Guam Territory Energy Profile



Guam Quick Facts

  • In 2021, the residential sector accounted for 38% of Guam's electricity use, the commercial sector accounted for 31%, the U.S. military for 20%, and Guam’s government for 11%.
  • Guam has no fossil energy resources and meets nearly all of its energy needs with imported petroleum products. Guam's energy consumption on a per capita basis is about half the U.S. average.
  • In 2021, about 39% of the petroleum sales in Guam were motor gasoline, 38% were diesel fuel, 20% were jet fuel, and propane accounted for most of the rest.
  • Guam’s electricity prices, including surcharges to cover petroleum costs, are almost two times higher than the U.S. average residential electricity rate, although Guam’s power prices are typically the lowest among the nearby Pacific islands.
  • Guam's renewable portfolio standard requires that 50% of the island's electricity sales come from renewables by 2035 and 100% by 2045. A new solar farm in Guam with about 60 megawatts of generating capacity came online in 2022 and another 60 megawatts in solar power capacity is expected to come online in 2023.

Last Updated: February 16, 2023



Data

Last Update: February 15, 2024 | Next Update: March 21, 2024

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Economy  
Population and Industry Guam United States Period
Population 0.2 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 6 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity Guam United States Period
Residential NA 16.19 cents/kWh Nov-23  
Commercial NA 12.60 cents/kWh Nov-23  
Industrial NA 7.90 cents/kWh Nov-23  
Reserves  
Reserves Guam United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 44 billion barrels 2021  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 465 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 251,539 million short tons 2021  
Capacity Guam United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity 1 million kW 1,177 million kW 2021  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports Guam United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,768 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,808 billion cu ft 2021  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 6,313 thousand short tons 2022  
Total Exports Guam United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 2,048 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 6,653 billion cu ft 2021  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 85,956 thousand short tons 2022  
Supply  
Production Guam United States Period
Total Energy * 98 trillion Btu 2021  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 34,518 billion cu ft 2021  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 593,608 thousand short tons 2022  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Guam United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation 2 billion kWh 4,165 billion kWh 2021  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation 2 billion kWh 2,504 billion kWh 2021  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources * 888 billion kWh 2021  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 260 billion kWh 2021  
    »  Other Renewables * 627 billion kWh 2021  
Consumption  
by Source Guam United States Period
Total Energy * 98 trillion Btu 2021  
Total Petroleum Products 12 thousand barrels/day 19,890 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Motor Gasoline 1 thousand barrels/day 8,816 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Distillate Fuel 3 thousand barrels/day 3,972 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 thousand barrels/day 1,375 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Jet Fuel 2 thousand barrels/day 1,370 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Kerosene 0 thousand barrels/day 6 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Residual Fuel 5 thousand barrels/day 314 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Other Petroleum Products 0 thousand barrels/day 4,037 thousand barrels/day 2021  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 30,665 billion cu ft 2021  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 515,555 thousand short tons 2022  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source Guam United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels 2 million metric tons 4,904 million metric tons 2021  
Petroleum 2 million metric tons 2,245 million metric tons 2021  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,657 million metric tons 2021  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,002 million metric tons 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: February 16, 2023

Overview

Guam imports petroleum products to meet almost all of its energy needs.

Guam, the largest among the thousands of small western Pacific islands that are collectively known as Micronesia, is located in the Pacific Ocean about 5,800 miles west of San Francisco and 1,600 miles east of Manila, Philippines.1,2 The island became a U.S. territory in 1898. Guam is close to the International Date Line. As a result, it is the first place in the United States to see each new day, which is why Guam is known as the place "Where America's Day Begins."3 Guam has no fossil energy resources and meets nearly all of its energy needs—including the fuel for generating most of its electricity—with imported petroleum products.4,5,6,7 However, Guam is increasing its use of wind and solar resources for electricity generation.8,9,10

Surrounded by coral reefs, Guam sits on the southern edge of the Mariana Trench and is near the Challenger Deep, which lies nearly 7 miles below the surface of the ocean and is the deepest known place on earth. Guam, like the neighboring Mariana Islands, is the top of an undersea mountain, part of a volcanic subsea range stretching northwest toward Japan. At 30 miles long and 4 to 12 miles wide, the territory has about three times the land area of Washington, DC.11,12,13 Guam has a tropical marine climate that is warm and humid with little variation in seasonal temperatures that range between 70oF and 90oF throughout the year. The rainy season runs from May to November and can bring devastating typhoons.14 Guam recorded one of the world's highest measured wind speeds, 230 miles per hour, when Super Typhoon Paka struck the island in 1997.15

Guam has a population of about 154,000, plus about 22,000 U.S. military personnel and their families.16 Tourism and the U.S. military are generally the two largest contributors to Guam's economy. Tourism brought in a record 1.6 million visitors in 2019. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has kept many tourists away from Guam since early 2020. Guam had 328,000 visitor arrivals in 2022, which was more than four times greater than in 2021. Most of the island's tourists arrived from South Korea.17,18,19,20 U.S. military plans to relocate thousands of its personnel from Okinawa, Japan, to Guam will bring a substantial influx of people to the island.21,22,23,24 The military accounts for about one-fifth of Guam's energy consumption.25 Total per capita energy consumption on Guam is about half the 50 U.S. states.26

Petroleum

Motor gasoline and jet fuel account for most of Guam’s petroleum consumption.

Guam has no crude oil reserves, petroleum production, or refineries.27,28 The island's only port, located at Apra, receives all of the imported petroleum products, which primarily come from Asia.29,30 In 2021, motor gasoline accounted for about 39% of petroleum sales on the island. Sales of diesel fuel—used mostly to generate electricity—closely followed at 38%. Jet fuel accounted for 20% and propane made up most of the rest of the island's petroleum sales.31,32 In 2012, the Guam government set a goal to reduce petroleum consumption 20% from 2010 levels by 2020, which was met.33,34 To reach the goal, Guam sought to increase the efficiency of vehicles on the island, improve traffic flows, reduce vehicle miles traveled, increase biodiesel use, and generate less electricity from petroleum.35

Electricity

The Guam Power Authority (GPA), a public corporation overseen by the elected Consolidated Commission on Utilities (CCU) and regulated by the Guam Public Utilities Commission (PUC), provides all of Guam's electricity. GPA owns and manages the island's electric grid, which is made up of about 1,800 miles of transmission and distribution lines. Diesel fuel and residual fuel oil account for the vast majority of GPA's electricity generation, with renewables accounting for a small share.36,37

About 60 megawatts of solar power generating capacity came online in Guam in 2022, and another 60 megawatts is expected to come online in 2023.

GPA continues to rebuild and expand its generating assets after an August 2015 explosion and fire at the utility's main Cabras power plant that destroyed two of the station's four generating units.38 GPA lost about one-seventh of its generating capacity, leaving the island with periodic power rationing and localized power outages. GPA asked large hotels, shopping malls, and military facilities to use their own generators when possible, and the power utility leased high-efficiency diesel generators to stabilize its electricity supply.39,40,41 In 2021, GPA received approval from regulators for a new power plant to replace all four of the Cabras generating units, which had a combined generating capacity of 212 megawatts. The new Ukudu replacement power plant, which will have a generating capacity of 198 megawatts and can run on either ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel or natural gas, is expected to be operating in 2024.42,43 Separately, about 120 megawatts of combined new solar power generating capacity in 2022 and 2023 will help offset the loss of the Cabras plant's generating capacity.44,45

Guam's residential electricity costs, including fuel surcharges, are almost two times higher than the U.S. average, although Guam's residential electricity rates are typically the lowest among the nearby Pacific islands.46,47 Because petroleum products generate nearly all of Guam's electricity, GPA imposes a fuel surcharge that can be adjusted every six months to reflect changes in petroleum costs. Guam's electricity rates increased in 2022 after a rise in world petroleum prices. However, the Guam legislature authorized $100 a month in credits on power customers' utility bills to help partially offset the higher rates.48,49,50

GPA had slightly more than 52,000 electricity customers in 2021.51 Residential households accounted for 38% of Guam's electricity use in 2021. The commercial sector, which includes tourist hotels, restaurants, and private office buildings, was the largest consumer of electricity in 2019, but declined in 2020 after the COVID-19 pandemic curtailed tourism. Commercial sector electricity sales continued to drop in 2021, accounting for 31% of the island's total. Separately, the U.S. military accounted for 20% of electricity use and the Guam government accounted for 11%.52,53

Renewable energy

In 2019, Guam updated its Renewable Portfolio Standard to have 50% of its electricity sales generated by renewables by 2035.

In 2008, Guam's legislature enacted a renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) goal for renewable sources to generate 8% of the island's electricity sales by the end of 2020. The renewable goal would increase to 10% of electricity sales by 2025 and to 25% by 2035. In 2019, Guam's legislature updated the standard to require that renewables provide 50% of electricity sales by 2035 and 100% by 2045. The RPS recognizes solar, wind, biomass, wave energy, and ocean thermal energy as acceptable renewable sources to meet the standard.54,55,56 In 2021, renewables accounted for about 6% of Guam's electricity generation.57

Until recently, Guam used little renewable energy for electricity generation on the island beyond a small number of solar PV units (used for cell phone towers and remote weather stations), solar thermal units (used for water heating), and a few small wind generators (less than 5 kilowatts capacity) operated by commercial and residential users.58,59 In 2015, Guam's first commercial solar PV facility—the 26-megawatt Dandan solar farm with more than 120,000 solar panels—began operating.60 The facility can generate enough electricity to serve 10,000 homes.61 The new 60-megawatt Mangilao solar farm came online in 2022, and the 60-megawatt Malojloj solar farm is scheduled to be operating at the end of 2023.62,63 Another 40 megawatts of solar power generating capacity and related storage capacity that were planned to come online by 2024 has been delayed after the U.S. Navy withdrew the property it was to lease for the solar sites.64,65

Guam has substantial wind power potential but also has unique wind turbine siting issues. The island is seismically active and is in the Pacific's Typhoon Alley, so wind turbines must be engineered to withstand both earthquakes and typhoon-force winds. Wind turbine siting must also consider impacts on military facilities, endangered species, and other local environmental concerns. Another challenge is maintaining reliability of the island's small electric grid given the variability of wind power.66 As a result there is little wind generation in Guam. However, in early 2016 GPA inaugurated a wind pilot project—a single 275-kilowatt turbine in the Cotal region of Yona that can generate enough power for 50 homes.67,68 In late 2022, the U.S. Congress passed legislation that was signed into law opening the offshore waters around Guam, along with the other U.S. territories of American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, to wind power development. The U.S. Department of the Interior will hold wind lease sales in the territories' waters by September 2025, depending on interest from energy companies.69

GPA offers net metering and pays its customers for surplus power they generate from small-scale solar, wind, and other customer-sited renewable generation installations. The surplus power is distributed on the island's grid.70 All new net metering systems connected to the grid after June 2020 are required to have energy storage batteries to improve the reliability of electricity supplies.71 Beginning in 2021, the more than 2,000 customers in GPA's net metering program could no longer roll over their excess net metering credits into the next year or cash out their credits.72

Natural gas

Guam has no natural gas reserves and does not produce or use natural gas.73 GPA plans to have a new 198-megawatt power plant in service during the second quarter of 2024 that is capable of burning either ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel or natural gas from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) that is regasified to generate electricity.74,75 However, while Guam's Public Utilities Commission approved construction of the plant, its order did not include authorization to use LNG at the plant. The new plant will enable the utility to comply with U.S. federal environmental requirements while using either fuel.76

Coal

Guam has no known coal reserves and does not produce or use coal.77,78

Endnotes

1 Foster, Sophie, and Dirk Anthony Ballendorf, Guam, Encyclopedia Britannica, updated January 4, 2023.
2 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Geography, updated January 11, 2023.
3 Guam Economic Development Authority, About Guam, accessed January 10, 2023.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Statistics, Guam, 2021 primary energy data in quadrillion Btu, Coal, Dry natural gas, Petroleum & other liquids.
5 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Energy, Electricity generation sources, Refined petroleum products-imports, updated January 10, 2023.
6 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Guam, Electricity, Generation (billion kWh), 2017¬-21.
7 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Economy, Imports-Commodities, 2019.
8 Guam Power Authority, 2022 Integrated Resource Plan, accessed January 10, 2023.
9 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Energy, Electricity-generation sources, 2020.
10 DeRivi, Tanya, "Guam Power Authority bolsters resilience and charts path to 50% renewables," American Public Power Association (May 3, 2021).
11 Foster, Sophie, and Dirk Anthony Ballendorf, Guam, Encyclopedia Britannica, updated January 4, 2023.
12 Guampedia, Geography of Guam, accessed January 10, 2023.
13 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Geography, updated January 11, 2023.
14 Foster, Sophie, and Dirk Anthony Ballendorf, Guam, Land, Encyclopedia Britannica, updated January 4, 2023.
15 "Tropical cyclone projections: changing climate threats for Pacific island defense installations," Weather, Climate, and Society (Volume 11, Issue 1, January 2019), Climate variability, p. 6.
16 Military Installations, Joint Region Marianas - Naval Base Guam In-depth Overview, Population, accessed January 10, 2023.
17 Guam Economic Development Authority, Economic Resources, Visitor Industry, Military, accessed January 10, 2023.
18 Cho, Kelly Kasulis, "In This Remote American Outpost, Pandemic Recovery Is a Faraway Dream," The New York Times (August 25, 2021).
19 Guam Visitors Bureau, December 2022 Monthly Arrivals Summary, p. 1, 5.
20 Guam Visitors Bureau, "Over 216K recorded in visitor arrivals for FY2022," Press release (October 13, 2022).
21 Limtiaco, Steve, "Guam, Okinawa governors discuss U.S. Marines relocation," Pacific Daily News (August 30, 2019).
22 Staff Reports, "Marine Corps activates Camp Blaz in Dededo, first new Marine Corps base since 1952," Pacific Daily News (October 1, 2020).
23 "Military: Development of Marine Corps base on Guam on track," The Guam Daily Post (March 30, 2021).
24 Kaur, Anumita, "Guam split on Marine Corps relocation," Pacific Daily News (April 9, 2021).
25 Baring-Gould, Ian, et al., Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50580 (April 2011), p. 2.
26 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Guam, Energy intensity, Energy consumption per capita, 2017-21.
27 U.S. EIA, Guam Profile Data, Reserves, Supply, accessed January 11, 2023.
28 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Guam, as of January 1, 2022.
29 Port Authority of Guam, About PAG, accessed January 11, 2023.
30 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Economy, Imports-Commodities, Imports-Partners, 2019.
31 Guam Energy Office, Fuel and Power Data Compilation, 2021 Fuel Sales by Petroleum Companies.
32 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Guam, Energy, Electricity generation sources, 2020.
33 Conrad, Misty Dawn, and Sean Esterly, Guam Strategic Energy Plan (July 2013), p. i.
34 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Guam, Petroleum and other liquids consumption (Mb/d), 2010, 2020.
35 Johnson, Caley, Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A30-57191 (April 2013), Executive Summary, p. iii, 1.
36 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, GPA Overview, p. 6.
37 Guam Power Authority, About, Fact Sheet, accessed January 12, 2023.
38 Borja, John, "Guam Power Authority on Long Road to Renewables," Pacific Daily News (May 14, 2017).
39 Daleno, Gaynor Dumat-ol, "Power Supply Vulnerable; More Outages Possible," Pacific Daily News (April 14, 2016).
40 Daleno, Gaynor Dumat-ol, "PUC to GPA: Cut Cost," Pacific Daily News (October 30, 2015).
41 Daleno, Gaynor Dumat-ol, "Rented Power Plant to Go on Line Soon," Pacific Daily News (December 20, 2015).
42 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, Attachment: Guam Power Authority, Financial Statements, Additional Information, and Independent Auditor's Report, Years Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, United States Environmental Protection Agency, p. 2.
43 Guam Power Authority, "Kepco Breaks Ground, Cuts Ribbon on Power Projects," Press release (July 20, 2022).
44 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, High System Reliability, p. 10.
45 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, Attachment: Guam Power Authority, Financial Statements, Additional Information, and Independent Auditor's Report, Years Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, New Generation, p. 2, Future Borrowing, p. 9.
46 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, Regional Rate Comparison-As of September 30, 2021, p. 8.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 12.6, Guam, Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers (cents per kilowatthour), and Table 2.4, Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers.
48 O'Connor, John, "Power rates going up again," The Guam Daily Post (October 28, 2022).
49 Guam Power Authority, Rates, Rate Schedules, Levelized Energy Adjustment Clause as of July 1, 2022, GPA-Docket 22-15, June 16, 2022.
50 Daily Post Staff, "Another $500 credit coming for GPA bills," The Guam Daily Post (December 19, 2022).
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 12.6, Guam, Number of Ultimate Customers.
52 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, Attachment: Guam Power Authority, Financial Statements, Additional Information and Independent Auditors' Report, Years Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, Annual Electric Sales in kWh, p. 62.
53 Cho, Kelly Kasulis, "In This Remote American Outpost, Pandemic Recovery Is a Faraway Dream," The New York Times (August 25, 2021).
54 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Guam-Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal (updated May 6, 2015).
55 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, Guam, Enabling Statute or Order: Guam Public Law §29-62, updated August 13, 2021.
56 Cruz, Philip, "A vision of Guam future: Embarking on 100% green energy path by 2045," Pacific Island Times (January 12, 2020).
57 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Electricity, Guam, Generation, 2017-21.
58 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Electricity, Guam, Generation, 2017-21.
59 Baring-Gould, Ian, et al., Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50580 (April 2011), p. 18.
60 "NRG Renew Completes Guam's First On-Island Solar Facility," The Weekly Junction (October 12, 2015).
61 Guam Power Authority, 2015 Annual Report, p. 20.
62 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, High System Reliability, p. 10.
63 O'Connor, John, "Solar plant that can power 14K homes to rev up in June," The Guam Daily Post (May 28, 2022).
64 O'Connor, John, "Phase III solar project pending as Navy withdraws use of property," The Guam Daily Post (August 18, 2022).
65 O'Connor, John, "Utilities commission authorizes renewable energy procurement," The Guam Daily Post (October 30, 2022).
66 Baring-Gould, Ian, et al., Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50580 (April 2011), p. 30, 31.
67 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Guam, accessed January 13, 2023.
68 Losinio, Louella, "Cotal wind turbine back in operation," The Guam Daily Post (January 17, 2019).
69 Webster, Joseph, and Elina Carpen, "Does the IRA make US offshore wind the "next big thing?" Atlantic Council (October 25, 2022).
70 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Guam-Net Metering (updated March 19, 2021).
71 O'Connor, John, "CCU approves battery requirement for solar-powered homes," The Guam Daily Post (February 27, 2020).
72 O'Connor, John, "Rollover policy ending for net-metering credits," The Guam Daily Post (June 1, 2020).
73 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Guam, Natural gas reserves (tcf), 2021, Dry natural gas production (bcf), 2021, Dry natural gas consumption (bcf), 2021.
74 Guam Power Authority, 2021 Annual Report, High System Reliability, p. 10, Attachment: Guam Power Authority, Financial Statements, Additional Information and Independent Auditors' Report, Years Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, Future Borrowing, p. 9, Integrated Resource Plan, Continued, p. 52.
75 O'Connor, John, "Cabras 2 offline for overhaul," The Guam Daily Post (January 12, 2023).
76 Daily Post Staff, "Justice Department files GPA settlement; agency must pay $400K," The Guam Daily Post (February 10, 2020).
77 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Guam, Coal and coke, Production, Consumption, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Guam, Coal and coke, Coal reserves, 2021.


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