American Samoa Territory Energy Profile



American Samoa Quick Facts

  • American Samoa uses imported fossil fuels for almost all of the territory's energy needs, including transportation, drinking and waste water treatment, and most (about 97% in 2020) of its electric power generation.
  • Electricity prices in American Samoa vary with world petroleum prices. In August 2020, despite increased renewable generation and decreased petroleum prices, the territory's residential electricity prices were about 2.5 times higher than the nation's 50 state average.
  • In 2016, Ta’u, the largest island in American Samoa's Manu’a island group, converted its electricity generation to 100% solar powered, replacing the use of more than 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel per year.
  • The American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee adopted a goal to obtain 50% of American Samoa's energy from renewable energy resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040, primarily with solar energy.
  • In part because only three-fifths of American Samoan households are connected to an electric power grid, per capita electricity consumption in the territory is about one-fourth that of the 50 U.S. states.

Last Updated: December 17, 2020



Data

Last Update: June 17, 2021 | Next Update: July 15, 2021

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry American Samoa United States Period
Population 0.1 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 1 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity American Samoa United States Period
Residential NA 13.29 cents/kWh Mar-21  
Commercial NA 11.13 cents/kWh Mar-21  
Industrial NA 7.01 cents/kWh Mar-21  
Reserves  
Reserves American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 42 billion barrels 2019  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 4,656 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 252,057 million short tons 2019  
Capacity American Samoa United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,114 million kW 2018  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,850 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 2,742 billion cu ft 2019  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 6,697 thousand short tons 2019  
Total Exports American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 591 thousand barrels/day 2016  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 4,656 billion cu ft 2019  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 93,765 thousand short tons 2019  
Supply  
Production American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy 0 trillion Btu 96 trillion Btu 2018  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 32,915 billion cu ft 2015  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 706,307 thousand short tons 2019  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation American Samoa United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation * 4,208 billion kWh 2018  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation * 2,657 billion kWh 2018  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources 0 billion kWh 749 billion kWh 2018  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 293 billion kWh 2018  
    »  Other Renewables 0 billion kWh 457 billion kWh 2018  
Consumption  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy * 101 trillion Btu 2018  
Total Petroleum Products -- 19,958 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Motor Gasoline -- 9,327 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Distillate Fuel -- 3,932 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Liquefied Refinery Gases -- 1,299 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Jet Fuel -- 1,682 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Kerosene -- 5 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Residual Fuel -- 342 thousand barrels/day 2017  
    »  Other Petroleum Products -- 3,371 thousand barrels/day 2017  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 31,099 billion cu ft 2019  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 588,415 thousand short tons 2019  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels * 5,284 million metric tons 2018  
Petroleum * 2,385 million metric tons 2018  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,639 million metric tons 2018  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,260 million metric tons 2018  

Analysis

Last Updated: December 17, 2020

Overview

American Samoa depends on petroleum imports for almost all its energy needs.

American Samoa is part of the Samoan Islands chain, which includes both American Samoa and the independent nation of Samoa.1 It is the southernmost U.S. possession and has been a U.S. territory since 1900.2 It is also the only U.S. territory in the southern hemisphere.3 American Samoa's five inhabited islands and two uninhabited coral atolls are located about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand and lie at the northern end of the Tonga Trench, the second-deepest oceanic trench in the world.4,5,6 Although American Samoa lacks fossil energy resources, the port at Pago Pago, one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific, receives imported petroleum products that meet most of the territory's energy needs.7 American Samoa also has solar, wind, and biomass resources, and some of the islands in the territory already generate electricity from solar energy.8,9

American Samoa has a total land area of about 86 square miles—slightly larger than Washington, DC. The territory consists of the adjacent islands of Tutuila and Aunu'u; the Manu'a group of Ta'u, Ofu, and Olosega; and two coral atolls, Swains Island and Rose Island. The deepwater port of Pago Pago is on Tutuila, a rugged volcanic island that is the largest island in the territory.10,11 Unlike the people of all other U.S. territories, the people of American Samoa are U.S. nationals, not U.S. citizens. However, like all citizens and nationals in U.S. territories, they cannot vote in federal elections.12 Most of American Samoa's population, about 50,000 people, live on Tutuila. Following Polynesian tradition, nearly all land is communally owned by extended families. American Samoa has a tropical marine climate with little seasonal variation in temperature. A rainy season runs from November to April, but rain falls throughout the year and averages about 125 inches annually, although some areas receive as much as 300 inches of rain annually. The islands also experience occasional devastating tropical cyclones.13,14,15

American Samoa's gross domestic product (GDP) on a per capita basis is about one-sixth that of the United States.16 The territory's largest private sector industry is tuna fishing and processing, and canned tuna is American Samoa's main export. The tuna industry was negatively impacted by an earthquake and tsunami that devastated American Samoa in September 2009.17,18 Since then, fish shortages and other factors have threatened continued operations at the cannery on Tutuila.19,20 Government is the territory's other major economic activity. Government agencies employ more than one-third of the American Samoan labor force.21 Livestock and agricultural products are not export items but are grown for local consumption and include bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, and dairy products.22

Tropical hurricanes and other disasters periodically have severely affected American Samoa and its economy. After the 2008 recession and the 2009 earthquake and tsunami, American Samoa's economy was aided, in part, by infusions of federal economic and disaster recovery assistance.23 Despite the impacts of tropical cyclone Gita in early 2018, American Samoa's GDP rose in that year, again in part because of the influx of aid and aid workers.24,25 Because the territory's economy has been centered on tuna fishing and canning, planners have made several suggestions that would encourage economic diversification, including tourism, light manufacturing, and information technology. Lack of affordable internet had limited development, but a trans-Pacific fiber optic cable was put in service in July 2018. The cable runs from the United States to Australia and New Zealand and provides American Samoa with expanded internet access.26,27

Petroleum

American Samoa does not produce or refine crude oil and depends on imported petroleum products.28 Refined petroleum products, primarily diesel fuel, are imported in tankers that unload at a terminal and tank farm adjacent to the main harbor at Pago Pago. The territory also imports jet fuel and motor gasoline.29 Before the 2009 earthquake and tsunami, American Samoa typically consumed about 4,100 barrels of petroleum per day. Since 2011, the territory's petroleum consumption has been about 2,300 barrels per day, even though the population has remained fairly constant.30,31,32 The decrease is, in part, due to the installation of more efficient replacement generators after 2009 as well as the increased use of renewable resources for electricity generation.33

Electricity

Because it is an island group, all of the electricity consumed in American Samoa must be generated there. About 97% of American Samoa's electricity is supplied by generators that burn diesel fuel, and almost all of the territory's power is generated on the main island, Tutuila.34 The American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA), a government corporation, owns and operates two generating plants on Tutuila. Almost 40 megawatts of installed diesel-fueled capacity serve the island. The two power plants are the Tafuna plant, that serves the airport and residential and small commercial customers on the western side of the island, and the Satala plant that is located near Pago Pago Harbor close to the tuna canneries and a government building.35 By 2018, Tutuila had an additional 4.1 megawatts of solar photovoltaic ground-mounted capacity online. At that time, the island also had 900 kilowatts of rooftop solar capacity.36 Other smaller islands in American Samoa use solar and diesel energy for generation.37,38 ASPA also provides drinking water, solid waste removal, and wastewater treatment.39 Pumping, treating, distributing, and collecting water require a significant share of the electricity ASPA generates.40

About three-fifths of American Samoa’s households are connected to an electric grid.

The September 2009 magnitude 8.1 earthquake and resulting tsunami killed more than 30 people in the territory and severely impacted generating capacity in American Samoa.41 The Satala power plant was destroyed, and the generating capacity on Tutuila was reduced by more than half.42 Leased generators burning ultra-low sulfur diesel temporarily replaced those destroyed in 2009, which had used high-sulfur diesel fuel.43 Ultra-low sulfur diesel-fueled replacement generating units that were 20% more efficient than the old units came online at the plant site in the spring of 2017. The plant was rebuilt on higher ground to avoid floods and re-engineered to better resist earthquakes.44,45 Additional federal grants were awarded to help fund underground power lines protected from high wind damage. There are a few buried power lines but most remain overhead because of cost constraints.46,47,48

About three-fifths of American Samoa's households are connected to an electric grid, and per capita electricity consumption in the territory is about one-fourth that of the 50 U.S. states.49,50,51 Industrial and commercial users consume two-fifths of all power generated in American Samoa. The residential sector uses about three-tenths. The government consumes about one-sixth, and the territory's utility and system losses account for the rest.52 Because of their geographic isolation, Pacific island nations have some of the highest electricity prices in the world.53 Electricity rates in American Samoa are closely linked to world oil prices.54 Recent decreases in fuel prices, as a result of decreased global demand following the coronavirus pandemic, have significantly reduced electricity prices in the territory because the fuel surcharge accounts for about three-fourths of the kilowatthour price. In August 2020, despite increased renewable generation and decreased petroleum prices, American Samoa's average residential electricity price was about 2.5 times higher than the nation's 50 state average.55 Residential electricity prices in American Samoa are comparable to the prices in Hawaii.56,57

Renewable energy

American Samoa obtains 3% of its electricity from solar power and has plans to substantially expand solar energy use.

The American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) was established in 2010 to coordinate efforts with federal experts to reduce the territory's reliance on fossil fuels and to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy technologies on the islands. In 2016, ASREC adopted a goal to obtain 50% of American Samoa's energy needs from renewable resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040.58 ASREC developed strategies to assess and take advantage of the solar, wind, and geothermal renewable resource potential on Tutuila, American Samoa's main island, and on the smaller Manu'a island group. Electricity production costs on the Manu'a islands had been 50% higher than on Tutuila.59,60 ASREC also considered ways to reduce petroleum use in land-based vehicles.61

American Samoa is close to the equator and has substantial solar energy resources.62 In 2016, ASPA completed conversion from diesel-powered to solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation on the largest island in the Manu'a group, Ta'u, which replaced the use of more than 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel per year. Ta'u has a hybrid solar and energy storage system that supplies 100% of the island's electricity.63 The 1.4-megawatt solar array's more than 5,000 panels are coupled with a 6-megawatthour battery storage system.64,65 As of May 2017, the other two islands in the Manu'a group, Ofu and Olosega, fueled 80% of their electricity needs with solar energy from a 350-kilowatt solar PV array and batteries with 1,000 kilowatthours of storage. The additional 20% came from three new fuel-efficient diesel generators. The Manu'a group was expected to reach 100% renewable-sourced electricity, but a fire at a battery storage system at the Ofu and Olosega Islands' solar plant in 2019 caused those islands to revert to diesel-fueled generation.66,67

Overall, about 3% of ASPA's electricity generation is solar powered.68 However, almost 13% of the country's generating capacity is solar powered.69 In late 2018, ASPA signed a contract to install 20 megawatts of additional solar PV capacity on Tutuila.70 The Tutuila solar project will have battery backup and offset an estimated 2 million gallons of diesel fuel per year.71 Major design work was completed and construction began in October 2019. However, contract personnel have not been able to enter the territory due to border closings related to the global coronavirus pandemic, and the facility is not yet operational.72 As of 2020, ASPA had seven active renewable energy sites and more in development.73 Travel restrictions have put some of those projects on hold as well.74

An ASPA study identified some potential wind power sites around Tutuila.75 In 2018, ASPA solicited proposals for the installation of wind generating capacity, and later that year a contract was signed for the construction of a 42-megawatt wind project on Tutuila.76,77 That project, like the solar one, had broken ground in October 2019, but work has been disrupted by the pandemic.78 Challenges for wind energy development in American Samoa include tropical cyclones, community acceptance, and grid stability. American Samoa's communal land ownership structure poses potential hurdles for development of larger projects.79 Preliminary studies of American Samoa's geology indicated geothermal energy could provide a stable, economical baseload for the islands.80 The inhabited islands of American Samoa are volcanic in origin, but there have been no eruptions since the 19th century.81,82 Although the island group may have geothermal resources related to its volcanic origins, assessments have not identified any commercial geothermal potential.83

Waste heat emitted by diesel generators at ASPA's Tafuna plant on Tutuila is captured and used to produce electricity.84 In 2018, the utility issued a request for bids for a waste-to-energy plant to be built at Tutuila's Futiga landfill. The plant would cut waste in the landfill and help meet ASPA's electricity needs.85 Waste volumes at the landfill are near capacity, and in 2018, an ASPA project to recompact trash was completed that increased the landfill's capacity and extended the life of the landfill for up to 15 years.86

American Samoa encourages customer-sited, small-scale generation projects through net metering. The law, adopted in 2008, allows owners of small solar or wind facilities, installed primarily for the consumer's use, to receive credit for surplus power sent to the grid. To reduce demand and improve energy efficiency, the government offers residential weatherization assistance as well.87

Coal

American Samoa has no known coal reserves and does not produce or consume coal.88 Although coal is not used in American Samoa, the port of Pago Pago was a refueling site for both Naval and commercial trans-Pacific coal-fired shipping from 1899 until 1951.89

Natural gas

American Samoa has no known natural gas reserves and does not produce or consume natural gas.90

Endnotes

1 "Samoan Islands," The Library of Congress (September 2009).
2 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Political Status, accessed November 2, 2020.
3 Pacific Basin Development Council for U.S. Economic Development Administration, 2018 U.S. Pacific Islands Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and State of Hawaii) (June 30, 2018), p. 9-10.
4 Foster, Sophie, Albert Wendt, et al., "American Samoa," Encylopaedia Britannica, accessed November 2, 2020.
5 Killer, Ed, "Deep sea explorers descend to ocean's second deepest spot, the Tonga Trench," TC Palm (June 19, 2019).
6 U.S. Geological Survey, Preliminary Analysis of the 2009 Samoan Tsunami, accessed November 2, 2020.
7 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Energy, Geography, updated October 23, 2020.
8 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
9 Byrne, Kevin, "Solar energy powers an entire island in American Samoa thanks to Tesla, SolarCity," Accuweather (July 1, 2019).
10 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3, 4.
11 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Geography, updated October 23, 2020.
12 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Political Status, accessed November 2, 2020.
13 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3, 4.
14 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Geography, Economy, People and Society, updated October 23, 2020.
15 National Park Service, National Park of American Samoa, Plan Your Visit, Weather, updated July 1, 2015.
16 The World Bank, GDP per capita (current US$), U.S. and American Samoa, 2019.
17 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Economy, updated October 23, 2020.
18 McAvoy, Audrey, "Tsunamis hit American Samoa's economic engine," Newsday (October 9, 2009).
19 "Fish supply shortage continued challenge for StarKist Samoa," Radio New Zealand (March 21, 2018).
20 Taibbi, Mike, "Sea of obstacles imperil American Samoa's tuna industry," PBS Newshour (February 15, 2020).
21 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 5.
22 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Economy, updated October 23, 2020.
23 American Samoa Department of Human Resources, National Emergency Grant American Samoa, From Tsunami to Renewal, Recovery, accessed November 4, 2020.
24 Sagapolutele, Fili, "Tropical Storm Gita has some significant effects on American Samoa's GDP and economic forecast," Samoa News (April 3, 2019).
25 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "American Samoa GDP Increases in 2018," Press Release (August 23, 2019).
26 Pacific Basin Development Council for U.S. Economic Development Administration, 2018 U.S. Pacific Islands Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and State of Hawaii) (June 30, 2018), p. 10, 16.
27 Qiu, Winston, "Hawaiki Cable System is Ready for Service," Submarine Cable Networks (July 20, 2018).
28 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Energy, updated October 23, 2020.
29 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Final Fact Sheet, August 2019, American Samoa Terminal, p. 2, General Description of Facility.
30 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Statistics, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption, American Samoa, 1980-2018.
31 Worldometers, American Samoa Population, 1950-2020.
32 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Economy, updated October 23, 2020.
33 Lin, Daniel, "How a Pacific Island Changed From Diesel to 100% Solar Power," National Geographic (February 23, 2017).
34 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412 (June 2020).
35 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 7-8.
36 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals (RFP), Independent Power Producers for Wind Power Generation, RFP NO. ASPA18.064.PG (September 10, 2018), p. 10.
37 National Governors Association, "American Samoa, Resilient and Renewable Energy" (November 5, 2019).
38 "Fire damages solar part of Ofu micro grid," Talanei (June 24, 2019).
39 American Samoa Power Authority, About Us, accessed November 5, 2020.
40 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 8.
41 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information, "On This Day: 2009 Samoa Islands Tsunami," accessed November 5, 2020.
42 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 12.
43 American Samoa Power Authority, Notice to the Public, Satala Power Plant TPGS Commissioning (June 2011).
44 Sagapolutele, Fili, "New Satala power plant dedicated," Samoa News (May 26, 2017).
45 WSP, Louis Berger, Replacement of the Satala Power Plant, American Samoa, accessed November 5, 2020.
46 Congresswoman Amata Coleman Radewagen, "Aumua Announces Nearly $2.5 Million FEMA Grant for the Tafuna to Malaeimi Underground Powerline Project," Press Release (March 7, 2016).
47 "ASPA project takes powerlines underground in Tuala-uta," Talanei (December 1, 2017).
48 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals from Independent Power Producers for Waste To Energy Power Plant (April 1, 2019), p. 16.
49 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Energy, updated November 9, 2020.
50 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Electricity Net Consumption, American Samoa and United States, 2018.
51 Worldometers, American Samoa Population, and United States Population, 2018, accessed November 13, 2020.
52 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412 (June 2020).
53 Samoa News, Pacific News Briefs, "Pacific Power Assoc. Gathers for 26th Annual Conference" (August 2, 2017).
54 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 15.
55 "Savings will be passed on to our customers, says ASPA," Samoa News (July 24, 2020).
56 American Samoa Power Authority, Billing Rates (August 2020).
57 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (October 2020), Table 5.6.B.
58 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. i, 4.
59 Haase, Scott, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (August 2013), p. 5-11.
60 Conrad, Misty Dawn, et al., American Samoa Energy Strategies (December 2013), p. 19.
61 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. ii, 16-21.
62 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
63 Lin, Daniel, "How a Pacific Island Changed From Diesel to 100% Solar Power," National Geographic (February 23, 2017).
64 Curtis, Henry, "Achieving 100% Renewable Energy One Island at a Time," Ililani Media (November 24, 2016).
65 Lambert, Fred, "Tesla deploys new microgrid projects with Powerpacks in Samoa to help the islands go fossil fuel-free," Electrek (July 25, 2018).
66 Sagapolutele, Fili, "Ofu and Olesega [sic] islands now powered 80% by solar energy," Samoa News (May 5, 2017).
67 "Fire damages solar part of Ofu micro grid," Talanei (June 24, 2019).
68 American Samoa Power Authority, Power Generation and T&D, accessed November 18, 2020.
69 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412 (June 2020).
70 Sagapolutele, Fili, "ASPA signs two multi-million-dollar contracts for renewable energy," Samoa News (January 26, 2019).
71 "Major alternative energy project for American Samoa," Radio New Zealand (August 13, 2018).
72 "Here's some good news—ASPA fuel surcharge is dropping," Samoa News (July 24, 2020).
73 National Governors Association, "American Samoa, Resilient and Renewable Energy" (November 5, 2019).
74 "Here's some good news—ASPA fuel surcharge is dropping," Samoa News (July 24, 2020).
75 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee and American Samoa Power Authority, Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan for American Samoa (July 2015), slide 18.
76 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals (RFP) Independent Power Producers for Wind Power Generation RFP NO. ASPA18.064.PG (September 10, 2018).
77 Sagapolutele, Fili, "ASPA signs two multi-million-dollar contracts for renewable energy," Samoa News (January 26, 2019).
78 "Here's some good news—ASPA fuel surcharge is dropping," Samoa News (July 24, 2020).
79 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 16, 28.
80 American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee, Tutuila Holocene Rift Zone Phase 3 Geothermal Exploration Final Report (August 21, 2016), p iii.
81 Foster, Sophie, Albert Wendt, et al., "American Samoa," Encylopaedia Britannica, accessed November 2, 2020.
82 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2020, American Samoa, Energy, updated October 23, 2020.
83 Ness, J. Erik, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. i.
84 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
85 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals ("RFP") from Independent Power Producers for Waste To Energy Power Plant RFP NO. ASPA19.007.SW (April 1, 2019).
86 Coleman, Alistair, "American Samoa gets 'prettier' landfill," BBC News (February 7, 2018).
87 U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
88 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, American Samoa, Coal, Production, Consumption, Imports, Exports, and Reserves, 2014-18.
89 Fodor's Travel, American Samoa, U.S. Naval Station Historic District, accessed November 16, 2020.
90 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, American Samoa, Natural Gas, Consumption, Production, Imports, Exports, Reserves, 2016-20.


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