Hawaii State Energy Profile



Hawaii Quick Facts

  • Hawaii requires that 100% of its electricity be generated by renewable sources of energy by 2045. In 2022, about 29% of the state's total generation came from renewables.
  • Despite having the third-lowest total energy consumption, Hawaii uses almost seven times more energy than it produces.
  • In 2022, solar power provided about 17% of Hawaii's total electricity, primarily from small-scale, customer-sited solar power generation that is the 10th-highest among the states.
  • Petroleum accounts for about four-fifths of Hawaii's total energy consumption, the highest share for any state.
  • Hawaii has the highest electricity retail price of any state and it is nearly triple the U.S. average.

Last Updated: March 16, 2023



Data

Last Update: February 15, 2024 | Next Update: March 21, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.4 million 0.4% 2022  
Civilian Labor Force 0.7 million 0.4% Dec-23  
Economy Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 98.2 billion 41 2022  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector W 50 2022  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,175 28 2022  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,972 million miles 46 2021  
Land in Farms 1.1 million acres 43 2022  
Climate Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature NA NA 2023  
Precipitation NA NA 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 77.46 /barrel Nov-23  
Natural Gas Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 25.00 /thousand cu ft $ 4.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Residential $ 49.15 /thousand cu ft $ 13.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Coal Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 2.51 /million Btu Nov-23  
Electricity Hawaii U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 43.53 cents/kWh 16.19 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Commercial 40.63 cents/kWh 12.60 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Industrial 36.28 cents/kWh 7.90 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 93,500 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 3,038 MW 0.3% Nov-23  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 31 trillion Btu * 2021 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2022 find more
Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 804 thousand MWh 0.2% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Hawaii U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 78.0 % 0.3 % Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 0.0 % 42.0 % Nov-23 find more
Coal-Fired 0.0 % 15.9 % Nov-23 find more
Nuclear 0.0 % 19.3 % Nov-23 find more
Renewables 19.3 % 21.9 % Nov-23  
Stocks Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 268 thousand barrels 2.2% Nov-23  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 406 thousand barrels 0.5% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Nov-23 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 930 thousand barrels 4.1% Nov-23 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Nov-23 find more
Fueling Stations Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 253 stations 0.2% 2021  
Propane 1 stations * Jan-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 350 stations 0.6% Jan-24  
E85 0 stations 0.0% Jan-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 11 stations 0.4% Jan-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Hawaii U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 271 trillion Btu 48 2021 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 187 million Btu 49 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 6,347 million 41 2021 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,386 17 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 37 trillion Btu 0.2% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial 41 trillion Btu 0.2% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial 50 trillion Btu 0.2% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation 143 trillion Btu 0.5% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,005 million 0.4% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,090 million 0.5% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,050 million 0.5% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation $ 3,203 million 0.5% 2021 find more
by Source Hawaii Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 40 million barrels 0.6% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas 3 billion cu ft * 2022 find more
    »  Coal 380 thousand short tons 0.1% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 4,398 million 0.6% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 139 million 0.1% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 30 million 0.1% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 1,068 thousand barrels 61.9% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas 0 million cu ft 0.0% Apr-23 find more
Coal 0 thousand tons 0.0% Nov-23 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Hawaii U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 2.9 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil * 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 42.2 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 2.1 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 52.7 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 856 MW 0.3% Nov-23  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation NM NM Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 132 thousand MWh 0.3% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 23 thousand MWh 0.6% Nov-23  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 104 thousand MWh 2.1% Nov-23  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Hawaii U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 13.0 % 22 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,042 thousand barrels 45 2021  
Total Emissions Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 17.3 million metric tons 0.4% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Hawaii Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 6,427 thousand metric tons 0.4% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 17 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 16 thousand metric tons 1.3% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 16, 2023

Overview

Isolated by the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii has the highest share of petroleum consumption in the nation.

The Hawaiian Islands chain stretches more than 1,500 miles across the central Pacific Ocean, from the largest island, Hawaii, in the southeast to the Kure Atoll in the northwest. The eight main islands and the more than 100 uninhabited reefs, shoals, and atolls are about 2,400 miles from California and 3,900 miles from Japan, making them farther from a major landmass than any other island group on earth.1,2 Hawaii's geographic isolation makes its energy infrastructure unique among the states.3 Hawaii consumes almost seven times more energy than it produces.4 About four-fifths of Hawaii's energy consumption is petroleum, the highest share among the states.5

Hawaii's islands, which are the tops of volcanos that rise more than 30,000 feet above the sea floor, are located about 1,500 miles north of the equator.6,7 Steady trade winds and the surrounding ocean moderate the temperatures on the tropical islands. Rainfall is heaviest on the windward side of the islands, where moisture is released as winds move up the mountain slopes, while the leeward slopes remain relatively dry. Hawaii is the only U.S. state with tropical rainforests. Extremes of heat, cold, rainfall and even snow can occur at higher elevations. However, at lower elevations the state's climate is generally pleasantly warm, with little variation year-round.8,9 Although the largest island in the state is Hawaii, most of the state's population lives on the island of Oahu. On all of the islands, population centers cluster at lower elevations in the coastal areas where the weather is mild and access to services is greatest.10,11

Hawaii's economy is not energy intensive and ranks fifth among the states that use the least energy per dollar of GDP.12 Major contributors to the state's economy are real estate, tourism, construction, and government, including the U.S. military.13 Hawaii has the third-lowest total energy use among the states and ranks lowest in per capita energy consumption.14,15 The transportation sector accounts for 47% of the energy consumed in Hawaii, mostly in the form of jet fuel and motor gasoline, followed by the industrial sector at 20%, the commercial sector at about 17%, and the residential sector at 16%. Hawaii's mild climate contributes to the state's residential sector energy consumption being the lowest in the nation.16

Petroleum

Hawaii has no proved crude oil reserves or production, but it does refine crude oil into petroleum products.17,18 The state has one crude oil refinery, located in the Honolulu port area on Oahu, which can process about 94,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.19,20 The refinery's crude oil comes primarily from Argentina and Libya.21 The local refinery supplies much of Hawaii's demand for petroleum products, but the state also imports refined petroleum products, including jet fuel, propane, and low-sulfur diesel fuel, and motor gasoline, from countries in Asia, the Caribbean, and South America.22 Suppliers offload crude oil into storage tanks in the Oahu refinery area through offshore mooring systems, and load refined products at Honolulu harbor terminals onto fuel barges for distribution to other islands. Hawaii has no inter-island pipelines, but there are pipeline systems on some islands that distribute petroleum products to customers.23,24,25

Jet fuel makes up two-fifths of Hawaii’s petroleum consumption.

The transportation sector uses about three-fifths of all petroleum consumed in Hawaii, and the electric power sector uses about three-tenths. Together, the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors make up the remaining one-tenth of the state's petroleum use.26 Jet fuel accounts for nearly two-fifths of the petroleum products consumed in the state. Because of significant demand from military installations and commercial airlines, jet fuel makes up a larger share of total petroleum consumption in Hawaii than in any other state, except for Alaska. Motor gasoline accounts for one-third of the state's petroleum use.27 In 2006, Hawaii imposed a requirement that all motor gasoline contain at least 10% ethanol, in part to help spur creation of a local ethanol industry, using locally grown feedstocks. However, no ethanol refineries have been built in the state, and the ethanol blending requirement ended in 2016.28,29 To help reduce its reliance on petroleum, Hawaii implemented over the past decade a series of incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including designated parking spots in public garages, free parking in government lots and at parking meters, and rebates for installing charging stations.30,31

Electricity

Fossil fuels, mostly petroleum products, generate the majority of Hawaii's electricity, but renewable energy accounts for a growing share. In 2014, petroleum fueled less than 70% of the state's total electricity generation from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) generating systems for the first time, as solar power began to grow. In 2022, petroleum's share of state generation was down to 62%.32 Hawaii utilities plan to retire more of their petroleum-fired generating capacity and add renewable generating units and related battery storage.33,34,35,36

Renewable energy sources—solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and hydropower—supplied most of rest of the state's electricity. The share of Hawaii's total electricity generation produced by all renewable sources, including from small-scale solar such as rooftop solar panels, was 29% statewide in 2022. However, the share of renewable generation was higher on some of Hawaii's individual islands. Coal fueled 6% of the state's generation, and total generation from coal was the lowest since 1992.37,38,39 In September 2022, the state's last utility-scale coal-fired power plant, a 180-megawatt facility on Oahu, closed as required by state law as part of Hawaii's efforts to transition to 100% electricity generation from renewables.40,41 The state has no natural gas-fired generation or nuclear power plants.42

About 95% of Hawaii's residents receive their power from Hawaiian Electric, which operates on five of the state's six main islands. An electric cooperative provides power on the island of Kauai. Each of the six islands has a separate electricity grid. The grids are not connected by undersea electricity transmission cables, so each island is responsible for generating its own power.43,44

Hawaii has the highest average electricity price in the nation.

The state's large use of petroleum for generating electricity and its isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest average electricity price of any state and nearly triple the U.S. average.45,46 Hawaii's electricity demand is the fourth-lowest in the nation, after Vermont, Alaska, and Rhode Island. The state also has the lowest per capita electricity consumption.47,48 In 2022, the industrial sector accounted for the largest share of Hawaii's electricity sales, making up almost two-fifths of the total, followed by the residential sector and the commercial sector at about three-tenths each. In 2020, Hawaii's residential sector used more electricity than the commercial sector for the first time in more than two decades as mitigation efforts for the COVID-19 pandemic reduced tourism to the state. The commercial sector's electricity consumption increased in 2022 and slightly exceeded residential power use, with each sector accounting for about three-tenths of the state's total.49 About 4 out of 10 households in Hawaii use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. However, with Hawaii's mild tropical climate, heating is rarely needed and about 46% of households have no heating system, the highest share of any state.50

Renewable energy

Hawaii has substantial renewable resources throughout the island chain.51,52 In 2022, about three-tenths of Hawaii's total electricity (utility-scale and small-scale) was generated by renewable sources of energy. Solar power accounted for 58% of the state's renewable electricity generation and 17% of its total generation from all energy sources. Small-scale, customer-sited solar panel generation was about twice as large as the state's utility-scale solar generation.53 Hawaii had the 10th-highest small-scale solar generation of any state in 2022.54 At the beginning of 2023, Hawaii had about 1,100 megawatts of total solar power generating capacity, with about 70% of that capacity installed as customer-sited small-scale solar panel systems. There were nearly 97,000 small-scale residential and commercial generating systems on the five island grids operated by Hawaiian Electric. About 22% of Hawaiian Electric's residential customers had rooftop solar panels in 2022.55,56 Hawaii has a net metering program, but it closed to new applicants in 2015. The program reached the maximum number of customers who can send excess electricity from their privately installed rooftop solar panels or other renewable systems to the grid for payment.57

Hawaii's largest solar farm, which went online in late 2019 with nearly 500,000 solar panels on the island of Oahu, has a generating capacity of about 49 megawatts. One of the state's newest solar farms, its third-largest with 39 megawatts of capacity, began operating in mid-2022. About 640 megawatts in new utility-scale solar power generating capacity and battery energy storage, including what will be Hawaii's largest solar farm at 60 megawatts and the separate 185-megawatt Kapolei Energy Storage project, are scheduled to come online in 2023.58,59,60 As part of Hawaii's commitment to renewable energy, since 2010 state building codes require all new single-family homes to have solar hot water heaters, with some exceptions.61,62

Hawaii has significant onshore and offshore wind resources, and wind energy generated 20% of the state's renewable electricity and 6% of its total electricity in 2022.63,64 The state has 233 megawatts of installed generating capacity at eight utility-scale wind farms.65,66 Hawaii has no offshore wind power turbines, although energy companies have proposed several offshore wind projects for federal waters around Oahu and the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management sought additional nominations from companies interested in offshore commercial wind energy leases.67

Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal resources, which provided about 10% of the state's renewable electricity and about 3% of total power supplies in 2022.68,69 The state's single geothermal power plant, located on the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island, temporarily shut down in May 2018 after ground fissures and lava blocked access to it following an eruption of Kilauea. In November 2020, the plant came back online and its owners plan to increase the capacity of the plant from 38 megawatts to 60 megawatts by installing upgraded power-generating units.70,71,72,73,74

Hawaii has what is believed to be the world's largest commercial power generator fueled exclusively with biodiesel.

Biomass accounted for 9% of the Hawaii's renewable generation in 2022 and slightly less than 3% of the state's total generation.75 Biomass, mainly agricultural wastes such as bagasse from sugarcane, has long been used in rural Hawaii to generate heat and electricity. However, that source of biomass declined with the closure of many sugar plantations.76 Currently, Honolulu's 90-megawatt waste-to-energy power plant, which uses municipal solid waste to generate nearly one-tenth of Oahu Island's electricity, provides most of the state's biomass-fueled electricity.77,78 Several other smaller waste-to-energy and biomass generators operate on Oahu and Maui.79 A new biomass facility, located on a former sugar plantation, planned to burn local forest waste to generate electricity, but that project was delayed.80,81 Biofuels also play an important role in Hawaii's power generation. The 120-megawatt Campbell Industrial Park Generating Station, which began service on Oahu in 2010, is believed to be the world's largest commercial power generator fueled exclusively with biodiesel.82 Hawaii's one operating biodiesel production plant has a capacity of 6 million gallons per year.83

Hawaii does not have rivers with large water flows that can support hydroelectric dams, but the state still produces some hydropower.84,85 The small hydroelectric turbines in use are run-of-river and run-of-the-ditch systems at sites on Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island. Hydropower provided about 4% of the state's renewable generation and 1% of total generation from all sources in 2022.86 There are several other proposed and active hydro projects under development. Studies have identified other potential sites for small hydroelectric projects in the state.87,88,89,90

In 2015, the Hawaii legislature amended the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and made Hawaii the first state to set a legally required deadline, by the year 2045, to obtain 100% of its electricity sales from renewable energy sources. The legislature amended the RPS again in 2022, basing the RPS targets on electricity net generation instead of electricity sales starting in 2030.91,92,93,94 Hawaii set a separate energy efficiency standard to reduce electricity consumption by 40% by 2030. Originally, the energy efficiency standard was part of the RPS, but, in 2015, the standards were separated because of the different technologies and measurements required to assess each goal.95,96

Natural gas

Hawaii has the lowest natural gas consumption in the nation.

Hawaii has no natural gas reserves and produces no conventional natural gas, but it produces synthetic natural gas (syngas).97,98 Hawaii and North Dakota are the only two states that produce syngas.99 An Oahu processing plant produces syngas, using naphtha feedstock from a local refinery, and delivers it via pipeline to parts of Oahu.100 Renewable natural gas is also produced in Hawaii in the form of methane created by the biogas from decomposing organic matter at a Honolulu wastewater treatment plant.101

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has both the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.102 In 2022, the commercial sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, consumed 77% of the natural gas in Hawaii. The residential sector accounted for 20% and the industrial sector used 3%.103 Only about two-fifths of Hawaiian households have heating systems, and very few of those households, about 3 in 100, use natural gas as their primary heating fuel.104

Coal

Hawaii has no coal reserves and does not produce coal, but did receive coal from ocean freighters in the past.105 Hawaii's coal use began in the 1980s as a way to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum in both the industrial and electric power sectors.106 Industrial plants used coal to supplement the agricultural waste burned to power sugarcane processing operations, but those operations ceased.107 Coal was last used by Hawaii's electric power sector in late 2022, when the state's one utility-scale coal-fired power plant was retired.108,109,110

Endnotes

1 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Geography, accessed February 2, 2023.
2 Netstate, Hawaii, The Geography of Hawaii, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Glick, Mark, State Energy Administrator, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii, Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (July 14, 2015), p. 1.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
6 Geology.com, Plate Tectonics and the Hawaiian Hot Spot, accessed February 2, 2023.
7 TimeandDate.com, Distance from Honolulu to Equator, accessed January 19, 2023.
8 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Honolulu, HI, Climate of Hawai'i, accessed February 2, 2023.
9 EdTechLens, One of a Kind: Visiting the Hawaiian Rainforest, accessed February 2, 2023.
10 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Population, accessed February 2, 2023.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Hawaii Profile.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Hawaii, All statistics in the table, 2021.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production (Million Barrels), Annual, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2021.
18 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2017-22.
19 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
20 Par Pacific, Par Hawaii, Overview, accessed February 17, 2023.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Import Tracking Tool, Crude imports, Imports of all grades to Hawaii, monthly, 2022.
22 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Hawaii, monthly, 2022.
23 Island Energy Services, Our Operations, accessed February 2, 2023.
24 Par Hawaii, Services, Refining, accessed February 2, 2023.
25 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Hawaii, accessed February 14, 2023.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
28 Bussewitz, Cathy "Hawaii lawmakers vote to get rid of ethanol in gas mandate," Associated Press (July 25, 2015).
29 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 8, 2022), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS.
30 Hawaii State Energy Office, EV Laws & Incentives, accessed February 3, 2023.
31 Hawaiian Electric, Electric Vehicle Incentives, accessed February 3, 2023.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
33 Hawaii Electric, Renewable Project Status Board, accessed March 9, 2023.
34 Kavoleski, Dave, "Hawaiian Electric to shut down oil-fired plants as it transitions to renewables," Daily Energy Insider (October 27, 2020).
35 Yerton, Stewart, "Renewable Energy Projects Are Back On Track After Pandemic Lull," Honolulu Civil Beat (January 17, 2023).
36 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2022, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Petroleum Liquids, Planned Retirement Year: All, Inventory of Planned Generators as of December 2023, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: All.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
38 "Hawaiian Electric achieves 32% renewable energy in 2022," Maui Now (February 18, 2023).
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Electricity Profiles, Hawaii Electricity Profile 2021, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2021.
40 Jones, Caleb, "Hawaii quits coal in bid to fight climate change," Honolulu Star Advertiser (September 1, 2022).
41 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of December 2022, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-21.
43 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Hawaii's Electric Utilities, p. 7.
44 Hawaiian Electric, Power Facts, accessed February 3, 2023.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (November 7, 2022), Table 2.10, Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by state, 2021 and 2020 (Cents per Kilowatthour), All Sectors.
46 Hawaiian Electric, Rates & Regulations, Average Price of Electricity, accessed February 14, 2023.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (November 7, 2022), Table 2.8, Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State, 2021 and 2020 (Thousand Megawatthours).
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Hawaii.
51 Hawaii State Energy Office, Renewable EnerGIS Map, accessed February 14, 2023.
52 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Atlas, All Energy Infrastructure and Resources, Hawaii, accessed February 14, 2023.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
54 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (November 7, 2022), Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic by State, by Sector, 2021 and 2020 (Thousand Megawatthours).
55 Hawaiian Electric, "Hawaiian Electric sees brisk pace of solar installations," Press Release (February 15, 2023).
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 27, 2023), Table 6.2.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, December 2022 and 2021 (Megawatts).
57 Hawaiian Electric, Customer Renewable Programs, Net Energy Metering, accessed February 14, 2023.
58 Fernandes, Megan, "Renewable energy projects that came online in 2019," Pacific Business News (December 27, 2019).
59 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2022, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic, Inventory of Planned Generators as of December 2022, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic
60 Kapolei Energy Storage, accessed February 18, 2023.
61 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Hawaii, Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction, updated June 12, 2020.
62 Burnett, John, "Judge: DBEDT must adhere to solar water heater mandate," Hawaii Tribune Herald (February 7, 2019).
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Hawaii, Maps & Data, accessed February 15. 2023.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
65 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, Search Renewable Energy Projects, Wind, Proposed/Under Development, accessed February 15, 2023.
66 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2022, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine, Inventory of Planned Generators as of December 2022, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine.
67 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Hawaii Activities, accessed February 15, 2023.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (November 7, 2022), Table 3.20, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Geothermal by State, by Sector, 2021 and 2020 (Thousand Megawatthours).
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
70 Richter, Alexander, "Puna geothermal power plant in Hawaii taken offline due to lava flows nearby," Think Geoenergy (May 4, 2018).
71 Hawaiian Electric, Renewable Energy Sources, Geothermal, Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV), accessed February 15, 2023.
72 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Geothermal, p. 24.
73 Richter, Alexander, "Ormat resumes operation of the Puna geothermal power plant on Hawaii," Think Geoenergy (November 12, 2020).
74 Cariaga, Carlo, "Puna geothermal site in Hawaii to expand capacity with Repower project," Think Geoenergy (July 25, 2022).
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-22.
76 Hawaiian Electric, Renewable Energy Sources, Biomass, accessed February 15, 2023.
77 Covanta, Covanta Honolulu, accessed February 15, 2023.
78 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Biomass Energy Projects and Production, p. 23.
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