American Samoa Territory Energy Profile



American Samoa Quick Facts

  • American Samoa uses imported fossil fuels for almost all of the territory's energy needs, including transportation, drinking and waste water treatment, and most (about 97% in 2021) of its electric power generation.
  • Electricity prices in American Samoa vary with world petroleum prices. In 2022, the territory's average electricity price was almost 45 cents per kilowatthour, about 3.6 times higher than the U.S. average.
  • In 2016, the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee set a goal to meet 50% of American Samoa's energy from renewable energy resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040, primarily with solar energy.
  • In 2022, per capita electricity consumption in American Samoa was about 30% of the U.S. average.
  • In 2022, commercial users accounted for more than 46% of all electricity sales to ultimate customers in American Samoa. The residential sector accounted for 37% of sales, and the industrial sector, which has only four customers, accounted for 16%.

Last Updated: March 21, 2024



Data

Last Update: March 21, 2024 | Next Update: April 18, 2024

+ EXPAND ALL
Economy  
Population and Industry American Samoa United States Period
Population 0.1 million 328.2 million 2019  
Gross Domestic Product $ 1 billion $ 19,552 billion 2018  
Prices  
Electricity American Samoa United States Period
Residential NA 15.73 cents/kWh Dec-23  
Commercial NA 12.39 cents/kWh Dec-23  
Industrial NA 7.66 cents/kWh Dec-23  
Reserves  
Reserves American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil 0 billion barrels 44 billion barrels 2021  
Natural Gas 0 trillion cu ft 465 trillion cu ft 2020  
Recoverable Coal 0 million short tons 251,539 million short tons 2021  
Capacity American Samoa United States Period
Total Electricity Installed Capacity * 1,177 million kW 2021  
Imports & Exports  
Total Imports American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil Imports 0 thousand barrels/day 7,768 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Imports 0 billion cu ft 3,024 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal Imports 0 thousand short tons 6,313 thousand short tons 2022  
Total Exports American Samoa United States Period
Crude Oil Exports 0 thousand barrels/day 2,048 thousand barrels/day 2018  
Natural Gas Exports 0 billion cu ft 6,904 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal Exports 0 thousand short tons 85,956 thousand short tons 2022  
Supply  
Production American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy * 98 trillion Btu 2021  
Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids 0 thousand barrels/day 17,936 thousand barrels/day 2020  
Natural Gas - Gross 0 billion cu ft 34,518 billion cu ft 2021  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 593,608 thousand short tons 2022  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation American Samoa United States Period
Total Net Electricity Generation * 4,165 billion kWh 2021  
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal Net Electricity Generation * 2,504 billion kWh 2021  
Total Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources * 888 billion kWh 2021  
    »  Hydroelectric 0 billion kWh 260 billion kWh 2021  
    »  Other Renewables * 627 billion kWh 2021  
Consumption  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Energy * 98 trillion Btu 2021  
Total Petroleum Products 3 thousand barrels/day 19,890 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Motor Gasoline * 8,816 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Distillate Fuel 2 thousand barrels/day 3,972 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 thousand barrels/day 1,375 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Jet Fuel * 1,370 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Kerosene 0 thousand barrels/day 6 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Residual Fuel * 314 thousand barrels/day 2021  
    »  Other Petroleum Products * 4,037 thousand barrels/day 2021  
Natural Gas 0 billion cu ft 32,288 billion cu ft 2022  
Coal 0 thousand short tons 515,555 thousand short tons 2022  
Carbon Dioxide Emissions  
by Source American Samoa United States Period
Total Fossil Fuels * 4,904 million metric tons 2021  
Petroleum * 2,245 million metric tons 2021  
Natural Gas 0 million metric tons 1,657 million metric tons 2021  
Coal 0 million metric tons 1,002 million metric tons 2021  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 21, 2024

Overview

American Samoa depends on petroleum imports for almost all its energy needs.

American Samoa is the United States' southernmost territory and the only U.S. territory south of the equator. It lies just east of the international date line and is part of the Samoan Islands chain in Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. The Samoan Islands chain includes both American Samoa and the much larger independent nation of Samoa.1,2,3 Although American Samoa is a U.S. territory, its five islands and two coral atolls are closer to New Zealand than Hawaii. The islands are mostly volcanic in origin and are rugged, mountainous, heavily forested, and surrounded by coral reefs.4 American Samoa lacks fossil energy resources, but it has some renewable resources, especially solar and wind energy. Some of its islands generate electricity from solar energy.5,6 Pago Pago, one of the deepest natural harbors in the South Pacific, is among the territory's most important assets. It receives the imported petroleum products that American Samoa depends on to meet almost all of its energy needs.7,8

American Samoa has a total land area of about 76 square miles—slightly larger than Washington, DC, or almost twice the size of Disney World, FL. The territory consists of the adjacent islands of Tutuila and Aunu'u; the Manu'a group of Ta'u, Ofu, and Olosega; and two coral atolls—Swains Island and Rose Atoll. The administrative capital and the deepwater port of Pago Pago are on Tutuila, the largest island in the territory.9 Unlike the people of all other U.S. territories, the people of American Samoa are not American citizens at birth. They are U.S. nationals. Like all citizens and nationals in U.S. territories, they cannot vote in national elections, but they can vote in presidential primaries. Like all U.S. territories, American Samoa has an elected nonvoting delegate in the U.S. House of Representatives.10,11 Almost all of American Samoa's population of fewer than 45,000 people live on Tutuila.12 Following Polynesian tradition, extended families communally own about 90% of America Samoa's land.13 The territory has a tropical marine climate with little seasonal variation in temperature.14 A rainy season runs from November to April, but rain falls throughout the year and ranges between 125 inches and 300 inches annually.15

In 2022, American Samoa's gross domestic product (GDP) on a per capita basis was about one-fourth that of the United States.16 The territory's largest private sector industry is tuna fishing and processing, and canned tuna is American Samoa's main export. However, economic competition, fish shortages, and other factors threaten the territory's tuna industry.17,18,19 Government is the territory's other major economic activity. Government agencies employ about two-fifths of the American Samoan labor force.20 Livestock and agricultural products are not exported but raised for local consumption and include bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, and dairy products.21

Typhoons, earthquakes, and other disasters have severely affected American Samoa and its economy. After the 2008 recession and a 2009 earthquake and tsunami, American Samoa's economy was aided, in part, by infusions of federal economic and disaster recovery assistance.22 In 2018, tropical cyclone Gita hit American Samoa. The territory's GDP rose in that year, in part because of an influx of aid and aid workers.23 However, that ended when American Samoa closed its borders to non-residents and non-citizens in March 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic.24 After a decrease in GDP in 2021 in large part because of a decrease in output from the tuna cannery, tuna production rebounded in 2022, and in 2023 cruise ships also were allowed to return.25,26 Because the territory's economy centers on tuna fishing and canning, planners have made several suggestions to encourage economic diversification.27 Lack of affordable internet had limited development, but a trans-Pacific fiber optic cable connected the territory to the United States, Australia, and New Zealand in 2018. It provides American Samoa with expanded internet access needed for further economic development.28

Petroleum

American Samoa does not produce or refine crude oil and depends on imported petroleum products.29 Refined petroleum products, primarily diesel fuel used for electricity generation and marine transportation, arrive in tankers that unload at a terminal and tank farm adjacent to the main harbor at Pago Pago.30 The territory also imports jet fuel, used at American Samoa's international airport, and motor gasoline, used by the territory's more than 12,000 vehicles.31,32 In 2011, in part because of the lingering effects of the major 2009 earthquake and tsunami, the territory's petroleum product consumption declined from 4,100 barrels per day in 2010 to about 2,300 barrels per day in 2011 and has remained fairly constantly at that level through 2019, before reaching a low of 2,200 barrels per day in 2020.33 The overall decrease in petroleum consumption was, in part, due to the installation of new, more efficient diesel-fueled generators, as well as increased use of renewable resources for electricity generation.34,35 Consumption of petroleum products rose to 2,600 barrels in 2021, despite the continuing decline in the territory's population.36,37

Electricity

Because it is an isolated island group, American Samoa must produce all the electricity it consumes. The territory has almost 50 megawatts of total electricity generating capacity.38 Diesel generators supply more than nine-tenths of American Samoa's electricity, nearly all of it on the main island, Tutuila.39,40 The American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA), a government corporation, owns and operates two generating plants on Tutuila that have about 45 megawatts of combined diesel-fueled capacity.41,42 Captured waste heat emitted by diesel generators at ASPA's power plants on Tutuila also produces electricity.43 In 2021, American Samoa also had more than 5 megawatts of grid-connected solar powered capacity.44,45 In addition to electricity, ASPA provides drinking water, solid waste removal, and wastewater treatment.46 Pumping, treating, distributing, and collecting water uses a significant share of the electricity ASPA generates.47

Per capita electricity sales in American Samoa are about three-tenths that of the United States.

In September 2009, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake and resulting 72-foot high tsunami killed 34 people in American Samoa and severely impacted electricity generating capacity in the territory.48 Those natural disasters destroyed one power plant, which reduced the generating capacity on Tutuila by more than half.49 Generators that burned ultra-low sulfur diesel temporarily replaced the high-sulfur diesel-fueled ones destroyed in 2009.50 The permanent ultra-low sulfur diesel-fueled replacement generating units, which are 20% more efficient than the old units, came online in the spring of 2017. The damaged power plant was rebuilt on higher ground to avoid future floods and re-engineered to better resist earthquakes.51,52 The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided funds to build underground power lines where they will be protected from high wind damage. However, because of cost constraints there are few buried power lines and most remain above ground.53,54

In 2022, per capita electricity sales to ultimate customers in American Samoa were about three-tenths that of the United States.55,56,57 Commercial users accounted for almost half of all electricity sales in the territory. The residential sector accounted for almost two-fifths, and the industrial sector, which has only four customers, accounted for about one-sixth.58 Because of their geographic isolation, Pacific island nations have some of the highest electricity prices in the world.59 American Samoa's average electricity price is more than 3 times higher than the U.S. average.60 Electricity prices in American Samoa are closely linked to world diesel fuel prices.61 The territory's most recent fuel surcharge peak was about 44 cents per kilowatthour in September 2022, but it declined to about 29 cents by February 2024.62

Renewable energy

Solar power accounts for about 11% of American Samoa’s electricity generating capacity.

American Samoa is less than 1,000 miles south of the equator and has abundant solar energy resources.63,64 In 2021, solar power accounted for about 11% of American Samoa's electricity generating capacity and about 3% of its electricity generation.65,66 In 2016, ASPA completed conversion from diesel-powered to solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation on the largest island in the Manu'a group, Ta'u. That conversion replaced the use of more than 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel per year. Ta'u has a hybrid solar and battery energy storage system that supplies 100% of the island's electricity. The 1.4-megawatt solar array has more than 5,000 panels coupled with a 6 megawatthour battery storage system that provides power at night.67,68 In 2017, solar energy provided 80% of the electricity used on the other two islands in the Manu'a group, Ofu and Olosega, from a 350-kilowatt solar PV array with 1-megawatthour of battery storage. The islands also installed three new fuel-efficient diesel generators.69 In 2019, a fire at the solar power plant in Ofu forced the island back onto diesel power.70,71 An insurance claim was settled in December 2022, and ASPA began working on specifications for the repair of the solar battery storage system in 2023.72 In 2022, ASPA also issued another request for proposals for a solar hybrid energy system that will reduce diesel generation by 90% by installing a 500-kilowatt PV array and 1.5 megawatthour battery energy storage system on the island of Aunu'u, 0.6 miles east of the main island of Tutuila.73

Challenges to onshore wind energy development in American Samoa include tropical cyclones and grid stability. American Samoa's communal land ownership structure poses potential hurdles as well.74 However, an ASPA study identified some potential wind power sites around Tutuila and a hybrid wind and battery storage facility is in development.75 In 2022, federal legislation opened offshore waters around the U.S. territories, including American Samoa, to offshore wind power development. The U.S. Department of the Interior will call for information and nominations for offshore wind leases within the exclusive economic zones of territorial waters by September 2025.76

American Samoa's other alternative energy opportunities are limited. The islands' landfills could supply some power. ASPA requested bids to build a waste-to-energy plant at Tutuila's Futiga landfill that would cut waste in the landfill and provide electricity.77 Waste volumes at the landfill are near capacity even though a recent ASPA project that recompacted trash increased the landfill's capacity and extended the life of the landfill for up to 15 years.78 Captured waste heat emitted by diesel generators at ASPA's power plants on Tutuila also produces electricity.79

American Samoa encouraged customer-sited, small-scale generation projects through net metering. A net metering law, adopted in 2008, allowed owners of small solar or wind facilities, installed primarily for the consumer's use, to receive credit for surplus power sent to the grid. However, there was a system capacity limit of 30 kilowatts and an aggregate capacity limit of 5% of ASPA's peak demand. The limit has been reached and no new applications are being accepted.80

In 2010, the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) was established to reduce the territory's reliance on fossil fuels by 40% by 2025, increase energy efficiency, and increase renewable energy use on the islands. In 2016, ASREC adopted a goal to meet 50% of American Samoa's energy needs from renewable resources by 2025 and 100% by 2040. ASREC also developed strategies to assess and use American Samoa's renewable resources and considered ways to reduce petroleum use in land-based vehicles.81 In May 2023, the new U.S. Infrastructure Law directed $95 million toward more than a dozen projects in American Samoa, including those related to clean energy and energy efficiency.82

Coal

American Samoa has no known coal reserves and does not produce or consume coal.83

Natural gas

American Samoa has no known natural gas reserves and does not produce or consume natural gas.84

Endnotes

1 Pacific Basin Development Council, 2021 U.S. Pacific Islands Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and State of Hawaii) (April 30, 2021), p. 11.
2 "Samoan Islands," The Library of Congress (September 2009).
3 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa and Samoa, edited January 25, 2024.
4 Wendt, Albert, Sophie Foster, et al., "American Samoa," Britannica, updated January 29, 2024.
5 U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International, American Samoa, Data, 1980-2022.
6 National Governors Association, "American Samoa, Resilient and Renewable Energy" (November 5, 2019).
7 "Pago Pago, American Samoa," Britannica, accessed January 31, 2024.
8 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 2.
9 National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa, American Samoa, accessed March 13, 2024.
10 Rubin, Jonathan, Can American Samoans Vote?, Slate (January 31, 2008).
11 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, American Samoa, Political Status, accessed February 1, 2024.
12 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa, Country Summary, People and Society, updated January 31, 2024.
13 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 3-4.
14 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa, Country Summary, Climate, updated January 31, 2024.
15 National Park Service, National Park of American Samoa, Plan Your Visit, Weather, accessed February 14, 2024.
16 The World Bank, GDP per capita (current US$), U.S. and American Samoa, 2022.
17 U.S. Government Accountability Office, American Samoa: Economic Trends, Status of the Tuna
Canning Industry, and Stakeholders' Views on Minimum Wage Increases, GAO-20-467 (June 2020).
18 "Fish supply shortage continued challenge for StarKist Samoa," Radio New Zealand (March 21, 2018).
19 Taibbi, Mike, "Sea of obstacles imperil American Samoa's tuna industry," PBS Newshour (February 15, 2020).
20 U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census of Island Areas, Selected Economic Characteristics, 2020: DECIA American Samoa Demographic Profile, Employment Status, Class of Worker.
21 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, American Samoa, Economy, updated January 31, 2024.
22 American Samoa Department of Human Resources, National Emergency Grant American Samoa, From Tsunami to Renewal, Recovery, accessed February 1, 2024.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "American Samoa GDP Increases in 2018," Press Release (August 23, 2019).
24 Crisis24, "Samoa: Country bans entry of all non-citizens, non-residents over COVID-19 as of March 23 /update 4," (March 23, 2020).
25 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Gross Domestic Product for American Samoa, 2022," Press Release (October 20, 2023).
26 "American Samoa to welcome back cruise ships," Radio New Zealand (December 28, 2022).
27 Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act State Plan, American Samoa PYs 2020-2023, WIOA State Plan Common Elements, accessed February 1, 2024.
28 Qiu, Winston, "Hawaiki Cable System is Ready for Service," Submarine Cable Networks (July 20, 2018).
29 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, American Samoa, Energy, Petroleum, accessed February 1, 2024.
30 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Final Fact Sheet, August 2019, American Samoa Terminal, III. General Description of Facility.
31 American Samoa, Department of Port Administration, Airports, accessed February 9, 2024.
32 American Samoa Department of Commerce, Data & Statistics, American Samoa Statistical Yearbook 2022, p. 162.
33 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption, 1980-2022.
34 Sagapolutele, Fili, "New Satala power plant dedicated," Samoa News (May 26, 2017).
35 Lin, Daniel, "How a Pacific Island Changed From Diesel to 100% Solar Power," National Geographic (February 23, 2017).
36 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption, 1980-2022.
37 The World Bank, Population, total—American Samoa, 1960-2022.
38 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download Export CSV (table), accessed February 14, 2024.
39 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412, Download (June 2020).
40 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity generation, Download, accessed February 11, 2024.
41 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download Export CSV (table), accessed February 14, 2024.
42 American Samoa Power Authority, Power Generation and T&D, accessed February 14, 2024.
43 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682, Download (June 2015), p. 3.
44 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412, Download (June 2020).
45 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download Export CSV (table),, accessed February 14, 2024.
46 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption, 1980-2022.
47 Sagapolutele, Fili, "New Satala power plant dedicated," Samoa News (May 26, 2017).
48 Lin, Daniel, "How a Pacific Island Changed From Diesel to 100% Solar Power," National Geographic (February 23, 2017).
49 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Petroleum and other liquids, Consumption, 1980-2022.
50 The World Bank, Population, total—American Samoa, 1960-2022.
51 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download Export CSV (table), accessed February 14, 2024.
52 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412, Download (June 2020).
53 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity generation, Download, accessed February 11, 2024.
54 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download Export CSV (table), accessed February 14, 2024.
55 American Samoa Power Authority, Power Generation and T&D, accessed February 14, 2024.
56 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682, Download (June 2015), p. 3.
57 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, American Samoa Energy Snapshot, DOE/GO-102020-5412, Download (June 2020).
58 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download Export CSV (table),, accessed February 14, 2024.
59 American Samoa Power Authority, About Us, accessed February 14, 2024.
60 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), 2.2.1 Water, p. 8.
61 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information, "On This Day: 2009 Samoa Islands Tsunami" (September 29, 2019).
62 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), 2.2.3 American Samoa Power Authority Rebuild p. 12.
63 American Samoa Power Authority, Notice to the Public, Satala Power Plant TPGS Commissioning (June 2011).
64 Sagapolutele, Fili, "New Satala power plant dedicated," Samoa News (May 26, 2017).
65 WSP, Replacement of the Satala Power Plant, American Samoa, accessed February 14, 2024.
66 "ASPA project takes powerlines underground in Tuala-uta," Talanei (December 1, 2017).
67 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals from Independent Power Producers for Waste To Energy Power Plant (April 1, 2019), 2.2 Background on the American Samoa Power Authority, p. 16.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2022), Tables 2.5, 12.5.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, United States, People, Population estimates, July 1, 2022 (V2022).
70 The World Bank, Population, total - American Samoa, 2022.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2022) Table 12.5. American Samoa.
72 Samoa News, Pacific News Briefs, "Pacific Power Assoc. Gathers for 26th Annual Conference" (August 2, 2017).
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (2022), Tables 2.10, 12.5.
74 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 15.
75 American Samoa Power Authority, Billing Rates, 2019-24.
76 Distance Calculator, Distances from Pago-Pago, accessed February 16, 2024.
77 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), Appendix C.
78 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity capacity, Download, accessed February 16, 2024.
79 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Electricity, Electricity generation, Download, accessed February 16, 2024.
80 "Achieving 100% Renewable Energy One Island at a Time," Ililani Media (November 24, 2016).
81 Lambert, Fred, "Tesla deploys new microgrid projects with Powerpacks in Samoa to help the islands go fossil fuel-free," Electrek (July 25, 2018).
82 Sagapolutele, Fili, "Ofu and Olesega [sic] islands now powered 80% by solar energy," Samoa News (May 5, 2017).
83 "Fire damages solar part of Ofu micro grid," Talanei (June 24, 2019).
84 "ASPA settles insurance claim for Ofu solar farm," Talanei (August 2, 2022).
85 "Insurance claim settled, ASPA moves to restore solar power in Ofu," Talanei.com (March 28, 2023).
86 American Samoa Power Authority, Procurement, Click to See Our Bids, RFP NO. ASPA22.029 Aunu'u Solar Hybrid Project (May 18, 2022).
87 Busche, Sarah, et al., American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A40-50905 (September 2011), p. 16, 28.
88 "Power plant profile: Aasu Wind Farm, American Samoa," Power Technology (January 31, 2024).
89 Webster, Joseph, and Elina Carpen, "Does the IRA make US offshore wind the "next big thing?," Atlantic Council (October 25, 2022).
90 American Samoa Power Authority, Request for Proposals ("RFP") from Independent Power Producers for Waste To Energy Power Plant RFP NO. ASPA19.007.SW (April 1, 2019).
91 Coleman, Alistair, "American Samoa gets 'prettier' landfill," BBC News (February 7, 2018).
92 U. S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, American Samoa, DOE/GO-102015-4682 (June 2015), p. 3.
93 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, American Samoa Net Metering, updated March 24, 2023.
94 Ness, J. Erik, Scott, Haase, et al., American Samoa Energy Action Plan (September 2016), p. I, ii, 16.
95 The White House, "President Biden's Bipartisan Infrastructure Law is Delivering in American Samoa," Press Release (May 12, 2023).
96 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Data, Coal and Coke, 1980-2022.
97 U.S. EIA, International, American Samoa, Data, Natural Gas, 1980-2022.


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