Hawaii State Energy Profile



Hawaii Quick Facts

  • In 2015, Hawaii imported 91% of the energy it consumed, mostly as petroleum. 
  • With its mild tropical climate, Hawaii had the fourth-lowest per capita energy use in the nation in 2015. The transportation sector accounted for more than half (51%) of Hawaii's total energy demand in 2015, led by jet fuel use.
  • In 2016, Hawaii generated more solar electricity per capita from distributed facilities than any other state, and solar energy from both utility-scale and distributed resources generated 38% of Hawaii's net generation from renewable resources. 
  • Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale generation from geothermal energy. In 2016, 19% of Hawaii's renewable net electricity generation came from geothermal energy.
  • In 2016, Hawaii had the highest electricity prices in the nation; it is the first state to set a legal deadline for producing 100% of its electricity from renewable energy sources, a target it plans to achieve by 2045.

Last Updated: October 19, 2017



Data

Last Update: November 16, 2017 | Next Update: December 21, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 0.7 million 0.4% Aug-17  
Economy Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 83.9 billion 39 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 1,780 million 49 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 50,551 19 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 10,301 million miles 43 2015  
Land in Farms 1.2 million acres 43 2012  
Climate Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature NA NA 2016  
Precipitation NA NA 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 43.44 /barrel Jul-17  
Natural Gas Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 16.17 /thousand cu ft $ 4.63 /thousand cu ft Jul-17 find more
Residential $ 39.99 /thousand cu ft $ 17.75 /thousand cu ft Jul-17 find more
Coal Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.08 /million Btu Jul-17  
Electricity Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 29.25 cents/kWh 13.12 cents/kWh Jul-17 find more
Commercial 26.50 cents/kWh 11.00 cents/kWh Jul-17 find more
Industrial 22.63 cents/kWh 7.33 cents/kWh Jul-17 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2016 find more
Capacity Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 147,500 barrels/calendar day 0.8% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 2,713 MW 0.3% Jul-17  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 25 trillion Btu * 2015 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2016 find more
Coal -- -- 2015 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 836 thousand MWh 0.2% Jul-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Hawaii U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 67.1 % 0.2 % Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 0 % 35.6 % Jul-17 find more
Coal-Fired 15.5 % 32.1 % Jul-17 find more
Nuclear 0 % 17.8 % Jul-17 find more
Renewables 12.2 % 13.6 % Jul-17  
Stocks Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 1 thousand barrels * Jul-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 787 thousand barrels 0.6% Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jul-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,000 thousand barrels 7.0% Jul-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jul-17 find more
Fueling Stations Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 284 stations 0.3% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3 stations 0.1% 2017  
Electricity 231 stations 1.5% 2017  
Ethanol 0 stations 0.0% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 6 stations 0.5% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 282 trillion Btu 47 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 198 million Btu 48 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 5,702 million 41 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,001 17 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 32 trillion Btu 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 41 trillion Btu 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 64 trillion Btu 0.2% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 145 trillion Btu 0.5% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 829 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,026 million 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,006 million 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 2,841 million 0.6% 2015 find more
by Source Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 42.6 million barrels 0.6% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 2.9 billion cu ft * 2015 find more
    »  Coal 0.7 million short tons 0.1% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 3,847 million 0.6% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 91 million 0.1% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 52 million 0.1% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 830 thousand barrels 45.4% Jul-17 find more
Natural Gas 0 million cu ft 0.0% Jul-17 find more
Coal 68 thousand short tons 0.1% Jul-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Hawaii U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 2.0 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil * 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 30.3 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1.2 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 66.5 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 590 MW 0.3% Jul-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Jul-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 82 thousand MWh 0.4% Jul-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 20 thousand MWh 0.4% Jul-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation 94 thousand MWh 3.6% Jul-17  
Ethanol Production 0 Thousand Barrels 0.0% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption Hawaii U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.2 % 22 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 1,135 thousand barrels 46 2015  
Total Emissions Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 18.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 7,356 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 20 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 17 thousand metric tons 0.9% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 19, 2017

Overview

Hawaii's islands stretch more than 1,500 miles across the central Pacific Ocean, from the Big Island of Hawaii in the southeast to the Kure Atoll in the northwest. The eight main islands, and the more than 100 uninhabited reefs, shoals, and atolls, are farther from a major landmass than any other island group on earth.1,2 Although the largest island in the state is Hawaii, most of the state's population lives on Oahu.3

Isolated by the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.

Hawaii has few energy resources and consumes much more energy than it produces.4 Hawaii's geographic isolation makes its energy infrastructure unique among the states.5 In recent years, about one-tenth of the state's gross domestic product has been spent on energy, most of that for imported crude oil and petroleum products.6,7,8 More than four-fifths of Hawaii's energy comes from petroleum, making it the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.9

Located about 1,500 miles north of the equator, Hawaii is tropical, but its climate is moderated by steady trade winds and the surrounding ocean. Rainfall is heaviest on the windward side of the islands, where moisture is released as trade winds move up the mountain slopes, while the leeward slopes remain relatively dry. Extremes of heat, cold, and rainfall can occur. At lower elevations, however, the state's climate is generally pleasant, with little variation year-round.10,11 Residents on all of the islands are clustered in the coastal areas where the weather is mild.12

Overall, Hawaii's economy is not energy intensive.13 The major industries in the state are real estate, tourism, and government, including the U.S. military.14 Hawaii's per capita energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.15 Because of the mild climate, energy consumption in the residential sector is the lowest in the nation. The transportation sector accounts for more than half of all energy consumed in Hawaii.16

Petroleum

Hawaii has no proved petroleum reserves or production, but it does produce petroleum products.17 The state has two crude oil refineries, located in the Honolulu port area on Oahu. Both can produce a broad range of refined petroleum products and have been supplying almost all of Hawaii's demand.18,19,20 Refinery feedstock is most often light sweet crude oil imported from Pacific Rim producers, although crude oil is also imported from Russia, Africa, and the Middle East.21 Refined petroleum products, chiefly jet fuel and propane, are also imported from Asia, Canada, the Caribbean, South America, and Europe.22 Hawaii has no inter-island pipelines. Crude oil is offloaded to storage tanks in the Oahu refinery area through offshore mooring systems, and refined products are loaded at Honolulu harbor terminals onto fuel barges for distribution to other islands.23,24

The transportation sector uses almost two-thirds of all petroleum consumed in Hawaii, and the electric power sector uses about one-fourth. Jet fuel accounts for more than half of all transportation fuels consumed in the state, and, because of significant demand from military installations and commercial airlines, jet fuel makes up a larger share of total petroleum consumption in Hawaii than in any other state except Alaska.25,26 In 2006, Hawaii imposed a statewide requirement that all motor gasoline be blended with 10% ethanol, with the goal of spurring creation of local ethanol industry using locally grown feedstocks; however, no ethanol refineries have been built in the state.27 All ethanol for blending with motor gasoline is shipped in, primarily from Brazil.28 As of 2016, Hawaii eliminated the statewide ethanol blending requirement.29

Natural gas

Until LNG was shipped to Hawaii in 2014, the state had only synthetic natural gas produced from a naphtha feedstock.

Hawaii has no proved natural gas reserves and produces no natural gas.30 Hawaii is one of only two states producing synthetic natural gas, which is called syngas.31 Syngas is produced in an Oahu processing plant using naphtha feedstock from a local refinery. The syngas is delivered by pipeline to parts of Oahu.32 Customers in rural areas of Oahu and on other islands, who are not connected to utility Hawaii Gas's distribution system, are supplied with propane.33 As part of the state's shift to renewables, Hawaii is encouraging the use of local biomass as a feedstock for the production of renewables-based synthetic natural gas (RNG).34 The natural gas utility is diversifying its supply by manufacturing RNG from methane captured at the wastewater treatment plant and by importing liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a backup fuel supply.35,36 Hawaii's first LNG shipment arrived in April 2014 in a standardized cryogenic container from a liquefaction plant in California. Standardized shipping containers can serve markets that do not have terminals for LNG tankers. The LNG was regasified and injected into the Hawaii Gas distribution system, becoming the first nonsynthetic natural gas ever put into the system.37 Hawaii Gas has obtained state regulatory approval to convert up to 30% of its supply to LNG.38 The company is also pursuing a plan to build infrastructure for a floating regasification and storage facility that would allow bulk LNG imports by tanker. Such a facility could supply all Hawaii Gas needs, as well as natural gas for ground and marine transportation and for electricity generation.39

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.40,41 The commercial sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, consumes almost two-thirds of all the natural gas distributed in Hawaii. The residential and industrial sectors account for almost equal shares of the rest.42 Only slightly more than one-third of Hawaiians heat their homes, and very few of those rely on natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.43

Coal

Hawaii has no demonstrated coal reserves and does not produce coal.44,45 Coal use began in Hawaii in the 1980s as a way to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum in both the industrial sector and the electric power sector.46 Coal shipped in by ocean freighter, usually from Indonesia, is consumed at Hawaii's single operating coal-fired power plant, a 180-megawatt facility on Oahu. Coal is transported by conveyor belt from a marine unloading terminal to the plant. The plant can burn wastes such as wood chips, motor oils, and tires along with coal.47,48 A small amount of coal had been shipped to Hawaii from the U.S. mainland, typically from Colorado, for use at an industrial facility.49 The coal used for industrial purposes supplemented the agricultural waste burned to power sugarcane processing operations, but those operations have ceased.50,51

Electricity

Petroleum-fired power plants supplied more than three-fourths of Hawaii's utility-scale net electricity generation for most of the past 20 years. In 2014, for the first time, net generation from petroleum was below 70%.52 In 2016, petroleum fueled two-thirds of the state's net generation, and coal fueled almost one-sixth.

Renewable sources—mainly wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydropower generators—supplied nearly as much of the state's electricity from utility-scale generators as was generated by coal in 2016.53 Use of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) renewable sources, like rooftop solar panels, has increased rapidly. By 2016, nearly one-third of single-family homes on Oahu had rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems.54 If generation from distributed sources is included, the share of Hawaii's net electricity generation from renewable sources approached one-fourth in 2016.55

Hawaii’s dependence on imported petroleum combined with isolated island grids results in the nation’s highest electricity prices.

Hawaii's electricity is supplied by electric power utility Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and, on Kauai, by an electric cooperative. Each of Hawaii's six main islands has its own separate electricity grid, owned either by the electric power utility or by the cooperative. The grids are not connected by undersea electric transmission cables, and each island must generate its own power.56 Hawaii is encouraging initiatives to modernize its transmission grids and interconnect them to enable more efficient power generation and to support increased development of renewable energy resources.57,58

Hawaii's dependence on imported petroleum combined with isolated island grids results in the highest retail electricity prices of any state in the nation.59,60 Hawaii's electricity demand is among the lowest in the nation, both in total amount consumed and in per capita consumption.61,62,63 About 3 in 10 households in Hawaii use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. With the mild tropical climate, however, heating is rarely needed, and nearly two-thirds of households have no heating system at all.64

Renewable energy

Hawaii is the first state to set a deadline for producing 100% of its electricity from renewable sources.

The state of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy entered a partnership in 2008 called the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), aimed at reducing the state's dependence on petroleum and optimizing use of sustainable local energy sources.65 The initial HCEI goal was a 70% clean energy economy by 2030, counting both renewable resources and efficiency gains. In 2015, the Hawaii legislature amended the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS), making Hawaii the first state in the nation to set a legally required deadline—2045—for obtaining 100% of its electricity from sustainable renewable resources.66,67,68 Hawaii has set a separate energy efficiency standard aimed at reducing anticipated electricity consumption by 30% by 2030. Before 2015, the energy efficiency standards were part of the RPS. In 2015, the standards were separated because they require different tools to reach and measure their goals.69,70

Another major goal of the HCEI is to displace 70% of petroleum-based ground transportation fuels by 2030.71 Hawaii has instituted incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including discounted electricity rates, and is second in the nation in the number of EVs per capita.72

Hawaii has substantial renewable resources throughout the island chain.73 Hawaii's largest utility-scale solar farm went online in early 2017. Located on the island of Oahu, the solar plant has a generating capacity in excess of 27 megawatts.74 In 2016, solar power provided nearly two-fifths of renewable generation, primarily because of the growth of distributed solar PV generation.75 Hawaii produces more distributed solar generation per capita than any other state.76,77,78 At the end of 2016, almost 200,000 homes in the state were powered by solar energy.79 State regulators and grid operators are balancing increasing numbers of solar connection requests with grid stability requirements.80 As part of Hawaii's commitment to its 100% renewable energy deadline, state building codes require all new single-family homes to have solar hot water heaters.81

Significant wind resources are found both onshore and offshore in Hawaii.82 The state has more than 200 megawatts of installed capacity at seven utility-scale wind farms located on Oahu, Maui, and the Big Island of Hawaii. Other utility-scale wind generation projects are in advanced development, including a 45-megawatt wind project on Oahu.83,84,85 Smaller wind projects power a water treatment plant and an irrigation system on the Big Island.86,87 Three offshore wind projects have been proposed for federal waters around Oahu, and the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has sought additional nominations from companies interested in offshore commercial wind energy leases.88 Because of the islands' small grids, some larger projects using variable wind and solar technologies are incorporating energy storage batteries and other new technologies to regulate power and ensure reliability.89,90,91,92,93

Biomass, mainly agricultural wastes such as bagasse from sugarcane, has long been used in rural Hawaii to generate heat and electricity. With the closure of many sugar plantations, that source of biomass has declined.94 A new biomass facility located on a former sugar plantation will use local forestry waste to generate electricity.95 Biomass electricity is now largely provided by Honolulu's 88-megawatt waste-to-energy power plant, which provides nearly one-tenth of Oahu's electricity from municipal solid waste.96 Two smaller waste-to-energy generators are operating on Oahu, and others are being developed on Kauai and Maui.97 Biofuels also play an important role in Hawaii's power generation. HECO's 120-megawatt Campbell Industrial Park Generating Station, which began service on Oahu in 2010, is believed to be the world's largest commercial electricity generator fueled exclusively with sustainable biodiesel.98 Hawaii's only operational biodiesel production plant has a capacity of 5.5 million gallons per year.99

Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal resources.100 The state's only geothermal power plant is located on the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island, and it supplied nearly one-fourth of the island's electricity in 2016. More projects are being considered to tap the earth's heat, particularly on the Big Island and Maui.101,102

Several of Hawaii's few hydroelectric power projects were built before 1930.103 The state does not have rivers appropriate for hydroelectric dams. The small hydroelectric turbines in use are run-of-river and run-of-the-ditch systems that flow at sites on Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island. Although hydropower provides less than 2% of the state's net generation, on Kauai it supplies almost 8%, and on the Big Island of Hawaii it provides 5% of the electricity generated.104,105 The Kauai electric cooperative is planning to acquire power from the first new hydroelectric plant on its island in 80 years. The 6-megawatt project is expected to come online by 2019.106 Kauai's electric cooperative is developing a 25-megawatt pumped storage hydroelectric project to integrate with solar facilities to meet nighttime peak electricity demand.107,108 Studies have identified nearly 50 potential sites for small-scale hydroelectric projects in the state.109

Hawaii is also looking to the surrounding ocean for renewable energy.110 The U.S. Navy and other researchers have been testing wave energy technologies, and studies indicate wave energy could provide a significant amount of the electricity Hawaiians use.111 Ocean thermal energy technology, which generates electricity through temperature differences between warm, shallow waters and cool, deep waters, is also being explored.112,113 District cooling—drawing up deep sea water to chill air-conditioning units—is being commercially developed in Honolulu.114

Endnotes

1 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Geography, accessed September 20, 2017.
2 Netstate, Hawaii, The Geography of Hawaii, updated February 25, 2016.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, All Counties in Hawaii, Population Total, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016, 2016 Population Estimates.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2015, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
5 Glick, Mark, State Energy Administrator, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii, Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (July 14, 2015), p. 1.
6 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), HCEI Roadmap (2011), p. 3.
7 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 1, 2.
8 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Statistics, Energy Costs as a Percent of GDP, accessed September 21, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2015.
10 TimeandDate.com, Distance from Honolulu to ...Equator, accessed September 21, 2017.
11 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service Forecast Office, Honolulu, HI, Climate of Hawaii, updated June 4, 2016.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Hawaii Profile.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All Industries, Hawaii, 2015.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, Hawaii Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed September 21, 2017.
18 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017 (June 21, 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017.
19 Brelsford, Robert, "Island Energy finalizes deal for Chevron Hawaii refinery, downstream assets," Oil and Gas Journal (November 10, 2016).
20 Par Hawaii, Welcome to Par Hawaii, accessed September 21, 2017.
21 Hawaii's Export-Import Resource Center, Foreign Trade Zone No. 9, About Us, FTZ Locations, see Oahu, subzone 9E, Chevron Hawaii Refinery, and subzone 9A, Tesoro Refinery.
22 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports Archives (2015, 2016, January-June 2017), Hawaii.
23 Brelsford, Robert, "Island Energy finalizes deal for Chevron Hawaii refinery, downstream assets," Oil and Gas Journal (November 10, 2016).
24 Par Hawaii, Services, Refining, accessed September 21, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
27 Daysog, Rick, "Ethanol mandate to be repealed," Hawaii News Now (May 2, 2015).
28 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports Archives (2014, 2015, 2016, January-June 2017), Hawaii.
29 Morales, Manolo, "Stations Continue to Sell Ethanol-Blended Gas, Despite State Law Repeal," KHON2 (February 1, 2016).
30 U.S. EIA, Hawaii Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed September 21, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, Supplemental Gas Supplies, Synthetic, Annual, 2010-15.
32 Hawaii Gas, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), How SNG is Made and Distributed, accessed September 21, 2017.
33 Hawaii Gas, About Us, accessed September 22, 2017.
34 Nemec, Richard, "Hawaii Gas to Tap Honolulu Wastewater for Synthetic NatGas," Natural Gas Intelligence's Daily Gas Price Index (August 4, 2016).
35 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas receives approval from the PUC to make renewable natural gas from Honouliuli biogas," Press Release (September 13, 2017).
36 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas Brings First Shipment of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to Hawaii," Press Release (April 7, 2014).
37 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas Brings First Shipment of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to Hawaii," Press Release (April 7, 2014).
38 Mykleseth, Kathryn, "Hawaii Gas Will Bring in More LNG," Honolulu Star Advertiser (April 6, 2016).
39 Shimogawa, Duane, "Hawaii Gas LNG Bulk Shipment Goal Still 2019, Despite HECO Delay," Pacific Business News (June 9, 2015).
40 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
41 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change Tables, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Hawaii, Annual, 2011-16.
43 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Hawaii, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 2011-15.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 3, 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 3, 2016), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
46 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 11, 21.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
48 U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Cover Source Permit Renewal Application, AES Hawaii Inc., p. 2, accessed September 22, 2017.
49 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Hawaii, Table DS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
50 Gomes, Andrew, "The Story Behind the End of Sugar," PressReader (January 10, 2016).
51 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives, By Destination State, all quarters 2016.
52 U.S. EIA, Hawaii Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B.
54 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2016, p. 2.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
56 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (November 2016), p. 3.
57 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Policy, State of Hawaii Energy Policy Directives, accessed September 24, 2017.
58 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (May 2017), p. 25.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
60 Hawaiian Electric Company, Rates & Regulations, Average Electricity Prices, accessed September 24, 2017.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
63 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change Tables, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
64 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Hawaii, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 2011-15.
65 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, About the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, accessed September 21, 2017.
66 Lincoln, Malika, "Gov. Ige Signs Bill Setting 100% Renewable Energy Goal for State," Hawaii News Now (June 8, 2015).
67 Hawaii State Legislature, §269-92, Renewable portfolio standards, accessed September 24, 2017.
68 U.S. EIA, "Hawaii and Vermont Set High Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets," Today in Energy (June 29, 2015).
69 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Hawaii, Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, Program Overview, updated September 4, 2014.
70 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Emerging Energy Future, State of Hawaii Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2016, p. 3.
71 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), HCEI Roadmap (2011), p. ii, vi, vii.
72 Hawaii Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (May 2017), p. 27.
73 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Emerging Energy Future, State of Hawaii Energy Resources Coordinator's Annual Report 2016, p. 26.
74 Mykleseth, Kathryn, "Hawaii's largest solar farm goes online in Waianae," Honolulu Star Advertiser (January 25, 2017).
75 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
76 Union of Concerned Scientists, Clean Energy Momentum, Executive Summary (April 2017), p. 2.
77 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
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