Georgia State Energy Profile



Georgia Quick Facts

  • The Elba Island liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal added liquefication and export facilities with the capacity to export 350 million cubic feet per day. Export operations began in August 2020, and more than 36 billion cubic feet were exported from Elba in 2020.
  • Two new nuclear reactors under construction at Georgia's Vogtle nuclear power plant will almost double the plant's generating capacity and currently have planned startup dates in 2022 and 2023. 
  • Natural gas accounted for 49% of Georgia’s electricity net generation in 2020, the state’s four operating nuclear reactors accounted for 27%, renewable energy, including hydroelectric power and small-scale solar, accounted for 12%, and coal contributed nearly 12% of the state's net generation.
  • Georgia ranks second in the nation, after North Carolina, in densified biomass fuel manufacturing capacity and is a leading wood pellet exporter.
  • Major interstate highways and the world’s busiest passenger airport helped make Georgia’s transportation sector sixth in the nation in energy consumption in 2019. Petroleum was the state's largest source of energy in 2019 (34%), and the transporation sector used about nine-tenths of all petroleum products.

Last Updated: December 16, 2021



Data

Last Update: July 21, 2022 | Next Update: August 18, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Population 10.8 million 3.3% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 5.3 million 3.2% May-22  
Economy Georgia U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 683.3 billion 8 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 63,865 million 12 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 55,289 37 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 115,967 million miles 4 2020  
Land in Farms 10.0 million acres 28 2017  
Climate Georgia U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 64.5 degrees Fahrenheit 5 2021  
Precipitation 57.1 inches 5 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 103.28 /barrel Apr-22  
Natural Gas Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 6.34 /thousand cu ft Apr-22 find more
Residential $ 18.19 /thousand cu ft $ 13.65 /thousand cu ft Apr-22 find more
Coal Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.27 /million Btu $ 2.18 /million Btu Apr-22  
Electricity Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.46 cents/kWh 14.77 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Commercial 11.80 cents/kWh 11.92 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Industrial 7.54 cents/kWh 7.83 cents/kWh Apr-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 38,203 MW 3.3% Apr-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 656 trillion Btu 0.7% 2020 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,497 thousand MWh 3.1% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Georgia U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.2 % Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 42.5 % 34.8 % Apr-22 find more
Coal-Fired 12.3 % 18.1 % Apr-22 find more
Nuclear 29.2 % 18.2 % Apr-22 find more
Renewables 15.7 % 28.0 % Apr-22  
Stocks Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 69 thousand barrels 0.5% Apr-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,211 thousand barrels 1.5% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Apr-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,039 thousand barrels 4.8% Apr-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,450 thousand tons 2.7% Apr-22 find more
Fueling Stations Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 5,027 stations 4.5% 2019  
Propane 75 stations 3.0% 2022  
Electricity 1,518 stations 3.3% 2022  
E85 55 stations 1.3% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 26 stations 2.0% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Georgia U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,728 trillion Btu 9 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 254 million Btu 32 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 31,018 million 8 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,892 35 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 689 trillion Btu 3.4% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 498 trillion Btu 3.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 717 trillion Btu 2.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 824 trillion Btu 3.4% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 9,073 million 3.5% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,179 million 3.0% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,745 million 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 13,021 million 3.2% 2020 find more
by Source Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 175 million barrels 2.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 758 billion cu ft 2.5% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 8 million short tons 1.6% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 14,561 million 2.9% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,876 million 2.9% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 419 million 2.1% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 9 thousand barrels 0.7% Apr-22 find more
Natural Gas 28,584 million cu ft 3.7% Apr-22 find more
Coal 618 thousand short tons 2.0% Apr-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Georgia U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 38.6 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 55.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.5 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.2 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,115 MW 2.1% Apr-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 380 thousand MWh 1.9% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 666 thousand MWh 1.1% Apr-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 445 thousand MWh 10.9% Apr-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation NM NM Apr-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 1,169 thousand barrels 0.4% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Georgia U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 12.0 % 23 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 10,751 thousand barrels 5 2020  
Total Emissions Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 136.5 million metric tons 2.6% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 39,865 thousand metric tons 2.6% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 42 thousand metric tons 4.1% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 32 thousand metric tons 2.7% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: December 16, 2021

Overview

Major highways and the world’s busiest airport help make Georgia sixth in the nation in transportation sector energy consumption.

Georgia has the largest land area of any state east of the Mississippi River. The state is located on the Atlantic coast at the southern end of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Appalachians, and elevations in northwestern Georgia rise to almost 5,000 feet. Between the mountains and the sea are the rolling hills of the Piedmont region and Georgia's broad coastal plains.1 Despite its location near the Appalachian coalfields and oil and natural gas basins, Georgia does not have any significant fossil fuel reserves.2 Nuclear power supplies slightly more than half of the primary energy produced in Georgia, and the rest comes from renewable resources, specifically biomass, solar energy, and hydropower.3 Two-thirds of the state is forested and Georgia leads the nation in commercial timberland.4,5 The state has many wood processing mills, wood-fueled power plants, and wood pellet manufacturers.6,7 Although most of Georgia's natural lakes are in the southern part of the state, the larger, man-made lakes and reservoirs that provide hydroelectric power are concentrated in the river valleys of the north.8 Georgia's solar potential is among the highest in the Southeast, but the state has little onshore wind energy potential.9 However, there are large areas with substantial wind energy resources in the Atlantic Ocean off Georgia's coast.10

Georgia ranks among the top 10 states in the nation in total energy consumption, but, with its large population (eighth in the nation), the state's per capita energy consumption is lower than in three-fifths of the states.11,12 The transportation sector accounts for the largest share of Georgia's end-use energy consumption.13 Major interstate highways and Atlanta's international airport, the world's busiest passenger airport, helped make Georgia's transportation sector sixth in the nation in energy consumption in 2019.14 The industrial sector accounts for the second-largest share, followed closely by the residential sector.15 Georgia has several energy-intensive industries, including the manufacture of food, beverages, tobacco products, chemicals, and paper.16,17 With Georgia's warm and humid climate, air conditioning is widely used, and the residential sector's per capita energy consumption is above the national average.18,19,20

Electricity

Natural gas and nuclear power fuel more than three-fourths of Georgia's in-state electricity net generation. The share of generation fueled by natural gas has nearly tripled since 2010, and it now accounts for about half of the state's net generation.21 Georgia is among the top 10 nuclear power-producing states in the nation.22 The state's two nuclear power plants, both located in eastern Georgia, typically provide about one-fourth of the state's net generation.23,24,25 Two new reactors under construction at the existing Vogtle nuclear plant in Waynesboro, Georgia, will almost double the plant's generating capacity. The reactors currently are scheduled to begin operations in 2022 and 2023.26,27

Two nuclear reactors under construction at Georgia’s Vogtle nuclear plant will almost double the plant’s generating capacity.

Renewable resources and coal provide almost all the rest of the state's net generation. Renewable resources, including biomass, hydroelectric power, and solar energy, provided about 12% of Georgia's in-state electricity net generation in 2020, surpassing coal for the first time on record. Coal-fired power plants fueled more than half of generation in Georgia before 2010, but coal's contribution declined steadily since then, and coal fueled about 12% of in-state generation in 2020.28 About 4,000 megawatts of Georgia's coal-fired capacity retired during the past decade, and almost 2,500 megawatts of natural gas-fired capacity came online over the same period.29 Petroleum liquids and petroleum coke supplied the rest of Georgia's power in 2020 and generated less than 0.2% of the state's net generation.30

Although Georgia is among the top 10 electricity-producing states, the state typically uses more power than it generates. On average over the past decade, Georgia acquired about one-seventh of the electricity it consumed each year from other states.31,32 In 2020, Georgia's residential sector, where nearly three in five households use electricity for heating and almost all homes have air conditioning, accounted for 44% of electricity retail sales.33,34 The commercial sector accounted for 33% of sales and the industrial sector accounted for 23%. In 2020, Georgia ranked 10th in the nation in number of registered electric vehicles, and the transportation sector accounted for a small amount of electricity retail sales.35,36

Renewable energy

In 2020, renewable resources accounted for nearly 12% of Georgia's in-state electricity net generation, and two-fifths of that generation came from biomass, primarily wood and wood-derived fuels.37 The state led the nation in the use of wood and wood-derived fuels for electricity generation and in the amount of generation from all biomass resources.38,39 About 22 million acres of Georgia's almost 25 million acres of forest are available for commercial use, and there are more than 200 wood product manufacturing plants in the state, including 6 wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined production capacity of more than 1.8 million tons per year.40,41,42 Georgia is one of the nation's top wood pellet exporters. Most of the wood pellets are sent to Europe, where they are used as fuel for electricity generation.43,44

Georgia is the national leader in electricity generation from biomass.

About one-third of Georgia's renewably sourced electricity generation comes from hydroelectric power plants.45 Georgia is one of the 10 largest hydroelectric power producers east of the Rocky Mountains, and was the 13th-largest producer of hydroelectricity in the nation as a whole in 2020.46 With 14 river basins and thousands of dams, some of which provide hydroelectric power, Georgia has 31 hydroelectric power plants, including 4 hydroelectric pumped storage facilities.47,48,49 During periods of low demand for electricity, pumped storage facilities use relatively inexpensive power to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. In periods of high demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir, and electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines and back into the lower reservoir. Although pumped storage facilities use more power than they generate, they can supply power in periods of peak demand when it is needed.50

Solar energy provided more than 3% of Georgia's in-state electricity net generation in 2020, almost all of it from utility-scale facilities with greater than 1 megawatt of capacity.51 By the end of 2020, Georgia had about 2,200 megawatts of utility-scale solar PV capacity. The eight largest solar facilities in the state each have capacities of 100 megawatts or more, and five of those came online in 2019 and 2020.52 Electricity generation from solar PV was almost four times greater in 2020 than in 2016. In 2020, smaller (less than 1 megawatt) customer-sited installations, such as roof-top panels, accounted for almost one-tenth of the state's solar generation.53

Georgia has no utility-scale wind-powered electricity generation.54 The state has limited onshore wind energy potential, all of it in small areas on the mountain ridges along the state's northern border and in a narrow strip along the state's 100-mile Atlantic coastline. However, Georgia's greatest wind resources are offshore in the Atlantic Ocean.55,56,57

In 2020, there were three biodiesel plants in Georgia with a combined production capacity of 19 million gallons of biodiesel per year. In 2019, the state's biodiesel consumption was about 18 million gallons.58,59 Georgia had one fuel ethanol plant that had a production capacity of about 120 million gallons of ethanol per year. It closed in mid-2020 after it was idled because of decreased demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.60 Most motor gasoline sold in the United States is blended with at least 10% ethanol, and a large amount of ethanol is used in Georgia's transportation sector.61 In 2019, fuel ethanol consumption in the state was nearly 490 million gallons, more than four times greater than production that year.62,63 The fuel ethanol Georgia needs arrives by rail from the Midwest.64

Georgia does not have a renewable energy portfolio standard, nor does it have a voluntary renewable energy target. However, several utilities in the state offer financial incentives that promote energy efficiency, renewable generation, and electric vehicle use. State policies include electric vehicle tax incentives, as well as energy standards for public buildings, interconnection guidelines, and solar easement regulations.65 In 2001, Georgia enacted a law that allowed, but did not require, utilities to offer net metering. In 2019, a regulatory change required the state's largest utility to offer net metering for up to 5,000 rooftop solar customers or 32 megawatts of capacity, whichever came first.66 That limit was reached in mid-2021.67

Petroleum

Georgia does not have any crude oil production or proved petroleum reserves.68,69 None of the nearly 200 exploration wells drilled in the state during the 20th century were successful.70,71 Georgia no longer has any petroleum refineries. The state's last crude oil refinery closed at the end of 2014.72,73 No crude oil pipelines cross Georgia, but the state receives refined petroleum products from two interstate petroleum product pipeline systems and an interstate propane pipeline.74 The Port of Savannah also receives petroleum product imports from around the world.75

Like many states, petroleum provides the largest share of energy consumed in Georgia, accounting for about one-third of the state's total energy use.76 In 2019, the state ranked among the top 10 states in total petroleum consumption, but it was among the lowest one-third of states in per capita petroleum use.77 The transportation sector accounted for almost nine-tenths of the state's petroleum consumption, more than half of that as motor gasoline.78,79 To minimize formation of ozone, motor gasoline sold during the summer months in 13 counties in northwestern Georgia, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, had to sell fuel with a lower volatility than the motor gasoline sold in the rest of the state. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency relaxed the restrictions as of June 2020.80,81 Much of the rest of the petroleum used in Georgia is distillate fuel oil or jet fuel, which the transportation sector also uses.82 In 2019, the industrial sector was the second-largest petroleum consumer in Georgia and used about 8% of the petroleum consumed in the state. The commercial sector used about 2% and the residential sector, where about 1 in 20 households heat with petroleum products, mostly propane, consumed almost all the rest.83 The electric power sector used a very small amount.84

Natural gas

Georgia’s Elba Island LNG import terminal added LNG export facilities that began operations in 2020.

Georgia does not have any natural gas proved reserves or production.85,86 However, in 2018, in light of increased interest in shale gas exploration in northern Georgia, the state established an oil and gas board to review and issue permits related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing activities.87 Georgia receives the natural gas it needs from other states by pipeline and from other countries through the Elba Island liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal.88 LNG imports peaked in 2007, but as U.S. natural gas production increased in recent years, Georgia import volumes decreased from a high of more than 170 billion cubic feet in 2007 to less than 3 billion cubic feet in 2020.89 Because of the shifting market conditions, Elba Island added liquefaction facilities to enable the export of up to 350 million cubic feet of natural gas per day and began commercial export operations in August 2020.90,91 Most of the state's pipeline natural gas supply enters through Alabama. In 2020, more than two-fifths of the natural gas that entered Georgia continued on to South Carolina and Florida. The Elba Island export terminal sent LNG to several other countries in 2020.92,93

Although natural gas consumption in Georgia is greater than in three-fourths of the states, Georgia's per capita consumption is less than in about two-thirds of the states.94 During the past decade, natural gas use by the state's electric power sector has more than doubled.95 More than half (57% in 2020) of the natural gas delivered to consumers is used for electricity generation, making the electric power sector the largest natural gas consumer in Georgia.96 The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas consumer in the state and accounts for 20% of state use. The residential sector, where almost two of every five Georgia households use natural gas for home heating, consumes 16%.97 In part because the state's climate is warm and humid during most of the year, limiting heating demand from natural gas, per capita natural gas use in the residential sector is less than in about two-thirds of the states.98,99,100 The commercial sector uses most of the rest, about 7%. The transportation sector uses a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel, and the state has 23 public-access and 25 private-access compressed natural gas vehicle fueling stations.101,102

Coal

Georgia has no active coal mines and only a small amount of estimated recoverable coal reserves.103 A small amount of coal mining occurred in Georgia as early as the 1830s, but commercial production ended in the mid-1980s.104 As some in-state coal-fired power plants closed or retired during the past decade, coal consumption in Georgia declined from more than 35 million tons in 2010 to less than 8 million tons of coal in 2020. Although almost all of that coal fuels electricity generation, nearly 4% of the coal consumed in Georgia goes to industrial facilities.105 In 2020, coal from Wyoming, Illinois, and a few other states was delivered to Georgia's three coal-fired power plants, and the state's industrial consumers received coal from Kentucky and West Virginia.106,107 The Savannah Customs District handles some U.S. coal exports. In 2019, for the first time since 2015, a small amount of imported coal entered at the Savannah port. However, no coal imports arrived there in 2020.108,109

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Georgia, The Geography of Georgia, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Georgia Profile Data, Reserves, accessed October 27, 2021.
3 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
4 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Facts, accessed October 27, 2021.
5 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Energy Industry Overview (February 22, 2011), p. 2, 3, 4.
6 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Georgia, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
7 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, August 2021.
8 Parker, Amanda K., New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, Conservation & Management, Reservoirs, updated September 3, 2019.
9 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, Solar Power Potential 2006.
10 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, accessed October 28, 2021.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
14 Hunter, Marnie, "The world's busiest airports in 2019 face a steep uphill climb," CNN travel, updated October 7, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, Interactive Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Georgia, All statistics in table, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, International Energy Outlook 2016, Chapter 7, Industrial sector energy consumption, p. 113.
18 Knox, Pam, "Georgia's Climate Is Peachy!" The CoCoRaHS, ‘State Climate' Series, accessed October 28, 2021.
19 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10, and 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, All fuels, Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
22 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.9.B.
23 U.S. EIA, Georgia Profile Overview, Nuclear Power Plant Map Layer, accessed November 2, 2021.
24 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Georgia, updated October 5, 2016.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data (Operable Units Only) and (Proposed Units Only).
27 Georgia Power, Vogtle 3&4 (October 2021).
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data (Operable Units Only) and (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
31 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.3.B.
32 U.S. EIA, Georgia Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
33 U.S. Census Bureau, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
34 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Georgia, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Annual, 2020.
36 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Maps and Data, Electric Vehicle Registrations by State, updated June 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2020.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Wood and wood-derived fuels, Annual, 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Biomass, Annual, 2020.
40 Georgia Forestry Association, The #1 Forestry State in the Nation, updated February 2021.
41 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Facts, accessed November 3, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, July 2021.
43 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Products Exports, 2019.
44 Echols, Tim, "Commentary: Georgia's Wood Pellet Exports Fuel British Sustainability," Global Atlanta (August 8, 2016).
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Conventional hydroelectric, 2020.
47 Meyer, Judith L., and Gretchen Loeffler, "River Basins," New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, updated December 10, 2019.
48 Parker, Amanda K., "Reservoirs," New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, updated September 3, 2019.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
50 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, 2016-20.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Georgia, Wind, Monthly, 2021.
55 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, Georgia Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed November 15, 2021.
56 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011, Table 360, Coastline and Shoreline of the United States by State.
57 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Energy Industry Overview (February 22, 2011), p. 8.
58 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report With data for December 2020 (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
60 Voegele, Erin, "Flint Hills permanently closes Georgia ethanol plant," Ethanol Producer Magazine (June 15, 2020).
61 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
64 Association of American Railroads, What Railroads Haul: Ethanol (August 2021).
65 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Georgia, Programs, accessed November 16, 2021.
66 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Georgia, Net Metering, updated March 11, 2021.
67 Georgia Power, Behind the meter solar workshop Q&A (August 2021).
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
69 U.S. EIA, Proved Nonproducing Reserves, Crude Oil, Annual, 2014-19.
70 Swanson, David E., and Andrea Gernazian, Petroleum Exploration Wells in Georgia, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Geologic Survey Information Circular 51 (1979), p. 1.
71 Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division, Georgia Geologic Survey Information Circulars, IC-77, Petroleum Exploration Wells in Georgia, 1979-1984 (1988), p. 1.
72 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Georgia, Annual (as of January 1), 2016-21.
73 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2021, Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown By PAD District Between January 1, 1991 and January 1, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Georgia Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline, Refined Product Pipeline, and HGL Pipeline Map Layers, accessed November 16, 2021.
75 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, August 2021, Excel File.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
78 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
80 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed November 16, 2021.
81 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Relaxation of the Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for the Atlanta RVP Area, accessed November 16, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
85 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Annual, 2014-19.
86 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Annual, 2015-20.
87 Southern Environmental Law Center, Georgia passes modern-day fracking protections into law (May 11, 2018).
88 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals, Existing, updated September 17, 2020.
89 U.S. EIA, Georgia Natural Gas International Receipts, 1967-2020.
90 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals, Existing, updated September 17, 2020.
91 "Kinder Morgan brings final Elba Island LNG liquefaction unit online," LNG Industry (August 28, 2020).
92 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Georgia, Annual, 2015-20.
93 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals, Existing, updated September 17, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
95 U.S. EIA, Georgia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Georgia, Annual, 2015-20.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
98 Knox, Pam, "Georgia's Climate is Peachy!" CoCoRaHS State Climates Series, accessed November 17, 2021.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2015-20.
100 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Georgia, Annual, 2014-19.
102 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Virginia, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Public and Private Access, Available, accessed November 17, 2021.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
104 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Appalachian Region, Georgia, updated September 11, 2019.
105 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption, Georgia, 2010-20.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Georgia, Table DS-8, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
107 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), August 2021.
108 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, Coal Exports by Customs District, and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
109 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2016 (April 2017), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.


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