 Although most oil fields are in the eastern half of the state and most natural gas fields are in the west, crude oil wells are found throughout Oklahoma.49 One of the 100 largest oil fields in the United States, the Sho-Vel-Tum field, is in Oklahoma. That field has continuously produced crude oil since its discovery in 1905.50 The state's oil industry experienced a decline in production from the mid-1980s until 2005 when annual crude oil production in Oklahoma fell to 61 million barrels, its lowest point since 1913.51 Production rebounded, and in 2019, it exceeded 215 million barrels. Although production declined again in 2020 as demand fell as a result of COVID-19 mitigation efforts, annual output remained above 143 million barrels in 2021.52,53,54

Oklahoma's 5 crude oil refineries have a combined processing capacity of about 522,000 barrels per calendar day-nearly 3% of the U.S. total refining capacity.55,56 Several petroleum product pipelines connect the state's refineries to markets in Oklahoma and in other states. Pipelines also bring crude oil into Oklahoma from other states and Canada, and send it on to refineries in Oklahoma and in other states.57,58 The city of Cushing, in central Oklahoma, is known internationally as the designated delivery and pricing point for the U.S. benchmark crude oil, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a domestically produced light (low density), sweet (low sulfur content) crude oil traded in both the physical and futures markets.59,60 Cushing is the terminus for many crude oil pipelines.61 It is also a major crude oil storage terminal. It has 14% of the nation's crude oil storage capacity, excluding the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.62

Oklahoma's per capita petroleum consumption is greater than in 38 other states and the District of Columbia.63 The transportation sector uses more than three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in the state, and the industrial sector uses nearly one-fifth. The residential and commercial sectors, together, account for about 5% of state consumption. Almost 7 in 100 Oklahoma households use petroleum products to heat their homes, and almost all of those use hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane.64,65

The discovery of oil transformed Oklahoma's economy. By the time Oklahoma became a state in 1907, it was the largest crude oil producer in the nation.66 Because the early history of oil field development in Oklahoma was one of booms and busts, including unregulated overproduction and waste, important oil and gas conservation practices and organizations trace their origins to the state. In 1935, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, was created to ensure responsible development of crude oil resources through the coordinated efforts of crude oil-producing states. The voluntary IOGCC has grown from an association of 6 crude oil-producing member-states in 1935 to 31 member-states and 7 associate member-states in 2021.67,68

Electricity

Wind and natural gas together account for more than four-fifths of Oklahoma's in-state utility-scale (1 megawatt or greater) electricity net generation. In 2021, wind energy provided the largest share of Oklahoma's net generation for the first time and accounted for slightly more than 41% of in-state utility-scale net generation.69 Oklahoma ranks third, behind Texas and Iowa, in the amount of electricity generated from wind. In 2021, the state accounted for 9% of the nation's wind-powered electricity net generation.70

Oklahoma ranked third in the nation in electricity net generation from wind in 2021.

In 2021, natural gas fueled almost 41% of Oklahoma's electricity net generation, slightly less than wind, and dropped to the state's second-largest source of in-state generation for the first time since 2014.71 However, natural gas fueled more than half of in-state generation in 2019 and 2020, and 8 of Oklahoma's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 9 of 10 by generation are natural gas-fired.72,73 Coal, which fueled 63% of in-state generation in 2001, saw its share decline to 7% in 2020. Although Oklahoma's coal-fired generation doubled to 14% in 2021, it was still less than before 2019.74 Almost all the rest of Oklahoma's net generation comes from renewable resources other than wind, primarily hydroelectric power.75 Oklahoma does not have any nuclear power plants.76

In 2021, the state's 10 conventional hydroelectric generating plants, which have a combined capacity of 850 megawatts, supplied about 3% of Oklahoma's in-state net generation. The state also has one hydroelectric pumped storage power plant. That plant has about 260 megawatts of generating capacity.77 Pumped storage allows system operators to purchase inexpensive power during periods of low demand and use it to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electricity demand, the upper reservoir releases water that flows through turbines to the lower reservoir, generating electricity. A pumped storage facility uses more electricity than it generates, but it provides grid reliability and supplies power in periods when electricity demand is highest.78

Total electricity retail sales in Oklahoma are less than in almost half the states, but its electricity sales per capita are greater than in all but seven other states.79 Because Oklahoma generates more electricity than it consumes, the state sends its excess power out of state on the regional grid.80 About two in five Oklahoma households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating and most also use air conditioning during the hot summers.81,82 As a result, Oklahoma's residential electricity retail sales per capita are greater than in all but eight other states.83 The residential sector accounts for the largest share of electricity consumption in Oklahoma at about 37%, and the industrial sector follows closely, at about 33%. The commercial sector accounts for the remaining 30% of state electricity consumption.84

Renewable energy

Oklahoma generated 45% of its total electricity from renewable resources in 2021.

Oklahoma generated 45% of its total in-state electricity from renewable resources in 2021, an increase from about 10% in 2011. About 91% of the state's renewable generation came from wind energy, but other renewable energy resources contributed to in-state generation, including hydropower and, to a lesser extent, biomass and solar energy.85 In 2021, wind energy accounted for 41% of Oklahoma's total in-state electricity net generation, a larger share than in all but three other states—Iowa, South Dakota, and Kansas.86 By the end of 2021, Oklahoma had more than 10,415 megawatts of wind capacity, which was 85% of Oklahoma's total generating capacity from all renewable resources.87 Several large wind energy projects came online in 2021, adding a combined total of more than 1,000 megawatts of additional capacity.88 In March 2022, Oklahoma's 998-megawatt Traverse Wind Project became operational. Located in north-central Oklahoma, it is North America's single largest wind farm built at one time.89

Many of the rivers that flow across Oklahoma were dammed to form lakes, and the state has more man-made lakes than any other state in the nation.90,91 Those dams, and the rivers they restrict, are the locations of Oklahoma's 10 hydroelectric power plants.92 Hydroelectric power contributes varying amounts to the state's electricity net generation depending on river levels, precipitation, and drought. Hydropower typically provides about 3% of the state's annual utility-scale net generation, but in the past 20 years, it has contributed amounts ranging from less than 1% to about 5%.93

Biomass resources provide less than 0.5% of Oklahoma's total electricity net generation and less than 1% of the state's renewable generation. There are three utility-scale biomass power plants in the state—one that uses wood and wood waste, one that uses municipal solid waste, and one that uses landfill gases. Of those three plants, the wood-fueled power plant has the largest capacity and generates the most electricity.94,95

In 2021, solar energy provided less than 0.4% of Oklahoma's renewable electricity generation, and all of that came from photovoltaic (PV) power. About two-thirds of the state's solar generation is from 10 utility-scale facilities. Those solar arrays, mostly located in sunnier western Oklahoma, have a combined generating capacity of about 46 megawatts.96 Although solar power generation from both utility-scale and customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) generators is less than 0.2% of the state's total electricity generation, it was three and a half times greater in 2021 than in 2017.97

Oklahoma's Energy Security Act established a renewable energy goal for the state's electric utilities in 2010. It required that 15% of an electric utility's installed Oklahoma capacity use renewable sources by 2015. Energy efficiency and demand-side management could be used to meet up to 25% of the overall goal. By 2015, the state's utilities exceeded the goal, and 25.9% of Oklahoma's installed capacity came from eligible renewable energy resources and demand-side management.98 By the end of 2021, Oklahoma had 11,420 megawatts of renewable generating capacity, and renewable sources accounted for almost two-fifths of the state's total generating capacity.99

Oklahoma does not require oxygenated motor fuels and does not have any fuel ethanol production plants.100,101 However, the state's one biodiesel plant uses animal fats, byproducts of Oklahoma's livestock production, as a feedstock. The plant's production capacity is 45 million gallons per year.102,103 Oklahoma consumes about 33 million gallons of biodiesel each year.104

Coal

Oklahoma has about 0.3% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal. In 2020, the state's 2 active coal mines produced only about 795 tons of bituminous coal, down from almost 2 million tons produced from 10 mines in 2006.105,106,107 The state's coal-mining region is in northeastern Oklahoma and extends south from the Kansas border toward the Arkansas border in the east.108 In the late 1800s numerous mines supplied fuel for the railroads. However, Oklahoma's coal production peaked at 4 million tons per year during World War I and then began to decline in the 1920s.109

Although state coal consumption was 24% less in 2020 than in 2019, Oklahoma uses much more coal than the state produces.110 Almost all of the coal consumed in Oklahoma comes from Wyoming by rail for use in the electric power sector.111 In-state industrial plants and power plants use some of the coal mined in Oklahoma. The state's coal also is shipped to industrial users in neighboring states.112

Energy on tribal lands

Oklahoma has the nation's second-largest Native American population, after California.113 Federal legislation enacted at the end of the 19th century stripped reservation status from almost all tribal lands in the territory before it became a state.114 Oklahoma tribes now govern and provide services within tribal jurisdictional areas.115 Oklahoma's tribal areas are spread across about three-fourths of the state, but less than 3% of the state is tribal lands.116 Until recently only one of the state's federally recognized tribes, the Osage, had a reservation.117,118 However, a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2020, specifically related to criminal jurisdiction, restored reservation status to tribal lands in eastern Oklahoma.119,120

The nearly 1.5 million acres of the Osage Nation Reservation occupy all of Osage County, Oklahoma. The tribe purchased its land, including the mineral rights, from the Cherokee in the 19th century. After oil was discovered on their land in 1894, the Osage tribe became very wealthy.121 The Osage Minerals Council administers the crude oil and natural gas resources on the reservation. The tribe continues to receive income from the crude oil and natural gas produced in the county.122

In addition to fossil energy resources, Oklahoma's tribal areas share many of the state's renewable resources. Six of the U.S. tribes with the greatest potential for wind-powered electricity generation and six of those with the highest potential for solar PV electricity generation are in Oklahoma. There are 5 Oklahoma tribes among the 15 in the nation with the greatest concentrating solar power potential, and 4 among those with the highest potential for electricity generation using woody biomass. Three Oklahoma tribes are among the nation's 15 with the greatest hydropower potential. Seven Oklahoma tribes have the greatest potential for biogas-fueled electricity generation using the methane produced from the breakdown of organic matter like food waste, wastewater, and manure.123

Several tribal areas in Oklahoma have wind energy potential, and they have actively used it for more than a decade.124 The Choctaw Nation obtains all its energy from wind power through a purchase agreement with Oklahoma Gas and Electric made in 2010.125 Five tribes partnered with a company that develops and constructs wind power projects to build a wind farm on the Chilocco Indian School's land in Kay County. The 200-megawatt project will be complete in 2024 and will be the largest wind farm in the nation that is entirely on Native American land. The land is owned by and leased from five Oklahoma tribes: the Cherokee Nation, the Kaw Nation, the Otoe-Missouri Tribe, the Pawnee Nation, and the Ponca Nation.126,127,128

Other Oklahoma tribes are developing their own energy projects, including microgrids. In 2018, the U.S. Department of Energy funded a Citizen Potawatomi Nation (CPN) energy infrastructure project. Four megawatts of generation fueled by natural gas provide power to nine community facilities and the CPN's senior housing complex. The project reduces the tribe's energy costs and their dependence on coal-fired power.129 The CPN lowered its carbon emissions by entering a power purchase agreement to buy wind-sourced power for their microgrid.130 Some tribes use solar energy for distributed generation. The Delaware Nation installed a 37.5-kilowatt solar array on the roof of their headquarters complex north of Anadarko, Oklahoma.131 In 2020, two 5-megawatt solar farms, built and owned by the state's largest electric utility, were completed in southeast Oklahoma. Those solar farms will provide renewable energy to help meet the electricity needs of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations.132 In 2021, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) announced grants for energy development. The Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma received a grant to evaluate solar project options. The BIA awarded the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes a grant that will allow the tribes to purchase or drill wells in high crude oil and natural gas production areas, as well as to construct a natural gas power plant and create an electric microgrid. The BIA also awarded grants to both the Pawnee Nation and the Peoria Tribe for solar energy feasibility studies.133

Endnotes

1 "Midcontinent Oil Region," Dictionary of American History, Encyclopedia.com, accessed April 18, 2022.
2 Franks, Kenny A., "Petroleum Industry," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed April 18, 2022.
3 Wilmoth, Adam, "Geologist's new maps detail updated oil-field activity across Oklahoma," The Oklahoman (April 28, 2016).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
5 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview, Map Layers, All Coal Mines, Fossil Resources-Coal Field, accessed April 19, 2022.
6 Lewis, Tom, and Sara Jane Richter, "Black Mesa," The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed April 18, 2022.
7 Patton, Jamie J., and Richard A. Marston, "Great Plains," The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed April 19, 2022.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Oklahoma 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed April 19, 2022.
9 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2001-21.
10 Roberts, Billy J., "Global Horizontal Solar Irradiance, National Solar Radiation Database Physical Solar Model," National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
11 Oklahoma Climatological Survey, Climate of Oklahoma, accessed April 19, 2022.
12 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Nebraska Energy Statistics, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, accessed April 19, 2022.
13 Johnson, Kenneth S., "Lakes and Reservoirs," The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed April 19, 2022.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2021, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021.
15 U.S. EIA, Rankings, Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2019.
16 NETSTATE, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Economy, Mining, updated December 19, 2017.
17 Oklahoma Climatological Survey, Climate of Oklahoma, accessed April 19, 2022.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015, TableHC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview, Consumption by Source and Production, accessed April 19, 2022.
23 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
24 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2020.
25 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2021.
27 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. natural gas production decreased by 1% in 2020," Today in Energy (March 2021).
28 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Oklahoma, Annual, 2016-21.
29 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Oklahoma, 2016-21.
30 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015-20.
31 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Oklahoma, Annual, 2015-20.
32 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
33 The Historical Marker Database, Panhandle Area Natural Gas, accessed April 19, 2022.
34 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Data, Map Layer-Natural Gas Pipeline, accessed April 20, 2022.
35 Kammerzell, Jaime, "Helium to Move from Byproduct to Primary Drilling Target," Rigzone (November 18, 2011).
36 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas, Proved Reserves as of December 1, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas Estimated Production, 2015-20.
38 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Shale Production, 2007-20.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2015-20.
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42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2015-20.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2020 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Oklahoma, 2016-21.
46 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Crude Oil Proved Reserves, 1977-2020, Annual.
48 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
49 Wilmoth, Adam, "Geologist's new maps detail updated oil-field activity across Oklahoma," The Oklahoman (April 28, 2016).
50 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 1, Top 100 U.S. oil fields as of December 31, 2013.
51 Knight, Gib, "A Look Back at One of The Biggest Oil and Gas Fields," Oklahoma Minerals (November 30, 2016).
52 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2021 Annual.
53 Frazier, Zachary, "Oil, gas industry hopes to rebound from ‘absolutely awful' 2020," Oklahoma Minerals (December 8, 2020).
54 U.S. EIA, "COVID-19 mitigation efforts result in the lowest U.S. petroleum consumption in decades," Today in Energy (December 30, 2020).
55 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview Map, Petroleum Product Pipeline, Crude Oil Pipeline, and Petroleum Refinery Map Layers, accessed April 22, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, Crude Imports, Imports of all grades to Oklahoma 2021.
59 Evans, Monty, Oklahoma Economic Indicators March 2022, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission (March 2022), p. 20.
60 Chen, James, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Investopedia (December 31, 2020).
61 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Data, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 23, 2022.
62 U.S. EIA, Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity as of March 2021, Table 3, Net Available Shell Storage Capacity of Terminals and Tank Farms as of March 2021.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
64 U.S. Census Bureau, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2020 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
66 Knight, Gib, "A Look Back at One of The Biggest Oil and Gas Fields," Oklahoma Minerals (November 30, 2016).
67 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, About Us, History, Our History, accessed April 23, 2022.
68 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, Member States, accessed April 23, 2022.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, Check all Fuel Types, Annual, 2001-21.
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.14.B.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-21.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Natural gas, Annual, 2001-21.
73 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001-21.
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-21.
76 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oklahoma, updated September 22, 2020.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022.
78 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
80 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
81 U.S. Census Bureau, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
82 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2020.
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-21.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 6.2.B.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022.
89 "North America's single-largest wind farm starts operations," Windpower Engineering & Development (March 21, 2022).
90 Johnson, Kenneth S., "Lakes and Reservoirs," Oklahoma Historical Society, accessed April 23, 2022.
91 OutdoorsOK, Oklahoma Lakes, accessed April 23, 2022.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022.
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-21.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Biomass, Wood derived fuels, Other biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic Annual, 2021.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022.
97 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
98 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Oklahoma Renewable Energy Goal, updated June 22, 2018.
99 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.A, 6.2.B.
100 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed April 28, 2022.
101 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, U.S. fuel ethanol plant count by state, 2021.
102 Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, 2021 Oklahoma Agricultural Statistics (October 2021), p. 4.
103 Seaboard Energy, Guymon, OK, accessed April 24, 2022.
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26: Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
107 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal, Oklahoma, 2001-20.
108 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview, All Coal Mines and Coal Field Map Layers, accessed April 24, 2022.
109 Sewell, Steven L., "Coal," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed April 24, 2022.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2020.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Oklahoma, Table DS-31, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
112 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Origin State, Oklahoma, Table OS-17, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
113 U.S. Census Bureau, The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010 (January 2012), p. 7.
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115 Oklahoma Department of Transportation, Planning and Research Division, Tribal Jurisdictions in Oklahoma (2010).
116 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), p. D-3.
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119 Supreme Court of the United States, McGirt v. Oklahoma, No. 18-9526. Argued May 11, 2020—Decided July 9, 2020.
120 McGuigan, Patrick, "Impact of ‘McGirt v. Oklahoma' decision steadily expands into areas beyond criminal law," Oklahoma City Sentinel (November 30, 2021).
121 Landry, Alysa, "Native History: Osage Forced to Abandon Lands in Missouri and Arkansas," Indian Country Today (November 10, 2013 updated September 13, 2018).
122 The Osage Nation, Mineral Council, accessed April 24, 2022.
123 Milbrandt, Anelia, Donna Heimiller, and Paul Schwabe, Techno-Economic Renewable Energy Potential on Tribal Lands (NREL/TP-6A20-70807), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (July 2018), p. 7, 11, 15, 20, 25, 33.
124 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development, Division of Energy and Mineral Development, Native American Wind Resource Atlas (2010), p. 46-51.
125 Choctaw Nation, Wind Power Energy Contract (April 12, 2010).
126 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of January 2022
127 Murphy, J., "Tribe Pushes Forward with Wind Farm," Cherokee Phoenix (May 24, 2013).
128 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2022), Table 6.5.
129 U.S. Department of Energy, "Department of Energy to Fund 15 Tribal Energy Infrastructure Deployment Projects" (August 15, 2018).
130 Burger, Andrew, "Microgrids Reside at the Core of Tribal Electric Utilities," Microgrid Knowledge (December 3, 2018).
131 "A Nation's Solar System: the Delaware Nation Moves to Sun Power and Solar Manufacturing," Indian Country Today (June 26, 2011, updated September 13, 2018).
132 Misbrener, Kelsey, "OG&E completes two 5-MW solar projects for Oklahoma tribal nations," Solar Power World (October 14, 2020).
133 U.S. Department of the Interior, Indian Affairs, "BIA Announces Over $6.5 Million in Energy and Mineral Development Grants Awarded to 34 Tribes and Alaska Native Corporations," Press Release (July 1, 2021).


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