Hawaii State Energy Profile



Hawaii Quick Facts

  • In 2015, Hawaii generated more solar electricity per capita from distributed facilities than any other state, and solar energy from both utility-scale and distributed resources generated 35% of Hawaii's renewable electricity. 
  • With its mild tropical climate, Hawaii had the fourth-lowest per capita energy use in the nation in 2014. The transportation sector accounted for half of Hawaii's energy demand in 2014, led by commercial and military aviation fuel use.
  • In 2014, Hawaii imported 90% of the energy it consumed, mostly as petroleum, and, in 2015, the state had the highest electricity prices in the nation.
  • Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale geothermal capacity. In 2015, 17% of Hawaii's utility-scale renewable net electricity generation came from geothermal energy.
  • Hawaii is the first state to set a legal deadline for producing 100% of its electricity from renewable energy sources. The state plans to achieve that target by 2045.

Last Updated: October 20, 2016



Data

Last Update: September 21, 2017 | Next Update: October 19, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 0.7 million 0.4% Jul-17  
Economy Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 83.9 billion 39 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 1,780 million 49 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 50,551 19 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 10,301 million miles 43 2015  
Land in Farms 1.2 million acres 43 2012  
Climate Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature NA NA 2016  
Precipitation NA NA 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 42.19 /barrel Jun-17  
Natural Gas Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 15.06 /thousand cu ft $ 4.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Residential $ 37.63 /thousand cu ft $ 15.98 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Coal Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.10 /million Btu Jun-17  
Electricity Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 30.45 cents/kWh 13.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Commercial 26.95 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Industrial 23.03 cents/kWh 7.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2015 find more
Production Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 25 trillion Btu * 2015 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2015 find more
Coal -- -- 2015 find more
Capacity Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 147,500 barrels/calendar day 0.8% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 2,713 MW 0.3% Jun-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 811 thousand MWh 0.2% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Hawaii U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 68.7 % 0.3 % Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 0 % 32.1 % Jun-17 find more
Coal-Fired 13.9 % 30.4 % Jun-17 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.8 % Jun-17 find more
Renewables 13.1 % 17.7 % Jun-17  
Stocks Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 1 thousand barrels * Jun-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 677 thousand barrels 0.6% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,160 thousand barrels 7.6% Jun-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-17 find more
Production Facilities Hawaii
Major Coal Mines None find more
Petroleum Refineries Chevron USA (Honolulu), Hawaii Independent (Ewa Beach) find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Kahe (Hawaiian Electric Co Inc) ; Waiau (Hawaiian Electric Co Inc) ; Kalaeola Cogen Plant (Kalaeloa Partners LP) ; Maalaea (Maui Electric Co Ltd) ; AES Hawaii (AES Hawaii Inc)  
Nuclear Power Plants None find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers Hawaii
Petroleum Ports Honolulu; Hilo; Kahului, Maui; Barbers Point, Oahu. find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs None  
Major Pipelines Hawaii find more
Crude Oil None  
Petroleum Product None  
Natural Gas Liquids None  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines None  
Fueling Stations Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 284 stations 0.3% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3 stations 0.1% 2017  
Electricity 231 stations 1.5% 2017  
Ethanol 0 stations 0.0% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 6 stations 0.5% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 282 trillion Btu 47 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 198 million Btu 48 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,702 million 41 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,001 17 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 32 trillion Btu 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 41 trillion Btu 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 64 trillion Btu 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 145 trillion Btu 0.5% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 829 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,026 million 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,006 million 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,841 million 0.6% 2015 find more
by Source Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 42.6 million barrels 0.6% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 2.9 billion cu ft * 2015 find more
    »  Coal 0.7 million short tons 0.1% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,847 million 0.6% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 91 million 0.1% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 52 million 0.1% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 830 thousand barrels 49.7% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas 0 million cu ft 0.0% Jun-17 find more
Coal 58 thousand short tons 0.1% Jun-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Hawaii U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 2.0 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil * 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 30.3 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1.2 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 66.5 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 590 MW 0.3% Jun-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 89 thousand MWh 0.3% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 17 thousand MWh 0.3% Jun-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 93 thousand MWh 3.7% Jun-17  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Hawaii U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.2 % 22 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 1,135 thousand barrels 46 2015  
Total Emissions Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 18.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 7,356 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 20 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 17 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 20, 2016

Overview

Isolated by the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.

Hawaii's islands stretch more than 1,500 miles across the central Pacific Ocean, from the Big Island of Hawaii in the southeast to the Kure Atoll in the northwest. The eight main islands, and the more than 100 uninhabited reefs, shoals, and atolls, are farther from a major landmass than any other island group on earth.1 Located 1,800 miles north of the equator, Hawaii is tropical, but its climate is moderated by steady trade winds and the surrounding ocean. Extremes of heat, cold, and rainfall occur in the mountains, but weather at low altitudes is generally mild, with little variation year-round.2,3 Most of the state's population lives on Oahu. On all the Hawaiian islands, residents are clustered in the coastal areas.4

Hawaii's geographic isolation makes its energy infrastructure unique among the states. In recent years, more than one-tenth of the state's gross domestic product has been spent on energy, most of that for imported crude oil and petroleum products.5,6 More than four-fifths of Hawaii's energy comes from petroleum, making it the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.7,8 The state of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy entered a partnership in 2008 called the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), aimed at reducing the state's dependence on petroleum and optimizing use of sustainable local energy sources.9 In 2015, Hawaii set a legal deadline—2045—for obtaining 100% of its electricity from sustainable renewable sources, the first state to set a date.10,11

Hawaii's largest industry is tourism. Major economic sectors also include the U.S. military and agriculture.12,13 Transportation accounts for about half of all energy consumed.14 Overall, Hawaii's economy is not energy intensive,15 and the state's per capita energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.16

Petroleum

Hawaii does not produce petroleum17 and has no proved petroleum reserves.18 The state has two crude oil refineries, located in the Honolulu port area on Oahu. Both can produce a broad range of refined petroleum products19 and have been supplying almost all of Hawaii's demand.20 Refinery feedstock is most often light sweet crude oil imported from Pacific Rim producers, although crude oil is also imported from Africa and the Middle East.21 Refined petroleum products, chiefly jet fuel and propane, are also imported from Asia, Canada, and the Caribbean.22

Hawaii has no inter-island pipelines. Crude oil is offloaded to storage tanks in the Oahu refinery area through offshore mooring systems, and refined products are loaded at Honolulu harbor terminals onto fuel barges for distribution to other islands.23 State petroleum consumption patterns are changing. Hawaii's electricity generators and its synthetic gas supplier are seeking economic alternatives to refined petroleum products, and the state is exploring options for maintaining needed product supplies if one or both Oahu refineries should shut down.24,25

The transportation sector consumes about six-tenths of all petroleum in Hawaii, followed by the electric power sector, which consumes more than one-fourth.26,27 Jet fuel accounts for half of all transportation fuels consumed, and motor gasoline for nearly two-fifths. Because of significant demand from military installations and commercial airlines, jet fuel makes up a larger share of total petroleum consumption in Hawaii than in any other state except Alaska.28,29 A major goal of the HCEI is to displace 70% of petroleum-based ground transportation fuels by 2030.30,31,32 Hawaii has instituted a series of incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including discounted electricity rates, and leads the nation in the number of EV charging locations per capita.33,34 All ethanol for blending with motor gasoline is shipped in, usually from the U.S. mainland or from Brazil.35 Hawaii had hoped to spur creation of a local ethanol industry, using locally grown feedstocks, with a 2006 requirement that all motor gasoline be blended with 10% ethanol, but no ethanol refineries have been built in the state.36 As of 2016, Hawaii eliminated the statewide ethanol blending requirement.37

Natural gas

Until LNG was shipped to Hawaii in 2014, the state had only synthetic natural gas produced from naphtha feedstock.

Hawaii produces no natural gas38 and has no proved natural gas reserves.39 Hawaii is one of two states producing synthetic natural gas called syngas; the other is North Dakota.40 Syngas is produced in an Oahu processing plant using naphtha feedstock from a local refinery.41,42 The syngas is delivered by pipeline to parts of Oahu. Customers in rural areas of Oahu and on other islands, who are not connected to utility Hawaii Gas's distribution system, are supplied with propane. The natural gas utility is diversifying its supply with both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and renewables-based syngas.43 As part of the state's shift to renewables, Hawaii is encouraging the development of synthetic gas production using local biomass as a feedstock.44

Hawaii's first LNG shipment arrived in April 2014 in a standardized cryogenic container from a liquefaction plant in California. Standardized shipping containers can serve markets that do not have terminals for LNG tankers. The LNG was regasified and injected into the Hawaii Gas distribution system, becoming the first non-synthetic natural gas ever put into the system.45 Hawaii Gas is receiving monthly shipments of containerized LNG46 and has obtained state regulatory approval to convert up to 30% of its supply to LNG.47 Hawaii Gas is also pursuing a plan to build infrastructure for a floating regasification and storage facility that would allow bulk LNG imports by tanker. Such a facility could supply all Hawaii Gas needs, as well as natural gas for ground and marine transportation and for electricity generation.48,49

With its limited supply and limited distribution network, Hawaii has the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.50,51 The commercial sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, consumes about two-thirds of all the natural gas distributed in Hawaii.52 The residential sector accounts for less than one-fifth of consumption, in part because very few Hawaiians rely on natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.53

Coal

Hawaii does not produce coal54 and has no demonstrated coal reserves.55 Coal use began in Hawaii in the 1980s and was seen then as a way to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum in both the industrial sector and the electric power sector.56 Coal is shipped in by ocean freighter, usually from Indonesia, for Hawaii's single operating coal-fired electricity generating plant, a 180-megawatt facility on Oahu.57,58,59,60 Coal is transported by conveyor belt from a marine unloading terminal to the plant.61 The plant is able to burn wastes such as wood chips, motor oils, and tires along with coal.62,63 A small amount of coal is shipped to Hawaii, typically from Colorado, for industrial uses, mainly to supplement agricultural waste burned to power sugarcane processing operations.64,65,66

Electricity

Petroleum-fired power plants have supplied more than three-fourths of Hawaii's net electricity generation in the past 20 years.67 In 2014, for the first time, net generation from petroleum slipped below 70%. Renewable sources—mainly wind, biomass, and geothermal generators—supplied 13% of the state's electricity from utility-scale generators in 2014 and 14% in 2015, nearly the same amount as was generated by coal.68 Use of distributed (customer-sited small-scale) renewable sources, like rooftop solar panels, has increased rapidly. In 2015, one in eight Hawaiian residential electricity customers had solar panels.69 If generation from distributed sources is included, Hawaii obtained nearly one-fifth of its net electricity generated and more than 23% of electricity sold to consumers from renewable sources in 2015.70,71,72

Dependence on petroleum and isolated island grids give Hawaii the nation's highest electricity prices.

Hawaii's electricity is supplied by electric power utility Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and, on Kauai, by an electric cooperative.73 HECO has explored the feasibility of converting some or all of its petroleum-fired generating units to LNG, both to reduce costs and to comply with tightening federal emissions standards.74 LNG is a key step in the utility's plan to transition to 100% renewable electricity by 2045.75,76 However, LNG conversion plans are being reconsidered since HECO's merger with a larger utility was cancelled.77,78 Hawaii's islands have six separate electricity grids, owned by the power utility and one cooperative, that are not connected by undersea electric transmission cables. Each island must generate its own power. Hawaii is encouraging initiatives to interconnect the island grids to enable more efficient power generation and to support increased development of renewable energy resources.79,80,81

The state's heavy dependence on imported petroleum and the isolated island grids result in Hawaii's having the highest retail electricity prices of any state in the nation.82,83 Hawaii's electricity demand is among the lowest in the nation, both in total amount consumed and in per capita consumption.84,85,86 About 3 in 10 households in Hawaii use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, but, with the mild tropical climate, heating is rarely needed, and nearly two-thirds of households have no heating system at all.87

Renewable energy

Hawaii is the first state to set a deadline for producing all of its electricity from renewable sources.

In 2015, Hawaii became the first state in the nation to set a deadline for all electricity to be generated by renewable sources. The legislature extended the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which required 40% of electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030,88 to require 100% renewable electricity by 2045.89 The state has also set separate energy efficiency portfolio standards, which are aimed at reducing anticipated electricity consumption 30% by 2030.90 The overall state goal for 2030 is 70% clean energy, counting both renewable sources and efficiency gains.91 Technologies recognized in the RPS include: wind; solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV); geothermal; biogas, including landfill methane; biomass, including municipal solid wastes; hydroelectricity; seawater-chilled air conditioning; and wave, tidal, and ocean energy.92

Hawaii has substantial renewable resources throughout the island chain.93 In 2015, solar power edged out wind to become the state's largest renewable source of electricity, providing 35% of renewable generation, primarily because of the growth of distributed solar generation.94,95,96 Hawaii produced more distributed solar generation per capita than any other state.97,98,99 At the end of 2015, more than 60,000 residential and commercial properties hosted solar PV capability, and nearly 50 megawatts were installed at larger commercial and military facilities on Oahu, Kauai, and Lanai. State regulators and grid operators are balancing increasing numbers of solar connection requests with grid stability requirements.100

Utility-scale wind potential is found both onshore and offshore in Hawaii.101,102 The state's six commercial wind farms are on Oahu, Maui, and the Big Island of Hawaii.103 Smaller wind projects power a water treatment plant104 and an irrigation system105 on the Big Island. Three offshore wind projects have been proposed for federal waters around Oahu.106

With the islands' small grids, some larger projects using variable wind and solar technologies are incorporating energy storage to offset variability.107,108 The 6-megawatt Port Allen solar project on Kauai includes a 3-megawatt battery energy storage system, a 1-megawatt battery system on Oahu is being tested to balance power in an area with significant distributed solar generation, and Kauai's newest solar project is designed to charge a 13-megawatt battery array so it can supply power at night.109,110 Since 2010, state building codes require all water heaters in new single-family homes to be solar-powered.111 Solar thermal technologies for seawater desalination are also being explored.112

Biomass, mainly agricultural wastes such as bagasse from sugarcane, has long been used in rural Hawaii to generate heat and electricity.113,114 The H-POWER plant provides nearly 10% of Oahu's electricity from municipal solid waste,115 and the plant is being expanded from 46 to 73 megawatts.116 Biomass electricity generators are operating or being developed on Oahu, the Big Island, Kauai, and Maui.117,118 The 110-megawatt Campbell Industrial Park Generating Station, which began service on Oahu in 2010, is believed to be the world's largest commercial electricity generator fueled exclusively with sustainable biofuel.119,120 The HCEI says more use of biomass and biofuels can both displace petroleum fuels and boost the state's agricultural sector.121

In 2015, Hawaii was one of seven states with utility-scale geothermal power production.122 Its single geothermal generating plant is located on the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island and supplied nearly one-fourth of the island's electricity in 2015. More projects are being considered to tap the earth's heat on the Big Island, Maui, and Oahu.123,124

Hawaii does not have rivers appropriate for hydroelectric dams. A handful of small hydroelectric turbines use run-of-river flow at sites on Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island, and hydropower provides more than 5% of the electricity generated on both Kauai and Hawaii.125,126 Studies have identified nearly 50 potential sites for small-scale hydroelectric projects. Kauai's electric cooperative is exploring a 25-megawatt pumped storage facility to meet nighttime peak electricity demand.127,128 The state is also looking to the surrounding ocean for renewable energy.129 The U.S. Navy and private researchers have been testing wave energy technologies,130,131 and studies indicate wave energy could provide one-third or more of the electricity Hawaiians use, depending on technological advances.132,133,134 Ocean thermal energy technology, which generates electricity through temperature differences between warm, shallow waters and cool, deep waters, is being explored.135 District cooling, drawing up deep sea water to chill air-conditioning units, is being commercially developed in Honolulu.136

Endnotes

1 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Geography, accessed September 6, 2016.
2 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service Forecast Office, Honolulu, HI, Climate of Hawaii, updated June 4, 2016.
3 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, Hawaii, accessed September 6, 2016.
4 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Hawaii Profile.
5 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), HCEI Roadmap (2011), p. 3.
6 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 1, 2.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2014.
8 Glick, Mark, State Energy Administrator, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii, Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (July 14, 2015), p. 1.
9 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, About the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, accessed September 6, 2016.
10 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2015, p. 4.
11 Lincoln, Mileka, "Gov. Ige Signs Bill Setting 100% Renewable Energy Goal for State," Hawaii News Now (June 8, 2015).
12 Tian, Eugene, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, What Are the Economic Drivers for Hawaii in 2014 and Beyond? (May 2, 2014). p. 3.
13 Jones, Shannon, "Top Five Industries in Hawaii: Which Parts of the Economy Are Strongest?" Newsmax (March 3, 2015).
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2014.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2013.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2010-15.
18 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, 2014 (November 2015), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2014.
19 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2016 (June 22, 2016), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016.
20 ICF International for the Hawaii Refinery Task Force, Refinery Closure Report (June 18, 2013), p. 18.
21 Hawaii's Export-Import Resource Center, Foreign Trade Zone No. 9, About Us, FTZ Locations, see Oahu, subzone 9E, Chevron Hawaii Refinery, and subzone 9A, Tesoro Refinery.
22 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports Archives (2015, 2014, 2013), Hawaii.
23 ICF International for the Hawaii Refinery Task Force, Refinery Closure Report (June 18, 2013), p. 18.
24 ICF International for the Hawaii Refinery Task Force, Final Report (April 9, 2014), p. 1.
25 Hampton, Liz, and Ernest Scheyder, "Chevron to Sell Hawaii Refinery to Private Equity Group," Reuters (April 19, 2016).
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2014.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 Through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014), (June 2016), Hawaii Table CT3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, Selected Years, 1960-2014, p. 146.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
30 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), HCEI Roadmap (2011), p. 9.
31 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Vehicle Transportation, accessed September 7, 2016.
32 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Transportation Charette, accessed September 7, 2016.
33 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (May 2016), p. 13.
34 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2015, p. 39.
35 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports Archives (2015, 2014, 2013), Hawaii.
36 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, "Ethanol Running Out of Gas" (February 26, 2015).
37 Morales, Manolo, "Stations Continue to Sell Ethanol-Blended Gas, Despite State Law Repeal," KHON2 (February 1, 2016).
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Gross Withdrawals and Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2010-15.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of December 31, Annual, 2009-14.
40 U.S. EIA, Supplemental Gas Supplies, Synthetic, Annual, 2009-14.
41 Hawai'i Gas, Company Profile, p. 6, accessed September 7, 2016.
42 ICF International for the Hawaii Refinery Task Force, Final Report (April 9, 2014), p. 17.
43 Hawai'i Gas, Company Profile, p. 6-8, accessed September 7, 2016.
44 PR Newswire, "The Gas Company Pioneering Renewable Natural Gas in Hawaii," Press Release (December 16, 2011).
45 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas Brings First Shipment of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to Hawaii," Press Release (April 7, 2014).
46 Carr, Housley, "Hawaii Can't Go For That (No Can Do)-Cheap Oil v. LNG," RBN Energy (September 14, 2015).
47 Mykleseth, Kathryn, "Hawaii Gas Will Bring in More LNG," Honolulu Star Advertiser (April 6, 2016).
48 Hawaii Gas, "LNG Could Save Its O'ahu Gas Utility Customers More Than 25 Percent," Press Release (January 19, 2016).
49 Shimogawa, Duane, "Hawaii Gas LNG Bulk Shipment Goal Still 2019, Despite HECO Delay," Pacific Business News (June 9, 2015).
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2014.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates, StateTotals: Vintage 2014, Tables, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 (NST-EST2014-01).
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Hawaii, Annual, 2010-15.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Hawaii, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 2014.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2014 (March 23, 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2014 (March 23, 2016), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2014.
56 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 11, 21.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2014, Table 3_1.
58 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cover Source Permit Renewal Application, AES Hawaii Inc., Fuels for Power Plant, p. 2, accessed September 7, 2016.
59 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District, Honolulu (2015, 2014, 2013).
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Hawaii (2014, 2013, 2012).
61 U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Cover Source Permit Renewal Application, AES Hawaii Inc., Coal Processing, p. 2, accessed September 7, 2016.
62 Namuo, Clynton, "Oahu Coal Plant Generates Energy Without Black Smoke," Pacific Business News (June 20, 2004).
63 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, "Eucalyptus Chips In To Generate Power" (May 13, 2011).
64 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Hawaii (2014, 2013, 2012).
65 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Land, Biomass Energy in Hawaii, accessed September 7, 2015.
66 Hawaii, Department of Health, Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., Revised Application for a Covered Source Permit (April 3, 2007).
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990-2014 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B to 1.18.B.
69 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2015, p. 4.
70 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (May 2016), p. 9.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
72 Bade, Gavin, "Getting to 100% Renewables: How Hawaii Plans to Get Fossil Fuels Off the Grid," Utility Dive (March 23, 2016).
73 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (May 2016), p. 3.
74 Hawaiian Electric Companies, 2013 Integrated Resource Planning Report (June 28, 2013), p. 20-7.
75 Hawaiian Electric Companies, "Companies Submit Updated 20-Year Energy Plans Charting a Course to 100 Percent Renewable Energy," Press Release (April 1, 2016).
76 Shimogawa, Duane, "Hawaiian Electric Co. Delays $235M LNG Project for Two Years," Pacific Business News (June 3, 2015).
77 Brooks, Laura, "Hawaii LNG Import Boost Uncertain After Merger of Hawaiian Electric, NextEra Blocked," Platts (July 18, 2016).
78 Shimogawa, Duane, "Hawaiian Electric Cancels its Major LNG Deal with Canadian Firm," Pacific Business News (July 19, 2016).
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93 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2015, Executive Summary, p. 3.
94 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.14.B, 1.17.B.
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100 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (May 2016), p. 23-25.
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102 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Hawaii Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential (May 1, 2014).
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130 Shimogawa, Duane, "Navy to Expand Wave Energy Testing off Hawaii," Pacific Business News (March 11, 2014).
131 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, "Innovative Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii" (July 6, 2015).
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133 Electric Power Research Institute, Mapping & Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource (December 2011), Abstract, p. v.
134 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 1.3.B.
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136 Shimogawa, Duane, "$250M Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning Project Could Start Construction in 2016," Pacific Business News (November 18, 2015).


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