Ohio State Energy Profile



Ohio Quick Facts

  • Production from the Utica Shale accounts for almost all of the rapid increase in Ohio's natural gas output, which was more than 29 times higher in 2021 than in 2010.
  • Ohio is the seventh-largest ethanol-producing state in the nation, and its seven ethanol plants have a production capacity of more than 740 million gallons per year.
  • Ohio has the sixth-largest crude oil-refining capacity in the nation, and the state's four refineries can process a combined total of nearly 603,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.
  • In 2020, Ohio was the sixth-largest coal-consuming state in the nation. Six times as much coal was consumed in Ohio as was produced in the state.
  • In 2021, Ohio was the fourth-largest electricity consumer among the states and ranked among the top 10 states in electricity net generation. Natural gas has fueled the largest share of Ohio's in-state net generation since 2019.

Last Updated: August 18, 2022



Data

Last Update: January 19, 2022 | Next Update: February 16, 2023

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Ohio Share of U.S. Period
Population 11.8 million 3.5% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 5.7 million 3.5% Nov-22  
Economy Ohio U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 736.4 billion 7 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 117,947 million 4 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 56,483 33 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 103,115 million miles 6 2020  
Land in Farms 14.0 million acres 21 2017  
Climate Ohio U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 53.2 degrees Fahrenheit 25 2021  
Precipitation 41.5 inches 24 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Ohio U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 81.28 /barrel $ 86.62 /barrel Oct-22  
Natural Gas Ohio U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.33 /thousand cu ft $ 6.83 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Residential $ 18.54 /thousand cu ft $ 18.63 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Coal Ohio U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 38.08 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.46 /million Btu Oct-22  
Electricity Ohio U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 15.25 cents/kWh 16.09 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Commercial 10.88 cents/kWh 13.04 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Industrial 7.90 cents/kWh 8.61 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 74 million barrels 0.2% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 27,514 billion cu ft 6.2% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 49 million short tons 0.4% 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 27,225 wells 5.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Ohio Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 602,600 barrels/calendar day 3.4% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 27,354 MW 2.4% Oct-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,187 trillion Btu 3.3% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 72 thousand barrels per day 0.6% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 2,281,193 million cu ft 6.1% 2021 find more
Coal 2,759 thousand short tons 0.5% 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,425 thousand MWh 3.0% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Ohio U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 49.4 % 42.4 % Oct-22 find more
Coal-Fired 27.8 % 17.2 % Oct-22 find more
Nuclear 16.6 % 18.8 % Oct-22 find more
Renewables 4.7 % 20.7 % Oct-22  
Stocks Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 473 thousand barrels 3.9% Oct-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,565 thousand barrels 2.0% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 507,220 million cu ft 6.3% Oct-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 368 thousand barrels 1.6% Oct-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,863 thousand tons 2.1% Oct-22 find more
Fueling Stations Ohio Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,907 stations 3.5% 2019  
Propane 66 stations 2.6% 2022  
Electricity 904 stations 1.9% 2022  
E85 206 stations 5.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 39 stations 3.0% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Ohio U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 3,404 trillion Btu 7 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 289 million Btu 24 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 34,994 million 6 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,968 32 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Ohio Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 849 trillion Btu 4.1% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 633 trillion Btu 3.8% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 1,107 trillion Btu 3.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 815 trillion Btu 3.3% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 9,598 million 3.7% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,506 million 3.2% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 6,565 million 3.9% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 13,325 million 3.3% 2020 find more
by Source Ohio Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 193 million barrels 2.9% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,211 billion cu ft 4.0% 2021 find more
    »  Coal 22 million short tons 4.6% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 16,118 million 3.2% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 7,938 million 4.1% 2021 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,251 million 6.4% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 24 thousand barrels 1.3% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas 31,477 million cu ft 3.2% Oct-22 find more
Coal 1,099 thousand short tons 3.5% Oct-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Ohio U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 63.8 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 1.9 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 25.7 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 5.7 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 2.9 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,813 MW 0.6% Oct-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 722 million gal/year 4.2% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 36 thousand MWh 0.2% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 365 thousand MWh 0.8% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 44 thousand MWh 1.1% Oct-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 26 thousand MWh 0.5% Oct-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 12,725 thousand barrels 3.8% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Ohio U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 4.4 % 46 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 10,377 thousand barrels 6 2020  
Total Emissions Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 196.7 million metric tons 3.8% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Ohio Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 68,982 thousand metric tons 4.2% 2021  
Sulfur Dioxide 92 thousand metric tons 7.9% 2021  
Nitrogen Oxide 47 thousand metric tons 3.7% 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 18, 2022

Overview

Ohio is a highly industrialized state that has abundant natural resources.1 Named after the river that forms its southern boundary, Ohio is a Great Lakes state bordered on the north by Lake Erie, the eleventh-largest lake in the world by surface area.2 Ports along the state's more than 300 miles of Lake Erie shoreline and on the Ohio River give this Midwestern state access to domestic and international markets.3 Coal and petroleum are shipped by way of the Ohio River to the Mississippi River and from the state's Lake Erie ports into the St. Lawrence Seaway system.4 The eastern half of Ohio is occupied by the hills and valleys of the Appalachian Plateau, part of the larger Appalachian Basin. Ohio's coal resources and most of the state's many natural gas and crude oil fields are located there.5 Western Ohio's rolling plains have some of the most fertile farmland in the United States and mark the beginning of the nation's Corn Belt, which extends westward across the Midwest.6 Corn and soybeans are the state's leading crops, and corn is the feedstock for Ohio's fuel ethanol production.7,8 Prevailing winds that blow across the state provide western Ohio with moderate onshore wind resources, and winds that blow across Lake Erie provide stronger offshore wind energy resources.9

With its large population, heavily industrialized economy, and wide seasonal temperature variations, Ohio is among the top 10 states in total energy consumption.10,11,12,13 However, the state's per capita energy consumption is near the national average.14 In 2020, Ohio's industrial sector accounted for about one-third of the state's total energy consumption.15 Manufacturing—including the production of chemicals; motor vehicles and transportation equipment; fabricated metal products; food, beverage, and tobacco products; and machinery—is one of the largest contributors to Ohio's economy. The extraction of natural gas, coal, and crude oil are energy-intensive industries that are also important contributors to the state's economy.16 The residential sector was the state's second-largest energy user and accounted for one-fourth of Ohio's energy use in 2020. The state has the fourth-largest interstate highway system in the nation, and its transportation sector used slightly less energy than the residential sector at almost one-fourth of the state's total energy consumption.17 The commercial sector consumed less than one-fifth.18

Natural gas

In 2021, natural gas production in Ohio was about 29 times greater than in 2010.

Ohio has about 6% of the nation's natural gas reserves and accounts for about 6% of U.S. natural gas marketed production.19,20 The state's natural gas output rose sharply after 2012 in large part because of increased production from shale formations in eastern Ohio, where horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques released natural gas trapped in low permeability reservoirs.21,22 Ohio's natural gas production has increased dramatically since 2010 and surpassed state demand for the first time in 2015. Production peaked at almost 2.7 billion cubic feet in 2019, and by 2020, the state produced more than twice as much natural gas as it consumed.23,24 Although production declined somewhat in 2020 and 2021, falling below 2.3 billion cubic feet, it was still 29 times greater in 2021 than in 2010.25

Because Ohio produces more natural gas than it consumes, a larger amount of natural gas leaves the state by interstate pipelines than enters.26 Some of the natural gas that does not leave Ohio is injected into underground natural gas storage reservoirs for later use. Ohio has the seventh-largest natural gas storage capacity among the states. Its 24 underground natural gas storage fields have a combined total storage capacity of about 575 billion cubic feet, which is about 6% of the U.S. total.27,28 Most of the natural gas that is withdrawn from Ohio storage fields is removed between October and April to meet increased demand for heating.29

Ohio is one of the nation's top 10 natural gas-consuming states. However, the state's per capita total natural gas consumption is less than in one-third of the states.30,31 Natural gas use at Ohio's power plants increased markedly during the past decade and was more than four times greater in 2021 than in 2011.32 The electric power sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer and has been since 2018. It accounts for about one-third of the total natural gas delivered to Ohio consumers. The industrial sector and the residential sector, where about two-thirds of househol6ds use natural gas for home heating, each account for about one-fourth of the state's total natural gas deliveries to consumers. Almost all the rest of the natural gas consumed in the state is used in the commercial sector. The transportation uses a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.33,34

Coal

Ohio has more than 4% of U.S. estimated recoverable coal reserves.35 The state is the nation's 12th-largest producer of bituminous coal, the only type of coal mined in Ohio, and is the 15th-largest coal-producing state overall.36 In 2020, half of the operating mines in Ohio were underground mines and half were surface mines, but 70% of the state's coal production came from underground mines.37 More than half of the Ohio coal distributed in 2020 was used in the state. Most of the rest was shipped to West Virginia and Kentucky, and almost all of it was sent to electric power generators.38

Coal from Ohio and other states is shipped from the state's ports along Lake Erie and on the Ohio River.39 Coal that is transferred from railcars to ships at several points along the Lake, including ports at Toledo and Lorain, is sent to ports throughout the Great Lakes region and overseas.40 The Cleveland Customs District on Lake Erie accounted almost 2% for U.S. coal exports in 2021.41 Coal is also shipped on the Ohio River from Cincinnati, one of the nation's largest inland coal ports.42

Ohio is among the top 10 coal-consuming states in the nation.

Ohio is one of the top 10 coal-consuming states in the nation.43 The state uses about six times more coal than it mines.44,45 To meet Ohio's needs, coal is brought in from several surrounding states by barge, rail, and truck to supplement Ohio production. Coal arrives primarily from West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Kentucky. Lesser amounts of coal come from several other states, including from as far away as Colorado and Wyoming.46 In 2020, the electric power sector used 85% of the coal consumed in Ohio. Most of the remaining coal went to coking plants. Other industrial users also received a small amount.47

Petroleum

Ohio's crude oil reserves are modest and the state contributes less than 0.5% to the nation's total crude oil production.48 Ohio produced a record high of about 28 million barrels of crude oil in 2019, exceeding the previous records set in 1896 and 2015. However, production declined in 2021, and the state no longer was the largest oil-producer east of the Mississippi River.49,50 Recent increases in production resulted from the use of advanced drilling technologies, including hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, that enhanced production from low permeability reservoirs, such as those in the Utica shale formation.51

Ohio‘s four crude oil refineries have a combined processing capacity of more than 602,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, about 3% of the nation's total.52,53 The crude oil comes from many different areas, including Canada, the Midcontinent region, North Dakota, the Appalachian Basin, U.S. Gulf Coast, and from Utica Shale production within the state. Collectively, the refineries can process a wide variety of crude oils from light, sweet crudes to heavy, sour ones. Ohio's refineries deliver their products—including motor gasoline, distillates, aviation fuels, petrochemical feedstocks, asphalt, and other byproducts—by pipeline, truck, and rail to markets throughout the Midwest.54,55,56 Petroleum products also move in and out of Ohio's port facilities on Lake Erie.57

Ohio is among the nation's top 10 petroleum-consuming states. In 2020, the transportation sector used almost four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Ohio, mainly as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.58,59 Although conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold throughout Ohio, like in most states, retail gasoline stations throughout Ohio sell gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.60,61 Some Ohio fueling stations also sell gasoline blended with 15% ethanol.62 Additionally, about 200 public access fueling stations in Ohio sell E85, a blend of motor gasoline that contains 85% ethanol.63 The industrial sector is Ohio's second-largest petroleum consumer, and it accounted for about one-sixth of the state's total petroleum use in 2020. The state's commercial sector used almost 4% and the residential sector—where about 7 in 100 Ohio households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for heating—accounted for about 3%. Ohio's electric power sector used about 1% of the petroleum consumed in the state.64,65

Electricity

Natural gas fuels the largest share of Ohio's electricity net generation. For decades, coal was the primary fuel for electricity generation in Ohio. However, in 2019, natural gas fueled more of Ohio's in-state electricity net generation than coal for the first time. In recent years, coal's share of Ohio's electricity generation and the number of coal-fired power plants in the state have decreased.66 In 2021, coal fueled 37% of the state's net generation, down from 82% in 2010.67 Although 6 of Ohio's 10 largest power plants by capacity were coal-fired in 2020, one of those retired in 2022.68,69 Increased natural gas-fired generation has offset much of the power decrease caused by coal-fired power plant retirements. The share of Ohio's net generation provided by natural gas increased from less than 6% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2010 to 44% in 2021. Ohio's two nuclear power plants, located near Toledo and Cleveland, supplied about 14% of the state's net generation in 2021.70,71 Renewable energy resources, primarily wind, accounted for most of the rest.72

Ohio is among the nation’s top 10 electricity producers and one of the top 5 electricity consumers.

Ohio is one of the nation's top 10 electricity producers, and the state ranks among the top 5 electricity consumers.73,74 However, per capita electricity retail sales in Ohio are less than in about half of the states.75 In 2021, the residential sector, where almost one in four households heat with electricity, accounted for the largest share of electricity retail sales in Ohio—about 36% of the state total. The industrial sector accounted for about 34%, and the commercial sector accounted for about 30% of Ohio's electricity consumption.76,77 Because in-state generation does not meet consumer demand, Ohio imports between about one-fifth and one-fourth of the electricity it needs each year from other states and Canada by way of the regional grid.78

Major improvements were made in the nation's grid reliability because of a grid failure in Ohio in the early 2000s that affected the interconnection that coordinates the movement of electricity through all or part of 13 states between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean.79 The August 2003 failure of a transmitter in northeastern Ohio led to what was the largest blackout in North America.80 It took only nine seconds for the grid to collapse, and it affected more than 50 million people in the northeastern United States and Canada.81 A U.S.-Canadian joint task force investigated the causes of the blackout and a number of their recommendations were incorporated into the federal law that created the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, which assesses the reliability of the grid, develops reliability standards, and enforces compliance.82

Renewable energy

Renewable energy resources supplied about 4% of Ohio's total in-state electricity generation in 2021. Wind power provided almost three-fifths of the state's renewable generation.83 Most of the state's wind farms are located in northwestern Ohio, the area with the state's greatest onshore wind potential.84,85 The state's largest wind farm, the 304-megawatt, 152 turbine, Blue Creek Wind Farm, is located near the state's northwestern border.86,87 By May 2022, Ohio had almost 1,100 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity.88 A planned offshore wind project located in Lake Erie near Cleveland has faced opposition from environmental groups.89,90

Ohio is the nation’s eighth-largest fuel ethanol producer.

In 2021, solar energy provided one-fifth of Ohio's renewable power. It was the second-largest source of the state's renewable-sourced electricity in 2021, supplying a larger amount of power than biomass for the first time. All of the state's solar power came from solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. Ohio's two largest solar installations came online in 2021, when the 150-megawatt Hardin Solar Energy project and the 200-megawatt Hillcrest solar farm began operations.91 Utility-scale (1-megawatt or larger) solar PV contributed four times more power in 2021 than in 2020, surpassing the amount from small-scale solar PV (less than 1-megawatt) for the first time.92

Biomass, from wood and wood waste, landfill gas, and other feedstocks, as well as conventional hydroelectric power accounted for the rest of Ohio's renewable electricity generation.93 There are 14 utility-scale biomass power plants in Ohio.94 Biomass resources also provide feedstock for three wood pellet manufacturing plants in the state that together can produce about 65,000 tons of pellets per year. Wood pellets are used for electricity generation and space heating.95,96 Biomass supplies almost twice as much power as hydroelectricity.97 There are five utility-scale hydroelectric plants in Ohio.98

Ohio is the nation's seventh-largest fuel ethanol producer.99 The state's 7 fuel ethanol plants use corn as a feedstock and can produce more than 740 million gallons of ethanol per year, which is almost twice the state's annual consumption.100,101,102 Ohio also has one biodiesel plant that has a production capacity of about 71 million gallons per year.103 Ohio is among the top 10 biodiesel-consuming states in the nation, and consumed almost 60 million gallons of biodiesel in 2020.104

In 2008, Ohio implemented an alternative energy portfolio standard (AEPS) and an energy efficiency portfolio standard (EEPS) for investor-owned utilities and other retail electricity suppliers except municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. In 2019, the state legislature lowered the previously mandated AEPS target of 12.5% renewable-sourced power by 2025 to 8.5% by 2026. The 2019 legislation also eliminated an earlier solar power requirement for the years after 2020.105 Ohio's EEPS requires that utilities put in place energy efficiency and peak demand reduction programs to reach a 22% cumulative reduction in retail electricity sales by the end 2027.106 Ohio also requires electric utilities to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity from wind energy, solar energy, biomass, landfill gas, hydropower, fuel cells, or microturbines. The state has interconnection standards for systems up to 20 megawatts.107,108

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Ohio, The State of Ohio, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Lake Erie Waterkeeper, Lake Erie Facts, accessed July 16, 2022.
3 NETSTATE, Ohio, The Geography of Ohio, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
4 World Port Source, Port of Toledo Port Commerce, Port Lorain Port Commerce, and Port of Cincinnati Port Commerce, accessed July 16, 2022.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Ohio Profile Overview, All Coal Mines and Oil and Gas Wells Map Layers, accessed July 16, 2022.
6 NETSTATE, Ohio, The Geography of Ohio, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2021 State Agriculture Overview, Ohio.
8 "U.S. Ethanol Plants," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio, accessed July 16, 2022.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2021, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021.
11 Rogers, Jeffery, "Ohio's New Era of Climate Extremes," CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed July 16, 2022.
12 Encylopaedia Britannica, Economy of Ohio, Manufacturing, accessed July 16, 2022.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Ohio, All Statistics in Table, Ohio, 2019-21.
17 Deye, Andrew, "Ohio's Outstanding Transportation Infrastructure Is a Key Selling Point," Ohio Economic Development Association Newsletter (February 23, 2018).
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
20 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
21 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, 2007-20.
22 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Overview, Tight Oil and Shale Gas Play Map Layer, accessed July 16, 2022.
23 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997-2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2021.
26 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Ohio, 2015-20.
27 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015-20.
28 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2015-20.
29 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990-2022.
30 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2021, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F18, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2021.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Ohio, Annual, 2016-21.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
38 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, Ohio, Table OS-16, 2020.
39 World Port Source, Ohio, Satellite Map of Ports, accessed July 16, 2022.
40 World Port Source, Ohio Port Index, accessed July 16, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2021 (April 2022), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, Year to date, 2021.
42 World Port Source, Port of Cincinnati, Review and History, accessed July 16, 2022.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
46 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 2021), Ohio, Table DS-30, Domestic Coal Distribution by Destination State, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
48 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Annual, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
50 U.S. EIA, Ohio Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2021.
51 Cocklin, Jamison, "Estimates Show Ohio Oil Production Shattered 19th Century Record Last Year," Shale Daily (March 18, 2020).
52 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2022.
53 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, as of January 1, 2022.
54 Cenovus Energy, Upgrading & refining, Lima Refinery and Toledo Refinery, accessed July 17, 2022.
55 PBF Energy, Refineries, Toledo, OH, accessed July 17, 2022.
56 Marathon Petroleum, Canton Refinery, accessed July 17, 2022.
57 World Port Source, Port of Toledo, Port Commerce, accessed July 17, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
60 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements As of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed July 17, 2022.
61 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
62 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, Ohio, Ethanol 85, Public Stations, accessed July 17, 2022.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
65 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2001-21.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, All fuels, Coal, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
68 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022.
70 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ohio, updated March 19, 2020.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, All fuels, Coal, Natural gas, Nuclear, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2021.
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Ohio, End-Use Sector (Check all), Annual, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
79 PJM Interconnection, Territory Served, accessed July 17, 2022.
80 Minkel, J. R., "The 2003 Northeast Blackout Five Years Later," Scientific American (August 13, 2008).
81 "Blackout by the numbers," CBC News Online, updated November 14, 2003.
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83 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, All utility-scale solar, Geothermal, Biomass, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2021.
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86 Power Technology, Blue Creek Wind Farm, Ohio, accessed July 19, 2022.
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88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2022), Table 6.2.B.
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