Colorado State Energy Profile



Colorado Quick Facts

  • Colorado is the fifth-largest crude oil-producing state, with 90% of production coming from one county. 
  • Colorado was the seventh-largest natural gas-producing state in 2020 and accounted for almost two-fifths of total U.S. coalbed methane production in 2019.
  • Since 2010, Colorado's renewable electricity net generation has more than tripled, led by increased wind and solar, and accounted for 30% of the state's total generation in 2020.
  • In 2020, coal-fired power plants provided 36% of Colorado's net generation, down from 68% in 2010, while electricity from natural gas and renewable energy sources increased.
  • Colorado ranked seventh among the states in installed wind power capacity in 2020.

Last Updated: March 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.8 million 1.8% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 3.2 million 2.0% Jul-21  
Economy Colorado U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 390.1 billion 16 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 26,615 million 29 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 63,522 11 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 54,634 million miles 24 2019  
Land in Farms 31.8 million acres 9 2017  
Climate Colorado U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 47.2 degrees Fahrenheit 37 2020  
Precipitation 12.2 inches 43 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 66.84 /barrel $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.37 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 12.44 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 44.21 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.62 /million Btu $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.13 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 11.64 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 8.34 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 1,414 million barrels 3.2% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 22,332 billion cu ft 4.8% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,281 million barrels 5.9% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 237 million short tons 1.7% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 37,390 wells 7.6% 2019 find more
Capacity Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 103,000 barrels/calendar day 0.5% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 17,845 MW 1.6% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,904 trillion Btu 3.8% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 390 thousand barrels per day 3.4% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 1,988,714 million cu ft 5.4% 2019 find more
Coal 12,868 thousand short tons 1.8% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 5,063 thousand MWh 1.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Colorado U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 29.0 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 41.7 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 29.3 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 161 thousand barrels 1.3% Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 458 thousand barrels 0.4% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 101,662 million cu ft 1.4% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 129 thousand barrels 0.6% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,738 thousand tons 3.4% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,552 stations 1.4% 2019  
Propane 46 stations 1.7% 2021  
Electricity 1,277 stations 3.1% 2021  
E85 82 stations 2.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 23 stations 1.8% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Colorado U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,576 trillion Btu 25 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 274 million Btu 33 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 18,746 million 26 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,255 44 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 379 trillion Btu 1.8% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 301 trillion Btu 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 434 trillion Btu 1.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 462 trillion Btu 1.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 3,815 million 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,941 million 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,751 million 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 9,239 million 1.6% 2019 find more
by Source Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 105 million barrels 1.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 521 billion cu ft 1.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 15 million short tons 2.5% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 10,935 million 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,455 million 1.6% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 480 million 1.9% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 1 thousand barrels 0.1% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 11,583 million cu ft 1.0% Jun-21 find more
Coal 1,193 thousand short tons 2.5% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Colorado U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 68.4 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 23.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.8 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.1 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 6,325 MW 2.3% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 140 million gal/year 0.8% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 196 thousand MWh 0.8% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 1,274 thousand MWh 3.2% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 14 thousand MWh 0.3% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 114 thousand MWh 2.2% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 3,287 thousand barrels 0.9% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Colorado U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 11.3 % 21 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,011 thousand barrels 24 2019  
Total Emissions Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 89.4 million metric tons 1.7% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 33,912 thousand metric tons 2.0% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 10 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2019  

Analysis



Last Updated: March 18, 2021

Overview

Colorado ranks seventh among the states in total energy production.

Colorado has abundant fossil fuel reserves and renewable energy resources.1 Its diverse geography and geology include the headwaters of major rivers; potential to develop new wind and solar energy; and substantial deposits of crude oil, natural gas, and coal.2,3,4,5,6,7 Colorado ranks seventh among the states in total energy production.8 Home to the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado has the highest average elevation of any state. Wide plains, already more than half a mile above sea level at the Kansas border, meet the mountains that run through Colorado's center.9,10 Nearly 9 in 10 Colorado residents live in metropolitan areas at the base of the Front Range, along the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains, leaving much of the state's mountainous areas and plains sparsely populated.11,12

Weather fronts can move in from the west across the mountains or from the east across the plains. Temperatures vary widely, depending on elevation and season, and have reached records of 115°F on the plains and 61°F below zero in the mountains.13 Colorado is a winter sports destination, and about 1 in 20 houses is occupied only seasonally.14,15

Colorado has a diverse economy. Despite its energy intensive mining and oil and gas industries, energy consumption per dollar of Colorado's gross domestic product (GDP) is less than in about four-fifths of the states.16 Some of the largest contributors to the state's GDP are finance, insurance, and real estate; professional and business services; and government.17 As a result, Colorado's per capita total energy consumption is lower than two-thirds of the states.18 In 2018, the transportation sector was Colorado's leading energy consumer, accounting for 29% of the state's total energy use, followed closely by the industrial sector at 28%, the residential sector at 24%, and the commercial sector at 19%.19

Petroleum

About 90% of Colorado’s crude oil production comes from one county.

Colorado accounts for just over 4% of U.S. total crude oil production and 3% of the nation's economically recoverable crude oil reserves.20,21 In 2020, the state produced about four times more crude oil than in 2010, primarily from the increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies.22 Average monthly oil production declined below 10 million barrels in 2016 because of lower crude oil prices, but production rebounded and reached record high monthly production levels in late 2019 after oil prices rose.23,24 However, economic slowdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted oil output in Colorado. In 2020, the state's crude oil production declined by 13%.25

Most new oil production in Colorado comes from the Niobrara Shale formation located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeastern Colorado, where oil production in one county, Weld, is the source of almost 9 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil produced in Colorado.26,27,28 The Wattenberg field, much of which is in Weld County, is the fourth-largest U.S. oil field based on proved oil reserves and ninth-largest gas field based on proved natural gas reserves.29,30 The Piceance Basin in the western mountain region is the other primary crude oil-producing area in Colorado.31,32

Northwestern Colorado overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a kerogen-rich formation.33 Kerogen is an organic material found in some sedimentary rocks that can be heated to extract crude oil.34 Although pilot oil shale projects were attempted in the area, obtaining crude oil from kerogen is not economically viable.35,36

Colorado has two operating petroleum refineries, located at Commerce City in the Denver area. These refineries can process 103,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, jet fuel, and other petroleum products.37 Upgrades to the refineries have enabled them to make refined products that meet clean fuel regulations and process more crude oil from Canada's tar sands.38 With oil production from the Niobrara Shale increasing and exceeding refining capacity, more pipelines are being built or repurposed to move Colorado crude oil to refineries out of state.39 Demand for refined petroleum products in Colorado is about two-and-a-half times more than the state's refining capacity.40,41 Several petroleum product pipelines, primarily from Wyoming, Texas, and Kansas, help supply the Colorado market, and products are also brought in by rail and truck.42,43,44,45,46

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of all petroleum consumed in Colorado, and most of the rest is used by the industrial sector.47 The Denver-Boulder and Fort Collins metropolitan areas use oxygenated motor gasoline to limit smog formation.48,49 The rest of the state is allowed to use conventional motor gasoline.50 Colorado has four ethanol plants with a combined production capacity of 143 million gallons per year. Those facilities mainly use corn as their feedstocks.51,52 The state's smallest ethanol plant, located in Golden, uses a brewery's waste beer as its feedstock.53

In April 2019, Colorado's governor signed Senate Bill 19-181 that changed the way the state regulates its oil and natural gas industry.54 The law gives counties and municipalities increased regulatory authority over oil and natural gas development in their jurisdictions. Local governments have the authority to regulate the location of new oil and natural gas production facilities as well as the effects of production, such as land use and surface impacts, including noise.55 The law also gives local governments the authority to inspect oil and natural gas facilities; impose fines for leaks, spills, and emissions; and impose fees to fully cover regulatory costs.56

Natural gas

Colorado has the seventh- largest natural gas reserves in the United States.

Colorado has the seventh-largest natural gas reserves of any state, accounting for 5% of the U.S. total.57 It is the seventh-largest natural gas-producing state in the nation.58 Colorado's marketed natural gas output has more than doubled since 2000.59 Colorado has, entirely or partially, 11 of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields.60

Colorado's largest natural gas-producing regions are in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in the northeast and in the Piceance Basin in the west.61 As natural gas prices have declined, some drilling activity has moved from the Piceance, which produces mainly dry natural gas, to the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which produces higher-value crude oil and natural gas liquids.62,63 The San Juan Basin that stretches across the Colorado-New Mexico border is also a major natural gas-producing area, though output there has declined in recent years.64

Colorado is also a major producer of coalbed methane gas, which is a form of natural gas extracted from coal seams. Production of coalbed methane gas grew rapidly in the 1990s and usually accounted for about one-third of Colorado's total marketed natural gas production during that period. Lower natural gas prices have made some coalbed methane wells uneconomical, and production of coalbed methane has declined by almost 40% since 2010.65,66 However, Colorado remains the top coalbed methane-producing state, accounting for almost two-fifths of national production. Nearly all coalbed methane is produced in the San Juan and Raton Basins located in the southern part of the state.67,68

The residential and electric power sectors are Colorado's largest consumers of natural gas, each accounting for about one-third of the state's natural gas demand.69 Seven out of 10 Colorado households use natural gas as their primary home heating source.70 Consumption of natural gas for electricity generation reached a new high in 2020 and has increased more than 70% since 2001.71 The state uses only about one-fourth of the natural gas it produces.72,73

Several major interstate pipelines cross Colorado and ship natural gas to over a dozen states from California to West Virginia.74,75 The state has two natural gas trading hubs at interstate pipeline interconnections.76 The larger Cheyenne hub, near the Colorado-Wyoming border, is located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the White River hub is located in the Piceance Basin.77,78 In June 2020, the Cheyenne Connector natural gas pipeline entered service, adding 1.6 billion cubic feet per day of throughput capacity and increasing natural gas deliveries from eastern Colorado into the Cheyenne hub. Additionally, the Cheyenne Hub Enhancement Project increased interconnectivity and deliverability between the Rockies Express Pipeline and interstate transmission systems.79 Colorado has some underground natural gas storage capacity with 10 fields and just over 141 billion cubic feet of combined storage space, equal to 1.5% of the U.S. total. The state's storage capacity has increased by one-third since 2010.80

Coal

Colorado ranks eighth among the states in estimated recoverable coal reserves.81,82 The state produces coal from both underground and surface mines. Mining is currently focused in the Green River, Piceance, and San Juan Basins.83 Colorado's coal is used almost entirely for electricity generation, but the market for the state's coal has decreased and several Colorado mines have closed as the share of U.S. electricity generated by coal-fired power plants continues to decline.84,85,86 Although coal production in Colorado increased for the first time in six years in 2017, due to an increase in foreign demand for U.S. coal, production continued to decline since then.87,88,89 In 2018, Colorado coal producers exported almost one-fourth of the state's mined coal to other countries, but the state's exports declined to 4% in 2019.90 About 60% of the coal mined in Colorado is used for power generation within the state. Coal is also transported for electric power generation or used at industrial plants in about 20 other states.91

Electricity

Colorado’s electricity generation from renewable energy sources more than tripled between 2010 and 2020.

In 2017, coal-fired power plants provided over half of the state's electricity net generation, natural gas provided about one-fourth, and renewable energy sources one-fifth. But in 2020, coal, natural gas, and renewable energy each provided about one-third of Colorado's electricity net generation. In 2020, coal still generated the most electricity, followed by natural gas and renewable energy. From 2010 to 2020, coal generation decreased 44%, natural gas generation increased by 47%, and renewable energy generation more than tripled. The largest increase in renewable electricity generation came from wind power, followed by utility-scale solar power.92 Colorado's power plant operators seek to replace coal-fired capacity with electricity generation from natural gas and renewable energy sources due to economic and regulatory considerations.93,94

Colorado does not have any nuclear power plants.95 The state does have some uranium deposits, but no uranium was mined in 2019.96 A proposed uranium mill in western Colorado is still being considered.97

Colorado uses less electricity per capita than three-fourths of the states.98 The commercial sector is the largest consumer of electricity in Colorado, accounting for nearly two-fifths of the state's total power use, followed by the residential sector at one-third of total consumption and the industrial sector at just over one-fourth.99 Almost one in four Colorado households use electricity as the main home heating source.100 Typically, total electricity consumption slightly exceeds in-state generation.101 The state receives electricity from Wyoming, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, and Kansas over high voltage interstate transmission lines.102,103

Renewable energy

Colorado ranks seventh nationwide in installed wind power capacity.

In 2004, Colorado became the first state with a voter-approved renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The legislature increased the requirements several times, and the RPS now requires 30% of electricity sold by investor-owned utilities to come from renewable energy sources by 2020, with 3% from small-scale distributed generation. Separate requirements apply to municipal and cooperative electricity suppliers, depending on their size.104,105 In 2019, Colorado's governor proposed a plan for 100% of the state's electricity generation to come from renewable resources by 2040.106,107 Colorado is 1 of 12 states that have adopted the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program.108 Under this program, automakers are required to sell a specific number of no or low emissions vehicles and invest in clean technology.109 In January 2021, Colorado released its Greenhouse Gas Pollution Reduction Roadmap. It details how Colorado will reach the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 26% of 2005 levels by 2025, and 50% by 2030.110 In 2020, Xcel Energy, Colorado's largest utility provider, generated 37% of electricity from in-state renewable resources, an increase from 30% the previous year. The utility said it would obtain 53% of electricity from in-state renewable sources by 2026, primarily by closing coal-fired power plants in Colorado.111,112

Colorado has significant wind energy resources on its eastern plains and mountain crests.113 The state also has substantial solar resources, especially in the south near the New Mexico border.114 In 2020, wind power accounted for 78% of Colorado's renewable electricity generation, followed by solar (utility-scale and small scale) at 14%, hydroelectric power at 12%, and biomass at 1%. Small-scale solar, which includes rooftop solar panels on houses, continues to grow and accounted for just over one-third of the state's total solar generation in 2020.115 Since 2010, Colorado's use of wind power has more than tripled. In 2020, three new wind power projects added 958 megawatts of capacity bringing Colorado's total wind generating capacity to 4,716 megawatts.116,117,118 Colorado ranks seventh nationwide in installed wind power capacity.119

The Bureau of Land Management established the Solar Energy Program for six southwestern states and four areas in Colorado were identified as Solar Energy Zones (SEZ) that are well suited for utility-scale solar development.120,121 In 2020, Colorado ranked 13th among the states in solar power-generating capacity with over 1,510 megawatts installed.122,123 Colorado offers rebates and tax incentives to encourage homeowners and businesses to install solar panels, including community solar gardens, which are collections of solar panels shared by several homes.124,125,126,127

Colorado has 71 small hydroelectric generators, ranging in size from 500 kilowatts to 180 megawatts, with a total installed capacity of 1,272 megawatts.128 According to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the state has the potential to develop more than 30 new small hydropower projects using existing infrastructure.129 Colorado negotiated a pioneering agreement with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to streamline the licensing process for small hydropower facilities.130 The Colorado Energy Office created the Energy Recovery Hydropower Initiative and a small hydropower grant and loan financing program to assist potential developers.131,132

Colorado's first utility-scale woody biomass plant came online in 2013 and initially burned waste gathered from surrounding forests, taking trees culled as part of efforts to fight pine beetle infestation.133,134 The state also provides tax breaks to promote other types of biomass generation, such an anaerobic digestion, which burns the gas produced from livestock manure or food waste to generate electricity.135 Colorado has one wood pellet manufacturing plant with the capacity to produce 50,000 tons of wood pellets per year.136

Colorado has a number of hot springs, and studies indicate that the state has significant geothermal potential.137 Some federal lands in the state have been leased for geothermal projects.138 The state's geothermal resources are mainly used for heating or cooling homes, businesses, recreational pools, and Colorado's state capitol building in Denver, but there are currently no utility-scale projects that generate electricity with geothermal energy.139,140,141

Endnotes

1 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, accessed January 19, 2021.
2 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Colorado, accessed January 19, 2021.
3 Colorado Energy Office, Climate & Energy, Renewable Energy, Solar, accessed January 19, 2021.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, Unified Interior Regions, Colorado, accessed January 19, 2021.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production as of December 31, 2014-19.
6 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2014-19.
7 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
8 U.S. EIA, Today in Energy, "Colorado ranks seventh among states with the most energy production," July 23, 2020.
9 U.S. Geological Survey, Unified Interior Regions, Colorado, accessed January 19, 2021.
10 Colorado Tourism Office, Colorado Mountains: 6 Famous Peaks, updated June 1, 2020.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Colorado Profile, accessed January 25, 2021.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Colorado: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, CPH-2-7 (August 2012), p. 1, Table 1, Population: Earliest Census to 2010; and Housing Units: 1950 to 2010.
13 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate at a Glance, accessed January 25, 2021.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25004, ACS 2019 1-year.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25002, ACS 2019 1-year.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
17 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Colorado, All statistics in table, 2019, updated October 2, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2014-20.
21 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2014-19.
22 U.S. EIA, Colorado Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1920-2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOC (Dollars per Barrel), 1980-2019.
25 U.S. EIA, Colorado Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Niobrara Region, January 2021.
27 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2020.
28 Colorado Department of Education, Colorado Counties Map, accessed January 21, 2021.
29 "Information on the Niobrara-DJ Basin," Natural Gas Intelligence Shale Daily, accessed January 21, 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5.
31 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2020.
32 U.S. Geological Survey, The Uinta-Piceance Province-Introduction to a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources, DDS-69-B, Chapter 2, accessed January 21, 2021.
33 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Unconventional Oil and Gas Production: Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
34 U.S. Department of Energy, Oil Shale Research in the United States, 3rd Edition, September 2011.
35 Colson, John, "Shell shuts down oil shale pilot project near Rifle," Post Independent (September 26, 2013).
36 Peixe, Joao, "ExxonMobil Takes Step Forward on Colorado Oil Shale," OilPrice.com (March 28, 2014).
37 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2020.
38 Suncor Energy Inc., Refining, Commerce City Refinery, accessed February 23, 2021.
39 U.S. EIA, Today in Energy, "EIA's liquids pipeline database provides detail on U.S. petroleum infrastructure changes,", June 11, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PADD District and State as of January 1, 2020.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 4-5, accessed January 21, 2021.
43 Magellan Midstream Partners LP, Asset Map, see Refined Products Assets, Product Availability Refined Pipeline, accessed January 21, 2021.
44 Sinclair Oil Corp., What We Do, see Transportation, accessed March 10, 2021.
45 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online, see Flowlines, accessed January 21, 2021.
46 Colorado Information Marketplace, Crude Oil Rail Terminals in Colorado 2014, accessed January 25, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
48 Colorado Secretary of State, Code of Colorado Regulations, Regulation Number 13 Reduction of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Gasoline Powered Motor Vehicles Through the use of Oxygenated Gasolines, 5 CCR 1001-16, accessed January 25, 2021.
49 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, as of January 2018.
50 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, see Gasoline Programs: Reformulated Gasoline, Reid Vapor Pressure, and Winter Oxygenates, accessed January 25, 2021.
51 Renewable Fuels Association, Ethanol Biorefinery Locations, accessed January 25, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
53 Merrick & Company, MillerCoors Ethanol Recovery Facility: Biomass Conversion to Ethanol, accessed February 8, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, "Colorado changes its regulatory structure for oil and natural gas production," (June 27, 2019).
55 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Senate Bill 19-181 (April 16, 2019).
56 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Colorado General Assembly, Protect Public Welfare Oil and Gas Operations (SB19-181), accessed January 25, 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2014-19.
58 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-20.
59 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2019.
60 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
61 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online (Interactive Map), accessed January 29, 2021.
62 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed & Natural Gas Sold by County, 2011-19.
63 U.S. EIA, "Colorado changes its regulatory structure for oil and natural gas production," (June 27, 2019).
64 Natural Gas Intelligence, Shale Daily, Information on the San Juan Basin, accessed January 29, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, Colorado Coalbed Methane Production, 1989-2019.
66 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Monthly Production by County, Coalbed Methane Produced, accessed February 8, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2013-19.
68 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed Methane Produced by County, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual, 2013-20.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019.
71 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2013-20.
73 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2013-20.
74 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Colorado, 2013-19.
75 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online (Interactive Map), accessed January 29, 2021.
76 A Barrel Full, Operational Natural Gas Market Centers Located in the United States, accessed January 29, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, Today in Energy, "In the first half of 2020, about 5 Bcf/d of natural gas pipeline capacity entered service," (August 24, 2020).
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