Indiana State Energy Profile



Indiana Quick Facts

  • Indiana is the sixth-largest ethanol producer in the nation. Its ethanol plants can produce about 1.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol per year, about 7% of the nation’s total.
  • In 2021, Indiana ranked third in the nation in total coal consumption and coal consumption for electricity generation, after Texas and Missouri. Coal fueled 58% of Indiana's electricity net generation that year. 
  • Indiana leads the nation in steelmaking, an energy-intensive industry, and the industrial sector is the state's largest energy consumer, accounting for 46% of Indiana's energy consumption in 2020. 
  • Indiana's Whiting refinery can process about 435,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and is the largest inland oil refinery in the nation. Only five U.S. refineries (three in Texas and two in Louisiana) can process more crude oil.
  • In 2021, wind power provided 8% of Indiana’s total electricity net generation, and solar, biomass, and  hydropower combined accounted for less than 2%.

Last Updated: August 18, 2022



Data

Last Update: January 19, 2022 | Next Update: February 16, 2023

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Indiana Share of U.S. Period
Population 6.8 million 2.1% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 3.4 million 2.1% Nov-22  
Economy Indiana U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 420.3 billion 17 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 111,637 million 6 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 56,153 34 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 76,608 million miles 11 2020  
Land in Farms 15.0 million acres 18 2017  
Climate Indiana U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 53.5 degrees Fahrenheit 24 2021  
Precipitation 45.3 inches 18 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Indiana U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 83.47 /barrel $ 86.62 /barrel Oct-22  
Natural Gas Indiana U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.05 /thousand cu ft $ 6.83 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Residential $ 13.64 /thousand cu ft $ 18.63 /thousand cu ft Oct-22 find more
Coal Indiana U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 43.52 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.46 /million Btu Oct-22  
Electricity Indiana U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 17.15 cents/kWh 16.09 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Commercial 14.61 cents/kWh 13.04 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Industrial 10.17 cents/kWh 8.61 cents/kWh Oct-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 302 million short tons 2.5% 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells NA NA 2020 find more
Capacity Indiana Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 467,300 barrels/calendar day 2.6% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 26,885 MW 2.3% Oct-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 710 trillion Btu 0.7% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 5 thousand barrels per day * Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 4,063 million cu ft * 2021 find more
Coal 19,470 thousand short tons 3.4% 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 6,852 thousand MWh 2.2% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Indiana U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 41.5 % 42.4 % Oct-22 find more
Coal-Fired 40.1 % 17.2 % Oct-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.8 % Oct-22 find more
Renewables 15.5 % 20.7 % Oct-22  
Stocks Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 88 thousand barrels 0.7% Oct-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,142 thousand barrels 2.7% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 108,160 million cu ft 1.3% Oct-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 532 thousand barrels 2.3% Oct-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 6,625 thousand tons 7.5% Oct-22 find more
Fueling Stations Indiana Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,790 stations 2.5% 2019  
Propane 44 stations 1.8% 2022  
Electricity 311 stations 0.7% 2022  
E85 242 stations 5.9% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 28 stations 2.2% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Indiana U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,564 trillion Btu 11 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 378 million Btu 12 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 24,287 million 13 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,579 14 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Indiana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 515 trillion Btu 2.5% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 337 trillion Btu 2.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 1,187 trillion Btu 3.8% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 526 trillion Btu 2.2% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,644 million 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,226 million 1.9% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 6,634 million 4.0% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 8,784 million 2.2% 2020 find more
by Source Indiana Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 127 million barrels 1.9% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 827 billion cu ft 2.7% 2021 find more
    »  Coal 29 million short tons 6.1% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,421 million 2.1% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 5,466 million 2.8% 2021 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,747 million 8.9% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 11 thousand barrels 0.6% Oct-22 find more
Natural Gas 20,528 million cu ft 2.1% Oct-22 find more
Coal 1,402 thousand short tons 4.5% Oct-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Indiana U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 58.7 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 0.5 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 30.8 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 7.2 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 2.8 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,220 MW 1.4% Oct-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,315 million gal/year 7.6% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 22 thousand MWh 0.2% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,009 thousand MWh 2.2% Oct-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 32 thousand MWh 0.8% Oct-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 23 thousand MWh 0.5% Oct-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 23,148 thousand barrels 7.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Indiana U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.1 % 38 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,689 thousand barrels 17 2020  
Total Emissions Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 176.1 million metric tons 3.4% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Indiana Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 70,434 thousand metric tons 4.3% 2021  
Sulfur Dioxide 33 thousand metric tons 2.8% 2021  
Nitrogen Oxide 52 thousand metric tons 4.2% 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 18, 2022

Overview

Indiana is a midwestern state that lies south of the Great Lakes and extends 270 miles south from Lake Michigan to the Ohio River. Indiana's greatest length is almost twice its width, but, with the exception of Hawaii, it is the smallest state west of the Appalachians.1 Sediments deposited over millions of years, when the state was covered by inland seas and later by lush swamps, became the geologic layers that contain Indiana's fossil fuel resources, predominantly coal but also crude oil and some natural gas.2,3,4,5 The flat plains and slightly rolling terrain in the northern two-thirds of the state are the result of the 2,000-foot-thick glacier that covered much of the state during the most recent Ice Age. The retreat of the glaciers more than 10,000 years ago left behind the fertile topsoil that supports Indiana's agriculture.6,7 Ample rainfall and rich prairie soils allow Indiana farmers to produce the abundant corn and soybean crops that make the state a major producer of ethanol and biodiesel.8,9,10 Indiana's open farmland also has excellent wind energy resources, and there are many large wind farms in west-central Indiana.11,12

Although Indiana is not a large state, it has a varied climate. In the north, Indiana experiences lake-effect snows and winds off Lake Michigan. In the south, the hilly terrain creates localized weather variations. The interplay of polar air moving south from Canada and warm, moist air moving north from the Gulf of Mexico influence the weather statewide. Indiana's winters can be bitterly cold, spring weather often includes tornadoes, and some summer days are very hot with high humidity.13 In part because of those weather extremes, Indiana ranks 12th among the states in total energy use per capita.14 The industrial sector is the state's largest energy-consuming sector, and it accounts for almost half of the state's total energy consumption.15 Indiana's industries include energy-intensive chemical and primary metal manufacturing, as well as petroleum refining.16 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy consumer among Indiana's end-use sectors, followed closely by the residential sector. Those two sectors each account for about one-fifth of the state's energy use. The commercial sector uses the rest.17 Overall, Indiana consumes almost four times as much energy as the state produces.18

Coal

Indiana has about 1.5% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves.19 The state is the nation's fifth-largest producer of bituminous coal and the eighth-largest coal producer overall. In 2020, Indiana mines yielded almost 20 million tons of coal, which was nearly 4% of the nation's total coal production.20 All of the state's coal mines are in southwestern Indiana within the coal-rich Illinois Basin.21 In 2020, Indiana used about four-fifths of its mined coal in-state and shipped most of the rest to almost a dozen other states by rail, barge, and truck.22 Indiana also exported less than 2% of its mined coal to other countries, down from more than 7% in 2019.23,24

In 2021, Indiana was the nation’s third-largest coal consumer, after Texas and Missouri.

In 2021, Indiana's total coal consumption was 33 million tons, third-largest in the nation after Texas and Missouri, and most of it was used for electric power generation.25 Even though Indiana is one of the nation's top coal producers, the coal mined in the state does not meet state demand.26,27 Almost all of the additional coal Indiana used in the state arrives by rail and barge from mines in West Virginia, Kentucky, Wyoming, and Illinois.28 In 2021, Indiana consumed 24 million tons of coal for electricity generation, more than all other states except Texas and Missouri. The industrial sector used most of the rest of the coal consumed in the state. Indiana ranked second in the nation in industrial sector coal use, after North Dakota.29 The state is a leader in steel manufacturing, and some of the coal used in Indiana goes to coking plants that supply the state's steel industry.30,31,32 However, the industrial sector's coal consumption has declined every year since 2010, except in 2019.33 The commercial sector uses a very small amount of coal.34

Electricity

In 2021, Indiana ranked fifth in the nation in industrial sector electricity consumption.

In 2021, Indiana was among the top 10 states in the share of its total in-state utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generation fueled by coal.35 Eight of Indiana's largest power plants by capacity and six of the largest by actual annual generation are coal-fired.36 However, coal-fired electricity generation in the state declined from 90% of total generation in 2010 to 58% in 2021.37 About 5,200 megawatts of coal-fired capacity retired since 2010, and another almost 4,800 megawatts of coal-fired capacity are scheduled for retirement during the next decade.38 Natural gas-fired generation has offset most of that decline. The share of net generation from natural gas power plants in Indiana increased from 5% in 2010 to 29% in 2021, down from a high of 36% in 2020.39 Renewable resources, primarily wind, supplied 10% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2021. A small amount of Indiana's net generation came from other gases used to fuel power generation at industrial facilities. Petroleum liquids and other energy sources fuel the rest.40

In 2021, Indiana ranked 10th in the nation in total electricity retail sales but was 5th in industrial sector electricity consumption.41,42 Industry accounted for nearly 44% of the state's electricity consumption. The residential sector, where 3 in 10 households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, accounted for almost 34% of state power use.43 The commercial sector consumed about 23%.44 Although the state's electricity retail sales have remained fairly level, electricity net generation in Indiana declined by 24% between 2010 and 2021.45,46 In part because of the retirement of several large coal-fired generators, Indiana consumers used more electricity than in-state generators supplied in every year between 2012 and 2020.47 In 2020, 18% of Indiana's electricity supply came from other states.48

Renewable energy

Renewable resources accounted for almost 4,400 megawatts of Indiana's generating capacity in 2021, about one-sixth of the state's total, and they supplied 10% of the state's total electricity net generation. Wind energy contributed the largest share at about 8% of the state's total generation.49,50 Indiana's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2008 with about 130 megawatts of capacity.51 Today, wind turbines can be seen across central Indiana, and by early 2022, the state had more than 3,450 megawatts of wind capacity.52,53 Indiana's solar, biomass, and hydroelectric facilities also generate small amounts of electricity. Southwestern Indiana has the state's best, although moderate, solar resources, but solar power facilities are found statewide.54 Utility-scale facilities provide nearly three-fourths of the electricity generated from solar resources in Indiana. The rest is from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) customer-sited installations like rooftop solar panels. Solar energy from all sources supplied about 1% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2021.55 Biomass and hydroelectric power provided the rest of the state's renewable-sourced net generation. Landfill gas fuels most of Indiana's biomass power plants, but other biomass resources, including animal waste and municipal solid waste, also generate electricity.56,57,58 Indiana has two wood pellet plants that use woody biomass to manufacture up to almost 7,000 tons of pellets each year that can be used for electricity generation and space heating.59 In part because of its relatively level terrain, Indiana has only five utility-scale hydroelectric facilities.60 A 54-megawatt hydroelectric plant on the Ohio River at Indiana's southeastern boundary is the state's largest.61,62

Indiana is the sixth-largest fuel ethanol producer in the nation.

Indiana's abundant corn and soybean crops provide the feedstock for biofuels production.63,64 The state has the sixth-largest fuel ethanol production capacity and is the sixth-largest producer of fuel ethanol in the nation.65 In 2020, Indiana produced about 23 million barrels, or nearly 1 billion gallons, of fuel ethanol, which accounted for about 7% of U.S. total production.66 In 2020, only 7 million barrels—2% of the nation's total—were consumed in the state.67 Indiana also produced about 2.4 million barrels, or about 100 million gallons, of biodiesel.68 In 2020, just over 1 million barrels, or almost 43 million gallons, of biodiesel were consumed in Indiana, which was about 2% of the nation's total.69

Although Indiana's legislature created a voluntary clean energy portfolio standard in 2011, as of 2021, no Indiana utility had chosen to participate. If an electric utility elects to participate, it agrees to acquire 10% of the electricity it sells from clean energy sources by 2025. In return, the utility receives financial incentives. Indiana utilities must offer net metering to customer-sited renewable generating facilities with less than 1 megawatt of capacity unless net metering exceeds 1.5% of a utility's most recent peak summer load.70

Petroleum

The Whiting refinery in Indiana is the largest inland crude oil refinery in the nation.

Indiana's proved crude oil reserves are modest and production was about 1.5 million barrels in 2021.71,72 The Trenton Field, discovered in east-central Indiana in the late 1800s, became the nation's first oil field to produce more than 100 million barrels of crude oil. However, the field ceased production in the early 20th century, and the center of the state's crude oil production moved to the Illinois Basin in southwestern Indiana, where output peaked at almost 13 million barrels per year in 1956.73 Although advanced drilling technology increased Indiana's crude oil production in recent years, the state's production, like its crude oil reserves, dropped to its lowest level in more than 40 years in 2020.74,75 Production increased slightly in 2021, but Indiana accounted for less than 0.04% of the nation's total crude oil production.76

Indiana has two petroleum refineries with a combined capacity of 463,800 barrels per calendar day or about 3% of the U.S. total.77 The Whiting refinery, located in northwestern Indiana, is the largest inland crude oil refinery in the nation; only five Gulf Coast refineries have greater capacities. The Whiting refinery can process about 435,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces large quantities of motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel, as well as about 7% of the nation's asphalt.78,79,80 A second, small refinery is located in Mount Vernon at the southern tip of Indiana. That refinery processes Illinois Basin crude oil from southern Indiana, southern Illinois, and western Kentucky. Its refined products, which include motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and lubricants, are delivered to customers in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Kentucky.81

The transportation sector uses more than three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in Indiana. Almost half of that is in the form of motor gasoline, and nearly one-third is distillate fuel oil, mostly diesel fuel.82,83 Motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold in most of Indiana, but reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the state's northwestern corner near Chicago. Additionally, motor gasoline formulated to reduce the emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone is required during the summer months in southeastern Indiana near Louisville, Kentucky.84,85 Industry is the state's second-largest petroleum consumer and accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum used in the state. The commercial and residential sectors consume nearly all the rest in almost equal amounts.86 About 7% of Indiana's homes heat with hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane, and fewer than 1% use fuel oil or kerosene.87 The electric power sector uses less than 0.2%.88,89

Natural gas

Indiana is one of the nation’s top 10 natural gas-consuming states.

Indiana does not have significant natural gas reserves, but the state does produce some natural gas.90 The number of wells completed using hydraulic fracturing increased natural gas production, peaking at 9 billion cubic feet in 2011. However, the state's total annual output was only about 4 billion cubic feet in 2020, less than 0.04% of the U.S. total.91,92 Many of the state's natural gas fields are in east-central Indiana, where natural gas was first discovered in the mid-1870s. The availability of advanced drilling technologies has renewed interest in a shallow natural gas play in the New Albany Shale in southwestern Indiana. Shallow coalbed methane resources also are in southwestern Indiana.93

Many interstate natural gas pipeline systems cross Indiana and bring natural gas into the state, primarily through Ohio and Illinois.94 In 2020, Indiana used one-third of the natural gas that entered the state. Most of the rest continued on to Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, and Michigan.95 Some of the natural gas that entered Indiana was placed in underground natural gas storage reservoirs. The state has 23 natural gas storage fields with a combined total storage capacity of about 113 billion cubic feet, which is about 1% of the nation's total.96,97

Indiana is one of the top 10 natural gas-consuming states.98 The industrial sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer and accounts for nearly half of the natural gas delivered to Indiana consumers. As more natural gas-fired power plants have come online, consumption of natural gas by the state's electric power sector has increased. In 2021, natural gas use for electricity generation accounted for one-fourth of state consumption and was more than three times greater than it was in 2010. Since 2016, the electric power sector's natural gas consumption has exceeded that of the residential sector, where three in five households use natural gas for space heating.99,100 In 2021, the residential sector received about one-sixth of the natural gas delivered to Indiana consumers, and the commercial sector used the rest.101

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Gray, Henry H., Nautiloids: Shelled Marauders of Indiana's Ordovician Seas, Indiana Geological and Water Survey, accessed July 5, 2022.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
4 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
5 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016-20.
6 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, updated February 25, 2016.
7 City-Data, Indiana-Topography, accessed July 5, 2022.
8 Scheeringa, Ken, Indiana: "Don't like the weather? Just wait a few minutes and it will change," Indiana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed July 5, 2022.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agriculture Overview, Indiana.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Indiana 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed July 5, 2022.
12 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 5, 2022.
13 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA National Centers For Environmental Information, State Climate Summaries 2022, Indiana, Narrative.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification NAICS, Indiana, All statistics in the table, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, All Coal Mines and Coal Field Map Layers, accessed July 5, 2022.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal, by Coal Origin State, Table OS-5, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020, Indiana.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin
24 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin.
25 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption (Short tons), All states, Electric power (total), Commercial and institutional, Coke plants, Other institutional, Annual, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal, By Coal Destination State, Indiana, Table DS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2020.
30 Brown, Alex, "Indiana Leads U.S. Steel Production," Inside Indiana Business (March 11, 2019).
31 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal, By Coal Destination State, Indiana, Table DS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
32 "How does coke and coal play into steel making?" Federal Steel Supply Inc. (June 22, 2016).
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 Through 2020, DOE/EIA-0214(2017) (June 2022), Indiana Table CT6, p. 185.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
36 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Indiana Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, Coal, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
38 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, and Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Natural gas, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, Fuel Type, Check all, Annual, 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, All states, All sectors, Annual, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, All states, Industrial sector, Annual, 2021.
43 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, All states, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2021.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Indiana, All sectors, Annual, 2001-21.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels, Annual, 2001-21.
47 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022.
48 U.S. EIA, Indiana Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 6.2.A, 6.2.B.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2021.
51 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022.
52 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 14, 2022.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2022), Table 6.2.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, May 2022 and 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Solar Power Plant and Solar Resources Map Layers, accessed July 14, 2022.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Biomass (total), Annual, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022.
57 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 14, 2022.
58 Big Town Ag, The Operation, accessed July 14, 2022.
59 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, March 2022.
60 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
61 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 14, 2022.
62 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022.
63 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Indiana.
64 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
65 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 1, 2021 (Excel File).
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
70 Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, 2021 Annual Report, p. 36-37.
71 U.S. EIA, Indiana Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Annual, 1977-2017.
72 U.S. EIA, Indiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 2021.
73 Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana Geology, A Brief Overview of the History of the Petroleum Industry In Indiana, Trenton Field, accessed July 14, 2022.
74 McDivitt, Herschel, Hydraulic Fracturing 101, Indiana Division of Oil and Gas, slide 13, Indiana Hydraulic Fracturing Trends, updated October 15, 2014.
75 U.S. EIA, Indiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
77 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Indiana, Annual, 2017-22.
78 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed July 14, 2022.
79 U.S. EIA, Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products Explained, Refining Crude Oil, Top 10 U.S. refineries operable capacity, as of January 1, 2022.
80 BP, United States, Whiting Refinery, accessed July 14, 2022.
81 CountryMark, About Us, Refinery, accessed July 14, 2022.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table, F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
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88 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Petroleum liquids, Annual, 2021.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
91 U.S. EIA, Indiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2020.
92 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016-21.
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94 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed July14, 2022.
95 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Indiana, Annual, 2015-20.
96 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2015-20.
97 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
98 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2016-21.
99 U.S. EIA, Indiana Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2021.
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