Alabama State Energy Profile



Alabama Quick Facts

  • Alabama ranks sixth among the states in the production of electricity, and the state's total electricity consumption per capita is the fifth-highest in the nation.
  • Alabama is the fourth-largest producer of electricity from nuclear power in the nation. The state's Browns Ferry nuclear power plant, with three reactors, is the second-largest U.S. nuclear electric generating facility after Arizona’s Palo Verde nuclear power plant.
  • In 2021, Mobile was the largest port of entry for U.S. coal imports by volume and the fourth-largest port for coal exports. About 90% of the coal mined in Alabama is exported.
  • Alabama is the sixth-largest hydroelectric power producer among the states. Twenty-three hydroelectric dams provided almost 9% of the state's electricity net generation in 2021.
  • Alabama's three wood pellet plants have a combined production capacity of 683,000 tons a year. The state has the seventh-largest wood pellet production capacity, accounting for 5% of the U.S. total.

Last Updated: September 15, 2022



Data

Last Update: September 15, 2022 | Next Update: October 20, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.0 million 1.5% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 2.3 million 1.4% Jul-22  
Economy Alabama U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 247.1 billion 27 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 40,062 million 23 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 48,608 49 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 67,921 million miles 15 2020  
Land in Farms 8.6 million acres 31 2017  
Climate Alabama U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 64.3 degrees Fahrenheit 6 2021  
Precipitation 64.9 inches 3 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 112.78 /barrel $ 113.73 /barrel Jun-22  
Natural Gas Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 9.44 /thousand cu ft $ 10.12 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Residential $ 24.03 /thousand cu ft $ 22.73 /thousand cu ft Jun-22 find more
Coal Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 153.50 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.63 /million Btu $ 2.32 /million Btu Jun-22  
Electricity Alabama U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.79 cents/kWh 15.42 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Commercial 13.74 cents/kWh 12.90 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Industrial 8.59 cents/kWh 8.96 cents/kWh Jun-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 34 million barrels 0.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 1,493 billion cu ft 0.3% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 31 million barrels 0.1% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 190 million short tons 1.4% 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 5,387 wells 1.1% 2020 find more
Capacity Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 139,600 barrels/calendar day 0.7% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 28,911 MW 2.5% Jun-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 1,206 trillion Btu 1.3% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 11 thousand barrels per day 0.1% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 117,028 million cu ft 0.3% 2020 find more
Coal 12,151 thousand short tons 2.3% 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 13,683 thousand MWh 3.6% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Alabama U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 47.5 % 40.9 % Jun-22 find more
Coal-Fired 15.5 % 19.3 % Jun-22 find more
Nuclear 28.5 % 17.3 % Jun-22 find more
Renewables 8.4 % 21.8 % Jun-22  
Stocks Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 61 thousand barrels 0.5% Jun-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 816 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 21,383 million cu ft 0.3% Jun-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 216 thousand barrels 1.0% Jun-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,932 thousand tons 2.2% Jun-22 find more
Fueling Stations Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,217 stations 2.9% 2019  
Propane 65 stations 2.6% 2022  
Electricity 199 stations 0.4% 2022  
E85 21 stations 0.5% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 10 stations 0.8% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Alabama U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,839 trillion Btu 16 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 366 million Btu 13 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 18,570 million 20 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,696 11 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 332 trillion Btu 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 236 trillion Btu 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 773 trillion Btu 2.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 498 trillion Btu 2.0% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 4,518 million 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 2,886 million 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 3,629 million 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 7,537 million 1.9% 2020 find more
by Source Alabama Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 105 million barrels 1.6% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 691 billion cu ft 2.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 13 million short tons 2.8% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 8,528 million 1.7% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 2,430 million 1.8% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 605 million 3.1% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 9 thousand barrels 0.5% Jun-22 find more
Natural Gas 48,024 million cu ft 4.1% Jun-22 find more
Coal 1,211 thousand short tons 2.9% Jun-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Alabama U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 26.5 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 66.4 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 5.6 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 1.4 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,332 MW 1.5% Jun-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 768 thousand MWh 2.8% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 105 thousand MWh 0.2% Jun-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 275 thousand MWh 5.8% Jun-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation NM NM Jun-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Alabama U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 16.8 % 15 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,201 thousand barrels 18 2020  
Total Emissions Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 106.3 million metric tons 2.1% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Alabama Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 44,803 thousand metric tons 2.9% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 26 thousand metric tons 2.6% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 21 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: September 15, 2022

Overview

Alabama has a wide variety of energy resources, with deposits of coal, as well as some crude oil and natural gas reserves.1,2 Located along the Gulf of Mexico, southern Alabama consists of a coastal plain with a humid, subtropical climate. The state's north includes the southern edge of the Appalachian Mountains, where below-zero temperatures occur every few years and measurable snow is common.3,4 Alabama's many rivers flow from the Appalachian highlands toward the Gulf of Mexico, and several dams along those rivers provide hydroelectric power.5,6,7 Forests cover more than two-thirds of Alabama, and the state has the third-largest total timberland acreage among the Lower 48 states, after Georgia and Oregon, which gives Alabama ample biomass resources.8,9

Alabama ranks among the top 10 states in industrial sector energy consumption.

Alabama ranks among the 10 states with the highest total industrial sector energy use, and its industrial sector accounts for slightly more than two-fifths of the state's total energy consumption.10,11 Alabama is among the top five states in the manufacture of cars and light trucks, with a production capacity of about 1.3 million vehicles annually. Vehicles are Alabama's No. 1 export, and it is the fourth-largest auto exporting state. The manufacture of automobiles and other transportation equipment, chemicals, food and beverages, paper, and wood products, as well as mining and oil and gas extraction, agriculture, and forestry, are major contributors to Alabama's economy.12,13,14 The transportation sector accounts for slightly more than one-fourth of the state's total energy consumption. Despite high energy use for cooling during the state's hot, humid summers and widespread home heating in the winter, the residential sector makes up slightly less than one-fifth of state energy use. The commercial sector accounts for about one-eighth of Alabama's energy consumption.15,16,17

Electricity

Alabama ranks sixth among the states in the production of electricity.18 Natural gas has fueled the largest share of electricity in Alabama since 2014 and accounted for 38% of the state's net generation in 2021.19 Seven of the 10 largest power plants in Alabama by capacity and 6 of the largest by actual yearly electricity generation are natural gas-fired.20

The Browns Ferry power plant has the second-largest nuclear power generating capacity in the nation.

Alabama is the nation's fourth-largest producer of electricity from nuclear power.21 Alabama's two nuclear power plants, with a total of five reactors, produced 32% of the electricity generated in the state in 2021. The three reactors at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Browns Ferry nuclear power plant in north Alabama have nearly 3,800 megawatts of combined generating capacity, which is the second-largest among U.S. nuclear power plants, after Arizona's Palo Verde nuclear power plant.22,23

Coal historically fueled the largest share of electric power generation in Alabama, but aging coal-fired generating plants have shut down. About 4,200 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity in the state was retired from 2015 through 2021.24,25 Since 2010, the contribution of coal-fired power plants to Alabama's net generation dropped by more than half, declining to 19% of the state's total generation in 2021.26

Alabama is the sixth-largest U.S. hydroelectric power producer and third-largest east of the Rocky Mountains, after New York and Tennessee.27 Twenty-three hydroelectric dams on Alabama's rivers provided almost 9% of the state's net generation in 2021.28,29 Although only about 2% of the state's total generation is fueled by biomass, Alabama ranks fifth among the states in electricity generation from biomass. Almost all of that generation comes from burning wood and wood-derived fuels from the state's substantial forest products industry.30,31

Alabama's electricity production exceeds its consumption, and about one-third of the electricity generated in the state is sent to neighboring states over the regional electric grid.32,33 Alabama's industrial sector and residential sector each account for slightly less than two-fifths of the electricity sold in the state. The commercial sector makes up one-fourth of the state's electricity sales.34 Total electricity consumption per capita in Alabama is fifth-highest in the nation and per capita electricity use in the residential sector ranks third, due in part to the high demand for air conditioning in the hot summers and the widespread use of electricity for home heating in the winter.35,36 Almost 7 out of 10 Alabama households heat with electricity.37

Coal

Coal has been mined commercially in Alabama since the 1850s and supported development of the state's iron and steel industry.38 Alabama holds about 1% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves. In 2020, the state ranked 11th in total coal production and 7th in bituminous coal production, the most abundant type of coal found in the United States. Bituminous coal is used to generate electricity and to make steel.39,40 Nearly 90% of the coal produced in Alabama comes from 6 underground mines, and the rest comes from 20 surface mines.41 About 90% of the coal mined in Alabama is exported to other countries.42

Mobile is the largest U.S. seaport for coal imports and fourth-largest for coal exports.

During 2021, the Mobile seaport ranked first in the nation for handling U.S. coal imports and fourth in shipping U.S. coal exports.43 More than 90% of Alabama coal that is used domestically is delivered by barge, railroad, and truck to electric power plants, coking plants, and other industrial facilities in the state. Minor amounts of Alabama coal also are delivered to coking plants and other industrial plants in several other states, primarily Florida and Oklahoma.44,45 About one-tenth of the coal used in Alabama is mined in the state. Wyoming supplies about three-fifths of the U.S. coal consumed in Alabama. All of the Wyoming coal is delivered to power plants in the electric power sector, which is the largest coal consumer in Alabama. The remaining domestic coal consumed in Alabama arrives by railroad, river barge, and truck from about half a dozen other states.46

Petroleum

Alabama’s three oil refineries combined can process about 141,000 barrels of crude oil per day.

Alabama's economically recoverable crude oil reserves are small—only about 0.1% of the U.S. total.47 Oil was discovered in west-central Alabama in the mid-1940s a few miles from the border with Mississippi.48 Today, a small amount of crude oil is produced from fields in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the state.49,50 The state's annual crude oil production increased slightly from 2011 through 2013, but output has declined annually since then. Production in 2021 fell to 4.3 million barrels, the lowest level since the 1950s.51,52,53

Alabama has three petroleum refineries with a combined processing capacity of about 141,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. The state's largest refinery is located near Mobile. The second-largest refinery is in Tuscaloosa on the Black Warrior River, and the third and smallest refinery is in Atmore.54 The refineries can process a range of domestic and imported crude oils into refined products that include: feedstocks for chemical plants, motor gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, residual fuel, and asphalt for local and regional markets. The Mobile refinery will begin producing diesel fuel from renewable sources by the first quarter of 2023.55,56,57 Alabama receives additional refined products from Texas and Louisiana via two major interstate pipelines—the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline. These pipelines move gasoline and other petroleum products through Alabama to supply half a dozen other southern and eastern states.58,59,60

In 2020, about 86% of the petroleum used in Alabama was consumed as transportation fuels, mainly motor gasoline and diesel fuel.61,62 Conventional gasoline without ethanol can be sold throughout the state, although almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with at least 10% ethanol.63,64 Alabama does not have any ethanol production plants, but the state consumes about 260 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.65,66 Alabama has one biodiesel production plant that can produce 20 million gallons a year, which is half of the 42 million gallons of biodiesel the state consumes annually. Alabama is the 12th-largest biodiesel-consuming state.67,68,69 The industrial sector consumes about 10% of the state's petroleum, the commercial sector accounts for about 2%, and the residential sector makes up about 1% of petroleum use. About 6 out of 100 Alabama households heat with petroleum products, mainly propane.70,71

Natural gas

Alabama produces natural gas both onshore and offshore in state waters, including in Mobile Bay. The state's proved reserves of natural gas have fallen to about one-fourth of their peak estimate in the early 1990s and now comprise about 0.3% of U.S. total natural gas reserves.72,73 Alabama's annual marketed natural gas production has steadily declined during the past two decades. In 2020, the state's natural gas output fell to its lowest level since the mid-1980s and contributed about 0.3% to the nation's total natural gas production.74,75 Three-fifths of Alabama's natural gas production comes from onshore wells, and most of that onshore production is in the form of coalbed methane—a natural gas produced from coal seams. The state's coalbed methane wells are located primarily in the Black Warrior Basin in northwestern Alabama.76,77,78

Alabama's natural gas production meets about one-fifth of the state's gas demand.79,80 The state receives additional natural gas through interstate pipelines, mainly from Mississippi, but large volumes are also shipped south through Tennessee from Pennsylvania and Ohio natural gas fields in the Marcellus and Utica shales. More than four-fifths of the natural gas that enters Alabama continues on to other states, mainly to Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi.81

An increasing amount of the natural gas consumed in Alabama goes to power plants as fuel for electricity generation. Since 2007, the electric power sector has been the largest natural gas-consuming sector in the state and accounted for 58% of total natural gas deliveries in 2021. The industrial sector consumed the second-largest amount of natural gas—about 34% of the state's total.82,83 Although about 3 out of 10 Alabama households use natural gas for heating, the residential sector accounted for slightly more than 4% of the state's natural gas consumption. The commercial sector accounted for almost 4% of the state's natural gas use.84,85

Renewable energy

In 2021, renewable energy sources generated about 11% of Alabama's total in-state electricity. Hydroelectric facilities accounted for more than three-fourths of the state's renewable electricity generation. Almost all the rest of Alabama's renewable generation came from biomass, mostly from wood and wood-derived fuels at industrial facilities.86,87 Alabama's biomass resources also provide feedstock for the state's three commercial wood pellet plants, which have a combined annual production capacity of 683,000 short tons—about 5% of the nation's total.88

Alabama's total solar power generation is small, but has increased in recent years, and in 2021 it accounted for about 3% of the state's renewable generation.89 The state's best solar resources are located in the southeast corner of Alabama and along the state's short Gulf Coast shoreline.90 Alabama's first commercial solar farm, with 75 megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) generating capacity, began operating in 2016. A 227-megawatt solar farm in northwest Alabama, which is the state's largest, came online in late 2021 to supply power to a large computer data center. The state had 421 megawatts of installed utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar power generating capacity in mid-2022. Another 180 megawatts of solar power generating capacity are scheduled to be operational during the second half of 2022.91,92,93 There is currently little customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar generating capacity, such as residential rooftop solar panels, in the state.94,95

Alabama has no utility-scale wind generation, but there are a few areas along its Gulf coastline and along stretches of the Appalachian mountain ridges in the northeastern part of the state that have modest wind resources.96,97 In June 2021, the U.S. Department of the Interior published a request to see if there was any interest among energy companies in leasing tracts to develop wind power in federal Gulf of Mexico waters that begin three miles off the Alabama coast. The department later determined there was not sufficient commercial interest in developing wind resources off Alabama's coastline, and instead moved forward with developing wind resources off the Louisiana and Texas coastlines.98,99,100

Alabama does not have a renewable portfolio standard or a voluntary renewable energy goal or offer net metering, but does encourage energy savings and efficiency.101,102 The state has an energy building code for commercial and residential buildings and energy conservation measures for state-owned buildings.103,104

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
2 U.S. EIA, Alabama Profile Data, Reserves, Supply & Distribution, accessed August 15, 2022.
3 University of Alabama, Department of Geography, Physiographic Regions, accessed August 15, 2022.
4 Christy, John, "Alabama's Climate, It's the Humidity!" Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed August 15, 2022.
5 Geology.com, Alabama Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed August 15, 2022.
6 Alabama Power, Lakes and Dams, accessed August 15, 2022.
7 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Alabama, accessed August 15, 2022.
8 Hartsell, Andrew, "Alabama's Forests, 2015," U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, p. ix.
9 Alabama Forestry Commission, Alabama Forest Facts, accessed August 15, 2022.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
12 Alabama Department of Commerce, Made in Alabama, Industries, Targeted Business Sectors, accessed August 15, 2022.
13 Alabama Department of Commerce, Made in Alabama, Automotive, accessed August 15, 2022.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Alabama, All statistics in table, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Alabama.
17 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2020 RECs Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020, and Highlights for space heating in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.3.B.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
20 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Alabama Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
21 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.9.B.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
23 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2021).
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
25 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of July 2022, Plant State: Alabama, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
27 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.10.B.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
29 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of July 2022, Plant State: Alabama, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.15.B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
32 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Alabama Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Alabama Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Electric Transmission Lines, accessed August 16, 2022.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
35 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2020 RECs Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020, and Highlights for space heating in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Alabama.
38 Mining Artifacts, Alabama Mines, accessed August 16, 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020; Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal explained, Types of coal, Bituminous, accessed August 16, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin State.
43 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, 4th Quarter 2021 (April 2022), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Table OS-1, Alabama, 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Table DS-1, Alabama, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2015-20.
48 Hall, Douglas R., and David E. Bolin, The Petroleum Industry in Alabama, 1999-2007, Oil and Gas Report 3U, Geological Survey of Alabama (2009), p. 1-2.
49 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2016-21.
50 U.S. EIA, Alabama Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Oil Wells: High-Level View, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed August 16, 2022.
51 U.S. EIA, Alabama Field Production of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels), Annual, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Alabama, 1960-2020.
53 State of Alabama Oil & Gas Board, State of Alabama Calendar Year Oil and Gas Production, 1944-2018.
54 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2022 (June 21, 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
55 Vertex Energy, Refining Operations, Mobile, AL, accessed August 17, 2022.
56 Goodway Refining, LLC, accessed August 17, 2022.
57 Hunt Refining Company, Refining Operations, Tuscaloosa Refinery, accessed August 17, 2022.
58 Colonial Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed August 17, 2022.
59 Kinder Morgan, Products (SE) Pipe Line Corporation, accessed August 17, 2022.
60 Kinder Morgan, Form 10-K, For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, Products Pipeline, Southeast Refined Products, PPL Pipeline, p. 10.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
63 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, updated January 2018.
64 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
65 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 8, 2022), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS file.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
69 U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational, Biodiesel Magazine, updated January 24, 2022.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Alabama.
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 201621.
73 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2015-20.
74 U.S. EIA, Alabama Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2020.
75 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
77 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million cubic feet, 2015-20.
78 Geological Survey of Alabama, Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin (January 30, 2014), p. 6-9.
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
80 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Alabama, Annual, 2016-21.
81 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Alabama, Annual, 2015-20.
82 U.S. EIA, Alabama Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Customers, 1997-2021.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Alabama, Annual, 2016-21.
84 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Alabama.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Alabama, Annual, 2016-21.
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.15.B.
88 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (August 17, 2022), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, May 2022.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, annual, Alabama, 2001-21.
90 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Global Horizontal Solar Irradiance, accessed August 17, 2022.
91 Smith, Tom, "River Bend Solar Energy Center operational, selling solar power," Times Daily (November 20, 2016).
92 Sylvia, Tim, "Project enters service in Alabama, nearly doubling the state's installed solar capacity," PV Magazine (September 20, 2021).
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101 National Council of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
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