Kentucky State Energy Profile



Kentucky Quick Facts

  • Kentucky is the fifth-largest coal-producing state in the nation. About one-fifth of all operating U.S. coal mines are located in Kentucky, more than any other state except West Virginia and Pennsylvania.
  • Kentucky's one oil refinery can process about 291,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. It is the 14th largest U.S. oil refinery and provides about 1.6% of the nation's total refining capacity.
  • In 2020, about 69% of Kentucky's electricity net generation was coal-fired, the fourth-largest share of any state after West Virginia, Wyoming, and Missouri.
  • Kentucky has 22 underground natural gas storage sites that can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of gas, which is about 2% of U.S. total underground storage capacity.
  • In 2020, Kentucky had the ninth-lowest average electricity retail price of any state and the second-lowest price for a state east of the Mississippi River.

Last Updated: July 15, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.5 million 1.4% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 2.0 million 1.2% Jul-21  
Economy Kentucky U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 210.0 billion 28 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 37,461 million 23 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 46,507 48 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 49,410 million miles 26 2019  
Land in Farms 13.0 million acres 23 2017  
Climate Kentucky U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit 16 2020  
Precipitation 58.1 inches 10 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 65.59 /barrel $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.54 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 24.63 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 51.89 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.84 /million Btu $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.46 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 10.46 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 5.65 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 8 million barrels * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 1,275 billion cu ft 0.3% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 78 million barrels 0.4% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 699 million short tons 4.9% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2019 find more
Capacity Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 291,000 barrels/calendar day 1.5% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,599 MW 1.6% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,046 trillion Btu 1.0% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 6 thousand barrels per day 0.1% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 77,882 million cu ft 0.2% 2019 find more
Coal 36,006 thousand short tons 5.1% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 6,622 thousand MWh 1.8% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Kentucky U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 21.4 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 71.7 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 6.8 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 83 thousand barrels 0.7% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 826 thousand barrels 0.8% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 179,784 million cu ft 2.6% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 220 thousand barrels 0.9% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 4,196 thousand tons 3.8% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,034 stations 1.8% 2019  
Propane 23 stations 0.8% 2021  
Electricity 160 stations 0.4% 2021  
E85 68 stations 1.8% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 8 stations 0.6% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Kentucky U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,723 trillion Btu 21 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 385 million Btu 15 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 19,031 million 25 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,255 16 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 352 trillion Btu 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 260 trillion Btu 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 613 trillion Btu 1.9% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 498 trillion Btu 1.7% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 3,636 million 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,511 million 1.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,271 million 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,613 million 1.7% 2019 find more
by Source Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 121 million barrels 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 339 billion cu ft 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 26 million short tons 4.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 11,154 million 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,681 million 1.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,136 million 4.5% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 15 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 10,978 million cu ft 1.0% Jun-21 find more
Coal 2,217 thousand short tons 4.6% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Kentucky U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 36.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.7 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 52.7 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 6.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.5 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,236 MW 0.5% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 53 million gal/year 0.3% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 409 thousand MWh 1.6% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 5 thousand MWh * Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 34 thousand MWh 0.7% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 7 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 844 thousand barrels 0.2% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Kentucky U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 5.9 % 45 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 5,183 thousand barrels 25 2019  
Total Emissions Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 120.9 million metric tons 2.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 58,805 thousand metric tons 3.4% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 48 thousand metric tons 3.8% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 40 thousand metric tons 3.0% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: July 15, 2021

Overview

Kentucky is the fifth-largest coal producer among the states.

Bordered on the north by the Ohio River, Kentucky stretches from the Appalachian Mountains in the east to the flood plain of the Mississippi River in the west.1 In between, the rolling hills of the state's fertile Bluegrass region extend southward from the Ohio River to the Pennyroyal region, which is famous for its thousands of caverns and springs, including Mammoth Cave National Park.2,3 Major coal deposits are found both in the Central Appalachian Basin in the eastern part of the state and in the Illinois Basin in the northwest.4 Those basins also contain crude oil and natural gas reserves.5,6,7 Dams on the Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio, and Laurel rivers provide Kentucky with hydroelectric power.8 Although two-thirds of Kentucky's agricultural economy is livestock, primarily thoroughbred horses and beef cattle, the state's ample rainfall, temperate climate, and fertile soils provide ideal conditions for growing several crops, including tobacco, soybeans, corn, and wheat.9,10,11 Corn and beverage waste from Kentucky distilleries provide feedstock for the state's fuel ethanol production.12,13

Kentucky has an energy-intensive economy, and is among the top 15 states in total energy consumption.14 The industrial sector is the state's largest energy consumer, accounting for about 36% of total end-use energy consumption.15 Kentucky's low electricity prices have helped attract manufacturing to the state. The manufacture of motor vehicles; food, beverages and tobacco products; primary and fabricated metal; and chemicals are major contributors to the state's GDP, as are agriculture and forestry. Coal mining and petroleum refining are two of Kentucky's energy-intensive industries.16,17 The transportation sector makes up about 29% of the state's energy consumption, followed by the residential sector at about 20%, and the commercial sector accounts for about 15% of state energy use.18

Coal

Kentucky ranks fifth in the nation in estimated recoverable coal reserves and fifth in coal production.19 Coal was mined in Kentucky as early as 1790. Since then, about 11 billion tons of coal have been mined in the state.20,21 About three-fifths of Kentucky's coal mines are surface mines, but underground mines account for more than 80% of the state's coal production.22 The state's mines produce only bituminous coal, which is the most abundant type of coal found in the United States and is used for producing electricity, iron, and steel.23,24 For many years, Kentucky was the third-largest coal-producing state, after Wyoming and West Virginia, and typically accounted for about one-tenth of total U.S. coal production.25 However, Kentucky's coal production declined as coal-fired electricity generating plants that were consumers of Kentucky coal retired or converted to natural gas.26,27,28,29 By the end of 2019, Kentucky's coal production decreased to about 5% of total U.S. production.30 Still, about one-fifth of all U.S. operating coal mines are located in Kentucky, more than in any other state except West Virginia and Pennsylvania.31

Benchmark prices for eastern U.S. coal are determined in the Central Appalachian (CAPP) coal delivery zone, which is located near where the Big Sandy River flows into the Ohio River. Kentucky meets Ohio and West Virginia at the rivers' confluence, and coal is delivered from mines in those three states, as well as from Virginia and Tennessee. The coal is delivered by rail or truck for transport by multi-car trains and barges to customers—including coal-fired electricity generating plants, industrial plants, commercial and institutional facilities, and coking plants—throughout the country.32

About 90% of Kentucky's coal that is distributed stays in the United States, with slightly less than half that coal remaining in the state and the rest sent to nearly 20 other states, where it is burned primarily by power plants to generate electricity.33,34 Kentucky exports about 10% of its coal to other countries.35 Kentucky ranks among the top 10 states in coal consumption, and nearly all that coal is used for electricity generation. Almost half of Kentucky's coal consumption is met with the state's own coal, and that remaining coal that is consumed in Kentucky is brought in from other states, primarily Wyoming, Illinois, West Virginia, and Indiana.36,37,38

Electricity

In 2020, coal generated 69% of Kentucky’s in-state electricity, a larger share than all but three other states.

In 2020, coal-fired power plants supplied 69% of Kentucky's electricity generation, the fourth-largest share among the states after West Virginia, Wyoming, and Missouri.39,40 Historically, coal-fired power plants produced more than 90% of Kentucky's net generation. However, as older coal-fired generating units became more costly to operate, about 5,800 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity shut down over the past decade.41,42,43,44,45 Kentucky still remains among the top five states in the nation in coal-fired generating capacity with about 9,900 megawatts.46

Natural gas provides an increasing amount of Kentucky's net generation. In 2020, natural gas-fired power plants generated 23% of the state's electricity. The rest of Kentucky's electricity generation, less than one-tenth, comes mostly from hydroelectric power plants along with small contributions from biomass, solar energy, and petroleum-fired generation.47

In 2020, Kentucky had the ninth-lowest average electricity retail price of any state and the second-lowest price east of the Mississippi River.48 Slightly more than half of Kentucky households use electricity as their primary heating source.49

Petroleum

Kentucky accounts for less than 0.1% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves and production.50,51 Half the state's counties have producing oil wells, and the highest producing areas are located in eastern and western Kentucky.52,53 Although Kentucky's oil production increased in 2019 for the first time in four years, rising to 2.5 million barrels, the state's annual oil production has been less than 3 million barrels for the past two decades. Production declined in 2020in response to lower oil prices and less petroleum demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.54,55,56

Kentucky has one oil refinery that can process up to 291,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.

Kentucky has one operating oil refinery that processes crude oil.57 The refinery, located in the city of Catlettsburg in northeastern Kentucky, is the 14th largest U.S. refinery and can process 291,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day to make motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, and propane. It accounts for about 1.6% of U.S. refining capacity.58 A smaller refinery located in the city of Somerset in southeastern Kentucky, which processed about 5,500 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, closed in 2020 for economic reasons. The refinery's owner is looking into converting the facility to process soybeans to produce biodiesel.59,60 Additional refined petroleum products arrive in the state via interstate pipelines and by river barges at Kentucky ports along the Ohio River.61,62,63

The transportation sector accounts for three out of every four barrels of petroleum consumed in Kentucky, and motor gasoline accounts for about two-fifths the state's total petroleum use.64,65 Conventional motor gasoline can be sold statewide, except for all or part of three counties around Louisville that allow only reformulated gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce air pollution. In July 2018, the state withdrew three of its counties that make up the southern suburbs of Cincinnati from the federal reformulated gasoline program.66,67,68 The industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Kentucky. The remaining small amount of petroleum used in the state is split almost equally between the commercial sector and the residential sector, where about 7 out of 100 Kentucky households heat with propane, fuel oil, or kerosene.69,70

Natural gas

Kentucky holds about 0.3% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves, but organic-rich shales that underlie eastern Kentucky may hold substantial additional natural gas resources.71,72 The state also accounts for about 0.2% of the nation's marketed natural gas production.73 Most of the state's natural gas is produced from wells located in eastern Kentucky.74,75 The state's annual natural gas production rose in the early 2000s, peaking in 2010 at about 135 billion cubic feet, but declined about 40% since then as natural gas prices decreased.76,77,78

Kentucky’s 22 underground storage facilities can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of natural gas.

Consumption of natural gas in Kentucky is about four times greater than the state's production, and several interstate natural gas pipelines bring natural gas supplies to Kentucky consumers.79,80,81 For more than two decades, most of the natural gas that entered Kentucky arrived by pipeline from the U.S. Gulf Coast. However, starting in 2015, Kentucky began to receive more natural gas produced in the Utica and Marcellus shale formations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia. In 2019, about two-thirds of the natural gas transported by pipeline to Kentucky came from Ohio and West Virginia. Nearly 90% of the natural gas that enters Kentucky is sent on to other states, primarily Tennessee and Indiana.82 Some natural gas is placed in underground storage. Kentucky has 22 underground natural gas storage facilities that can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of gas—about 2% of U.S. total storage capacity.83,84

In 2020, Kentucky's industrial sector accounted for nearly two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in the state, and the electric power sector was not far behind at slightly more than one-third. Natural gas consumption by the state's electric power sector more than doubled from 2015 to 2020. The residential sector, where almost 4 out of 10 Kentucky households use natural gas for home heating, received about one-seventh of the natural gas delivered to end users in the state, and the commercial sector accounted for about one-tenth of state natural gas consumption.85,86,87 Natural gas use per capita in Kentucky is lower than in nearly two-thirds of the states.88

Renewable energy

Renewable resources are a relatively small part of Kentucky's energy mix.89 Hydropower accounts for nearly all of the state's renewable electricity generation. In 2020, 10 hydroelectric dams produced about 7% of the state's electricity generation.90,91 Almost one-tenth of the renewable generation in Kentucky, or about 0.6% of the state's total net generation, came from biomass.92 Most of the biomass-fueled electricity generating facilities in Kentucky use landfill gas, but the largest facility—accounting for two-thirds of the state's biomass generation capacity—uses wood waste.93 The state's forests also provide feedstock for two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of 62,000 tons a year.94

Kentucky has both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar power generation facilities, which together accounted for 0.2% of the state's electricity generation in 2020.95 The state's largest utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generating facility is the 10-megawatt, 44,000-panel solar farm that came online in 2016 at the E.W. Brown power station, which also houses a hydroelectric plant, coal fired-generating plant, and seven natural gas-fired generating units.96,97 Kentucky has few wind resources suitable for utility-scale power projects, and no commercial wind power facilities are in the state.98,99

Kentucky has two fuel ethanol production plants with a combined capacity of about 50 million gallons per year.100 A plant owned by a farmers' cooperative produces most of the ethanol, using corn as its primary feedstock.101 The smaller ethanol plant is a recycling operation in a former bourbon distillery that produces ethanol from waste non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages; sugars; industrial alcohols; health and beauty alcohols; and pharmaceutical manufacturing by-products.102 Kentucky also has one biodiesel production plant with a capacity of about 54 million gallons per year. The biodiesel plant uses several feedstocks, including soy oil, used cooking oil, and waste vegetable oil.103,104

Kentucky does not have a renewable portfolio standard, but state law provides for net metering of small-scale renewable generation from solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and biogas facilities of 45 kilowatts or less. Each investor-owned utility and rural electric cooperative's obligation to connect eligible small-scale generators is limited to 1% of the power provider's peak single-hour electricity load during the previous year.105 The state is also home to the nation's first net-zero energy-use public elementary school building, located in Richardsville, Kentucky, which was built in 2010. The school design combines energy efficient systems, geothermal heat pumps, insulated concrete walls with high heat retention values, and a thin film rooftop solar PV system.106,107

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Kentucky, Kentucky Geography, accessed June 14, 2021.
2 Kentucky Geological Survey, Physiographic Map of Kentucky and The Mississippian Plateau or Pennyroyal Region, updated August 1, 2012.
3 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, updated December 16, 2016.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Coalfields of the Conterminous United States, accessed June 14, 2021.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, Coal Field, and Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed June 14, 2021.
6 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, Kentucky, 2014-19.
7 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Kentucky, 2014-19.
8 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant and Pumped Storage Power Plant, accessed June 14, 2021.
9 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, updated December 16, 2016.
10 Kentucky Climate Center, Narrative, Climatography of Kentucky, Climate, accessed June 14, 2021.
11 NETSTATE, Kentucky, Kentucky Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
12 U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Plants, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated May 26, 2021
13 Parallel Products, Beverage Destruction and Recycling, accessed June 14, 2021.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
16 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Office of Energy Policy, Final Report on Kentucky's Participation in NGA Policy Academy on Power Sector Modernization (2018), Key Demographic and Economic Considerations, p. 4.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Kentucky, All statistics in table, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019, and Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
20 Kentucky Geological Survey, Kentucky Coal Production, Search the Kentucky Geological Survey's coal production database, accessed June 14, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, Kentucky, 2001-19,
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
24 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Types of coal, Bituminous, accessed June 14, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, U.S., Wyoming, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, and South Atlantic, 2001-19.
26 U.S. EIA, "Less electricity was generated by coal than nuclear in the United States in 2020," Today in Energy (March 18, 2021).
27 U.S. EIA, "Coal transported to the U.S. electric power sector declined by 22% in 2020," Today in Energy (May 13, 2021).
28 U.S. EIA, "More than 100 coal-fired plants have been replaced or converted to natural gas since 2011," Today in Energy (August 5, 2020).
29 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
31 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, "Trading Point: Central Appalachian (CAPP) Is the Nation's Benchmark Price for Eastern Coal," Today in Energy (September 19, 2012).
33 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table OS-7, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 26, Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
38 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table DS-16, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-20.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B and 1.4.B.
41 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
42 U.S. EIA, "U.S. coal plant retirements linked to plants with higher operating costs," Today in Energy (December 3, 2019).
43 U.S. EIA, "As U.S. coal-fired capacity and utilization decline, operators consider seasonal operation," Today in Energy (September 1, 2020).
44 U.S. EIA, "New electric generating capacity in 2020 will come primarily from wind and solar," Today in Energy (January 14, 2020).
45 "TVA's Paradise Fossil Power Plant closes after 50 years," WFIE (February 2, 2020).
46 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.C.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
50 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
51 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2014-19.
52 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil and Natural Gas in Kentucky (June 2019), Leading Producing Zones, p. 1.
53 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed June 15, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 1981-2020.
55 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
56 U.S. EIA, "EIA forecasts U.S. crude oil production to fall in 2020 and 2021," Today in Energy (May 14, 2020).
57 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021 and Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
58 Marathon Petroleum, Catlettsburg Refinery, accessed June 15, 2021.
59 Mardis, Bill, "Continental Refinery will not resume production," Commonwealth Journal (July 8, 2020).
60 Continental Refining Company, "Continental Refining Company Unveils Transformational ‘AgriTech' Plan for Refinery Plant in Somerset," Press Release (November 18, 2020).
61 World Port Source, Jefferson Riverport, Port Commerce, accessed June 15, 2021.
62 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed June 15, 2021.
63 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Petroleum Port, accessed June 16, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
66 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, "Opt-In" Areas, accessed June 15, 2021.
67 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
68 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Removal of the RFG Program from the Northern Kentucky Area of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Ozone Maintenance Area, accessed June 16, 2021.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
72 Peterson, Erica, "Is Fracking Coming to the Cumberlands?" WFPL.org (January 6, 2015).
73 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
74 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil and Natural Gas in Kentucky (June 2019), Leading Producing Zones, p. 1.
75 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed June 16, 2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2019.
77 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Spot and Futures Prices (NYMEX), Futures Prices, Monthly, 1994-2021.
78 U.S. EIA, "Natural gas prices fall to lowest level since 2016, the lowest February prices in 20 years," Today in Energy (February 14, 2020).
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
80 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2015-20.
81 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 6, accessed June 16, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kentucky, Annual, 2014-19.
83 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
84 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2015-20.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
87 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-20.
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