Colorado State Energy Profile



Colorado Quick Facts

  • In 2023, Colorado was the fourth-largest oil-producing state, accounting for almost 4% of U.S. total crude oil output.
  • Colorado was the eighth-largest natural gas-producing state in 2023 and has the eighth-largest natural gas reserves.
  • In 2023, renewable sources of energy accounted for 39% of Colorado’s total in-state electricity net generation, with wind power accounting for 70% of renewable generation.
  • Colorado ranks among the top 10 states in total energy production, and its per capita total energy consumption is lower than two-thirds of the states.
  • Coal-fired power plants accounted for 32% of Colorado's total in-state generation in 2023, down from 68% in 2010.

Last Updated: June 20, 2024



Data

Last Update: June 20, 2024 | Next Update: July 18, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.9 million 1.8% 2023  
Civilian Labor Force 3.2 million 1.9% Apr-24  
Economy Colorado U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 520.4 billion 16 2023  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 29,094 million 30 2023  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 78,918 8 2023  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 53,935 million miles 25 2022  
Land in Farms 30.0 million acres 9 2023  
Climate Colorado U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 45.9 degrees Fahrenheit 42 2023  
Precipitation 19.0 inches 42 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 76.60 /barrel $ 78.97 /barrel Mar-24  
Natural Gas Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 2.76 /thousand cu ft $ 4.05 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Residential $ 10.02 /thousand cu ft $ 13.85 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Coal Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 65.00 /short ton $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.17 /million Btu $ 2.49 /million Btu Mar-24  
Electricity Colorado U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.64 cents/kWh 16.68 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Commercial 11.08 cents/kWh 12.76 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Industrial 8.38 cents/kWh 7.73 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 1,469 million barrels 3.6% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 19,824 billion cu ft 3.4% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,667 million barrels 6.4% 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 287 million short tons 2.5% 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 31,939 wells 6.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 103,000 barrels/calendar day 0.6% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 19,541 MW 1.6% Mar-24  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 3,630 trillion Btu 3.7% 2021 find more
Crude Oil 473 thousand barrels per day 3.6% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 1,833,019 million cu ft 4.6% 2022 find more
Coal 12,782 thousand short tons 2.1% 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,818 thousand MWh 1.5% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Colorado U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 33.5 % 40.3 % Mar-24 find more
Coal-Fired 21.7 % 11.9 % Mar-24 find more
Nuclear 0.0 % 19.6 % Mar-24 find more
Renewables 44.4 % 27.6 % Mar-24  
Stocks Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 2 thousand barrels * Mar-24  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 784 thousand barrels 0.8% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 93,617 million cu ft 1.4% Mar-24 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 90 thousand barrels 0.4% Mar-24 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Mar-24 find more
Fueling Stations Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 1,533 stations 1.4% 2021  
Propane 46 stations 1.9% May-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 2,130 stations 3.4% May-24  
E85 91 stations 2.1% May-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 19 stations 0.7% May-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Colorado U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,464 trillion Btu 25 2022 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 260 million Btu 33 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 28,371 million 23 2022 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,523 41 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 339 trillion Btu 1.7% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial 253 trillion Btu 1.5% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial 372 trillion Btu 1.2% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation 501 trillion Btu 1.8% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,144 million 1.5% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,631 million 1.5% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,853 million 1.4% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation $ 15,743 million 1.8% 2022 find more
by Source Colorado Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 111 million barrels 1.5% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas 503 billion cu ft 1.6% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 12,428 thousand short tons 2.4% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 18,231 million 1.7% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 4,358 million 1.6% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 449 million 1.7% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas 12,112 million cu ft 1.3% Mar-24 find more
Coal 585 thousand tons 2.6% Mar-24 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Colorado U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 65.5 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 26.3 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 4.9 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 3.2 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 8,229 MW 2.4% Mar-24  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 160 million gal/year 0.9% 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 109 thousand MWh 0.5% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 2,020 thousand MWh 3.2% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 9 thousand MWh 0.2% Mar-24  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 167 thousand MWh 2.3% Mar-24  
Fuel Ethanol Production 3,382 thousand barrels 0.9% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Colorado U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 14.3 % 20 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 5,443 thousand barrels 24 2021  
Total Emissions Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 85.4 million metric tons 1.7% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Colorado Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 29,739 thousand metric tons 1.8% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 9 thousand metric tons 0.8% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 18 thousand metric tons 1.5% 2022  

Analysis



Last Updated: June 20, 2024

Overview

Colorado ranks among the top 10 states in total energy production.

Colorado, a Rocky Mountain state, has abundant fossil fuel reserves and renewable energy resources.1 Its diverse geography and geology include the headwaters of major rivers; significant wind and solar energy resources; and substantial deposits of crude oil, natural gas, and coal.2,3,4,5 Colorado ranks among the top 10 states in total energy production.6 Colorado is the eighth largest state in terms of land area, at about 104,000 square miles.7 Wide plains, already more than half a mile above sea level at the Kansas border, meet the mountains that run through Colorado's center.8,9 Nearly 9 in 10 Colorado residents live in metropolitan areas at the base of the Range, along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains, leaving much of the state's mountainous areas and plains sparsely populated.10

Weather fronts can move in from the west across the mountains or from the east across the plains. Temperatures vary widely, depending on elevation and season, and have reached records of 115°F on the plains and 61°F below zero in the mountains.11 Colorado is a winter sports destination, and about 1 in 20 houses is occupied only seasonally.12,13

Colorado has a diverse economy. Despite its energy intensive mining and oil and gas industries, the amount of energy used to produce one dollar of Colorado's gross domestic product (GDP) is less than in about four-fifths of the states.14 The largest contributors to the state's GDP include finance, insurance, and real estate; professional and business services; and government.15 Five major military installations are based in Colorado, including the United States Air Force Academy, North American Defense Command, U.S. Northern Command, Peterson Space Force Base, and the National Cybersecurity Intelligence Center.16 For the fiscal year 2022, the defense sectors contributed $12.9 billion to the state's economy.17 Partly as a result, Colorado's per capita energy consumption is lower than two-thirds of the states.18 The transportation sector is Colorado's leading energy consumer, accounting for 28% of the state's total energy use, followed closely by the industrial sector at 28%, the residential sector at 26%, and the commercial sector at 19%.19

Petroleum

Colorado is the fourth-largest oil-producing state and accounts for almost 4% of U.S. total crude oil output.20 The state has nearly 4% of the nation's economically recoverable crude oil reserves.21 In 2023, Colorado produced more than twice as much crude oil than in 2010, primarily from the increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies.22,23 The state's crude oil production in 2023 was the highest in three years.24

About four-fifths of Colorado’s crude oil production comes from Weld County.

Most of Colorado's crude oil production comes from the Niobrara Shale formation located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeastern Colorado, where crude oil output in one county, Weld, is the source of 8 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil produced in the state.25,26 The Wattenberg field, much of which is in Weld County, in the northern part of the state, is among the top 10 U.S. oil and natural gas fields based on proved reserves.27,28,29 The Piceance Basin in the western mountain region is the other primary crude oil-producing area in Colorado.30,31

Northwestern Colorado overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a kerogen-rich formation.32,33 Kerogen is an organic material found in some sedimentary rocks that can be heated to extract crude oil.34 Although pilot oil shale projects were attempted in the area, obtaining crude oil from kerogen is not currently economically viable.35,36,37

Colorado has two petroleum refineries in the Denver area, with a combined capacity to process 103,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, jet fuel, and other petroleum products.38,39 Upgrades to the refinery have made it possible to make refined products that meet clean fuel standards and process more crude oil from Canada's tar sands.40 With crude oil production from the Niobrara Shale increasing and exceeding refining capacity, more pipelines are being built or repurposed to move Colorado crude oil to refineries out of state.41 Demand for refined petroleum products in Colorado is about two-and-a-half times more than the state's refining capacity.42,43 Several petroleum product pipelines, primarily from Wyoming, Texas, and Kansas, help supply the Colorado market, and refined products are also brought in by rail and truck.44,45,46,47,48

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of all petroleum consumed in Colorado, followed by the industrial sector with about one-eighth. The residential and commercial sectors accounted for the rest.49 The Denver-Boulder and Fort Collins metropolitan areas use motor gasoline oxygenated with ethanol to limit smog formation.50,51 The rest of the state is allowed to use conventional motor gasoline.52 Colorado has three fuel ethanol plants with a combined production capacity of 160 million gallons per year. Those facilities mainly use corn as their feedstock.53,54

In May 2024, Colorado's governor signed legislation into law that enacts a new fee on oil and gas production and changes the state's pollution laws. The legislation imposes a sliding-scale fee, equivalent to a surcharge of about 0.5% on each barrel oil produced, on oil and gas production that would be used to fund public transit and fund efforts by Colorado Parks and Wildlife to acquire and conserve wildlife habitat to offset the impacts of oil and gas development.55 Additionally, localities in and around the Denver metro area have failed to meet the Environmental Production Agency's health standards for ozone. The legislation proposes a series of changes to permitting and enforcement rules, giving the state's Energy and Carbon Management Commission more power to penalize operators and address the problem of orphaned wells. It would also codify a mandate for oil and gas producers to reduce emissions of ozone precursors.56

Natural gas

Colorado has the eighth- largest natural gas reserves in the United States.

Colorado has the eighth-largest natural gas reserves of any state, accounting for almost 4% of the U.S. total.57 It is also the eighth-largest natural gas-producing state in the nation.58 Colorado's marketed natural gas output had a slight decline from 2022 to 2023, but the overall volume of marketed natural gas was still more than double from 2000.59 Colorado is home to all or part of 11 of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields.60

Colorado's largest natural gas-producing regions are in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in the northeast and in the Piceance Basin in the west.61 As natural gas prices fluctuate, some drilling activity moved from the Piceance, which produces mainly dry natural gas, to the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which produces higher-value crude oil and natural gas liquids.62,63 The San Juan Basin that stretches across the Colorado-New Mexico border is also a major natural gas-producing area, though output there has declined in recent years.64

Colorado is the top producer of coalbed methane gas, which is a type of natural gas extracted from coal seams.65 Production of coalbed methane gas grew rapidly in the 1990s and usually accounted for about one-third of Colorado's total marketed natural gas production during that period. Production of coalbed methane declined about 50% from 2010 to 2022. However, Colorado remains the top coalbed methane-producing state, accounting for almost about one-third of U.S. production in 2022.66,67 The San Juan and Raton Basins, located in the southern part of the state, produce nearly all of the state's coalbed methane.68

The residential sector is Colorado's largest consumer of natural gas, accounting for more than one-third of the state's natural gas demand, followed by the electric power sector at about three-tenths.69 About 7 out of 10 Colorado households use natural gas as their primary home heating source.70 Natural gas consumption for electricity generation has increased for the past two years, as natural gas prices declined.71,72,73 The industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth of the state's natural gas use, followed by the commercial sector at about one-seventh. The state uses only about one-fourth of the natural gas it produces.74,75

Several major interstate pipelines cross Colorado and ship natural gas to six U.S. states.76,77 The state has two natural gas trading hubs at interstate pipeline interconnections.78 The larger Cheyenne hub, near the Colorado-Wyoming border, is located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the White River hub is located in the Piceance Basin.79,80 Colorado has 10 underground natural gas storage fields and just over 141 billion cubic feet of combined storage capacity, equal to 1.5% of the U.S. total.81 The state's storage capacity has remained steady since 2019.82,83

Coal

Colorado ranks eighth among the states in estimated recoverable coal reserves.84,85 The state produces coal from both underground and surface mines. Currently, mining is focused in the Green River, Piceance, and San Juan Basins.86,87 Colorado's coal is used almost entirely for electricity generation, but the market for the state's coal has decreased and several Colorado mines have closed as the share of U.S. electricity generated by coal-fired power plants continues to decline.88,89,90,91 However, coal production saw almost an 8% increase in 2022 due to a rise in domestic demand due to higher natural gas prices.92,93,94,95 About one-third of the coal mined in Colorado is used for power generation within the state. Colorado coal is also transported for electric power generation or used at industrial plants in 18 other states.96,97

Electricity

Colorado’s electricity generation from renewable energy sources more than quadrupled between 2010 and 2023.

Coal-fired power plants accounted for 32% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2023, down from 68% in 2010. However, in 2022, coal-fired plants supplied almost half of Colorado's net electricity generation, as higher natural gas prices made coal-fired generation more economical.98,99 Colorado's power plant operators plan to continue to replace coal-fired capacity with generating capacity fueled by natural gas and renewable energy sources due to economic and regulatory considerations.100,101,102 By 2029, about 2,500 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity in Colorado is scheduled to retire.103 Renewable energy provided almost two-fifths of the state's electricity net generation in 2023. Since 2010, Colorado's renewable electricity net generation has more than quadrupled. In 2023, natural gas provided 29% of the state's total electricity generation, followed by wind energy with 28%. The rest of Colorado's in-state electricity generation was provided by utility- and small-scale solar and hydroelectric power.104

Colorado does not have any nuclear power plants.105 The state does have some uranium deposits, but no uranium has been mined since 2005.106,107 However, there are plans to begin mining uranium and a uranium mill in western Colorado is still being considered.108,109

Colorado uses less electricity per capita than three-fourths of the states.110 The commercial and residential sectors are the largest consumers of electricity in Colorado. Together they account for nearly three-fourths of the state's total power use, followed by the industrial sector at just over one-fourth.111 About one in four Colorado households use electricity as the main home heating source.112 Typically, total electricity consumption exceeds in-state generation, but in 2022 in-state generation exceeded electricity consumption.113 The state receives electricity from Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, New Mexico, and Utah over high voltage interstate transmission lines.114 June 2023 marked the groundbreaking for the TransWest Express project, a new 600 kilovolt, 730 mile interregional transmission line that will extend from south-central Wyoming through northwestern Colorado and central Utah, ending in southern Nevada. Once completed, the transmission line will provide 3,000 megawatts of new transmission capacity.115,116,117

In 2018, Colorado launched the Electric Vehicle (EV) Fast-Charging Corridor grant program to develop EV fast-charging infrastructure in the state to promote the adoption of EVs.118,119 In 2024, Colorado's Governor and the Colorado Energy Office announced $21 million in grant awards through the Direct-Current Fast-Charging Plazas program. Funded through the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Program, part of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, and the state's Community Access Enterprise, these grants will create 290 new fast charger ports at 46 different sites across the state. This will increase Colorado's existing public fast-charger network of more than 1,000 ports by about 28%.120 Colorado currently has more than 2,100 public electric vehicle charging locations, ranking seventh among states.121 Colorado is 1 of 18 states that adopted the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program.122 The ZEV program requires automakers to sell a specific number of no or low-emissions vehicles and invest in clean technology.123 In March 2023, Colorado released the 2023 Colorado EV Plan, with a goal to increase the share to at least 70% of new vehicle sales by 2030.124

Renewable energy

In 2023, renewable sources of energy accounted for 39% of Colorado's total in-state electricity net generation. Wind power accounted for the largest share of Colorado's renewable electricity generation at 70%, followed by combined utility-scale (1-megawatt or larger) photovoltaic and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar at 23%. Hydroelectric power accounted for 6% and biomass less than 1%.125

Colorado ranks sixth nationwide in installed wind power capacity.

Colorado has significant wind energy resources on its eastern plains and mountain crests and ranks sixth nationwide in installed wind power generating capacity.126,127 The state's use of wind power was almost five times greater in 2023 than it was in 2010.128 In December 2023, one new wind power project, the Bronco Plains Wind Energy Center, added 200 megawatts of capacity, from 72 turbines.129

Colorado has substantial solar resources, especially in the south near the New Mexico border.130 In 2023, Colorado ranked 11th among the states in utility-scale solar power-generating capacity with 1,294 megawatts installed. An additional 1,722 megawatts of solar power capacity scheduled to be operating by the end of 2024.131,132 Small-scale, customer-sited solar power generating systems (less than 1 megawatt in capacity) continue to grow and accounted for slightly more than two-fifths of the state's total solar generation in 2023.133,134 Colorado offers rebates and tax incentives to encourage homeowners and businesses to install solar panels, including community solar gardens, which are collections of solar panels shared by several residences.135,136,137 The Bureau of Land Management established the Solar Energy Program for six southwestern states. Four areas in Colorado were identified as Solar Energy Zones (SEZ) that are well suited for utility-scale solar development.138,139

Colorado has 69 mostly small hydroelectric generators, ranging in size from 500 kilowatts to 180 megawatts, with a total installed capacity of 1,183 megawatts.140 According to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the state has the potential to develop more than 30 new small hydropower projects using existing infrastructure.141 Colorado negotiated an agreement with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to streamline the licensing process for small hydropower facilities.142 The Colorado Energy Office created the Energy Recovery Hydropower Initiative and a small hydropower grant and loan financing program to assist potential developers.143

Colorado's only utility-scale woody biomass plant came online in 2013 and burns waste gathered from surrounding forests.144 The state also provides tax breaks to promote biomass generation from anaerobic digestion, which burns the biogas produced from livestock manure or food waste to generate electricity.145,146,147,148

Colorado has a number of hot springs, and studies indicate that the state has significant geothermal energy potential.149 Colorado's Governor in 2024 approved $7.7 million in grant money to support private geothermal development.150 This effort follows two bills signed into law in 2022 to foster geothermal technologies.151,152 Some federal lands in the state have been leased for geothermal projects.153 The state's geothermal resources are mainly used for heating or cooling homes, businesses, recreational pools, and Colorado's state capitol building in Denver. Currently, there are no utility-scale projects that generate electricity with geothermal energy.154,155,156

In 2004, Colorado became the first state with a voter-approved renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The legislature amended the RPS several times, and the RPS now requires 30% of electricity sold by investor-owned utilities to be generated from renewable energy sources, with 3% from small-scale distributed generation. Separate requirements apply to municipal and cooperative electricity suppliers, depending on their size.157 Xcel Energy and Black Hills Energy, the state's two largest investor-owned utilities, met this 30% requirement.158,159 In January 2021, Colorado released its Greenhouse Gas Pollution Reduction Roadmap detailing how the state plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% from 2005 levels by 2025, 50% by 2030, and 90% by 2050.160

Endnotes

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5 Colorado Geological Survey, Non-renewable Energy, accessed May 14, 2024.
6 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System (SEDS): 1960-2021, Table P5B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Renewable and Total Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2021.
7 Colorado Tourism, Colorado Travel Fact, accessed May 20, 2024.
8 U.S. Geological Survey, Region 7: Upper Colorado Basin, May 20, 2024.
9 Colorado Tourism Office, Colorado Mountains: 6 Famous Peaks, updated May 24, 2024.
10 U.S. Census, 2020 Census: Colorado Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
11 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate at a Glance, Statewide, accessed May 20, 2024.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25004, ACS 2022 1-year.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25002, ACS 2022 1-year.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2021.
15 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS (1997-forward), Colorado, All statistics in table, 2022, updated December 31, 2023.
16 Military Onesource, Colorado Military Bases & Installations, accessed May 17, 2024.
17 U.S. Department of Defense, Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration Program, State Fact Sheets - Colorado, accessed May 20, 2024.
18 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2021.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2018-23.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2022 (April 29, 2024), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2022.
22 U.S. EIA, Colorado Field Production of Crude Oil Annual Thousand Barrels, 1981-2023.
23 U.S. EIA, "Hydraulically fractured horizontal wells account for most of new oil and gas well," Today in Energy (January 30, 2018).
24 U.S. EIA, Colorado Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2023.
25 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Niobrara Region, May 2024.
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28 "Information on the Niobrara-DJ Basin," Natural Gas Intelligence Shale Daily, accessed May 24, 2024.
29 Weld County Colorado, Weld County Oil and Gas, April 3, 2023.
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34 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Kerogen, accessed May 24, 2024.
35 U.S. Department of Energy, Oil Shale Research in the United States, 3rd Edition, September 2011.
36 Colson, John, "Shell shuts down oil shale pilot project near Rifle," Post Independent (September 26, 2013).
37 Peixe, Joao, "ExxonMobil Takes Step Forward on Colorado Oil Shale," OilPrice.com (March 28, 2014).
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39 Booth, Michael, “Suncor gets new permit, new orders on air pollution,” The Colorado Sun (May 31, 2024).
40 Suncor Energy Inc., Refining, accessed May 24, 2024.
41 U.S. EIA, "EIA's liquids pipeline database provides detail on U.S. petroleum infrastructure changes," Today in Energy (June 11, 2020).
42 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2022.
43 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2023), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PADD District and State as of January 1, 2023.
44 U.S. Department of Energy, State and Regional Energy Risk Profiles, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile (March 2021), p. 6-7.
45 Magellan Midstream Partners LP, Asset Map, see Refined Products Assets, Product Availability Refined Pipeline, accessed May 24, 2024.
46 Colorado Department of Transportation, Colorado by Rail, 2019, p. 39, 65.
47 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online, see Flowlines, accessed May 24, 2024.
48 Colorado Information Marketplace, Crude Oil Rail Terminals in Colorado 2014, accessed May 23, 2024.
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2022.
50 Colorado Secretary of State, Code of Colorado Regulations, Regulation Number 13 Reduction of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Gasoline Powered Motor Vehicles Through the use of Oxygenated Gasolines, 5 CCR 1001-16, accessed May 21, 2024.
51 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, as of January 2018.
52 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, see Gasoline Programs: Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) and Gasoline Winter Oxygenates, accessed May 21, 2024.
53 Renewable Fuels Association, Ethanol Biorefinery Locations, accessed May 21, 2024.
54 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 7, 2023), Detailed annual production capacity is available in XLSX.
55 Colorado General Assembly, Ozone Mitigation Measures, and Oil & Gas Production Fees, accessed May 10, 2024.
56 Woodruff, Chase, “Colorado Senate passes oil and gas compromise package,” Colorado Newsline (May 4, 2024).
57 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2022 (April 29, 2024), Table 8, Natural gas, wet after lease separation, proved reserves, reserves changes, by states and areas 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2018-23.
59 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2023.
60 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
61 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online (Interactive Map), accessed May 24, 2024.
62 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, COGCC Data, Monthly Coalbed & Natural Gas Sold by County, 2011-23.
63 U.S. EIA, "Colorado changes its regulatory structure for oil and natural gas production," Today in Energy (June 27, 2019).
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