Kentucky State Energy Profile



Kentucky Quick Facts

  • Kentucky is the seventh-largest coal-producing state in the nation. About one out of six U.S. operating coal mines are located in Kentucky, more than any other state except West Virginia and Pennsylvania.
  • Kentucky's one oil refinery can process about 291,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. It is the 15th-largest U.S. oil refinery and provides about 1.6% of the nation's total refining capacity.
  • In 2021, about 71% of Kentucky's electricity net generation was coal-fired, the fourth-largest share of any state after West Virginia, Missouri, and Wyoming.
  • Kentucky has 22 underground natural gas storage sites that can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of gas, which is about 2% of U.S. total underground storage capacity.
  • In 2021, Kentucky had the 12th-lowest average electricity price of any state and the second-lowest price for a state east of the Mississippi River. Slightly more than half of Kentucky households use electricity for their heating.

Last Updated: August 18, 2022



Data

Last Update: January 19, 2022 | Next Update: February 16, 2023

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Population 4.5 million 1.4% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 2.0 million 1.2% Nov-22  
Economy Kentucky U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 234.5 billion 28 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 40,791 million 21 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 50,699 47 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 46,536 million miles 26 2020  
Land in Farms 13.0 million acres 23 2017  
Climate Kentucky U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 56.9 degrees Fahrenheit 16 2021  
Precipitation 53.3 inches 8 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 81.43 /barrel $ 86.62 /barrel Oct-22  
Natural Gas Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.72 /thousand cu ft $ 6.83 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Residential $ 20.34 /thousand cu ft $ 18.63 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Coal Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 55.21 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.45 /million Btu $ 2.46 /million Btu Oct-22  
Electricity Kentucky U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.99 cents/kWh 16.09 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Commercial 12.34 cents/kWh 13.04 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Industrial 7.61 cents/kWh 8.61 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 4 million barrels * 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 1,158 billion cu ft 0.3% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 72 million barrels 0.3% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 354 million short tons 2.9% 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 12,711 wells 2.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 291,000 barrels/calendar day 1.6% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,583 MW 1.5% Oct-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 756 trillion Btu 0.8% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 4 thousand barrels per day * Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 75,373 million cu ft 0.2% 2021 find more
Coal 26,426 thousand short tons 4.6% 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,482 thousand MWh 1.4% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Kentucky U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired -0.1 % 0.3 % Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 26.1 % 42.4 % Oct-22 find more
Coal-Fired 66.6 % 17.2 % Oct-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.8 % Oct-22 find more
Renewables 7.3 % 20.7 % Oct-22  
Stocks Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 86 thousand barrels 0.7% Oct-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 718 thousand barrels 0.9% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 208,411 million cu ft 2.6% Oct-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 254 thousand barrels 1.1% Oct-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 4,492 thousand tons 5.1% Oct-22 find more
Fueling Stations Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,034 stations 1.8% 2019  
Propane 19 stations 0.8% 2022  
Electricity 210 stations 0.5% 2022  
E85 73 stations 1.8% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 7 stations 0.5% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Kentucky U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,595 trillion Btu 21 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 354 million Btu 15 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 15,508 million 25 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,443 17 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 331 trillion Btu 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 234 trillion Btu 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 565 trillion Btu 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 465 trillion Btu 1.9% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 3,483 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,299 million 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,732 million 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 6,994 million 1.7% 2020 find more
by Source Kentucky Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 110 million barrels 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 349 billion cu ft 1.1% 2021 find more
    »  Coal 21 million short tons 4.5% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 8,113 million 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,945 million 1.0% 2021 find more
    »  Coal $ 929 million 4.7% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.3% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas 8,444 million cu ft 0.9% Oct-22 find more
Coal 1,428 thousand short tons 4.6% Oct-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Kentucky U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 35.0 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 0.7 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 55.2 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 6.2 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 2.9 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,240 MW 0.4% Oct-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 53 million gal/year 0.3% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 291 thousand MWh 2.0% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 4 thousand MWh * Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 30 thousand MWh 0.7% Oct-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 9 thousand MWh 0.2% Oct-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 928 thousand barrels 0.3% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Kentucky U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.3 % 43 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 4,783 thousand barrels 25 2020  
Total Emissions Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 115.4 million metric tons 2.2% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Kentucky Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 56,157 thousand metric tons 3.4% 2021  
Sulfur Dioxide 46 thousand metric tons 4.0% 2021  
Nitrogen Oxide 31 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 18, 2022

Overview

Bordered on the north by the Ohio River, Kentucky stretches from the Appalachian Mountains in the east to the flood plain of the Mississippi River in the west.1 In between, the rolling hills of the state's fertile Bluegrass region extend southward from the Ohio River to the Pennyroyal region, which is famous for its thousands of caverns and springs, including Mammoth Cave National Park.2,3 Major coal deposits are found both in the Central Appalachian Basin in the eastern part of the state and in the Illinois Basin in the northwest.4 Those basins also contain crude oil and natural gas reserves.5,6,7 Dams on the Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio, and Laurel rivers provide Kentucky with hydroelectric power.8 Although two-thirds of Kentucky's agricultural economy is livestock, primarily thoroughbred horses and beef cattle, the state's ample rainfall, temperate climate, and fertile soils provide ideal conditions for growing several crops, including tobacco, soybeans, corn, and wheat.9,10,11 Corn and beverage waste from Kentucky distilleries provide feedstock for the state's fuel ethanol production.12,13

Kentucky has an energy-intensive economy, and ranks 11th among the states in the amount of energy used per dollar of GDP.14 The industrial sector is the state's largest energy consumer, accounting for about 35% of total end-use energy consumption.15 Kentucky's low electricity prices have helped attract manufacturing to the state. The manufacture of motor vehicles; food, beverages and tobacco products; primary and fabricated metal products; and chemicals are major contributors to the state's GDP, as are agriculture and forestry. Coal mining and petroleum refining are two of Kentucky's energy-intensive industries.16,17 The transportation sector makes up about 29% of the state's energy consumption, followed by the residential sector at about 21%, and the commercial sector accounts for about 15% of state energy use.18

Coal

Kentucky is the seventh-largest coal producer among the states.

Kentucky ranks fifth in the nation in estimated recoverable coal reserves and seventh in coal production.19 Coal was mined in Kentucky as early as 1790. Since then, about 10 billion tons of coal have been mined in the state.20,21 About three-fifths of Kentucky's coal mines are surface mines, but underground mines account for about 80% of the state's coal production.22 The state's mines produce only bituminous coal, which is the most abundant type of coal found in the United States and is used for producing electricity, iron, and steel.23,24 For many years, Kentucky was the third-largest coal-producing state, after Wyoming and West Virginia, and typically accounted for about one-tenth of total U.S. coal production.25 However, Kentucky's coal production declined as coal-fired electricity generating plants that were consumers of Kentucky coal retired or converted to natural gas.26,27,28,29 In 2020, Kentucky's coal production decreased to its lowest level since 1915 and accounted for slightly less than 5% of total U.S. production.30,31,32 Still, about one out of six U.S. operating coal mines are located in Kentucky, and it has more mines than in any other state except for West Virginia and Pennsylvania.33

Kentucky plays a role in the benchmark prices for eastern U.S. coal, which are determined in the Central Appalachian (CAPP) coal delivery zone located near where the Big Sandy River flows into the Ohio River. Kentucky meets Ohio and West Virginia at the rivers' confluence, and coal is delivered to the CAPP from mines in those three states, as well as from Virginia and Tennessee. The coal arrives by rail or truck for transport on multi-car trains and barges to customers—including coal-fired electricity generating plants, industrial plants, commercial and institutional facilities, and coking plants—throughout the country.34

About 95% of Kentucky's coal stays in the United States, with about two-fifths of that coal remaining in Kentucky and the rest sent to nearly 20 other states, where it is burned primarily by power plants to generate electricity.35,36 Kentucky ranks among the top 10 states in coal consumption, and nearly all that coal is used for electricity generation. About 42% of Kentucky's coal consumption is met with the state's own coal, and the remaining coal consumed in Kentucky is brought in from other states, primarily Illinois, Wyoming, and West Virginia.37,38,39

Electricity

In 2021, coal generated 71% of Kentucky’s in-state electricity, a larger share than all but three other states.

In 2021, coal-fired power plants supplied 71% of Kentucky's electricity generation, the fourth-largest share among the states after West Virginia, Missouri, and Wyoming.40,41 Historically, coal-fired power plants produced more than 90% of Kentucky's net generation. However, as older coal-fired generating units became more costly to operate, about 5,900 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity shut down over the past decade.42,43,44,45 Kentucky still remains among the top five states in the nation in coal-fired generating capacity with about 9,400 megawatts at the beginning of 2022.46

Natural gas provides an increasing amount of Kentucky's net generation. In 2021, natural gas-fired power plants generated 21% of the state's electricity, double the share from 5 years earlier. The rest of Kentucky's electricity generation, less than one-tenth, came mostly from hydroelectric power plants, along with small contributions from biomass, solar energy, and petroleum-fired generation.47

In 2021, Kentucky had the 12th-lowest average electricity price of any state and the second-lowest price east of the Mississippi River.48 Slightly more than half of Kentucky households use electricity as their primary heating source.49

Petroleum

Kentucky accounts for less than 0.1% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves and production.50,51 Half the state's counties have producing oil wells, and the highest producing areas are located in eastern and western Kentucky.52,53 Although Kentucky's oil production increased in 2021 from the year before, rising to 2.5 million barrels, output was less than one-third of the state's record oil production of 7.9 million barrels in 1983. Kentucky's annual oil production has been less than 3 million barrels for the past two decades.54

Kentucky has one oil refinery that can process up to 291,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.

Kentucky has one operating crude oil refinery that processes crude oil, located in the city of Catlettsburg in northeastern Kentucky. It is the 15th largest U.S. refinery and can process 291,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day to make motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, and propane. The Catlettsburg refinery accounts for about 1.6% of U.S. refining capacity.55,56 A smaller refinery located in the city of Somerset in southeastern Kentucky, which could process about 5,500 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, closed in 2020 for economic reasons. The refinery's owner is converting the facility to process soybeans to produce biodiesel.57,58,59 Additional refined petroleum products arrive in the state via interstate pipelines and by river barges at Kentucky ports along the Ohio River.60,61,62

The transportation sector accounts for three out of every four barrels of petroleum consumed in Kentucky, and motor gasoline accounts for about two-fifths the state's total petroleum use.63,64 Conventional motor gasoline can be sold statewide, except for all or part of three counties around Louisville that allow only reformulated gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce air pollution. In July 2018, the state withdrew three of its counties that make up the southern suburbs of Cincinnati from the federal reformulated gasoline program.65,66,67 The industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Kentucky. The rest of the small amount of petroleum used in the state is split almost equally between the commercial sector and the residential sector, where about 7 out of 100 Kentucky households heat with propane, fuel oil, or kerosene.68,69

Natural gas

Kentucky holds about 0.3% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves, but organic-rich shales that underlie eastern Kentucky may hold substantial additional natural gas resources.70,71,72,73 The state also accounts for about 0.2% of the nation's marketed natural gas production.74 Most of the state's natural gas is produced from wells located in eastern Kentucky.75,76 The state's annual natural gas production increased in the early 2000s, peaking in 2010 at about 135 billion cubic feet annually, but has declined about two-thirds since then. In 2020, the state's natural gas output fell to 71 billion cubic feet, the lowest level since the late 1980s, as natural gas prices decreased.77,78,79

Kentucky’s 22 underground storage facilities can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of natural gas.

Consumption of natural gas in Kentucky is almost five times greater than the state's production, and several interstate natural gas pipelines bring natural gas supplies to Kentucky consumers.80,81,82 For more than two decades, most of the natural gas that entered Kentucky arrived by pipeline from the U.S. Gulf Coast. However, starting in 2015, Kentucky began to receive more natural gas produced in the Utica and Marcellus shale formations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia. In 2020, almost three-fourths of the natural gas transported by pipeline to Kentucky came from Ohio and West Virginia. About 90% of the natural gas that entered Kentucky was sent on to other states, primarily Tennessee and Indiana.83 Some of the natural gas is placed in underground storage. Kentucky has 22 underground natural gas storage facilities that can hold nearly 222 billion cubic feet of gas—about 2% of U.S. total storage capacity.84,85

In 2021, Kentucky's industrial sector consumed record volumes of natural gas and accounted for almost two-fifths of the natural gas used in the state. The electric power sector accounted for slightly more than one-third, with natural gas consumption by the sector more than double the level from five years earlier. The residential sector, where almost 4 out of 10 Kentucky households use natural gas for home heating, received about one-seventh of the natural gas delivered to end users in the state. The commercial sector accounted for about one-tenth of state natural gas consumption. A minor amount of natural gas is used as vehicle fuel in the transportation sector.86,87 Kentucky's per capita natural gas use per capita is less than in nearly two-thirds of the states.88

Renewable energy

Renewable resources are a relatively small part of Kentucky's energy mix. Hydropower accounts for nearly all of the state's renewable electricity generation. In 2021, 11 hydroelectric dams produced about 7% of the state's total electricity net generation.89,90 Almost one-tenth of the renewable generation in Kentucky, or about 0.5% of the state's total generation, came from biomass.91 Most of the biomass-fueled electricity generating facilities in Kentucky use landfill gas, but the largest facility—accounting for two-thirds of the state's biomass generation capacity—uses wood waste.92 The state's forests also provide feedstock for two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of 63,000 tons a year.93 About 3% of Kentucky households heat with wood.94

Kentucky has both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar power generation facilities, which together accounted for 0.2% of the state's electricity generation in 2021.95 The state's largest utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generating facility is the 10-megawatt, 44,000-panel solar farm that came online in 2016 at the E.W. Brown power station, which also houses a hydroelectric plant, coal fired-generating plant, and seven natural gas-fired generating units. A 50-megawatt solar farm is scheduled to come online in late 2022.96,97 Kentucky has few wind resources suitable for utility-scale power projects, and no commercial wind power facilities are in the state.98,99

Kentucky has two fuel ethanol production plants with a combined capacity of about 53 million gallons per year.100 A plant owned by a farmers' cooperative produces most of the ethanol, using corn as its primary feedstock.101 The smaller ethanol plant is a recycling operation in a former bourbon distillery that produces ethanol from waste non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages; sugars; industrial alcohols; health and beauty alcohols (mouthwash and perfumes); and pharmaceutical manufacturing by-products.102 The state's annual ethanol consumption of 201 million gallons is about four times greater than its production capacity. Kentucky also has one biodiesel production plant with a capacity of about 54 million gallons per year, nearly double the state's annual biodiesel consumption of about 30 million barrels. The biodiesel plant uses several feedstocks, including soy oil, used cooking oil, and waste vegetable oil.103,104,105

Kentucky does not have a renewable portfolio standard to require a certain amount of the state's electricity to be generated by renewable sources, but state law provides for net metering of small-scale renewable generation from solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and biogas facilities of 45 kilowatts or less. Each investor-owned utility and rural electric cooperative's obligation to connect eligible small-scale generators is limited to 1% of the power provider's peak single-hour electricity load during the previous year.106 Kentucky also provides financial incentives to companies that invest at least $1 million in a renewable energy facility that generates at least 50 kilowatts of electricity from solar energy or at 1 least megawatt from wind energy, biomass, landfill gas, hydropower, or similar renewable resources.107 The state is home to the nation's first net-zero energy-use public elementary school building, located in Richardsville, Kentucky, which was built in 2010. The school design combines energy efficient systems, geothermal heat pumps, insulated concrete walls with high heat retention values, and a thin film rooftop solar PV system.108,109

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Kentucky, Kentucky Geography, accessed July 1, 2022.
2 Kentucky Geological Survey, Physiographic Map of Kentucky and The Mississippian Plateau or Pennyroyal Region, accessed July 1, 2022.
3 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, accessed July 1, 2022.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Coalfields of the Conterminous United States, accessed July 1, 2022.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, Coal Field, and Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed July 1, 2022.
6 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, Kentucky, 2015-20.
7 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Kentucky, 2015-20.
8 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant and Pumped Storage Power Plant, accessed July 1, 2022.
9 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, accessed July 1, 2022.
10 Kentucky Climate Center, Narrative, Climatography of Kentucky, Climate, accessed July 1, 2022.
11 NETSTATE, Kentucky, Kentucky Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
12 U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Plants, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
13 Parallel Products, Beverage Destruction and Recycling, accessed July 1, 2022.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
16 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Office of Energy Policy, Final Report on Kentucky's Participation in NGA Policy Academy on Power Sector Modernization (2018), Key Demographic and Economic Considerations, p. 4.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Kentucky, All statistics in table, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020, and Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
20 Kentucky Geological Survey, Kentucky Coal Production, Search the Kentucky Geological Survey's coal production database, accessed July 5, 2022.
21 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, Kentucky, 2001-20.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Types of coal, Bituminous, accessed July 5, 2022.
25 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, U.S., Wyoming, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, and South Atlantic, 2001-20.
26 U.S. EIA, "Less electricity was generated by coal than nuclear in the United States in 2020," Today in Energy (March 18, 2021).
27 U.S. EIA, "Coal transported to the U.S. electric power sector declined by 22% in 2020," Today in Energy (May 13, 2021).
28 U.S. EIA, "More than 100 coal-fired plants have been replaced or converted to natural gas since 2011," Today in Energy (August 5, 2020).
29 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: United States, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2020, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Kentucky, 1960-2020.
32 Kentucky Geological Survey, Search the Coal Production Database, All Kentucky, Sum results by year, 1790-2017.
33 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, "Trading Point: Central Appalachian (CAPP) Is the Nation's Benchmark Price for Eastern Coal," Today in Energy (September 19, 2012).
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table OS-6, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2020.
38 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 32021), Table 26, Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 3, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table DS-14, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-21.
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B and 1.4.B.
42 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
43 U.S. EIA, "68% of U.S. coal fleet retirements since 2011 were plants fueled by bituminous coal," Today in Energy (August 27, 2021).
44 U.S. EIA, "As U.S. coal-fired capacity and utilization decline, operators consider seasonal operation," Today in Energy (September 1, 2020).
45 U.S. EIA, "New electric generating capacity in 2020 will come primarily from wind and solar," Today in Energy (January 14, 2020).
46 "TVA's Paradise Fossil Power Plant closes after 50 years," WFIE (February 2, 2020).
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 6.2.C.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-21.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
51 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016-21.
52 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2015-20.
53 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil and Natural Gas in Kentucky (June 2019), Leading Producing Zones, p. 1.
54 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed July 15, 2022.
55 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 1981-2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2022 (June 21, 2022), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2022 and Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
57 Marathon Petroleum, Catlettsburg Refinery, accessed July 15, 2022
58 Mardis, Bill, "Continental Refinery will not resume production," Commonwealth Journal (July 8, 2020).
59 Continental Refining Company, "Continental Refining breaks ground on soybean biodiesel refinery in Somerset," Press Release (December 21, 2021).
60 Continental Refining Company, "Continental Refining Company Reveals Progress in $31.5 million Transformation to BioFuels," Press Release (June 14, 2022).
61 World Port Source, Jefferson Riverport, Port Commerce, accessed July 15, 2022.
62 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed July 15, 2022.
63 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Petroleum Port, accessed July 15, 2022.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
66 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, "Opt-In" Areas, accessed July 15, 2022.
67 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
68 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Removal of the RFG Program from the Northern Kentucky Area of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Ozone Maintenance Area, accessed July 15, 2022.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
72 Peterson, Erica, "Is Fracking Coming to the Cumberlands?" WFPL.org (January 6, 2015).
73 Mardon, Sarah, "KGS to Study Deep Unconventional Oil and Gas Potential with U.S. Department of Energy Grant," University of Kentucky News (December 19, 2019).
74 "Kentucky Launches New Study of Rogersville Shale Potential," Marcellus Drilling News (January 2, 2020).
75 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
76 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil and Natural Gas in Kentucky (June 2019), Leading Producing Zones, p. 1.
77 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed July 15, 2022.
78 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2020.
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Spot and Futures Prices (NYMEX), Futures Prices, Annual, 2016-21.
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81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2016-21.
83 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 6, accessed July 17, 2022.
84 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kentucky, Annual, 2015-20.
85 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2015-20.
86 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2016-21.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-21.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2021 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-21.
93 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas.
94 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, (July 20, 2022), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2022.
95 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001-21.
97 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic and Inventory of Planned Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Kentucky, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
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99 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kentucky, Maps & Data, accessed July 17, 2022.
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102 Commonwealth Agri-Energy, About Us, accessed July 19, 2022.
103 Parallel Products, Louisville, KY, accessed July 19, 2022.
104 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
105 Owensboro Grain, About Owensboro Grain, accessed July 19, 2022.
106 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2020, Table CT1, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, Selected Years, 1960-2020, Kentucky.
107 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Kentucky Net Metering, updated June 18, 2021.
108 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Incentives for Energy Independence, updated July 16, 2021.
109 Kelly-Detwiler, Peter, "Net Zero Schools in Kentucky: Models for the Future Come from Surprising Places," Forbes Magazine (December 10, 2012).
110 Chenoweth, Hannah, "The Nation's First Net-Zero Energy School," K12 Facilities Forum (May 1, 2018).


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