California State Energy Profile



California Quick Facts

  • California was the seventh-largest producer of crude oil among the 50 states in 2019, and, as of January 2020, it ranked third in oil refining capacity. Foreign suppliers, led by Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Ecuador, and Colombia, provided more than half of the crude oil refined in California in 2019.
  • California is the largest consumer of both jet fuel and motor gasoline among the 50 states and accounted for 17% of the nation’s jet fuel consumption and 11% of motor gasoline consumption in 2019. The state is the second-largest consumer of all petroleum products combined, accounting for 10% of the U.S. total.
  • In 2018, California's energy consumption was second-highest among the states, but its per capita energy consumption was the fourth-lowest due in part to its mild climate and its energy efficiency programs.
  • In 2019, California was the nation’s top producer of electricity from solar, geothermal, and biomass energy, and the state was second in the nation in conventional hydroelectric power generation.
  • In 2019, California was the fourth-largest electricity producer in the nation, but the state was also the nation’s largest importer of electricity and received about 28% of its electricity supply from generating facilities outside of California, including imports from Mexico.

Last Updated: February 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography California Share of U.S. Period
Population 39.4 million 11.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 19.0 million 11.9% Feb-21  
Economy California U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 3,137.5 billion 1 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 322,383 million 1 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 71,480 6 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 340,836 million miles 1 2019  
Land in Farms 24.5 million acres 16 2017  
Climate California U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 60.5 degrees Fahrenheit 12 2020  
Precipitation 12.1 inches 43 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum California U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 52.85 /barrel $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas California U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate NA $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 15.79 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal California U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity California U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 21.43 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 16.54 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 13.00 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves California Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 2,213 million barrels 5.0% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 1,280 billion cu ft 0.3% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 66 million barrels 0.3% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells California Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 3,450 wells 0.7% 2019 find more
Capacity California Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 1,909,171 barrels/calendar day 10.1% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 78,108 MW 7.0% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production California Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 2,408 trillion Btu 2.5% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 364 thousand barrels per day 3.3% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 196,823 million cu ft 0.5% 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation California Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 13,554 thousand MWh 3.9% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) California U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 52.4 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 0.1 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 9.5 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 37.1 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks California Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 302 thousand barrels 1.8% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 6,575 thousand barrels 5.1% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 460,947 million cu ft 6.6% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 195 thousand barrels 0.8% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations California Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 7,488 stations 6.6% 2018  
Propane 230 stations 8.5% 2021  
Electricity 12,527 stations 30.8% 2021  
E85 183 stations 4.9% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 233 stations 18.5% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary California U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 7,967 trillion Btu 2 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 202 million Btu 48 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 138,992 million 2 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,522 38 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector California Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 1,439 trillion Btu 6.7% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 1,509 trillion Btu 8.2% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 1,848 trillion Btu 5.6% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 3,170 trillion Btu 11.1% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 22,860 million 8.6% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 23,168 million 12.0% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 15,174 million 7.1% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 77,790 million 13.0% 2018 find more
by Source California Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 681 million barrels 9.1% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 2,144 billion cu ft 6.9% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 84,770 million 11.4% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 15,612 million 10.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 105 million 0.4% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation California Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 6 thousand barrels 0.4% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 49,765 million cu ft 5.6% Jan-21 find more
Coal 4 thousand short tons * Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) California U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 64.4 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.2 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 26.6 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 3.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 5.6 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity California Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 33,681 MW 12.8% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 230 million gal/year 1.3% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production California Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 715 thousand MWh 2.7% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 3,810 thousand MWh 10.1% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 502 thousand MWh 10.3% Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 1,102 thousand MWh 40.1% Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 5,254 thousand barrels 1.4% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption California U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 14.0 % 17 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 37,856 thousand barrels 1 2019  
Total Emissions California Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 359.0 million metric tons 6.9% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions California Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 40,874 thousand metric tons 2.4% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 63 thousand metric tons 4.7% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: February 18, 2021

Overview

California is the most populous state in the nation, has the largest economy, and is second only to Texas in total energy consumption.1,2,3 California also has the world's fifth-largest economy and leads the nation in both agricultural and manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP).4 Despite California's many energy-intensive industries, the state has one of the lowest per capita energy consumption levels in the United States.5,6,7,8 California's extensive efforts to increase energy efficiency and implement alternative technologies have slowed growth in energy demand.9 The state is also rich in energy resources. California is among the nation's top producers of conventional hydroelectric power and is second only to Texas in nonhydroelectric renewable-sourced electricity generation.10 In addition, California has an abundant supply of crude oil and accounts for one-tenth of the U.S. crude oil refining capacity.11,12

Per capita residential energy use in California is lower than that of any state except Hawaii.

The third-largest state by land area, California stretches two-thirds of the way up the U.S. West Coast, and, at its greatest distances, it is more than 1,000 miles long and 500 miles wide.13 With such great distances to travel, transportation accounts for the largest share of the state's energy consumption.14 More motor vehicles are registered and more vehicle miles are traveled in California than in any other state, and travel to work times are among the nation's longest.15,16,17 California also consumes one-sixth of the jet fuel used in the nation.18 Overall, the transportation sector accounts for two-fifths of California's end-use energy consumption. The industrial sector is the second-largest energy consumer in California and uses almost one-fourth of the state's energy. The commercial sector and the residential sector account for roughly equal amounts of the state's end-use energy consumption at slightly less than one-fifth each.19 However, per capita energy use in both the residential sector and commercial sector is lower than that of any state except Hawaii.20 Although the state has a varied climate, most of California's more densely populated areas are dry and relatively mild for much of the year.21,22 Less than half of state households use air conditioning, and about one in seven do not use space heating.23

Electricity

California is the fourth-largest electricity producer in the nation and accounted for about 5% of U.S. utility-scale (1-megawatt and larger) electricity net generation in 2019.24 Renewable resources, including hydropower and small-scale (less than 1-megawatt), customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, supplied more than half of California's in-state electricity generation, and natural gas-fired power plants provided two-fifths. Nuclear power's share of state generation was less than one-tenth, down from nearly one-fifth in 2011. The decrease resulted from the retirement of the San Onofre nuclear power plant in mid-2013, which left the state with only one operating commercial nuclear power plant—the two-reactor Diablo Canyon facility.25,26,27

California has the nation's second-largest conventional hydroelectric generating capacity after the state of Washington.28 In 2019, the state was the second-largest producer of hydroelectric power, and it is consistently among the nation's top four hydropower producers.29 However, hydropower's contribution is highly variable. In 2015, because of prolonged drought, hydropower supplied only about 7% of California's utility-scale net generation. Hydropower's share has rebounded with increased precipitation, and, in 2019, it provided 19% of the state's electricity net generation.30,31 Fluctuations in California's hydroelectric generation and the reduction in the state's nuclear capacity and generation have been partially offset by nonhydroelectric renewable generation. Solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass energy provided about three-tenths of the state's net generation from utility-scale facilities in 2019.32 There is only a small amount of coal-fired generation in California, and it is all from industrial cogeneration units. In 2019, about 0.1% of California's net generation was fueled by coal.33,34

Almost three-tenths of California’s electricity comes from outside the state.

In 2019, California was the nation's largest net importer of electricity from out of state and received about 28% of its electricity supply from generating facilities outside the state.35,36 More than seven-tenths of the power delivered to California from states in the Pacific Northwest was from renewable energy sources, including large federal hydroelectric facilities. The Southwest, including energy imports from Arizona, Baja California, Colorado, Mexico, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah, delivered power generated from renewables, natural gas, nuclear energy, coal, or other, unspecified, resources. Slightly more than one-fourth of the southwestern power came from renewable sources. About 10% of California's total electricity imports are from coal-fired power plants, but coal's total contribution to the state's electricity supply from imports and in-state generation in 2019 was less than 3%.37 Electricity supplied from out-of-state coal-fired power plants decreased following the enactment of a state law in 2006 that requires California utilities to limit new long-term financial investments in baseload generation to power plants that meet California emissions performance standards. Essentially all of California's imports of coal-fired generation are projected to end by 2026.38

California has the second-highest electricity retail sales in the nation, after Texas, but it has the lowest retail sales per capita.39 The state also has the nation's seventh-highest average price of electricity. The commercial sector accounts for almost half of California's electricity retail sales. The residential sector, where more than one-fourth of California households use electricity for home heating, accounts for more than one-third of sales.40 Almost all the rest of the state's electricity retail sales are to the industrial sector. A very small amount goes to the transportation sector.41 California provides incentives to increase the use of zero-emission vehicles. By the end of 2019, California drivers owned almost 600,000 electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.42 In 2020, about one-fourth of the nation's public access electric vehicle charging stations, and almost one-third of the charging outlets were in California.43

Renewable energy

California is the nation’s top producer of electricity from solar, geothermal, and biomass energy.

In 2019, California's in-state electricity net generation from all renewable resources combined, including generation from hydroelectric power and from small-scale, customer-sited solar generation, was greater than that of any other state. California is the nation's top producer of electricity from solar, geothermal, and biomass energy. In 2019, the state was also the nation's second-largest producer of electricity from conventional hydroelectric power and the fifth-largest from wind energy.44

California's greatest solar resource is in the state's southeastern deserts, where all of its solar thermal facilities and largest solar PV plants are located. However, solar PV facilities are located throughout the state.45 In 2014, California became the first state in the nation to generate more than 5% of its utility-scale electricity from solar energy, and, by 2019, solar supplied 14% of the state's utility-scale electricity net generation.46 When small-scale solar generation is added, solar energy provided one-fifth of the state's total net generation. In 2019, California produced two-fifths of the total solar PV electricity generation and seven-tenths of the utility-scale solar thermal electricity generation in the nation.47 By November 2020, California had about 13,000 megawatts of utility-scale solar power capacity, more than any other state, and, when small-scale, customer-sited facilities are included, the state had almost 24,000 megawatts of solar capacity.48

California is the top producer of electricity from geothermal resources with almost three-fourths of the nation's geothermal electricity generation. Geothermal power accounts for almost 6% of the state's utility-scale generation. The state's operating geothermal power plants have a combined total capacity of more than 1,800 megawatts.49,50 Four areas of California have substantial geothermal resources—the coastal mountain ranges north of San Francisco, volcanic areas of north-central California, areas near the Salton Sea in southern California, and areas along the state's eastern border with Nevada. The Geysers, located in the Mayacamas Mountains north of San Francisco, is the largest complex of geothermal power plants in the world and has about 725 megawatts of installed capacity.51,52

California also led the nation in utility-scale electricity generation from biomass in 2019. Biomass fueled about 3% of the state's net generation that year.53 Nearly three-fifths of the state's utility-scale biomass generating capacity is at 30 power plants fueled by wood and wood waste. Landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and other biomass fuel almost 80 more power plants.54 California also has two wood pellet manufacturing facilities. Those plants can produce nearly 140,000 tons of pellets per year. Wood pellets are primarily used for heating, but can also be used for electricity generation.55,56 More than 180,000 California households use wood as their primary heating fuel.57

Wind supplied 7% of California's in-state electricity net generation in 2019. The state routinely produces 5% or more of the total electricity generated at U.S. utility-scale wind farms.58 In 2019, California ranked fifth in the nation behind Texas, Oklahoma, Iowa, and Kansas in wind-powered generation.59 California's wind power potential is scattered along the state's many mountain crests, as well as in onshore and offshore coastal areas, particularly in northern California.60 The majority of the state's wind turbines are in six major wind resource areas: Altamont, East San Diego County, Pacheco, Solano, San Gorgonio, and Tehachapi.61 By November 2020, California had more than 6,000 megawatts of installed wind capacity.62

Environmental concerns have led to several state policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. California enacted the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which called for a reduction of the state's GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, 40% below the 1990 levels by 2030, and 80% below 1990 levels by 2050.63 California exceeded the 2020 goal.64 To minimize the costs of air pollution controls, the state created a system for trading emissions allowances. Known as cap-and-trade, the system set statewide limits on the industries responsible for about 85% of California's GHG emissions.65 California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) calls for a reduction in the carbon intensity of the state's transportation fuels. The standard requires the use of fossil fuel substitutes that demonstrate lower lifecycle GHG emissions than the fuels they replace. The state identifies a number of alternative processes that reduce the levels of GHG emissions in the production of ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable diesel.66 There are five ethanol production plants in the state. However, California consumes one-ninth of the nation's fuel ethanol supply, which is more than seven times the amount of ethanol the state produces.67,68,69 Midwestern states provide most of the ethanol sent to California from outside the state.70 Additionally, California has the capacity to produce a combined total of 80 million gallons of biodiesel annually from 8 production plants, but that is less than half the amount of biodiesel consumed in the state each year.71,72 California accounts for almost all of the renewable diesel consumed in the United States, largely because of the LCFS economic incentives.73

California's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was enacted in 2002 and was revised several times since then. It requires that 33% of electricity retail sales in California come from eligible renewable resources by 2020, 60% by 2030, and 100% by 2045.74 In 2019, an estimated 36% of the state's electricity retail sales were generated from qualifying renewables.75 The state requires that electricity retail suppliers disclose the fuel sources used to generate the power they supply as well as the GHG emissions intensity of those sources.76 In addition to the RPS, California created an energy-efficiency resource standard. California includes cost-effective energy-efficiency as a resource that can be used to meet the state's clean energy targets. The standard's goal is to lower electricity and natural gas consumption through increased energy efficiency and reduced demand. Targets were set for each of the state's three large investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities.77

Petroleum

California is the largest consumer of motor gasoline and jet fuel in the nation.

California has the fifth-largest share of crude oil reserves among the states and is the seventh-largest crude oil producer.78,79 Reservoirs along California's Pacific Coast, including in the Los Angeles basin, as well as those in the state's Central Valley contain major crude oil reserves. The most prolific oil-producing area in the state is the San Joaquin basin in the southern half of California's Central Valley.80,81 Several of the nation's largest oil fields, as ranked by reserves, are located there.82 Overall, California's crude oil production has declined steadily since 1985, but the state remains one of the nation's top crude oil producers and accounted for about 4% of U.S. production in 2019.83,84

Assessments of California's offshore areas indicate the potential for large, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources in the federally administered Outer Continental Shelf (OCS).85 Concerns about the risks of offshore oil and natural gas development after the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill resulted in state legislation that imposed a permanent moratorium on offshore oil and natural gas leasing in state waters.86 Congress imposed a federal moratorium on oil and natural gas leasing in California federal waters in 1982. The federal moratorium expired in 2008.87 However, no offshore California federal lease sales have occurred since then and President Biden signed an executive order in January 2021 that suspends new oil and natural gas leasing on federal public lands and offshore waters.88,89

California ranks third in petroleum refining capacity, after Texas and Louisiana, and accounts for one-tenth of the nation's total.90 A network of crude oil pipelines connects California's oil production to the state's refining centers, which are located primarily in the Los Angeles area, the San Francisco Bay area, and the San Joaquin Valley.91 California refiners also process large volumes of foreign and Alaskan crude oil. As crude oil production in California and Alaska has declined, California refineries have become increasingly dependent on imports from other countries to meet the state's needs.92,93 Led by Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Ecuador, and Colombia, foreign suppliers provided more than half of the crude oil refined in California in 2019.94,95

To meet state environmental regulations, California refineries are configured to produce cleaner fuels. Refineries in the state often operate at or near maximum capacity because of the high demand for those petroleum products and the lack of interstate pipelines that can deliver them into the state.96 California requires that all motorists use, at a minimum, a specific blend of motor gasoline called CaRFG (California Reformulated Gasoline) as part of an overall program to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.97 When unplanned refinery outages occur, the lack of CaRFG deliveries available by interstate pipelines means replacement supplies must be brought in by marine tanker from refineries in the state of Washington or on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Refineries in several other countries can also supply CaRFG. Locating and transporting replacement motor gasoline from overseas that conforms to California's unique specifications can take several weeks.98

California is the second-largest consumer of petroleum products, after Texas, and accounts for 10% of the nation's total consumption. The state is the largest U.S. consumer of motor gasoline and jet fuel, and 85% of the petroleum consumed in California is used in the transportation sector.99,100,101,102 The industrial sector, the second-largest petroleum-consuming sector, uses 12% of the petroleum consumed in the state. The commercial sector accounts for more than 2%, and the residential sector consumes less than 1%.103 Fewer than 1 in 25 California households heat with petroleum products; most of those use hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL) such as propane.104

Natural gas

California accounts for less than 1% of total U.S. natural gas reserves and production.105,106 As with crude oil, California's natural gas production has experienced a gradual decline since 1985.107 The state's reserves and production are located primarily in geologic basins in the northern Central Valley. Some natural gas fields are also located in the southern Central Valley, in coastal areas in northern California, and offshore along the southern California coast.108 California's natural gas output was less than one-tenth of state demand in 2019.109,110 Several interstate natural gas pipelines enter the state from Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon and bring natural gas into California from the Southwest, the Rocky Mountain region, and western Canada.111 Some natural gas is exported to Mexico, and a much smaller amount is received from there. Almost all the natural gas delivered to California is used in the state.112

California has 14 natural gas storage reservoirs in 12 storage fields.113 Together those fields have a natural gas storage capacity of about 600 billion cubic feet.114 Between October 2015 and February 2016, a natural gas leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility in Los Angeles County released about 6 billion cubic feet of methane into the atmosphere.115 As a result of the incident, the state created new safety regulations for natural gas storage facilities.116

California's natural gas total end-use consumption is second only to Texas among the states.117 In 2019, about 37% of the natural gas delivered to consumers went to the state's industrial sector, and about 28% was delivered to the electric power sector. Natural gas fueled more than two-fifths of the state's utility-scale electricity generation in 2019.118 The residential sector, where two-thirds of California households use natural gas for home heating, accounted for 22% of natural gas deliveries. The commercial sector received 12% of the deliveries to end users and the transportation sector consumed the remaining 1%.119,120

Coal

California does not have any coal reserves or production and has phased out almost all coal-fired electricity generation.121,122 In 2019, coal fueled about 0.1% of the in-state utility-scale net generation, and all of that power was generated at industrial facilities.123 Most of the coal consumed in California arrives by rail from mines in Utah and Colorado.124 Coal produced in other states is shipped through California ports to other countries, including Japan, and more than three times as much coal leaves California than is consumed in the state annually.125,126

Energy on tribal lands

California has the largest Native American population in the nation and is home to more than 100 federally recognized tribal groups.127,128 Although tribal areas are spread throughout California, they account for less than 1% of the state's land area.129,130 Many of the tribal lands are small, including the nation's smallest reservation, the 1.32-acre Pit River Tribe cemetery.131 The largest is the 144-square mile Hoopa Valley Reservation in northern California's Humboldt County. More than three-fourths of that reservation's land is commercial timberland.132

California's diverse geography gives tribes access to a variety of renewable energy resources. In 2005, the Campo Kumeyaay Nation in southern California leased some of its land for the development of a utility-scale wind project, one of the first in the nation on tribal land.133 In 2018, the tribe entered a partnership to develop a second large-scale wind farm on their tribal lands.134 The Ramona Band of Cahuilla is one of the first tribes to make its reservation independent of the regional electric grid. They established a microgrid for an eco-tourism project and met the project's energy needs with renewable resources.135 In 2015, the Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria in Northern California became the first California tribe to install a hybrid solar, wind, and advanced energy storage microgrid for power generation.136

Some California reservations have abundant biomass potential. The Blue Lake Rancheria Tribe in Humboldt County uses wood waste from timber harvesting to fuel a first-of-its-kind biogas fuel-cell system.137 In 2016, members of the Blue Lake Rancheria installed a 500-kilowatt solar array as part of their microgrid.138,139 In 2019, the Rancheria extended use of the microgrid to the broader community, about 10,000 people, or 10% of the county's population, during the widespread wildfire-related utility power shutoffs in northwest Humboldt County. Although county residents had no power, the Rancheria did because of its microgrid.140 In addition to the tribes that have abundant solar, wind, and biomass resources, some California tribal lands have geothermal electricity generation potential, particularly in the Imperial Valley in southern California, the Geysers area in northern California, and along the state's eastern border.141

The California Energy Commission awarded a total of $2 million in grants to 10 Native American tribes in early 2021. The grants support tribally led climate and energy planning efforts on tribal lands and in tribal communities, including studies related to the development of renewable resources, microgrids, and energy storage systems.142 Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded grants for more than 30 tribal projects in California.143 In 2018, three tribes received grants for the installation of rooftop solar panels on single-family homes, installation of solar PV at a tribally owned fish hatchery, and installation of a hybrid solar PV-battery storage-liquid propane microgrid system.144 In 2019, three more California tribes received funding from the DOE for tribal energy projects—one to expand an electrical distribution and battery storage system, another to integrate solar PV with diesel-fueled generation in a microgrid, and a third to install a parking lot canopy solar PV system.145 And, in 2020, two California tribes received funding, one for the installation of rooftop solar on owner-occupied, single-family homes of low-income families and the second for installation of a microgrid to integrate new solar PV capacity with new battery storage capacity and existing diesel-fueled standby generation.146

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. and World Population Clock, Most Populous States, 2019.
2 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All industry total, All Areas, 2019.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
4 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Agriculture and Manufacturing, All Areas, 2019.
5 "Just How Big Is California's Economy?," Techwire (January 30, 2020).
6 U.S. EIA, Use of Energy Explained, Energy Use in Industry, updated July 28, 2020.
7 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All statistics in table, California, 2019.
8 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2018.
9 California Energy Commission, Tracking Progress, Energy Efficiency, updated September 2018.
10 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
11 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, as of December 31, 2018.
12 U.S.EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD), as of January 1, 2020.
13 NETSTATE, California, The Geography of California, updated February 25, 2016.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
15 Statista, Motor vehicle registrations in the U.S. in 2019, by State, accessed January 4, 2021.
16 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, National Highway System Travel 2018, Annual Vehicle-Miles by Functional System, Table HM-44 (August 30, 2019).
17 Index Mundi, United States, Average Commute Time by State, Mean travel time to work (minutes), workers age 16 years+, 2014-18.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F1, Jet fuel consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
21 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: California Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
22 NETSTATE, Geography of California, Climate, updated February 25, 2016.
23 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Tables HC6.11, HC7.11, and 2015 RECS Survey Data, Tables HC6.8, HC7.8.
24 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, California net generation for all sectors, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-19.
26 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Plans for Decommissioning of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Units 2 and 3, updated July 8, 2016.
27 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, California, updated March 19, 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 6.2.B.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, California, New York, Oregon, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-19.
30 U.S. EIA, "Current drought reduces hydro generation forecast for California," Today in Energy (February 6, 2014).
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