New York State Energy Profile



New York Quick Facts

  • New York's Clean Energy Standard was revised in 2019 to require 100% carbon-free electricity by 2040. In 2019, 29% of New York's in-state generation came from renewable sources, including those at both large- and small-scale facilities.
  • In 2019, one-third of New York's utility-scale net generation was from the state's nuclear power plants, which the state counts toward its 2040 100% carbon free electricity goal.
  • In 2019, New York produced more hydroelectric power than any other state east of the Rocky Mountains and was the third-largest producer of hydroelectricity in the nation.
  • In 2018, New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states, and three in five households used natural gas for home heating. However, New York's natural gas consumption per capita is less than in two-thirds of the states. 
  • In 2018, New York was the fifth-largest consumer of petroleum among the states, but New Yorkers consume less petroleum per capita than residents of any other state in the nation.

Last Updated: September 17, 2020



Data

Last Update: July 15, 2021 | Next Update: August 19, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography New York Share of U.S. Period
Population 19.3 million 5.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 9.3 million 5.8% May-21  
Economy New York U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 1,699.0 billion 3 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 66,644 million 9 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 75,548 4 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 123,986 million miles 5 2019  
Land in Farms 6.9 million acres 36 2017  
Climate New York U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 47.8 degrees Fahrenheit 36 2020  
Precipitation 39.1 inches 29 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum New York U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase W $ 60.08 /barrel Apr-21  
Natural Gas New York U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.65 /thousand cu ft $ 3.82 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Residential $ 13.75 /thousand cu ft $ 12.21 /thousand cu ft Apr-21 find more
Coal New York U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 1.89 /million Btu Apr-21  
Electricity New York U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 18.50 cents/kWh 13.76 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Commercial 15.85 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Industrial 7.39 cents/kWh 6.77 cents/kWh Apr-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 81 billion cu ft * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 7,186 wells 1.5% 2019 find more
Capacity New York Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 39,151 MW 3.5% Apr-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 933 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 1 thousand barrels per day * Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 10,962 million cu ft * 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,050 thousand MWh 3.1% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) New York U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.2 % 0.3 % Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 33.9 % 36.6 % Apr-21 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 18.4 % Apr-21 find more
Nuclear 31.3 % 19.5 % Apr-21 find more
Renewables 34.1 % 24.5 % Apr-21  
Stocks New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 9 thousand barrels 0.1% Apr-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 3,187 thousand barrels 3.0% Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 162,382 million cu ft 2.6% Apr-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,747 thousand barrels 11.5% Apr-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Apr-21 find more
Fueling Stations New York Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 4,959 stations 4.4% 2019  
Propane 37 stations 1.4% 2021  
Electricity 2,362 stations 5.8% 2021  
E85 68 stations 1.8% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 36 stations 2.9% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary New York U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 3,856 trillion Btu 6 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 198 million Btu 49 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 58,748 million 4 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,018 49 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector New York Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 1,139 trillion Btu 5.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 1,122 trillion Btu 6.2% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 384 trillion Btu 1.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 1,211 trillion Btu 4.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 18,071 million 6.8% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 14,133 million 7.5% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,200 million 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 23,344 million 4.1% 2019 find more
by Source New York Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 273 million barrels 3.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,292 billion cu ft 4.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.1% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 28,686 million 4.1% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 10,152 million 6.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 41 million 0.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 33 thousand barrels 2.4% Apr-21 find more
Natural Gas 22,472 million cu ft 2.9% Apr-21 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Apr-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) New York U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 60.7 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 18.7 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 12.2 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.3 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 4.1 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 7,686 MW 2.9% Apr-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 160 million gal/year 0.9% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 2,387 thousand MWh 12.4% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 556 thousand MWh 1.2% Apr-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 143 thousand MWh 3.4% Apr-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 267 thousand MWh 5.8% Apr-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 3,519 thousand barrels 0.9% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption New York U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 12.9 % 19 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 13,937 thousand barrels 4 2019  
Total Emissions New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 167.7 million metric tons 3.2% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions New York Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 24,807 thousand metric tons 1.4% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 8 thousand metric tons 0.6% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 26 thousand metric tons 2.0% 2019  

Analysis



Last Updated: September 17, 2020

Overview

In 2018, almost three-tenths of New York state’s residents commuted by public transit, nearly six times the national average.

New York is the fourth most populous state in the nation and has the third-largest economy.1,2 New York City, in downstate New York, is the U.S. city with the largest population and has been in every census since 1790.3 However, the population density of the state as a whole is less than that of six other states and almost nine-tenths of New York state is considered rural.4,5 Much of the state is rolling agricultural land and rugged mountains with plentiful renewable resources, including hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass.6 Portions of two of the Great Lakes—Lake Erie and Lake Ontario—are in New York. The Niagara River, with its massive falls, flows between the lakes and makes the state a leading producer of hydroelectric power.7,8 The Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean shorelines have some of the state’s best wind resources.9 New York produces some natural gas but only small amounts of crude oil, and it does not mine any coal.10 As a result, New York is dependent on energy supplies from out of state for more than three-fourths of its energy needs.11

New York has one of the most energy-efficient economies in the nation, and New Yorkers consume less total energy per capita than the residents of any other state except Rhode Island.12 The transportation, commercial, and residential sectors each account for about three-tenths of state end-use energy consumption. Many of New York's key industries, like finance and real estate; professional and business services; and government, are not energy-intensive. Therefore, the industrial sector accounts for only one-tenth of state energy use, a smaller share than in all other states except Maryland.13,14 Per capita energy consumption in New York’s transportation sector is lower than that of any other state.15 The state’s energy efficiency results in part from the wide use of mass transportation in New York’s densely populated urban areas. In 2018, nearly three-tenths of state residents used public transit to commute to work, which was almost six times the national average.16,17 However, energy use increases during New York’s winters when demand for heating rises, and arctic winds and lake-effect snows sweep in from Canada across the Great Lakes.18

Electricity

New York depends on natural gas, nuclear, and hydroelectric power for most of its electricity generation.

Natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectricity together have provided more than nine-tenths of New York State’s electricity net generation since 2012, and other renewable resources have provided most of the rest.19 Five of the state’s 10 largest power plants by capacity are natural gas-fired, and more than half of New York’s generating capacity is at natural gas-fired power plants.20,21 In 2019, natural gas fueled almost two-fifths of New York’s utility-scale (1 megawatt and larger) in-state generation.22 To increase reliability, especially during the winter months when natural gas pipelines are highly congested, New York regulators require electricity generating units with dual-fuel capability to be ready to switch to petroleum in the event of a natural gas supply disruption. In lower demand periods, operators of dual-fuel facilities have the option of using whichever fuel is less expensive as long as they comply with state and federal emissions regulations.23,24 In 2019, about three-fourths of the state’s natural gas-fired capacity had dual-fuel capability and those units were able to burn petroleum products, including kerosene.25 However, this capacity was used sparingly; less than 1% of the state’s generation was fueled by petroleum in 2019.26

In 2019, one-third of New York’s net generation was provided by nuclear power.27 One of the state’s four nuclear power plants—Indian Point—accounted for two-fifths of the state’s nuclear generating capacity that year.28 However, one of Indian Point’s two reactors ceased operations at the end of April 2020, and the second reactor is scheduled for retirement by 2021.29 Indian Point’s reactors provided 13% of the state’s power in 2019.30,31

More than one-fifth of the electricity generated in New York in 2019 came from hydroelectric power. Wind, biomass, and solar facilities supplied almost all of the rest. The contribution from both utility-scale and customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar photovoltaic (PV) generators increased substantially in the past decade and exceeded the amount of electricity generated from biomass for the first time in 2019.32

The statewide independent system operator, NYISO, manages state wholesale electricity markets and transmission in New York. Electricity usually flows east and south because two-thirds of the state's power demand is in the New York City and Long Island region.33,34,35 New York typically needs more power than is generated in the state and it receives additional electricity from neighboring states and Canada. The ability to receive electricity from neighboring grids remains vital to power reliability and system efficiency in New York.36

Per capita electricity consumption in New York is among the lowest in the nation; only California, Hawaii, and Rhode Island were lower in 2018.37 The commercial sector accounts for more than half of retail sales of electricity to end-use customers in the state. The residential sector accounts for more than one-third, and the industrial sector uses slightly more than one-tenth. The transportation sector uses the rest.38 About one in eight New York households rely on electricity for heating.39

Renewable energy

New York's 2.4-gigawatt Robert Moses Niagara power plant is the third-largest conventional hydroelectric power plant in the United States.

New York obtains almost three-tenths of its electricity net generation from utility-scale renewable sources. Hydroelectric power alone supplies more than one-fifth of the state’s net generation.40 New York is consistently among the nation’s top four producers of hydroelectricity, and in 2019, the state produced more utility-scale hydroelectric power than all but two other states, Washington and California.41 The largest share of New York’s hydropower is produced at the 2.4-gigawatt Robert Moses Niagara hydroelectric power plant at Lewiston near Niagara Falls. The plant is the third-largest conventional hydroelectric power plant by capacity in the United States.42,43 The associated Lewiston pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, with 12 pump-turbines and a 1,900-acre storage reservoir, operates during periods of peak power demand to supplement power from the Robert Moses plant.44

Hydropower and biomass have long contributed to the state’s power supply, but the amount from wind has almost doubled in the past decade. Since 2009, wind energy is the state’s second-largest renewable source of generation after hydropower. In 2019, wind accounted for almost 4% of all utility-scale net generation in New York.45 The state’s first utility-scale wind-powered generation came online in 2000.46 As of May 2020, New York had about 2,000 megawatts of utility-scale wind capacity at more than two dozen wind farms.47,48 New York’s additional onshore wind energy potential is located primarily at the eastern ends of the state’s two Great Lakes, along the Long Island shoreline, and in the Adirondack Mountains and the Catskill Mountains. However, the state’s highest peaks are in state parks where development is restricted. New York has additional wind resources offshore along the Long Island coastline and in Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.49 The state is in the process of soliciting bids for development of 9,000 megawatts of offshore wind energy by 2035.50

Although biomass fuels less than 2% of New York’s utility-scale net generation, the state is among the top one-fourth of states in the amount of electricity generated from biomass.51 Municipal solid waste facilities account for more than half of the state’s biomass generating capacity. New York’s three utility-scale wood- and wood waste-fueled generating facilities account for about one-fourth of the state’s biomass generating capacity and contribute about one-fourth of state biomass-fueled generation.52,53 New York has many smaller landfill gas-fueled generating facilities at locations across the state, and they account for one-fourth of the state’s biomass generating capacity.54 New York also has other biomass and biofuel resources that are used for purposes other than electricity generation. The state has seven wood pellet plants that have a combined manufacturing capacity of about 418,000 tons of pellets each year. Wood pellets are used for heating and as a fuel for electricity generation.55 The state also has 2 fuel ethanol production plants with a combined capacity of about 160 million gallons per year. The state consumed nearly 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol in 2018.56,57 New York does not have any biodiesel production, but the state is the fifth-largest biodiesel consumer in the nation.58 Per capita biodiesel consumption, however, is less than in 29 other states.59,60

New York had about 2,150 megawatts of solar capacity at utility-scale and small-scale, customer-sited installations by May 2020.61 As part of the state’s NY-Sun initiative, New York set a target of 3,000 megawatts of solar PV capacity by 2023, primarily from small-scale facilities.62 Most utility-scale solar installations in New York have capacities less than 20 megawatts. However, the three largest solar facilities in the state, all on Long Island, are the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm, the 25-megawatt Shoreham Solar Commons, and the new 20-megawatt Riverhead Solar Farm, which came online in 2019. Almost two-fifths of the state’s utility-scale solar capacity came online in 2019, and solar PV systems provided about 2% of New York’s net generation that year.63 About three-fourths of that solar generation came from small-scale systems with capacities of less than 1 megawatt each.64 New York encourages small-scale solar installations, such as rooftop solar, through net metering and a variety of financial support programs.65 In 2019, the state was fifth nationally in net generation from small-scale solar.66

New York recognizes nuclear-powered electricity generation as emissions-free under its Clean Energy Standard.

New York adopted its first renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004. In 2015, when the RPS expired, the state had reached its target of obtaining 29% of electricity sales from renewable sources.67 The RPS was replaced by the state’s Clean Energy Standard (CES), which required utilities and other retail electricity suppliers in the state to acquire 50% of the electricity they sold from clean energy resources by 2030.68 In July 2019, the CES was revised to require 100% carbon-free electricity by 2040 and economy-wide net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.69 In addition to renewable resources, the CES identifies qualifying nuclear power plants in the state as zero emission resources that will contribute to the state goal of carbon-free electricity.70 Facilities that are not technically capable of eliminating all carbon emissions can purchase offsets. The offsets must be from nearby sources that reduce carbon, like forests and agriculture.71 In 2017, New York’s per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions were lower than those of any other state in the nation.72

Petroleum

Despite a long history of crude oil production, today New York has no significant proved crude oil reserves and produces only a small amount of crude oil.73,74,75 In the 19th century, New York was an important center for crude oil production and processing with more than 50 oil refineries, including one of the world’s largest. By the end of the 20th century, all the refineries in the state were closed, and now the small amount of crude oil produced in New York is shipped to out-of-state refineries.76,77

New York is one of the nation’s largest petroleum consumers, but the state consumes less petroleum per capita than any other state.

Petroleum products consumed in New York are supplied by refineries in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, by pipelines from the Gulf Coast and the Midwest, and by imports, mostly from Canada. New York Harbor, which includes terminals on both the New York and New Jersey shorelines, is the largest petroleum products hub in the Northeast, with bulk storage capacity exceeding 75 million barrels. Petroleum products delivered to the harbor are redistributed by truck or by barge to smaller ports on Long Island and upstate along the Hudson River, as well as to western New England. Western New York receives refined petroleum products from Pennsylvania and the Midwest through pipelines and from Canada through the Port of Buffalo.78

With its large population, New York is one of the nation’s five largest consumers of petroleum, but the state consumes less petroleum per capita than any other state.79 Almost four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in New York is used in the transportation sector, and much of the rest is used for heating.80,81 Almost one-fourth of New York households are heated with petroleum products, primarily fuel oil.82 Because of concerns about home heating oil shortages in New York and other northeastern states, the federal government created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) in 2000. In 2011, the federal government converted the reserve to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), in part because of New York's decision to require consumers heating with petroleum to use ULSD starting in 2012.83 New York was the first northeastern state to require the use of ULSD.84

To reduce ozone formation, reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required year-round in the New York City metropolitan area and Long Island. The rest of the state is required to use a low volatility motor gasoline blend in the summer.85,86 New York Harbor is the primary Northeast distribution hub for ethanol supplies. Although some ethanol is produced in New York it is much less than what is consumed in the state.87,88 Ethanol produced in the Midwest and marine imports from overseas arrive through New York Harbor for distribution throughout the state and beyond. An additional large storage facility at Albany, New York, receives fuel ethanol for distribution throughout the Northeast.89

Natural gas

New York has very little natural gas production and few reserves. The state’s first commercial natural gas well was drilled in 1821, nearly 200 years ago.90 Annual production peaked at almost 56 billion cubic feet in 2006, less than 0.3% of the nation’s total for the year. In 2018, New York produced less than 12 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and the state holds less than 0.03% of the nation’s total natural gas reserves.91,92,93 Most of the natural gas consumed in the state is supplied by pipelines from other states. An increasing share of New York’s natural gas comes from Pennsylvania.94 The Marcellus Shale, named for a town in central New York where the shale is visible at the surface, is a natural gas-bearing formation extending under parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland.95 It is currently the most prolific natural gas area in the United States.96 Because of environmental concerns, New York has banned hydraulic fracturing, a technique used to produce natural gas from shales.97 The only wells producing natural gas from the Marcellus Shale in New York were completed before the ban in 2010. The total amount of natural gas retrievable from the Marcellus Shale in New York is unclear.98

New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states in 2018.

New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states in 2018. However, New York consumed less natural gas per capita than more than two-thirds of the states.99 The residential sector, the electric power sector, and the commercial sector consume almost all the natural gas used in New York. In 2019, the residential sector, where three out of every five households heat with natural gas, accounted for almost two-fifths of the natural gas delivered to New York consumers.100 The electric power sector consumes natural gas to fuel nearly two-fifths of the state’s electricity generation, and three-tenths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in New York in 2019 went to that sector.101 One-fourth of the natural gas consumed in the state went to the commercial sector. The industrial sector received less than one-tenth of the natural gas delivered to New York consumers in 2019.102 New York has 26 natural gas underground storage facilities that, along with storage in nearby states, are key to meeting northeastern winter heating demand.103 Virtually all major interstate pipelines from the Gulf Coast, Appalachia, and Canada reach New York, both to supply in-state customers and to ship supplies onward to New England.104

Coal

New York does not have any coal mines and has no coal reserves.105 Slightly more than half the small volume of domestically mined coal consumed in New York is used by industrial plants and coking facilities, and slightly less than half is shipped to the state’s electric power sector.106 Since 2001, coal has fueled progressively less of New York's net generation, declining from more than 16% in 2001 to less than 1% in 2019.107 Most of the coal that is used to fuel in-state power generation is transported to New York’s coal-fired power plants from nearby states.108 U.S. coal exports that travel through New York primarily leave the state through the Port of Buffalo, although some coal also leaves the state through the ports at Ogdensburg in northern New York and at New York City. Small amounts of imported coal also enter the state at those ports.109

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010–2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, Library, Top 20 Cities, Highest Ranking Cities, 1790 to 2010 (July 19, 2012).
4 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Population Density Data (Text Version), accessed August 3, 2020.
5 Aubertine, Daniel J., Rural New York, New York State Senate (July 29, 2020).
6 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Data and Tools, Renewable Energy Atlas, accessed August 3, 2020.
7 Niagara Parks, Niagara Falls Geology, Facts and Figures, accessed August 3, 2020.
8 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.10.B.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New York, accessed August 3, 2020.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, New York, All statistics in table, 2017, 2018, 2019.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New York Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
17 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Table B08301 Means of Transportation to Work, Workers 16 years and over, 2018, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, United States, New York State, All counties in New York State.
18 Wysocki, Mark, “I Love NY’s Climate Zones!,” New York’s Climate, The CoCoRaHS State Climates Series, accessed August 3, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, Fuel type (Check all), Annual, 2001–19.
20 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels (utility-scale), Natural gas, Annual, 2001–19.
23 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2017, p. 35.
24 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2019, p. 39.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Petroleum liquids, Annual, 2001–19.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001–19.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
29 “Entergy closes Indian Point unit 2,” World Nuclear News (April 30, 2020).
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Indian Point 2 and Indian Point 3, accessed August 5, 2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001–19.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001–19.
33 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets, New York (NYISO), updated June 8, 2020.
34 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2018, p. 11.
35 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2019, p. 26.
36 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
39 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New York, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other Renewables (Total), Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001–19.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
42 New York State, NY Power Authority, Niagara Power Project, accessed August 17, 2020.
43 World Atlas, World Facts, “The Largest Hydroelectric Power Stations In The United States,” accessed August 17, 2020.
44 “A Powerful 50 Years at Niagara,” International Water Power & Dam Construction (April 15, 2011).
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001–19.
46 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2020), Table 6.2.B.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
49 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New York, accessed August 17, 2020.
50 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York State Offshore Wind, accessed August 17, 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), Biomass (Total), Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2001–19.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
55 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, XLS, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity: January 1, 2019.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
58 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (June 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, June 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
60 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010–2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
61 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2020), Table 6.2.B.
62 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY-Sun Performance Reports, NY-Sun Annual Performance Report Through December 31, 2019, Final Report (March 2020), p. 3.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, New York, All fuels (Utility-scale), All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2001–19.
65 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Programs, Filter by New York and All Solar Technologies, accessed August 17, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated June 26, 2018.
68 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Clean Energy Standard, updated January 8, 2019.
69 Roberts, David, “New York just passed the most ambitious climate target in the country,” Vox (July 22, 2019).
70 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Clean Energy Standard, updated January 8, 2019.
71 Roberts, David, “New York just passed the most ambitious climate target in the country,” Vox (July 22, 2019).
72 U.S. EIA, Energy-Related CO2 Emission Data Tables, Table 5, Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (1990–2017).
73 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York’s Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, Part 1 (2007), First Commercial Oil Development in New York, p. 10.
74 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014–19.
75 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2018 (December 2019), Table 7, Crude oil proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2018.
76 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York’s Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, Part 1 (2007), Crude Oil Refining in New York State, p. 10.
77 U.S. EIA, New York Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 1982–2020.
78 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Energy Assurance Plan (September 14, 2012) p. IV-6–IV-7, V-28–V-36.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
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85 Larson, B. K., “U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018,” ExxonMobil, accessed August 19, 2020.
86 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Programs, Reformulated Gasoline and Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed August 19, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
89 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Energy Assurance Plan (September 14, 2012), p. IV-7.
90 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New York's Oil and Natural Gas History, accessed August 19, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2018.
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1936–2019.
93 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013–18.
94 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New York, Annual, 2013–18.
95 Soeder, Daniel J., Resource and Environmental Studies on the Marcellus Shale, National Energy Technology Laboratory (2008), p. 5.
96 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4, 8.
97 New York State Office of the Governor, “Governor Cuomo Announces Legislation to Make the Fracking Ban Permanent Included in FY 2021 Executive Budget,” Press Release (January 20, 2020).
98 U.S. EIA, Marcellus Shale Play Geology review, Updates to the Marcellus Shale Play Maps (January 2017), p. 3.
99 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
100 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, New York, Table B25040, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels, Natural gas, Annual, 2001–19.
102 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New York, Annual, 2014–19.
103 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, New York, Annual, 2013–18.
104 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region, accessed August 20, 2020.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State, New York, Table DS-28, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
107 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, New York, All fuels (utility-scale), Coal, Annual, 2001–19.
108 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), New York, Table DS-30, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
109 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October–December 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, Coal Exports by Customs District, and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.


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