American Samoa Territory Energy Profile



American Samoa Quick Facts

  • American Samoa uses imported fossil fuels for almost all of the territory's energy needs, including transportation, drinking and waste water treatment, and most of its electric power generation.
  • Electricity prices in American Samoa vary with world petroleum prices; in mid-2018, residential electricity prices were more than 2.5 times the U.S. average, comparable to Hawaii's rates.
  • In 2016, the island of Ta'u in the Manu'a Island group converted to 100% solar PV electricity generation, and in 2017, the entire Manu'a island group generated 90% of its electricity from solar energy.
  • American Samoa has adopted a goal to obtain 50% of its energy from renewable energy resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040, and expects to replace diesel fuel primarily with solar energy.
  • Two-fifths of the American Samoan population does not have electricity, and per capita electricity consumption in the territory is about one-third of that in the 50 U.S. states.

Last Updated: October 18, 2018



Data

Last Update: October 18, 2018 | Next Update: November 15, 2018

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry American Samoa United States Period
Population 0.1 million 325.7 million 2017  
Gross Domestic Product $ 1 billion $ 18,121 billion 2015  
Prices  
Electricity American Samoa United States Period
Residential NA 13.12 cents/kWh Jul-18  
Commercial NA 10.98 cents/kWh Jul-18  
Industrial NA 7.34 cents/kWh Jul-18  
Reserves  
Reserves American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels NA 2018  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 322 trillion cu ft 2017  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 254,896 million short tons 2015  
Capacity American Samoa United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,064 million kW 2015  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports American Samoa United States Period
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,718 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 11,318 thousand short tons 2015  
Total Exports American Samoa United States Period
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 1,784 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 73,958 thousand short tons 2015  
Supply  
Production American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy 0 trillion Btu 84 trillion Btu 2015  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 14,461 thousand barrels/day 2017  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 896,941 thousand short tons 2015  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation American Samoa United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation * 4,092 billion kWh 2015  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation * 2,727 billion kWh 2015  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources 0 billion kWh 572 billion kWh 2015  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 249 billion kWh 2015  
    »  Other Renewables 0 billion kWh 323 billion kWh 2015  
Consumption  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy * 93 trillion Btu 2015  
Total Petroleum Products -- 19,687.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Motor Gasoline -- 9,317.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Distillate Fuel -- 3,877.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Liquefied Petroleum Gases -- 1,340.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Jet Fuel -- 1,614.0 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Kerosene -- 9 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Residual Fuel -- 326 thousand barrels/day 2016  
    »  Other Petroleum Products -- 3,204 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 27,244 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 798,115 thousand short tons 2015  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels * 5,269 million metric tons 2015  
Petroleum * 2,295 million metric tons 2015  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,488 million metric tons 2015  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,485 million metric tons 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 18, 2018

Overview

American Samoa depends on petroleum imports for almost all its energy needs.

American Samoa, the southernmost territory of the United States, is part of the Samoan Islands chain, which includes both American Samoa and the independent nation of Samoa.1,2 American Samoa's five islands are located about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand and lie at the northern end of the Tonga Trench, the second-deepest oceanic trench in the world.3,4,5 American Samoa lacks fossil energy resources and depends on imported petroleum products, primarily diesel fuel, to meet most of its energy needs. However, the territory does have solar, wind, and biomass resources.6,7 Volcanic activity in the region may give the island group geothermal resources, but assessments have not yet identified any commercial geothermal potential.8,9 A small but increasing amount of the islands' electricity generation comes from solar energy.10

America Samoa consists of the adjacent islands of Tutuila and Aunu'u; the Manu'a group of Ta'u, Ofu, and Olosega; and two coral atolls, Swains and Rose islands. The total land area—76 square miles—is slightly larger than that of Washington, DC.11,12 Following Polynesian tradition, nearly all land is communally owned by extended families.13 Most of American Samoa's population of about 54,000 people live on the largest island, Tutuila, where the deepwater port of Pago Pago is located.14,15 The climate is tropical marine, with little seasonal temperature variation. However, the islands experience occasional devastating tropical cyclones. A rainy season runs from November to April, but rain falls throughout the year, and some areas receive as much as 300 inches of rain annually.16,17

American Samoa's gross domestic product (GDP) on a per capita basis is about one-fifth that of the United States as a whole.18 The territory's largest private sector industry is tuna fishing and processing, and canned tuna is American Samoa's main export. The tuna industry shrank when one of two canneries shut down in 2009. Although that cannery reopened under a new owner in 2015, it closed again in late 2016.19 A new 10-year lease of the cannery facility was announced in 2018, but fish shortages cause intermittent cannery closures.20,21 Government is the territory's other major economic activity. Government agencies employ almost two-fifths of American Samoan workers.22,23 Agricultural products are not an export item but are grown for local consumption and include bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, dairy products, and livestock. American Samoa's potential for tourism is limited by its distance from major population centers and the lack of tourist accommodations.24,25,26 An earthquake and tsunami devastated the main island of Tutuila in 2009. The economy began recovering after the tsunami, aided in part by infusions of federal economic and disaster recovery assistance, but the recovery was slowed by the 2016 cannery closure.27,28,29,30

Petroleum

American Samoa does not produce or refine petroleum and is dependent on imported petroleum products.31,32 Fluctuations in world petroleum product prices are a major concern for the islands' economy.33 Petroleum products are imported in tankers, which unload at a terminal and tank farm adjacent to the main harbor at Pago Pago. The territory imports distillates, mainly low-sulfur diesel fuel, marine diesel fuel, jet fuel, and motor gasoline.34 Before the 2008 world oil price spike and the 2009 tsunami, American Samoans typically consumed about as much petroleum per capita as residents of the 50 U.S. states. Since 2011, the territory's per capita petroleum consumption has been consistently below U.S. average per capita petroleum consumption.35,36,37,38

Electricity

Electricity use per capita is much lower in American Samoa than in the 50 states, and two-fifths of the population does not have electricity.

Nearly all of American Samoa's electricity is supplied by generators burning diesel fuel. The American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA), a government corporation, owns and operates two generating plants on Tutuila. The two power plants are the Tafuna plant that serves the airport and residential and small commercial customers on the western side of the island and the Satala plant that is located near Pago Pago Harbor close to the tuna canneries and a government building.39 Two other small diesel-fired generating plants on the Manu'a island group are being replaced by solar power.40,41 ASPA also provides drinking water, solid waste removal, and wastewater treatment.42 Pumping, treating, distributing, and collecting water requires a significant share of ASPA's electricity.

The September 2009 earthquake and tsunami severely impacted generating capacity, destroying the Satala power plant and reducing the generating capacity on Tutuila by more than half.43 Leased generators burning ultra-low sulfur diesel temporarily replaced those destroyed in 2009, which had used high-sulfur diesel fuel.44 A 24.5-megawatt replacement at the Satala plant site, with ultra-low sulfur diesel-fueled generating units that are 25% more efficient than the old units, came online in the spring of 2017. The plant was built on higher ground to avoid floods and re-engineered to better resist earthquakes.45,46 Additional federal grants were awarded to help fund ASPA's Underground Mitigation Project, which will place transmission lines underground to protect them from high wind damage.47,48

Two-fifths of American Samoa's population does not have electricity, and per capita electricity consumption in the territory is about one-third of per capita consumption in the 50 U.S. states.49,50,51 The residential sector uses about three-tenths of all power generated on American Samoa. Small commercial users consume more than one-fourth of the electricity supply. The government consumes nearly one-fifth of the electricity generated on the islands. Large commercial customers consume about one-sixth, and the territory's utility and system losses account for the rest.52,53

Pacific island nations have some of the highest electricity costs in the world.54 Electricity costs in American Samoa fluctuate because the territory's fuel surcharge is linked to volatile oil prices.55 In mid-2018, despite world petroleum prices that were below their 2008 high and increased renewable generation, the monthly residential electricity rate in the territory was more than 2.5 times the average of the 50 states. Electricity prices in American Samoa are comparable to the prices in Hawaii.56,57,58

Renewable energy

American Samoa has a goal to meet 50% of its energy needs with renewable energy by 2025 and all of its energy needs with renewable resources by 2040.59 With American Samoa's high cost of electricity and geographic isolation, the government established the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) to work with federal experts to reduce the territory's reliance on fossil fuels by bringing sustainable renewable energy to the islands.60,61 The committee developed energy strategies to take advantage of the renewable resource potential on Tutuila and launched a project to supply the Manu'a island group, where electricity costs were double the rest of American Samoa, entirely with renewables.62,63 Subsequently, ASREC has considered ways to reduce petroleum use in land-based vehicles.64

American Samoa obtains increasing amounts of its electricity from solar power and has plans to substantially expand solar energy use.

In 2016, ASPA completed conversion from diesel-powered to solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation on the largest island in the Manu'a group, Ta'u, and replaced the use of about 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel per year. Ta'u has a hybrid solar and energy storage system that now supplies 100% of the island's electricity. The 1.4-megawatt solar array is coupled with a 6 megawatthour battery storage system.65,66 As of May 2017, the other two islands in the Manu'a group, Ofu and Olosega, fueled 80% of their electricity needs with solar energy from a 350-kilowatt solar PV array, batteries with 1,000 kilowatthours of storage, and three new fuel-efficient diesel generators.67 By 2017, the Manu'a island group received 90% of its electricity from renewable energy. The Manu'a group is expected to reach 100% renewable-sourced electricity in the near future when Ofu Island and Olosega Island completely convert to solar power.68

Solar systems supply about 2% of American Samoa's utility-generated electricity, and ASPA announced that a solar project on Tutuila will increase solar's share to one-fifth of the utility's power generation.69 The Tutuila solar project will have battery backup and will generate 30 million kilowatthours of power each year. It is anticipated that the Tutuila solar project will offset 2 million gallons of diesel fuel purchases annually.70 Currently, there are five active solar PV sites in American Samoa.71 By 2018, ASPA was connected to 5 megawatts of ground mounted solar PV generation and 900 kilowatts of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generation.72 Customer installations include arrays on rooftops of government and private buildings, and solar hot water heating. American Samoa is close to the equator, and has substantial potential to expand its use of solar energy.73,74

ASPA captures waste heat emitted by diesel generators at its Tafuna plant to produce additional electricity.75,76 In 2014, the utility signed an agreement to buy electricity generated at a waste-to-energy plant to be built at Tutuila's Futiga landfill, which could produce up to 10% of ASPA's electricity needs.77,78 Waste volumes at the landfill are near capacity, and ASPA recompacts trash to increase the landfill's capacity.79

An ASPA study identified some potential wind power sites around Tutuila.80 In 2018, ASPA solicited proposals for the installation of 30 to 35 megawatts of wind generating capacity.81 Challenges for wind energy development include tropical cyclones, acceptance by the community, and grid stability. American Samoa's communal land ownership structure makes long-term leasing for larger scale projects a potential hurdle for development.82 However, in 2018, legislation was introduced in the U.S. Congress that would amend federal law to authorize offshore wind development in all five U.S. territories. Under the legislation, the U.S. Interior Department's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management would conduct feasibility studies, gauge interest, and offer wind leases on promising offshore tracts.83 Also, preliminary studies of the island's geology indicated geothermal energy could provide a stable, economical baseload for the islands, but commercially viable geothermal project sites have not been found.84,85,86

American Samoa has encouraged distributed generation projects by adopting a net metering law in 2008. The law allows owners of small solar or wind facilities, installed primarily for the consumer's use, to receive credit for surplus power sent to the grid.87 To reduce demand and improve energy efficiency, the government offers residential weatherization assistance as well.88

Coal

American Samoa has no known coal reserves and does not produce or consume coal.89 Although coal is not consumed in American Samoa, the port of Pago Pago was a refueling site for trans-Pacific coal-fired shipping from 1899 until 1951.90

Natural gas

American Samoa has no known natural gas reserves and does not produce or consume natural gas.91

Endnotes

1 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015).
2 Wendt, Albert, Sophie Foster, and Peter Raymond Creevey, "American Samoa," Encylopaedia Britannica, updated September 3, 2018.
3 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 2.
4 Visser, Charles, "Geothermal Potential of American Samoa," American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (August 22, 2013).
5 Gammon, Katherine, "Dipping into the Deep: Mission Investigates Tonga Trench," Live Science (September 25, 2012).
6 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015).
7 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 2, 7, 11, 18.
8 Visser, Charles, "Geothermal Potential of American Samoa," American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (August 22, 2013).
9 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. i.
10 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015).
11 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3, 4.
12 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2018, American Samoa, Geography, accessed September 4, 2018.
13 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Land Ownership, accessed September 4, 2018.
14 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Geography, updated July 31, 2017.
15 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3.
16 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Geography and Economy, accessed September 4, 2018.
17 National Park Service, National Park of American Samoa, Plan Your Visit, Weather, updated July 1, 2015.
18 The World Bank, GDP per capita (current US$), U.S. and American Samoa, 2016.
19 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Economy, accessed September 4, 2018.
20 "Starkist to lease closed American Samoa cannery," Radio New Zealand (May 29, 2018).
21 "Fish supply shortage continued challenge for StarKist Samoa," Radio New Zealand (March 21, 2018).
22 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Economy, Industries, Labor Force & Employment, Tourism, accessed September 5, 2018.
23 Sagapolutele, Fili, "American Samoa's GDP plummeted in 2017—fewer jobs available," Samoa News (September 4, 2018).
24 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 4.
25 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Economy, accessed September 5, 2018.
26 "Lack of accommodation holding back American Samoa tourism," Radio New Zealand (August 23, 2018).
27 American Samoa Department of Human Resources, National Emergency Grant American Samoa, From Tsunami to Renewal, Recovery, accessed September 5, 2018.
28 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Gross Domestic Product for American Samoa Increases for the Second Year in a Row," Press Release (August 8, 2016).
29 American Samoa Department of Commerce, American Samoa's Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy, 2012 (August 6, 2012), p. 9-11.
30 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "American Samoa GDP Decreases in 2017," Press Release (August 24, 2018).
31 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 7.
32 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Energy, accessed September 5, 2018.
33 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 44.
34 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Fact Sheet: Pacific Energy South West Pacific Ltd., American Samoa Terminal, NPDES Permit No. AS0020028 (June 15, 2010)¬, p. 2, General Description of Facility.
35 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Petroleum, Total Consumption, American Samoa and United States, 2000-16, accessed September 6, 2018.
36 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, United States, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009.
38 Worldmeters, American Samoa Population, accessed September 6, 2018.
39 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals (RFP), Independent Power Producers for Wind Power Generation, RFP NO. ASPA18.064.PG (September 10, 2018), p. 10.
40 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 5, 7, 8.
41 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee, Manu'a Islands 100% Renewable Energy (May 24, 2017).
42 American Samoa Power Authority, About Us, accessed September 6, 2018.
43 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 12.
44 American Samoa Power Authority, Notice to the Public, Satala Power Plant TPGS Commissioning (June 2011).
45 Louis Berger, "Louis Berger Commences Power Plant Replacement Project in American Samoa," Press Release (September 17, 2014).
46 Sagapolutele, Fili, "New Satala power plant dedicated," Samoa News (May 26, 2017).
47 Congresswoman Amata Coleman Radewagen, "Aumua Announces Nearly $2.5 Million FEMA Grant for the Tafuna to Malaeimi Underground Powerline Project," Press Release (March 7, 2016).
48 "ASPA project takes powerlines underground in Tuala-uta," Talanei, South Seas Broadcasting (December 1, 2017).
49 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Total Electricity Net Consumption, American Samoa and United States, 2015.
50 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, People and Society, Population, accessed September 5, 2018.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, United States, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017.
52 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Energy, accessed September 5, 2018.
53 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative Islands, Energy Snapshot American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015).
54 Samoa News, Pacific News Briefs, "Pacific Power Assoc. Gathers for 26th Annual Conference" (August 2, 2017).
55 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 15.
56 Macrotrends, Crude Oil Prices, 70 Year Historical Chart, 10 year, accessed September 13, 2018.
57 American Samoa Power Authority, Billing Rates (June 2018).
58 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2018), Table 5.6.B.
59 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, OIA/NREL Territorial Energy Program, American Samoa Status Update, accessed September 16, 2018.
60 Haase, Scott, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (August 2013), p 1.
61 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. 4.
62 Haase, Scott, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (August 2013), p. 5-11.
63 Conrad, Misty Dawn, et al., American Samoa Energy Strategies (December 2013), p. 19.
64 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. 16-18.
65 Curtis, Henry, "Achieving 100% Renewable Energy One Island at a Time," Ililani Media (November 24, 2016).
66 Lambert, Fred, "Tesla deploys new microgrid projects with Powerpacks in Samoa to help the islands go fossil fuel-free," Electrek (July 25, 2018).
67 Sagapolutele, Fili, "Ofu and Olesega islands now powered 80% by solar energy," Samoa News (May 5, 2017).
68 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee, Manu'a Islands 100% Renewable Energy (May 24, 2017).
69 Sagapolutele, Fili, "ASPA explains electricity rate hike before joint budget hearing," Samoa News (August 31, 2018).
70 "Major alternative energy project for American Samoa," Radio New Zealand (August 13, 2018).
71 American Samoa Power Authority, Monthly Fuel Surcharge Notification (April 21, 2017).
72 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals (RFP), Independent Power Producers for Wind Power Generation, RFP NO. ASPA18.064.PG (September 10, 2018), p. 10.
73 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015).
74 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 48.
75 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015).
76 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 13.
77 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee and American Samoa Power Authority, Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan for American Samoa (July 2015), slide 16.
78 "ASPA moves forward with Waste-to-Energy project," Samoa News (November 3, 2014).
79 "American Samoa gets 'prettier' landfill," BBC News (February 7, 2018).
80 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee and American Samoa Power Authority, Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan for American Samoa (July 2015), slides 18, 19.
81 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals (RFP) Independent Power Producers for Wind Power Generation RFP NO. ASPA18.064.PG (September 10, 2018).
82 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 16, 27.
83 Offshore Wind for Territories Act, Extensions of Remarks, Congressional Record, Volume 164, Number 133 (Friday, August 10, 2018), p. E1137.
84 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee and American Samoa Power Authority, Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan for American Samoa (July 2015), slides 21-33.
85 Feagaimaalii-Luamanu, Joyetter, "ASPA Moving Forward with Renewable Energy on Several Fronts Says Lolo," Samoa News (January 22, 2015).
86 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee, Geothermal, accessed September 15, 2018.
87 American Samoa Power Authority, "ASPA Adopts Final Net Metering Policy," Press Release (April 15, 2008).
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, p. 3, accessed September 15, 2018.
89 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Coal Recoverable Reserves, American Samoa, Coal Reserves, Production, and Consumption, accessed September 6, 2018.
90 Fodor's Travel, American Samoa, U.S. Naval Station Historic District (May 10, 2017).
91 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Proved Reserves of Natural Gas, American Samoa, and Natural Gas, Consumption, American Samoa, 2007-15, accessed September 6, 2018.


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