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Pennsylvania   Pennsylvania Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: October 21, 2021

Overview

Pennsylvania, with its abundant fossil energy resources, is a leading East Coast supplier of natural gas, coal, refined petroleum products, and electricity to the nation.1 The Appalachian Mountains run diagonally southwest to northeast through Pennsylvania, dividing the Ohio River valley in the west from the Susquehanna and Delaware River valleys in the east.2 These mountains and valleys hold rich coal reserves.3,4 The Marcellus Shale, the largest U.S. natural gas field, follows the arc of the mountains and underlies all but the southern part of the state.5,6

Three-fourths of Pennsylvania's land is classified as rural. However, only about one-fourth of the state's population lives in rural areas.7,8 Pennsylvania ranks fifth in the nation in population, with the state's population concentrated around Philadelphia in the southeast corner of the state and Pittsburgh in the southwest near the border with Ohio.9,10 The state's temperate climate varies from the southeast, where it is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, to cooler areas near the Great Lakes in the northwest, where weather fronts with frigid temperatures often come from Canada.11

Pennsylvania is the third-largest net supplier of energy to other states.

Although the state is among the top 10 consumers of natural gas, coal, petroleum products, and electricity, Pennsylvania is the third-largest net supplier of energy to other states, after Wyoming and Texas.12,13 Pennsylvania's gross domestic product (GDP) ranked sixth among the states in 2020.14 The largest contributor is the finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing sector, which makes up one-fifth of the state's GDP.15 The state's total energy consumption per capita is below the U.S. average, but near the midpoint of the states.16 The industrial sector leads energy consumption in Pennsylvania, accounting for just over one-third of the state's total energy use. The residential and transportation sectors each account for slightly less than one-fourth of state energy consumption, and the commercial sector uses the rest.17 Major energy-consuming industries that are large contributors to the state's GDP include natural gas and oil extraction and mining; metals and machinery manufacturing; chemical products; and agriculture and food processing.18

Natural gas

Pennsylvania is second only to Texas in estimated proved natural gas reserves, which more than quadrupled from 2011 to 2019 because of natural gas development in the Marcellus Shale.19,20 The Marcellus formation extends under three-fifths of Pennsylvania as well as parts of West Virginia, New York, Ohio, and Maryland.21 The Marcellus Shale has the largest estimated proved reserves of any U.S. natural gas field.22 During 2019 alone, Pennsylvania added 2.4 trillion cubic feet of proved natural gas reserves, the second-largest net increase among all the states that year after Ohio.23

Pennsylvania is the second-largest natural gas-producing state, reaching a record 7.1 trillion cubic feet in 2020.

In 2020, Pennsylvania's annual marketed natural gas production was equal to about one-fifth of total U.S. gas production, making it the second-largest natural gas producer in the nation, after Texas.24,25 The state's marketed natural gas production reached a record 7.1 trillion cubic feet in 2020, almost 13 times larger than in 2010, but the state uses only about one-fifth of the natural gas it produces.26,27

Several pipeline projects in recent years have enabled Marcellus natural gas producers to transport their supplies to additional markets, and more pipeline projects are under construction or planned.28 These projects include the Rockies Express Zone 3 expansion, which entered into service in October 2016 and moves natural gas westward from southwest Pennsylvania. The Algonquin Incremental Market pipeline, which began operating in December 2016, primarily moves natural gas from northeastern Pennsylvania into New England.29 In 2020, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission approved two pipelines projects in Pennsylvania, the larger being the FM100 pipeline project, which will add 330 million cubic feet per day of capacity.30,31 Most of the natural gas shipped by pipeline from Pennsylvania goes to New Jersey, Maryland, New York, West Virginia, and Ohio.32 Pennsylvania has 49 underground natural gas storage facilities, the most of any state, which help meet regional heating demand in the winter. The state's total natural gas storage capacity is the fourth-largest in the nation at about 763 billion cubic feet.33

Pennsylvania is also experiencing growth in the production of natural gas plant liquids (NGPLs), including ethane and propane.34,35,36 The state's natural gas plant processing was more than 11 times larger in 2020 compared to 2010.37 Natural gas producers are building processing plants to extract higher-priced NGPLs from natural gas and pipelines to transport the products to domestic and Canadian markets and to ports on the East Coast and the Gulf Coast for export.38,39,40 Pennsylvania's first ethane cracker, which will make feedstocks for plastics manufacturing, is under construction near Pittsburgh and is expected to be completed in 2022.41,42

In 2020, the electric power sector accounted for almost three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to users in the state. The industrial and residential sectors each accounted for about one-fifth of the state's total natural gas use, and the commercial sector consumed most of the rest.43 About half of Pennsylvania households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel.44

Coal

Pennsylvania is the third-largest coal-producing state and is home to the eighth- biggest U.S. coal mine.

Pennsylvania is the third-largest coal-producing state in the nation, after Wyoming and West Virginia, and coal has been mined in the state for more than 200 years. The state has substantial reserves of bituminous coal, which is used to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.45,46,47 The Bailey Mine, located in southwestern Pennsylvania near the West Virginia border, is the eighth-largest U.S. coal mine.48 Northeastern Pennsylvania has almost all the nation's anthracite coal reserves and production, but anthracite accounts for only about 5% of the state's total coal production.49,50,51 Anthracite, which has a higher heat content than other types of coal and burns with little soot, is primarily used by the metals industry.52 The number of coal mines and amount of coal production in Pennsylvania has declined as less electricity has been generated from coal.53,54,55 Coal-fired power plants have shut down, and foreign demand for coal has fallen.56 However, the state's coal production was up by 8% during the first nine months of 2021 compared to the same period a year earlier, primarily due to increased demand from the electric power sector as a result of higher natural gas prices.57,58

Pennsylvania is also a major coal consumer, ranking seventh among the states in total coal use.59 About four-fifths of the coal consumed in the state is burned for electricity generation, and the rest is used for steelmaking and other industrial applications.60 Large volumes of coal are moved by rail, barge, and truck into and out of Pennsylvania and around the state. In 2020, more than 80% of Pennsylvania-mined coal was used for electricity generation. One-third of that coal was used at Pennsylvania power plants and the rest was transported to generating facilities in 12 other states.61 Pennsylvania was the second-largest coal-exporting state in 2020, after West Virginia, with about one-third of the state's mined coal exported to other nations.62

Petroleum

Pennsylvania, site of the first U.S. commercial oil well in 1859, has few economically recoverable crude oil reserves but continues to produce modest amounts of crude oil—mainly paraffin-based crude oil used for making lubricants.63,64,65,66 Pennsylvania was once home to nearly half the East Coast's refining capacity, with four petroleum refineries that could process about 600,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.67 However, an explosion and fire in June 2019 at one of the refineries—the largest refinery on the East Coast—located on the Delaware River in south Philadelphia disrupted 335,000 barrels per calendar day of refining capacity. As a result, the owner of the refinery decided to shut down the facility permanently. 68,69 The other large refinery in the Philadelphia area continues to process about 190,000 barrels of crude oil per day into jet fuel, motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil.70,71 The state now has three petroleum refineries with a capacity to process 266,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, equivalent to one-third of the East Coast's refining capacity.72

Two small refineries are located in northwestern Pennsylvania. One processes crude oil into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and several grades of asphalt, while the other refinery processes crude oil from Pennsylvania and neighboring states into motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, waxes, and specialty products like resin blends and camping fuel.73,74 In addition to petroleum products from local refineries, Pennsylvania receives gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel via the Colonial Pipeline that moves refined petroleum products from the Texas Gulf Coast to 11 southern and Mid-Atlantic states.75

About one in seven Pennsylvania households rely on distillate fuel oil for home heating and Pennsylvania, like much of the U.S. Northeast, is vulnerable to heating oil shortages and price spikes.76 In 2000, the federal government created the 1-million-barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to offset supply disruptions in Pennsylvania and other Northeast states.77

The transportation sector is the largest petroleum consumer in Pennsylvania, accounting for nearly three-fourths of the state total, and most of that petroleum is motor gasoline.78,79 To reduce emissions of smog-forming pollutants, the state requires motorists to use reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol in the heavily populated areas of southeastern Pennsylvania, including Philadelphia. In the summer, drivers in the Pittsburgh area must use motor gasoline that has lower evaporative emissions.80,81 Pennsylvania's one ethanol production plant is the largest on the East Coast and has a capacity of about 128 million gallons per year, with additional supplies coming from the Midwest.82 In 2019, the state ranked fifth in annual fuel ethanol consumption of 492 million gallons.83 The state also has two biodiesel manufacturing plants that can produce 90 million gallons annually.84 In 2019, Pennsylvania was the eighth-largest biodiesel-consuming state at nearly 51 million gallons.85

Electricity

Pennsylvania is the third-largest producer of electricity in the nation and sends the most electricity to other states.

Pennsylvania is the third-largest producer of electricity in the nation. Only Texas and Florida generate more.86 Electricity generation regularly exceeds Pennsylvania's power consumption, and the state sends more electricity outside its borders over a regional electric grid than any other state.87 Pennsylvania is part of the PJM Interconnection regional transmission organization, which manages the electric grid in all or parts of 13 states and DC.88,89 In 2020, natural gas-fired power plants were the largest provider of in-state electricity generation for the second consecutive year and continued to widen the gap over nuclear power. Coal-fired power plants were the third-largest providers of in-state electricity.90 The residential sector is the largest consumer of electricity in Pennsylvania, accounting for nearly two-fifths of the state total. About one in four Pennsylvania households use electricity as their primary heating source.91 The industrial sector is the second largest, accounting for more than one-third, followed by the commercial sector with one-fourth.92

Many of Pennsylvania's coal-fired power plants have retired with the increased availability of competitively priced natural gas. In 2010, coal provided 48% of the state's electricity net generation and natural gas accounted for 15%. By 2020, coal declined to 10% of the state's net generation and natural gas more than tripled to 52%.93 Nearly 3,000 megawatts of the state's coal-fired summer generating capacity retired between 2015 and mid-2021. During the same period, more than 9,500 megawatts of natural gas-fired capacity came online. Natural gas has also accounted for almost all the generating capacity added in the state since 2019.94

Pennsylvania ranks second in the nation, after Illinois, in nuclear power generating capacity. The state's four nuclear power plants provided one-third of the state's electricity net generation in 2020.95,96 Shippingport, Pennsylvania was the site of the first commercial U.S. nuclear power plant, which came online in 1957, and operated for nearly 30 years.97 Some of the state's nuclear power plants face economic challenges. The Unit 1 reactor at the Three Mile Island plant was shut down permanently in September 2019 because it was unprofitable.98,99 The state also had the nation's most serious nuclear power accident, a partial core meltdown at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor in 1979. That accident led to sweeping changes in U.S. nuclear regulation and operating standards.100

Renewables—mainly wind energy, hydropower, and biomass—provide most of state's remaining net generation. In 2020, wind energy became Pennsylvania's largest renewable resource for electricity generation, exceeding hydropower.101

Renewable energy

In 2020, wind energy was Pennsylvania’s largest source of renewable electricity generation.

In 2020, renewable energy sources generated about 4% of Pennsylvania's electricity. Wind energy was the state's largest renewable source for electricity generation and provided about two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity in 2020.102 Wind resources for commercial power production are found on the state's Appalachian Mountain crests—mainly in Pennsylvania's southwest but also in the northeast—and along the state's Lake Erie shoreline.103 As of mid-2021, the state had 26 operating wind farms with almost 1,500 megawatts of generating capacity. Two large wind farms, each with generating capacities of 80 megawatts, are scheduled to come online in 2021 and 2022.104

Hydropower accounted for more than one-third of Pennsylvania's renewable generation in 2020. The state's conventional hydroelectric facilities are, on average, about 60 years old, but some of them have been updated and expanded.105,106 With over 83,000 miles of rivers and streams and numerous nonpowered dams, Pennsylvania has the potential to add more than 600 MW of hydropower generation capacity.107,108,109 In 2011, the Pennsylvania Environmental Council (PEC) streamlined the permit process to promote the development of small-scale, low-impact hydropower.110,111 As of July 2021, about 80 megawatts of new hydropower generating capacity is expected to come online by 2024.112 Pennsylvania has two pumped storage hydropower plants, one with 482 megawatts of generating capacity and another with 1,070 megawatts of capacity.113 Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods.114

Pennsylvania ranks among the top dozen states in the amount of electricity generated by biomass resources, and biomass-fueled facilities accounted for about one-fifth of the state's renewable generation in 2020.115,116 Biomass generation is mainly fueled by municipal solid waste and landfill gas.117 Pennsylvania's biomass resources from wood and forest byproducts also provide feedstock for the state's eight wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 365,000 tons per year.118 Wood pellets are used for generating electricity and for heating.119

Solar energy produced 8% of the state's total renewable electricity in 2020, and the number of small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in Pennsylvania have doubled since 2015.120,121 In 2020, more than three-fourths of the state's net solar generation came from small-scale generating systems, such as rooftop solar panels with generating capacities of 1 megawatt or less, and the rest was from solar generating facilities larger than 1 megawatt.122 Several large businesses in Pennsylvania have installed solar panels for their electricity supplies, including the home stadium of the Philadelphia Eagles professional football team.123 The state's largest solar PV facility came online in 2019 and has 53.5 megawatts of generating capacity that provides electricity to Penn State University.124,125 Another 113 megawatts of solar power generating capacity is scheduled to come online by 2023.126

In 2004, Pennsylvania enacted an alternative energy portfolio standard (AEPS), which requires that alternative energy sources generate 18% of the state's electricity retail sales by 2021, with at least 0.5% from solar energy.127 In 2020, qualifying alternative energy sources generated about 16% of the electricity sold to the state's retail customers, and 0.44% was solar power.128 Among the alternative energy sources Pennsylvania recognizes as meeting part of its AEPS requirements are byproducts of pulping and wood manufacturing, geothermal energy, low-impact hydropower, and waste coal.129 Pennsylvania also requires investor-owned utilities doing business in the state to undertake energy efficiency measures to reduce peak power demand and electricity consumption. These energy efficiency measures include helping customers to install solar and geothermal technologies, insulate buildings, and upgrade appliances.130,131

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Pennsylvania Profile Overview, Layers/Legend map data, accessed September 1, 2021.
2 National Geographic, Giant Maps, Pennsylvania, accessed September 1, 2021.
3 Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Coal in Pennsylvania, map, accessed September 28, 2021.
4 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Where our coal comes from, updated October 9, 2020.
5 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4, 8.
6 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, The Marcellus Shale: Pennsylvania's Home-Grown Energy Source, accessed September 28, 2021.
7 The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Rural Pennsylvania and the 2010 Census (September 2011), p. 2.
8 The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Data, Rural Quick Facts, Demographics, accessed September 1, 2021.
9 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Pennsylvania Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
10 Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State Data Center, Pennsylvania Facts 2021.
11 Pennsylvania State University, The Pennsylvania State Climatologist, accessed September 1, 2021.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS, All areas, All industry total, 2020.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS, Pennsylvania, All industry total, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS, Pennsylvania, All Statistics in table, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2014-19.
20 U.S. EIA, Natural gas explained: where our natural gas comes from, updated May 20, 2021.
21 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, The Marcellus Shale: Pennsylvania's Home-Grown Energy Source, accessed October 8, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Changes in the top 100 gas fields, p. 4-5.
23 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019 (January 2021), Natural Gas Highlights, p. 1, 5.
24 U.S. EIA, Pennsylvania Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2020.
25 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
26 U.S. EIA, Pennsylvania Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2020.
27 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2015-20.
28 U.S. EIA, U.S. natural gas pipeline projects, Natural gas pipeline projects from 1996 to 2020, Pennsylvania.
29 U.S. EIA, "Pennsylvania's natural gas production continues to increase," Today in Energy (April 23, 2018).
30 Federal Energy Regulation Commission, Approved Major Pipeline Projects (1997-Present), updated March 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, U.S. natural gas pipeline projects, Natural gas pipeline projects from 1996 to 2020, Pennsylvania.
32 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Pennsylvania, 2014-20.
33 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, and Number of Depleted Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
34 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Plant Field Production, PADD 1, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
35 U.S. EIA, "Pennsylvania's natural gas production continues to increase," Today in Energy (April 23, 2018).
36 U.S. EIA, Natural gas plant liquids, accessed October 8, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Plant Processing, Natural Gas Processed, Annual, 1967-2020
38 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Pipeline Portal, accessed September 3, 2021.
39 Chapa, Sergio, "Enterprise to expand Appalachia-to-Texas ethane pipeline," The Houston Chronicle (October 14, 2019).
40 The Williams Companies, Ohio Valley Ethane Pipeline, Overview, accessed September 3, 2021.
41 AP News, "Shell: Pennsylvania ethane plant completion expected in 2022," March 16, 2021.
42 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Shell Chemical Appalachia LLC Petrochemicals Complex, Beaver County, accessed September 3, 2021.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2015-20.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Pennsylvania.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
46 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Coal Mining in Pennsylvania, accessed September 6, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2019.
49 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Distribution of Pennsylvania Coals (1992).
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
52 U.S. EIA, Coal explained, updated October 8, 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), 2001-19.
54 U.S. EIA, Weekly U.S. Coal Production, Year-to-date and 52 weeks ended, September 4, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, "2019 coal production falls to its lowest level since 1978," Today in Energy (July 28, 2020).
56 U.S. EIA, "More than 100 coal-fired plants have been replaced or converted to natural gas since 2011," Today in Energy (August 5, 2020).
57 U.S. EIA, Weekly U.S. Coal Production, Year-to-date and 52 weeks ended, September 4, 2021.
58 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas consumption to decline through 2022, led by the electric power sector," Today in Energy (September 10, 2021).
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
61 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Pennsylvania, Table OS-18.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state.
63 American Oil & Gas Historical Society, First American Oil Well, accessed September 1, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2014-19.
65 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
66 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, PA Oil and Gas, accessed September 1, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2018 (June 25, 2018), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2018.
68 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2018 (June 25, 2018), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2018, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Energy Solutions, Philadelphia.
69 U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Fire and Explosions at Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refinery Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation Unit, October 16, 2019.
70 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2021.
71 Monroe Energy, History & Today, accessed September 1, 2021.
72 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021.
73 United Refining Company, About United Refining, accessed September 1, 2021.
74 American Refining Group, Inc., Refinery Information, accessed September 1, 2021.
75 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed September 28, 2021.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Pennsylvania.
77 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed September 3, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
80 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated gasoline and Reid vapor pressure, accessed October 8 2021.
81 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
82 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity, by state, December 2020.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2021), Table 1.3.B, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation by State, by Sector, Year-to-Date through July 2021 and 2020 (Thousand Megawatthours).
87 U.S. EIA, "California imports the most electricity from other states; Pennsylvania exports the most," Today in Energy (April 4, 2019).
88 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
89 PJM, About PJM, accessed September 28, 2021.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
91 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Pennsylvania.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Retail sales of electricity, annual, 2001-20.
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of July 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine, Natural Gas Steam Turbine, Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle, Natural Gas Internal Combustion Engine, Conventional Steam Coal.
95 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nuclear Generation and Generating Capacity, Capacity and Generation by State and Reactor, 2021P, Current Capacity, Summer.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
97 Nuclear Power Pennsylvania, History, accessed September 1, 2021.
98 Exelon Corporation, "Three Mile Island Generating Station Unit 1 Retires from Service After 45 Years," Press Release (September 20, 2019).
99 Brady, Jeff, "Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant To Close, Latest Symbol Of Struggling Industry," National Public Radio (May 8, 2019).
100 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident, updated June 21, 2018.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
102 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
103 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Pennsylvania, Maps & Data, accessed September 1, 2021.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine, and Inventory of Planned Generators as of May 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
105 Hydropower Reform Coalition, Search hydropower projects, Pennsylvania, accessed September 1, 2021.
106 Rye Development, "Pittsburgh's renewable energy opportunity in hydropower: generating Power when the sun doesn't shine and the wind doesn't blow," July 29, 2021.
107 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, 2020 Annual Report, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act Compliance for Reporting Year 2020, Hydropower, p. 36-37.
108 U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Hydropower Market Report, January 2021, p.8, 47, 76.
109 National Hydropower Association, Unlocking Hydropower Potential of Pennsylvania: Understand and Maximize the Immense Hydropower Potential of Existing Non-powered Dams in Pittsburgh District, PA., July 17, 2020.
110 National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, Pennsylvania, accessed September 1, 2021.
111 Pennsylvania Environmental Council, Low-Impact Hydropower, accessed September 2, 2021.
112 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of July 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
113 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
114 U.S. EIA, "Most pumped storage electricity generators in the U.S. were built in the 1970s," Today in Energy (October 31, 2019).
115 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (May 2021), Table 1.15.B.
116 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
117 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
118 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (September 15, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, June 2021.
119 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
120 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
121 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, 2020 Annual Report, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act Compliance for Reporting Year 2020, Solar, p. 29-34.
122 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Pennsylvania, Net generation for all sectors, annual, 2001-20.
123 Solar Energy Industries Association, Pennsylvania Solar, Notable Solar Installations in Pennsylvania, accessed September 1, 2021.
124 Lightsource BP, Penn State Powered by the Sun, accessed September 1, 2021.
125 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of May 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
126 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of July 2021, Pennsylvania, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
127 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, Pennsylvania, updated July 10, 2018.
128 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, Compliance for Report Year 2020, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act, AEPS Resources, February 2021, p. 10, 14.
129 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, Compliance for Report Year 2020, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act, AEPS Resources, February 2021, p. 8.
130 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Requirements for Utilities, Pennsylvania, updated June 12, 2015.
131 Keystone Energy Efficiency Alliance, Act 129, Issue Context, Background, & Resources, accessed September 2, 2021.