American Samoa Territory Energy Profile



American Samoa Quick Facts

  • American Samoa uses imported fossil fuels for almost all of the territory's energy needs, including transportation, drinking and waste water treatment, and most (about 97% in 2020) of its electric power generation.
  • Electricity prices in American Samoa vary with world petroleum prices. In 2020, despite increased renewable generation and decreased petroleum prices, the territory's average electricity prices were about 3 times higher than the U.S. average.
  • In 2016, the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee adopted a goal to meet 50% of American Samoa's energy from renewable energy resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040, primarily with solar energy.
  • In 2020, per capita electricity consumption in American Samoa was about one-fourth that of the average for U.S. states.
  • In 2020, commercial users accounted for about  half of all power sales in American Samoa. The residential sector accounted for about one-third of sales, and the industrial sector, which only has four customers, accounted for about one-sixth.

Last Updated: January 20, 2022



Data

Last Update: June 16, 2022 | Next Update: July 21, 2022

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry American Samoa United States Period
Population 0.1 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 1 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity American Samoa United States Period
Residential NA 14.47 cents/kWh Mar-22  
Commercial NA 11.77 cents/kWh Mar-22  
Industrial NA 7.50 cents/kWh Mar-22  
Reserves  
Reserves American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 42 billion barrels 2019  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 465 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 252,057 million short tons 2019  
Capacity American Samoa United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,122 million kW 2019  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,768 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,551 billion cu ft 2020  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 5,137 thousand short tons 2020  
Total Exports American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 2,048 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 5,284 billion cu ft 2020  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 69,067 thousand short tons 2020  
Supply  
Production American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy 0 trillion Btu 101 trillion Btu 2019  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 535,434 thousand short tons 2020  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation American Samoa United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation * 4,049 billion kWh 2020  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation * 2,427 billion kWh 2020  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources 0 billion kWh 837 billion kWh 2020  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 285 billion kWh 2020  
    »  Other Renewables 0 billion kWh 552 billion kWh 2020  
Consumption  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy * 100 trillion Btu 2019  
Total Petroleum Products * 38 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Motor Gasoline * 17 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Distillate Fuel * 9 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Liquefied Refinery Gases 0 thousand barrels/day 2 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Jet Fuel * 4 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Kerosene 0 thousand barrels/day * 2019  
    »  Residual Fuel * 1 thousand barrels/day 2019  
    »  Other Petroleum Products * 6 thousand barrels/day 2019  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 30,482 billion cu ft 2020  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 477,395 thousand short tons 2020  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels * 5,144 million metric tons 2019  
Petroleum * 2,383 million metric tons 2019  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,686 million metric tons 2019  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,076 million metric tons 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: January 20, 2022

Overview

American Samoa depends on petroleum imports for almost all its energy needs.

American Samoa became a U.S. territory in 1900.1 It is part of the Samoan Islands chain in the Pacific Ocean, which includes both American Samoa and the independent nation of Samoa.2 The territory's five inhabited islands and two uninhabited coral atolls are closer to New Zealand than Hawaii.3 It is the southernmost U.S. possession and the nation's only territory in the southern hemisphere.4 American Samoa lies north of the Tonga Trench, the second-deepest oceanic trench in the world. Most of its islands are volcanic in origin and are rugged, mountainous, heavily forested, and surrounded by coral reefs.5,6 Although American Samoa lacks fossil energy resources, it has solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass resource potential. Some of the islands in the territory generate electricity from solar energy.7,8 However, the port at Pago Pago, one of the deepest natural harbors in the South Pacific, receives imported petroleum products that meet most of the territory's energy needs.9

American Samoa has a total land area of about 86 square miles—slightly larger than Washington, DC. The territory consists of the adjacent islands of Tutuila and Aunu'u; the Manu'a group of Ta'u, Ofu, and Olosega; and two coral atolls—Swains Island and Rose Atoll. The deepwater port of Pago Pago is on Tutuila, the largest island in the territory.10,11 Unlike the people of all other U.S. territories, the people of American Samoa are not American citizens at birth. They are U.S. nationals. However, like all citizens and nationals in U.S. territories, they cannot vote in federal elections, but they can vote in presidential primaries.12,13 About 98% of American Samoa's population of about 50,000 people live on Tutuila.14 Following Polynesian tradition, extended families communally own about 90% of America Samoa's land.15 The territory has a tropical marine climate with little seasonal variation in temperature.16 A rainy season runs from November to April, but rain falls throughout the year and averages about 125 inches annually, although some areas receive as much as 300 inches of rain. The islands also experience occasional devastating tropical cyclones.17,18

In 2020, American Samoa's gross domestic product (GDP) on a per capita basis was about one-fifth that of the United States.19 The territory's largest private sector industry is tuna fishing and processing, and canned tuna is American Samoa's main export. However, economic competition, fish shortages, and other factors threaten the territory's tuna industry.20,21,22 Government is the territory's other major economic activity. Government agencies employ more than one-third of the American Samoan labor force. Livestock and agricultural products are not export items but are grown for local consumption and include bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, and dairy products.23,24

Tropical hurricanes and other disasters have severely affected American Samoa and its economy. After the 2008 recession and a 2009 earthquake and tsunami, American Samoa's economy was aided, in part, by infusions of federal economic and disaster recovery assistance.25 Despite the impacts of tropical cyclone Gita in early 2018, American Samoa's GDP rose in that year, again in part because of the influx of aid and aid workers.26,27 The territory closed to international travel in March 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and American Samoa did not have its first official COVID-19 case until September 2021 when flights to American Samoa from Hawaii resumed.28 Because the territory's economy centers on tuna fishing and canning, planners made several suggestions to encourage economic diversification. Lack of affordable internet limited development, but a trans-Pacific fiber optic cable connected the territory to the United States, Australia, and New Zealand in 2018. It provides American Samoa with expanded internet access needed for further economic development.29,30

Petroleum

American Samoa does not produce or refine crude oil and depends on imported petroleum products.31 Refined petroleum products, primarily diesel fuel used for electricity generation and marine transportation, arrive in tankers that unload at a terminal and tank farm adjacent to the main harbor at Pago Pago. The territory also imports jet fuel, used at American Samoa's one international airport, and motor gasoline, used by the territory's more than 9,000 vehicles.32 Before the 2009 earthquake and tsunami, American Samoa typically consumed about 4,100 barrels of petroleum per day. In 2011, the territory's petroleum consumption fell to about 2,300 barrels per day and remained fairly constant, even though the population declined.33,34 The decrease in petroleum consumption is, in part, due to the installation of more efficient diesel generators after 2009 as well as increased use of renewable resources for electricity generation.35

Electricity

Because it is an isolated island group, American Samoa must produce all of the electricity it consumes. Diesel generators supply about 97% of American Samoa's electricity, almost all of it on the main island, Tutuila. The American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA), a government corporation, owns and operates two generating plants on Tutuila that have about 40 megawatts of diesel-fueled capacity.36,37 American Samoa also has about 5 megawatts of solar capacity.38 In 2018, Tutuila had 4.1 megawatts of solar photovoltaic ground-mounted capacity and 900 kilowatts of rooftop solar capacity.39 Other smaller islands in American Samoa use solar energy with some diesel fuel for generation.40 In addition to electricity, ASPA provides drinking water, solid waste removal, and wastewater treatment.41 Pumping, treating, distributing, and collecting water require a significant share of the electricity ASPA generates.42

Per capita electricity sales in American Samoa are about one-fourth that of the United States.

The September 2009 magnitude 8.1 earthquake and resulting tsunami killed 34 people in American Samoa and severely impacted generating capacity in the territory.43 Those events destroyed one power plant and reduced the generating capacity on Tutuila by more than half.44 Leased generators burning ultra-low sulfur diesel temporarily replaced those destroyed in 2009, which had used high-sulfur diesel fuel.45 Ultra-low sulfur diesel-fueled replacement generating units, which are 20% more efficient than the old units, came online in the spring of 2017. The plant was rebuilt on higher ground to avoid future floods and re-engineered to better resist earthquakes.46,47 The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided funds to build underground power lines, protecting them from high wind damage. There are a few buried power lines, but most remain overhead because of cost constraints.48,49

Per capita electricity sales to ultimate customers in American Samoa are about one-fourth that of the United States.50,51 Commercial users account for about half of all power sales in the territory. The residential sector accounts for about one-third of sales, and the industrial sector, which only has four customers, accounts for about one-sixth.52 Because of their geographic isolation, Pacific island nations have some of the highest electricity prices in the world.53 The average electricity price in American Samoa is much higher than any of the 50 states, including Hawaii, and, among the territories, only the U.S. Virgin Islands has a higher average price.54 Electricity prices in American Samoa are closely linked to world oil prices.55 In 2020, decreases in diesel fuel prices, in part because of decreased global demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, significantly reduced electricity prices in the territory. The fuel surcharge fell to about 16 cents per kilowatthour, but American Samoa's average electricity price was still about 3 times higher than the U.S. average.56 In 2021, the fuel surcharge rose to 25 cents per kilowatthour as world petroleum prices increased.57,58

Renewable energy

Solar energy, American Samoa’s only renewable electricity source, provides about 3% of the territory’s electricity.

Solar energy is American Samoa's only renewable electricity source. In 2020, solar power accounted for about 13% of American Samoa's electricity generating capacity and about 3% of its electricity generation.59 American Samoa is close to the equator and has substantial solar energy resources.60 In 2016, ASPA completed conversion from diesel-powered to solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation on the largest island in the Manu'a group, Ta'u. That conversion replaced the use of more than 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel per year. Ta'u has a hybrid solar and energy storage system that supplies 100% of the island's electricity.61 The 1.4-megawatt solar array's more than 5,000 panels couples with a 6-megawatthour battery storage system.62,63 In 2017, solar energy provided 80% of the electricity used on the other two islands in the Manu'a group, Ofu and Olosega, from a 350-kilowatt solar PV array with 1-megawatthour of battery storage. The islands also installed three new fuel-efficient diesel generators.64 A fire at the solar power plant in Ofu forced the islands back onto diesel power in 2019.65

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, ASPA entered agreements to install 20 megawatts of additional solar PV capacity and a 42-megawatt wind power project.66 Construction on both began in October 2019, but travel restrictions due to the global COVID-19 pandemic put those projects on hold. As of 2020, ASPA had seven active renewable energy sites and more in development.67

An ASPA study identified some potential wind power sites around Tutuila.68 However, challenges for wind energy development in American Samoa include tropical cyclones, community acceptance, and grid stability. American Samoa's communal land ownership structure poses potential hurdles for development of larger projects.69 Although the island group may have geothermal resources related to its volcanic origins, 2016 assessments did not identify any commercial geothermal potential for electricity generation.70

In 2018, ASPA issued a request for bids to build a waste-to-energy plant at Tutuila's Futiga landfill. The plant would cut waste in the landfill and provide electricity.71 Waste volumes at the landfill are near capacity even though a recent ASPA project that recompacted trash increased the landfill's capacity and extended the life of the landfill for up to 15 years.72 Captured waste heat emitted by diesel generators at ASPA's Tafuna plant on Tutuila also produces electricity.73

American Samoa encourages customer-sited, small-scale generation projects through net metering. The law, adopted in 2008, allows owners of small solar or wind facilities, installed primarily for the consumer's use, to receive credit for surplus power sent to the grid.74 To reduce energy demand and improve energy efficiency, the government offers residential weatherization assistance as well.75

In 2010, the Territory established the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) to coordinate efforts with federal experts. Its mission is to reduce the territory's reliance on petroleum, increase energy efficiency, and increase renewable energy use on the islands. In 2016, ASREC adopted a goal to meet 50% of American Samoa's energy needs from renewable resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040.76 ASREC developed strategies to assess and use American Samoa's renewable resources and considered ways to reduce petroleum use in land-based vehicles. 77,78,79

Coal

American Samoa has no known coal reserves and does not produce or consume coal.80

Natural gas

American Samoa has no known natural gas reserves and does not produce or consume natural gas.81

Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Political Status, accessed December 10, 2021.
2 "Samoan Islands," The Library of Congress (September 2009).
3 Creevey, Peter Raymond, "American Samoa," Britannica, updated December 13, 2021.
4 Pacific Basin Development Council, 2019 U.S. Pacific Islands Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and State of Hawaii) (August 30, 2019), p. 9.
5 FreeWorldMaps.net, Tonga Trench Map, accessed December 14, 2021.
6 "Samoan Islands," The Library of Congress (September 2009).
7 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 2, 3.
8 Byrne, Kevin, "Solar energy powers an entire island in American Samoa thanks to Tesla, SolarCity," Accuweather (July 1, 2019).
9 Pacific Basin Development Council, 2019 U.S. Pacific Islands Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and State of Hawaii) (August 30, 2019), p. 9-10.
10 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3, 4.
11 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa, Geography, updated October 2021.
12 Millstein, Seth, "American Samoa Gets A Say In The Primaries, Too," Bustle (February 29, 2016).
13 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Political Status, accessed December 11, 2021.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 Island Areas Censuses: American Samoa, Table 1, Population of American Samoa: 2010 and 2020 (October 28, 2021).
15 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 4.
16 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa, Geography, updated October 2021.
17 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3.
18 National Park Service, National Park of American Samoa, Plan Your Visit, Weather, updated July 1, 2015.
19 The World Bank, GDP per capita (current US$), U.S. and American Samoa, 2020.
20 U.S. Government Accountability Office, American Samoa: Economic Trends, Status of the Tuna Canning Industry, and Stakeholders' Views on Minimum Wage Increases, GAO-20-467 (June 2020).
21 "Fish supply shortage continued challenge for StarKist Samoa," Radio New Zealand (March 21, 2018).
22 Taibbi, Mike, "Sea of obstacles imperil American Samoa's tuna industry," PBS Newshour (February 15, 2020).
23 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa, Geography, updated October 2021.
24 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 5.
25 American Samoa Department of Human Resources, National Emergency Grant American Samoa, From Tsunami to Renewal, Recovery, accessed December 13, 2021.
26 Sagapolutele, Fili, "Tropical Storm Gita has some significant effects on American Samoa's GDP and economic forecast," Samoa News (April 3, 2019).
27 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "American Samoa GDP Increases in 2018," Press Release (August 23, 2019).
28 Crist, Carolyn, "American Samoa Reports First COVID-19 Case," WebMD (September 20, 2021).
29 Pacific Basin Development Council, 2019 U.S. Pacific Islands Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and State of Hawaii) (August 30, 2019), p. 17.
30 Qiu, Winston, "Hawaiki Cable System is Ready for Service," Submarine Cable Networks (July 20, 2018).
31 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Country Comparisons, Crude oil—production, Refined petroleum products—production, Refined petroleum products—imports, Refined petroleum products—consumption, accessed December 13, 2021.
32 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Final Fact Sheet, August 2019, American Samoa Terminal, p. 2, General Description of Facility.
33 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Statistics, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption, American Samoa, 1980-2019.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 Island Areas Censuses: American Samoa, Table 1, Population of American Samoa: 2010 and 2020 (October 28, 2021).
35 Lin, Daniel, "How a Pacific Island Changed From Diesel to 100% Solar Power," National Geographic (February 23, 2017).
36 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 2, 3.
37 American Samoa Power Authority, Power Generation and T&D, accessed December 14, 2021.
38 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412 (June 2020).
39 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals (RFP), Independent Power Producers for Wind Power Generation, RFP NO. ASPA18.064.PG (September 10, 2018), p. 10.
40 National Governors Association, "American Samoa, Resilient and Renewable Energy" (November 5, 2019).
41 American Samoa Power Authority, About Us, accessed December 14, 2021.
42 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 8.
43 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information, "On This Day: 2009 Samoa Islands Tsunami" (September 29, 2019).
44 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 12.
45 American Samoa Power Authority, Notice to the Public, Satala Power Plant TPGS Commissioning (June 2011).
46 Sagapolutele, Fili, "New Satala power plant dedicated," Samoa News (May 26, 2017).
47 WSP, Replacement of the Satala Power Plant, American Samoa, accessed December 16, 2021.
48 "ASPA project takes powerlines underground in Tuala-uta," Talanei (December 1, 2017).
49 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals from Independent Power Producers for Waste To Energy Power Plant (April 1, 2019), 2.2 Background on the American Samoa Power Authority, p. 16.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2020), Tables 2.5, 12.5.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Population of American Samoa: 2010 and 2020 and National Population Totals: 2010-2020.
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2020), Table 12.5. American Samoa.
53 Samoa News, Pacific News Briefs, "Pacific Power Assoc. Gathers for 26th Annual Conference" (August 2, 2017).
54 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2020), Tables 2.10, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8.
55 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 15.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2020), Tables 2.10, 12.5.
57 American Samoa Power Authority, Billing Rates, accessed December 17, 2021.
58 Macrotrends, Crude Oil Prices, 70 Year Historical Chart, 2019-21.
59 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412 (June 2020).
60 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
61 Lin, Daniel, "How a Pacific Island Changed From Diesel to 100% Solar Power," Sun-Connect (January 3, 2017).
62 Curtis, Henry, "Achieving 100% Renewable Energy One Island at a Time," Ililani Media (November 24, 2016).
63 Lambert, Fred, "Tesla deploys new microgrid projects with Powerpacks in Samoa to help the islands go fossil fuel-free," Electrek (July 25, 2018).
64 Sagapolutele, Fili, "Ofu and Olesega [sic] islands now powered 80% by solar energy," Samoa News (May 5, 2017).
65 "Fire damages solar part of Ofu micro grid," Talanei (June 24, 2019).
66 Sagapolutele, Fili, "ASPA signs two multi-million-dollar contracts for renewable energy," Samoa News (January 26, 2019).
67 "Here's some good news — ASPA fuel surcharge is dropping," Samoa News (July 24, 2020).
68 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee and American Samoa Power Authority, Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan for American Samoa (July 2015), slide 18.
69 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 16, 28.
70 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. i.
71 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals ("RFP") from Independent Power Producers for Waste-To-Energy Power Plant RFP NO. ASPA19.007.SW (April 1, 2019).
72 Coleman, Alistair, "American Samoa gets 'prettier' landfill," BBC News (February 7, 2018).
73 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
74 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, American Samoa Net Metering, updated May 12, 2016.
75 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
76 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. i.
77 Haase, Scott, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (August 2013).
78 Conrad, Misty Dawn, et al., American Samoa Energy Strategies (December 2013).
79 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. ii.
80 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, American Samoa, Coal, Production, Consumption, Imports, Exports, and Reserves, 1980-2018.
81 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, American Samoa, Natural Gas, Consumption, Production, Imports, Exports, Reserves, 1980-2020.


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