Georgia State Energy Profile



Georgia Quick Facts

  • The Elba Island liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal, with the capacity to receive 1.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, added liquefication and export facilities with the capacity to export 350 million cubic feet per day. Export operations began in August 2020.
  • Two new nuclear reactors under construction at Georgia's Vogtle nuclear power plant will almost double the plant's generating capacity and have planned startup dates in 2021 and 2022. 
  • Natural gas accounted for 46% of Georgia’s net electricity generation in 2019, the state’s four operating nuclear reactors accounted for 26%, coal accounted for 20%, and renewable energy, including hydroelectric power, contributed nearly 9% of the state's utility-scale generation.
  • Georgia leads the nation in densified biomass fuel manufacturing capacity and is a leading wood pellet exporter.
  • In 2019, Georgia ranked 9th in the nation  in electricity net generation and 7th in retail sales of electricity. Because the state uses more electricity than it generates, Georgia receives additional electricity from other states.

Last Updated: November 19, 2020



Data

Last Update: March 18, 2021 | Next Update: April 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Population 10.7 million 3.3% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 5.1 million 3.2% Jan-21  
Economy Georgia U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 616.3 billion 9 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 64,684 million 11 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 48,199 39 2019  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 133,128 million miles 4 2019  
Land in Farms 10.0 million acres 28 2017  
Climate Georgia U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 65.6 degrees Fahrenheit 4 2020  
Precipitation 60.6 inches 8 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 43.96 /barrel Dec-20  
Natural Gas Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.53 /thousand cu ft $ 3.55 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Residential $ 11.71 /thousand cu ft $ 9.73 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Coal Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.66 /million Btu $ 1.91 /million Btu Dec-20  
Electricity Georgia U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.80 cents/kWh 12.80 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Commercial 10.04 cents/kWh 10.48 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Industrial 5.51 cents/kWh 6.40 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 37,269 MW 3.3% Dec-20  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 648 trillion Btu 0.7% 2018 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 11,141 thousand MWh 3.2% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Georgia U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 43.6 % 36.4 % Dec-20 find more
Coal-Fired 18.8 % 22.8 % Dec-20 find more
Nuclear 27.6 % 20.3 % Dec-20 find more
Renewables 9.9 % 19.5 % Dec-20  
Stocks Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 348 thousand barrels 1.8% Dec-20  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,868 thousand barrels 1.5% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Dec-20 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 942 thousand barrels 3.7% Dec-20 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Dec-20 find more
Fueling Stations Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 5,063 stations 4.5% 2018  
Propane 80 stations 3.0% 2021  
Electricity 1,375 stations 3.4% 2021  
E85 51 stations 1.4% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 31 stations 2.5% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Georgia U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,876 trillion Btu 10 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 274 million Btu 33 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 35,706 million 9 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,397 42 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 738 trillion Btu 3.4% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 550 trillion Btu 3.0% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 770 trillion Btu 2.4% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 817 trillion Btu 2.9% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 8,995 million 3.4% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,556 million 2.9% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 4,693 million 2.2% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 16,462 million 2.8% 2018 find more
by Source Georgia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 176 million barrels 2.3% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 767 billion cu ft 2.5% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 14 million short tons 2.4% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 18,722 million 2.5% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 4,212 million 2.8% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 747 million 2.9% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 20 thousand barrels 1.2% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas 34,416 million cu ft 3.8% Dec-20 find more
Coal 1,005 thousand short tons 2.3% Dec-20 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Georgia U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 38.6 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 55.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.5 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.2 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 5,241 MW 2.0% Dec-20  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 119 million gal/year 0.7% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 312 thousand MWh 1.4% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 271 thousand MWh 0.7% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 516 thousand MWh 10.6% Dec-20  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation NM NM Dec-20  
Fuel Ethanol Production 2,887 thousand barrels 0.8% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Georgia U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 11.0 % 22 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 11,614 thousand barrels 6 2019  
Total Emissions Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 132.0 million metric tons 2.6% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Georgia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 51,074 thousand metric tons 3.0% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 48 thousand metric tons 3.8% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 40 thousand metric tons 3.0% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 19, 2020

Overview

Major highways and the world’s busiest airport help make Georgia eighth in the nation in transportation sector energy consumption.

Georgia is located at the southern end of the Blue Ridge Mountains and has the largest land area of any state east of the Mississippi River. Elevations in the state increase from sea level along Georgia's short Atlantic Coast to almost 5,000 feet in the mountains. Between the mountains and the sea are the rolling hills of the Piedmont region and Georgia's broad coastal plains.1 Despite its location near the Appalachian coalfields and oil and natural gas basins, Georgia does not have any significant fossil fuel reserves.2,3,4 However, the state does have renewable energy resources. With two-thirds of the state forested and 10 million acres of agricultural land, there is abundant biomass available.5 Georgia leads the nation in commercial timberland and has many wood processing mills, wood-fueled power plants, and wood pellet manufacturers.6,7,8 The Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest corner of Georgia have only moderate wind energy potential, but the state's offshore waters have large areas with more substantial wind energy resources.9 Most of Georgia's natural lakes are in the southern part of the state, while the larger, man-made lakes and reservoirs are concentrated in the river valleys of the north.10 Many of the larger reservoirs provide hydroelectric power, and there is additional hydroelectric potential in the state.11,12 Nuclear power supplies slightly more than half of the primary energy produced in Georgia, and the rest comes from renewable resources.13

Major interstate highways and the world's busiest passenger airport in Atlanta help make Georgia eighth in the nation in transportation sector energy consumption, and the transportation sector accounts for the largest share of Georgia's end-use energy consumption.14 The industrial sector accounts for the second-largest share.15 Georgia has several energy-intensive industries, including the manufacture of food, beverages, and tobacco products; chemicals; and paper. Agriculture and forestry are also important industrial activities in the state.16,17 Energy use in the residential sector is slightly less than in the industrial sector.18 With Georgia's warm and humid climate, air conditioning is widely used, and the residential sector's per capita energy consumption is above the national average, although it is also less than in almost three-fifths of the states.19,20,21 Overall, Georgia ranks among the top 10 states in the nation in total energy consumption, but per capita energy consumption is less than in nearly two-thirds of the states.22,23

Electricity

Natural gas, nuclear power, and coal fuel more than nine-tenths of Georgia's electricity generation. Almost all the rest of the state's net generation is provided from renewable resources.24 Coal-fired power plants fueled more than three-fifths of net generation in Georgia before 2009, but coal's contribution has declined steadily since then, and coal fueled about one-fifth of state generation in 2019.25 More than 4,000 megawatts of coal-fired capacity have been retired in Georgia in the past decade, and almost 2,500 megawatts of natural gas-fired capacity were added in the same period. The share of in-state generation fueled by natural gas has nearly tripled since 2009, and it now accounts for almost half of the state's net generation.26,27

Two nuclear reactors under construction at Georgia’s Vogtle nuclear plant will almost double the plant’s generating capacity.

Georgia is among the top 10 nuclear power generators in the nation.28 The state's two nuclear power plants, both located in eastern Georgia, typically provide about one-fourth of the state's net generation.29,30,31 Two new reactors under construction at the existing Vogtle nuclear plant in Waynesboro, Georgia, will almost double the plant's generating capacity. Those reactors have planned startup dates in 2021 and 2022.32,33 Almost all of the state's remaining net generation is provided by biomass, hydroelectric power, and solar energy. Less than 0.3% of Georgia's power is fueled by petroleum liquids and petroleum coke.34

Although Georgia is among the top 10 electricity-producing states, the state typically uses more power than it generates. For the past decade, Georgia has acquired more than 10% of the electricity it consumes each year from other states.35,36 The residential sector, where nearly three-fifths of the state's households use electricity for heating and almost all homes have air conditioning, accounts for slightly more than two-fifths of electricity retail sales in Georgia.37,38 The commercial sector accounts for about one-third of sales and the industrial sector accounts for almost all the rest.39 Georgia is one of the top states in the number of plug-in electric vehicles per capita.40

Renewable energy

Georgia is the leader in electricity generation from wood and wood-derived fuels.

Renewable resources fuel nearly 9% of Georgia's electricity generation, and about half of that generation comes from biomass, primarily wood and wood-derived fuels.41 In 2019, the state led the nation in the use of wood and wood-derived fuels for electricity generation and was second in the nation, after California, in the amount of generation from all biomass resources.42,43 More than 24 million acres of Georgia's almost 25 million acres of forest are available for commercial use, and there are more than 200 wood product manufacturing plants in the state, including 7 wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined production capacity of more than 1.5 million tons per year.44,45,46 Georgia is a leading wood pellet exporter. Most of the wood pellets are sent to Europe, where they are used for electricity generation.47,48

Georgia is one of the 10 largest hydroelectric power producers east of the Rocky Mountains, and is the 14th largest producer of hydroelectricity in the nation as a whole.49 The state has 14 river basins and thousands of dams, some of which provide hydroelectric power.50,51 In total, there are 31 hydroelectric power plants in Georgia, including 4 hydroelectric pumped storage facilities.52 During periods of low demand for electricity, pumped storage facilities use relatively inexpensive power to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. In periods of high demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir, and electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines located in tunnels between the reservoirs. Although pumped storage facilities use more power than they generate, they can supply power in periods of peak demand when it is needed.53

Solar energy provided 2% of Georgia's in-state electricity, all of it from solar photovoltaics (PV) and most of it from utility-scale facilities with greater than 1 megawatt of capacity.54 By the end of 2019, Georgia had more than 1,500 megawatts of utility-scale solar PV capacity. The six largest solar facilities in the state each have capacities greater than 100 megawatts, and half of those came online in 2019.55 Electricity generation from solar PV has more than doubled since 2016. In 2019, utility-scale facilities produced most of the state's solar PV generation, but smaller (less than 1 megawatt) customer-sited installations, such as roof-top panels, accounted for about one-eighth of the state's solar generation.56

Georgia has no utility-scale wind-powered electricity generation.57 The state has limited onshore wind energy potential, all of it in small areas on the mountain ridges along the state's northern border or in a narrow strip along the state's short coastline. However, Georgia does have offshore wind resources along its 100-mile Atlantic coastline.58,59,60

There are three biodiesel plants with a combined production capacity of 19 million gallons of biodiesel per year in Georgia, almost twice as much as is consumed in the state.61,62 Georgia also has one fuel ethanol plant that can produce 119 million gallons of ethanol per year.63 Most motor gasoline sold in the United States is blended with at least 10% ethanol, and a large amount of ethanol is used in Georgia's transportation sector.64 As a result, fuel ethanol consumption in the state is more than four times greater than production.65,66 Additional fuel ethanol arrives by rail from the Midwest.67

Georgia does not have a renewable energy portfolio standard, nor does it have a voluntary renewable energy target.68 However, several utilities in the state offer financial incentives that promote energy efficiency and renewable generation. State policies include energy standards for public buildings, interconnection guidelines, and solar easement regulations.69 In 2001, Georgia enacted a law that allowed, but did not require, utilities to offer net metering. In 2019, a regulatory change required limited net metering by the state's largest utility.70,71

Petroleum

Georgia does not have any crude oil production or proved petroleum reserves.72,73 Nearly 200 exploration wells were drilled in the state during the 20th century, none of which were successful.74,75 Georgia has no petroleum refineries. The state's last crude oil refinery, which produced asphalt, was idled in 2012 and closed permanently at the end of 2014.76,77 No crude oil pipelines cross Georgia, but the state receives refined petroleum products from two interstate petroleum product pipeline systems and an interstate propane pipeline.78 The Port of Savannah also receives petroleum product imports from around the world.79

Petroleum accounts for the largest share of energy consumed in Georgia. The state ranks among the top 10 states in total petroleum consumption, but it is among the 10 lowest in per capita petroleum consumption.80,81 The transportation sector accounts for almost nine-tenths of the state's petroleum use, most of it as motor gasoline. To minimize formation of ozone, motor gasoline sold during the summer months in 13 counties in northwestern Georgia, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, had to sell fuel with a lower volatility than the motor gasoline sold in the rest of the state.82 However, those restrictions were relaxed as of June 2020.83 Much of the rest of the petroleum used in Georgia is consumed as distillate fuel oil or jet fuel, which are also used in the transportation sector.84 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer in Georgia but uses less than one-tenth of the petroleum consumed in the state. The commercial sector uses about 3% and the rest is consumed in the residential sector, where about 1 in 20 households heat with petroleum products, mostly propane.85,86

Natural gas

Georgia does not have any natural gas proved reserves or production.87,88 However, there has been some recent interest in exploring for natural gas in shale formations in northern Georgia. As a result, new drilling regulations have been established in the state.89 Georgia receives the natural gas it needs from other states by pipeline and from other countries through the Elba Island liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal.90 Most of the state's pipeline natural gas supply enters through Alabama. About half of the natural gas that enters Georgia is sent on to South Carolina and Florida.

Georgia’s Elba Island LNG import terminal added LNG export facilities that began operations in 2020.

In the past, LNG imports have arrived from a variety of countries, but since 2014, international LNG deliveries have come only from Trinidad and Tobago.91 As U.S. natural gas production has increased, Georgia import volumes have decreased from a high of more than 170 billion cubic feet in 2007 to less than 6 billion cubic feet in 2019.92 Because of shifting market conditions, Elba Island liquefaction facilities have been constructed to enable the export of up to 350 million cubic feet of natural gas per day. The facility began commercial export operations in August 2020.93

Georgia consumes more natural gas than two-thirds of the states, but its per capita consumption is less than in about two-thirds of the states.94 In the past decade, the amount of natural gas used by the state's electric power sector has increased, and that sector is now the largest consumer of natural gas in Georgia and receives more than half of the natural gas delivered to consumers.95,96 The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas consumer in the state and accounts for about one-fifth of state use. The residential sector, where two of every five Georgia households use natural gas for home heating, consumes about one-sixth. Because the state's climate is warm and humid during most of the year, per capita natural gas use in the residential sector is less than in two-thirds of the states.97,98,99,100 The commercial sector uses most of the rest, and a small amount of natural gas is used by the transportation sector as vehicle fuel.101

Coal

Georgia has no active coal mines and only minor estimated recoverable coal reserves.102 However, the state has a coal mining history. Coal was mined on a small scale in Georgia as early as the 1830s, but production ended in the mid-1980s.103 Coal consumption in Georgia declined from more than 34 million tons in 2010 to less than 14 million tons of coal annually in 2019. Almost all of it is used for electricity generation. About 2% of the coal consumed in Georgia is delivered to industrial facilities 104 Coal from Wyoming, Illinois, and a few other states is delivered to Georgia's three coal-fired power plants.105,106 The Savannah Customs District handles some U.S. coal exports, and, for the first time since 2015, a small amount of coal was imported at the Savannah port in 2019.107,108,109

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Georgia, The Geography of Georgia, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013-18.
3 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31 and Estimated Production, 2013-18.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
5 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Facts, accessed September 28, 2020.
6 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Energy Industry Overview (February 22, 2011), p. 2, 3, 4.
7 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Georgia, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
8 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, June 2020.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, accessed September 28, 2020.
10 Parker, Amanda K., New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, Conservation & Management, Reservoirs, updated September 3, 2019.
11 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development (April 2014), p. 2.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
14 Hunter, Marnie, "The world's busiest airports in 2019 face a steep uphill climb," CNN travel, updated October 7, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, Interactive Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Georgia, All statistics in table, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, International Energy Outlook 2016, Chapter 7, Industrial sector energy consumption, p. 113.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
19 Knox, Pam, "Georgia's Climate Is Peachy!" The CoCoRaHS, ‘State Climates' Series, accessed September 29, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10, and 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2019.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001-19.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data (Operable Units Only) and (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, All fuels, Natural gas, Annual, 2001-19.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.9.B.
29 U.S. EIA, Georgia Profile Overview, Nuclear Power Plant Map Layer, accessed October 2, 2020.
30 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Georgia, updated October 5, 2016.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-19.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data (Operable Units Only) and (Proposed Units Only).
33 Georgia Power, Vogtle News, accessed November 10, 2020.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
36 U.S. EIA, Georgia Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
38 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, "FOTW #1059, December 10, 2018: California Had the Most Plug-in Vehicle Registrations per 1,000 People in 2017," Press Release (December 10, 2018).
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, All states, Wood and wood-derived fuels, Annual, 2019.
43 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.15.B.
44 The Economics of Forestry, Georgia Forest Facts, accessed October 3, 2020.
45 Georgia Forestry Commission, Forest Industry, accessed October 3, 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, June 2019.
47 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Products Exports, 2019.
48 Echols, Tim, "Commentary: Georgia's Wood Pellet Exports Fuel British Sustainability," Global Atlanta (August 8, 2016).
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.10.B.
50 Meyer, Judith L., and Gretchen Loeffler, "River Basins," New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, updated December 10, 2019.
51 Parker, Amanda K., "Reservoirs," New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, updated September 3, 2019.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
53 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Georgia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity Browser, Net generation, Georgia, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, 2016-19.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Browser, Net generation, Georgia, Wind, Monthly, 2019-20.
58 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, Georgia Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed October 9, 2020.
59 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011, Table 360, Coastline and Shoreline of the United States by State.
60 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Energy Industry Overview (February 22, 2011), p. 8.
61 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report With data for July 2020 (September 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, July 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
63 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2020, Excel file.
64 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
67 Association of American Railroads, What Railroads Haul: Ethanol (July 2020).
68 U.S. EIA, Renewable Energy Explained, Portfolio Standards, updated November 18, 2019.
69 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Georgia, Programs, accessed October 11, 2020.
70 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Georgia, Net Metering, updated July 2, 2020.
71 U.S. EIA, Annual Electric Power Industry Report, Form EIA-861 detailed data files, Sales Ultimate Customers, 2019.
72 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014-19.
73 U.S. EIA, Proved Nonproducing Reserves, Crude Oil, Annual, 2013-18.
74 Swanson, David E., and Andrea Gernazian, Petroleum Exploration Wells in Georgia, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Geologic Survey Information Circular 51 (1979), p. 1.
75 Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division, Georgia Geologic Survey Information Circulars, IC-77, Petroleum Exploration Wells in Georgia, 1979-1984 (1988).
76 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Georgia, Annual (as of January 1), 2015-20.
77 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2020, Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown By PAD District Between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2020.
78 U.S. EIA, Georgia Profile Overview, Crude Oil, Refined Product, and HGL Pipeline Map Layers, accessed October 12, 2020.
79 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, July 2020, Excel File.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
82 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed October 11, 2020.
83 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Relaxation of the Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for the Atlanta RVP Area, accessed October 11, 2020.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
87 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Annual, 2013-18.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Annual, 2014-19.
89 Southern Environmental Law Center, Georgia passes modern-day fracking protections into law (May 11, 2018).
90 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals, Existing, updated May 29, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Georgia, Annual, 2014-19.
92 U.S. EIA, Georgia Natural Gas International Receipts, 1967-2019.
93 "Kinder Morgan brings final Elba Island LNG liquefaction unit online," LNG Industry (August 28, 2020).
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
95 U.S. EIA, Georgia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2019.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Georgia, Annual, 2014-19.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
98 Knox, Pam, "Georgia's Climate is Peachy!" The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed October 11, 2020.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2014-19.
100 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Georgia, Annual, 2014-19.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
103 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Appalachian Region, Georgia, updated September 11, 2019.
104 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption, Georgia, 2001-19.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State, Georgia, Table DS-9, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
107 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, Coal Exports by Customs District and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
108 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2016 (April 2017), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
109 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2018 (April 2019), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.


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