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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B17. Occupancy of nongovernment-owned and government-owned buildings, number of buildings, 2012

Released: May 2016

Number of buildings (thousand)
Nongovernment-owned buildings Government-owned buildings
  All
buildings
All
buildings
Owner occupied Leased to
tenant(s)
Owner occupied and leased Unocc-upied All
buildings
Federal State Local
All buildings 5,557 4,781 2,466 1,745 349 221 776 33 185 558
Building floorspace (square feet)                    
1,001 to 5,000 2,777 2,435 1,311 881 108 135 342 Q 81 252
5,001 to 10,000 1,229 1,101 570 402 88 41 129 Q Q 104
10,001 to 25,000 884 753 377 260 85 30 131 Q 37 88
25,001 to 50,000 332 265 114 103 38 Q 67 Q 17 45
50,001 to 100,000 199 130 52 59 16 Q 69 Q 20 47
100,001 to 200,000 90 65 31 26 7 Q 25 Q 10 15
200,001 to 500,000 38 27 11 11 5 Q 11 Q 4 7
Over 500,000 8 6 2 3 2 Q 2 1 Q 1
Principal building activity                    
Education 389 162 124 33 Q N 227 Q 60 162
Food sales 177 177 93 69 Q N N N N N
Food service 380 364 202 157 Q N Q N Q Q
Health care 157 145 79 44 22 N 12 Q 3 8
Inpatient 10 7 5 Q 1 N 2 (*) Q 2
Outpatient 147 138 74 43 21 N 9 Q Q Q
Lodging 158 151 119 29 3 N 7 N Q Q
Mercantile 602 598 233 314 51 N Q Q Q Q
Retail (other than mall) 438 434 233 179 23 N Q N Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls 164 164 N 135 29 N Q Q N N
Office 1,012 862 370 357 135 N 150 9 43 98
Public assembly 352 234 163 53 18 N 118 Q 21 97
Public order and safety 84 Q Q Q Q N 70 Q Q 64
Religious worship 412 411 368 32 Q N Q N N Q
Service 619 544 282 237 25 N 74 Q Q 49
Warehouse and storage 796 743 334 364 44 N 53 Q Q Q
Other 125 109 65 36 Q N Q Q Q Q
Vacant 296 267 Q 20 Q 221 29 Q Q 24
Year constructed                    
Before 1920 362 320 184 87 26 Q 42 Q Q 34
1920 to 1945 488 415 250 122 17 Q 73 Q 18 52
1946 to 1959 599 514 258 164 38 54 85 Q 25 60
1960 to 1969 639 528 264 199 36 29 111 Q 36 68
1970 to 1979 684 596 311 219 39 27 88 Q 24 59
1980 to 1989 915 805 344 350 80 Q 110 Q 24 78
1990 to 1999 845 731 386 283 51 Q 114 3 18 93
2000 to 2003 375 310 183 104 16 Q 65 Q 14 47
2004 to 2007 347 302 144 127 24 Q 45 Q Q 33
2008 to 2012 303 260 143 90 21 Q 42 N Q 33
Census region                    
Northeast 805 723 400 239 62 Q 83 Q 15 67
Midwest 1,237 1,066 629 329 69 40 171 9 31 131
South 2,247 1,958 983 721 140 115 289 14 77 198
West 1,267 1,034 455 457 78 43 233 Q 62 162
Climate region1                    
Very cold/Cold 2,031 1,752 998 560 130 65 278 16 55 207
Mixed-humid 1,743 1,551 764 607 103 76 193 13 50 129
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 679 305 286 53 35 158 Q 33 124
Hot-humid 799 674 351 228 53 43 125 Q 39 84
Marine 147 125 49 64 Q Q 22 Q Q 15
Number of floors                    
One 3,836 3,290 1,651 1,288 183 169 546 21 112 413
Two 1,158 1,010 552 321 98 38 148 Q 48 90
Three 374 328 191 84 42 Q 46 Q 10 35
Four to nine 177 142 70 46 23 Q 35 1 14 20
Ten or more 13 11 2 5 3 Q 2 1 1 Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                   
Any elevators 405 305 147 94 58 5 100 7 34 60
Number of elevators                    
One 272 204 105 57 38 Q 67 Q 23 41
Two to five 118 88 38 32 17 Q 30 Q 10 16
Six or more 16 13 4 5 4 Q 3 1 1 2
Any escalators 10 8 2 5 1 Q 2 Q Q 1
Number of workers (main shift)                    
Fewer than 5 2,892 2,586 1,418 838 108 221 306 Q 77 218
5 to 9 1,085 941 506 345 90 N 144 Q 28 111
10 to 19 731 613 294 263 56 N 118 Q 24 90
20 to 49 513 411 165 185 60 N 102 Q 23 74
50 to 99 206 133 49 69 15 N 72 Q 24 44
100 to 249 93 68 27 29 13 N 25 Q 5 17
250 or more 37 29 8 15 6 N 8 1 3 4
Weekly operating hours                    
Fewer than 40 1,149 998 582 173 Q 221 151 Q 28 119
40 to 48 1,346 1,098 556 423 119 N 248 Q 69 171
49 to 60 1,244 1,080 542 434 104 N 164 7 40 117
61 to 84 764 676 300 328 47 N 88 Q 21 59
85 to 167 479 443 212 201 30 N 36 Q 14 20
Open continuously 575 487 274 186 27 N 88 Q 13 73
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                   
Building owner 4,715 3,984 2,416 1,062 304 202 731 31 173 527
Business owner or tenant 724 698 Q 619 39 Q 26 Q Q 19
Property management 54 53 Q 40 Q Q Q Q N Q
Other 64 47 Q 24 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                   
Building owner 4,876 4,144 2,432 1,186 318 208 733 31 176 525
Business owner or tenant 540 520 Q 471 24 Q 20 Q Q Q
Property management 35 34 Q 30 Q N Q Q N Q
Other 106 83 17 58 Q Q 23 Q Q 19
Number of establishments                    
One 4,205 3,537 2,318 1,220 N N 668 27 164 477
2 to 5 862 782 142 351 289 N 80 6 17 58
6 to 10 147 147 Q 103 40 N Q Q Q Q
11 to 20 68 67 Q 52 12 N Q Q Q Q
More than 20 27 27 N 20 7 N Q Q N Q
Currently unoccupied 248 221 N N N 221 27 N Q 22
Campus or complex activity                    
Not part of a campus or complex 3,683 3,355 1,729 1,177 273 176 328 20 44 264
Primary or secondary school 237 50 42 Q Q N 187 Q 56 128
College or university 84 47 44 Q Q N 37 Q 33 Q
Office complex 154 142 34 79 25 Q 12 Q Q Q
Retail complex 258 250 79 156 10 Q Q N Q Q
Storage complex 314 308 98 187 Q Q Q N Q Q
Religious campus or complex 197 197 182 Q Q Q N N N N
Health care complex 52 43 27 10 Q Q 9 (*) Q Q
Lodging or resort complex 65 64 51 Q Q Q Q N Q N
Transportation complex 35 19 Q Q Q N Q N Q Q
Government complex 104 Q Q Q Q N 101 7 25 69
Other 371 302 173 100 15 Q 69 Q 15 52
Predominant exterior wall material                    
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 1,947 971 713 164 99 365 16 85 264
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 973 479 377 68 48 148 Q 36 105
Concrete panels 210 196 67 95 24 Q 14 Q 4 10
Siding or shingles 905 768 441 254 41 Q 137 Q 30 102
Metal panels 933 827 472 280 44 Q 106 Q 25 76
Window glass 17 15 Q 6 2 Q Q Q Q Q
Other 37 34 18 13 Q N Q Q Q Q
No one major type 21 20 Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                    
Metal surfacing 1,672 1,448 827 488 80 53 224 Q 58 157
Synthetic or rubber 911 772 351 300 88 32 139 11 35 93
Built-up 836 663 258 298 62 44 173 6 39 129
Slate or tile shingles 406 365 186 145 19 Q 41 Q Q 34
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 146 63 76 Q Q Q N Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 1,308 755 392 88 73 175 Q 38 132
Concrete 51 47 11 31 Q Q 4 Q Q Q
Other 24 16 Q Q Q N Q N Q Q
No one major type 18 16 Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                    
Roof tilt                    
Flat 1,960 1,680 656 800 141 83 280 22 77 181
Shallow pitch 2,148 1,871 1,012 633 136 90 277 Q 67 201
Steeper pitch 1,449 1,230 799 311 72 48 219 Q 41 176
Cool roof 740 601 339 198 52 Q 139 7 34 98
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                   
Any type of renovation 2,094 1,785 941 627 163 54 310 9 73 227
Addition or annex 444 363 234 88 35 Q 81 Q 20 57
Reduction in floorspace 71 64 26 21 10 Q Q Q Q Q
Roof replacement 987 817 466 256 67 Q 170 5 39 125
Exterior wall replacement 194 169 90 59 13 Q 26 Q 5 18
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 777 346 316 89 25 113 5 26 81
Window replacement 560 471 262 155 46 Q 89 Q 19 69
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 919 499 286 107 28 181 5 40 136
Lighting upgrade 982 805 419 283 84 Q 177 5 43 129
Electrical upgrade 747 653 345 221 65 Q 94 2 25 67
Plumbing system upgrade 644 557 290 199 51 Q 87 2 18 67
Insulation upgrade 382 320 175 104 35 Q 62 Q 11 49
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 522 291 167 56 Q 93 3 24 66
Structural upgrade 152 131 74 36 16 Q 21 Q Q 16
Other 39 29 Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q
No renovations 3,160 2,736 1,382 1,028 165 161 424 24 103 298
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 260 143 90 21 Q 42 N Q 33
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 5,234 4,480 2,395 1,675 344 66 755 33 183 538
Natural gas 2,933 2,489 1,317 951 198 23 444 21 100 322
Fuel oil 467 365 223 108 29 Q 101 Q 15 83
District heat 48 22 13 Q 2 Q 26 1 18 7
District chilled water 54 17 14 2 1 N 37 Q 20 16
Propane 510 435 297 107 29 Q 75 Q 13 57
Other 172 145 100 31 13 Q 27 Q Q 16
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 2,858 2,464 1,264 958 221 22 394 19 100 275
Natural gas 2,612 2,203 1,162 838 181 22 409 18 91 300
Fuel oil 270 234 145 69 15 Q 36 Q Q 32
District heat 48 22 13 Q 2 Q 26 1 18 7
Propane 342 290 202 67 19 Q 52 Q Q 38
Other 101 96 72 Q Q N Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                   
Electricity 1,819 1,600 834 611 136 Q 219 Q 58 149
Natural gas 2,322 1,944 1,025 735 163 21 378 17 81 281
Fuel oil 205 176 109 52 Q Q 29 Q Q 26
District heat 47 21 13 Q 2 Q 26 1 18 7
Propane 261 223 171 43 Q Q 38 Q Q 26
Other 67 63 47 Q Q N Q N Q Q
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 4,413 3,802 2,038 1,415 322 26 611 32 142 437
Natural gas 12 11 Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q
District chilled water 54 17 14 2 1 N 37 Q 20 16
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 2,658 2,323 1,195 904 213 Q 335 18 75 242
Natural gas 1,758 1,482 806 541 121 Q 275 14 66 195
Fuel oil 77 63 45 Q Q N 14 Q Q 12
District heat 25 13 10 1 2 N 12 1 10 2
Propane 142 120 86 27 Q Q 22 Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 1,010 846 544 253 46 Q 165 7 27 131
Natural gas 740 646 352 247 44 Q 94 1 19 73
Propane 144 125 87 30 Q N 19 Q Q 17
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                   
Buildings with space heating 4,722 4,028 2,198 1,458 325 47 694 33 168 493
Buildings with cooling 4,461 3,817 2,046 1,421 324 26 644 33 159 452
Buildings with water heating 4,423 3,791 2,048 1,401 316 26 632 33 146 452
Buildings with cooking 1,589 1,359 854 416 82 Q 230 8 40 182
Buildings with manufacturing 259 248 130 100 18 N 10 Q Q Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 266 160 75 30 Q 144 6 27 111
Percent of floorspace heated                    
Not heated 835 753 268 287 24 174 82 Q Q 65
1 to 50 697 640 323 253 56 Q 57 Q Q 37
51 to 99 727 623 326 231 61 Q 103 4 26 73
100 3,298 2,764 1,549 974 208 34 534 24 127 383
Percent of floorspace cooled                    
Not cooled 1,096 964 420 323 Q 195 132 N 26 106
1 to 50 1,173 1,033 524 411 94 Q 140 Q 29 102
51 to 99 897 755 394 289 69 Q 143 5 41 97
100 2,391 2,030 1,128 722 161 Q 361 19 89 253
Percent lit when open                    
Zero 70 67 Q Q Q N Q N Q Q
1 to 50 1,099 977 564 333 80 N 122 Q 24 90
51 to 99 1,666 1,422 703 567 152 N 244 15 69 160
100 2,222 1,859 1,052 697 110 N 363 10 81 271
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 456 127 102 Q 221 45 Q Q 36
Percent lit during off hours                    
Zero 2,489 2,101 1,217 711 128 45 388 Q 102 274
1 to 50 2,441 2,111 1,035 852 203 21 330 21 77 232
51 to 100 202 178 94 74 10 N 24 Q 4 19
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 89 48 38 Q N 13 Q Q Q
Electricity not used 323 301 71 69 Q 155 Q N Q Q
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heat pumps 628 507 286 164 54 Q 121 Q 28 90
Furnaces 755 681 378 236 57 Q 74 Q 19 51
Individual space heaters 1,247 1,068 585 383 91 Q 179 Q 45 126
District heat 48 22 13 Q 2 Q 26 1 18 7
Boilers 544 405 243 120 38 Q 139 7 31 102
Packaged heating units 2,802 2,443 1,249 969 201 25 359 20 84 255
Other 62 55 26 26 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,546 1,398 767 507 115 Q 148 Q 34 102
Heat pumps 692 567 323 183 58 Q 125 Q 30 93
Individual air conditioners 709 600 342 203 50 Q 109 Q 21 82
District chilled water 54 17 14 2 1 N 37 Q 20 16
Central chillers 163 89 52 24 11 Q 74 6 21 47
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 1,646 790 692 155 Q 263 12 62 190
Swamp coolers 109 96 58 36 Q N 14 Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 1,874 1,624 904 569 137 Q 250 11 73 166
Cooling 1,971 1,729 945 626 146 Q 242 12 67 163
Water-heating equipment                    
Centralized system 3,348 2,851 1,634 1,001 195 21 497 29 106 362
Distributed system 690 617 289 251 75 Q 72 Q 22 50
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
385 323 125 149 46 Q 62 3 19 40
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                   
Incandescent 1,826 1,637 910 575 147 Q 189 12 46 132
Standard fluorescent 4,649 3,955 2,104 1,501 329 20 695 33 166 496
Compact fluorescent 2,302 1,997 1,096 721 177 Q 305 15 82 208
High-intensity discharge (HID) 525 421 189 178 54 Q 104 6 29 69
Halogen 905 826 408 325 93 Q 79 8 25 45
LED 473 395 169 179 47 Q 78 Q 19 55
Other 10 Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Any refrigeration 3,984 3,449 1,899 1,247 288 Q 535 26 124 385
Walk-in units 811 711 345 315 49 Q 100 2 24 74
Cases or cabinets 915 812 411 340 57 Q 103 Q 20 80
Large cold storage areas 78 73 32 33 7 N 6 Q Q 3
Commercial ice makers 846 726 395 273 54 Q 120 2 40 77
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 2,924 1,625 1,030 259 Q 464 23 106 334
Vending machines 960 763 346 332 82 Q 197 11 62 124
No refrigeration 1,573 1,332 568 498 61 206 241 Q 61 174
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Desktop computers 3,977 3,353 1,728 1,314 308 Q 624 32 151 441
With flat screen monitors 3,847 3,236 1,652 1,276 305 Q 611 32 147 432
With multiple monitors 911 768 305 351 112 N 143 8 45 90
Laptop computers 2,730 2,293 1,103 944 244 Q 437 15 109 314
Dedicated servers 1,748 1,481 675 630 175 Q 267 14 66 187
Laser printers 2,339 1,938 923 810 205 Q 401 24 88 289
Inkjet printers 2,187 1,883 1,004 711 167 Q 305 10 71 224
FAX machines 3,185 2,746 1,370 1,097 275 Q 439 24 95 320
Photocopiers 2,163 1,785 935 654 193 Q 378 17 91 270
Number of desktop computers                    
None 1,581 1,429 738 430 41 219 152 Q 34 117
1 to 4 2,039 1,816 1,051 672 91 Q 223 Q 45 163
5 to 9 821 709 353 284 72 N 112 Q 28 74
10 to 19 482 415 166 174 75 N 67 Q 17 48
20 to 49 355 258 102 115 40 Q 97 Q 24 72
50 to 99 143 84 30 39 14 N 60 Q 19 38
100 to 249 92 47 18 19 10 N 45 Q 12 32
250 or more 44 24 8 11 5 N 20 1 5 14
Number of laptop computers                    
None 2,827 2,488 1,363 801 105 219 339 Q 76 244
1 to 4 1,944 1,702 883 664 152 Q 242 Q 52 182
5 to 9 350 297 108 141 48 N 53 Q 12 38
10 to 19 181 146 49 75 22 N 35 Q 8 25
20 to 49 144 87 38 36 14 N 56 Q 19 36
50 to 99 58 31 12 15 4 N 26 Q 8 18
100 to 249 35 18 9 6 3 N 16 Q 6 10
250 or more 20 12 5 6 2 N 8 (*) 2 5
Number of dedicated servers                    
None 3,809 3,300 1,792 1,114 173 221 509 Q 119 371
1 to 4 1,562 1,342 629 565 147 Q 220 9 49 162
5 to 9 97 76 19 44 13 N 21 Q 9 10
10 to 19 50 35 16 10 9 N 15 Q 6 8
20 to 49 25 18 6 7 4 N 8 Q 2 6
50 or more 13 10 4 5 2 N 3 (*) Q Q
Number of photocopiers                    
None 3,394 2,997 1,531 1,090 156 219 398 Q 93 289
One 1,325 1,138 671 379 85 Q 187 Q 36 141
2 to 4 648 510 225 208 77 N 137 Q 39 94
5 to 9 116 78 19 40 20 N 37 Q 11 23
10 or more 75 57 20 27 11 N 17 1 5 11
Number of TVs or video displays                    
None 2,718 2,384 1,154 868 143 219 333 Q 74 244
One 1,145 984 558 373 52 Q 160 Q 36 113
2 to 4 1,035 883 472 311 98 Q 153 Q 36 113
5 to 9 314 273 149 94 31 N 41 Q 12 29
10 to 19 154 110 51 48 11 N 44 Q 12 29
20 to 49 106 80 37 35 8 N 26 Q 5 20
50 to 99 48 39 26 9 3 N 10 Q 3 7
100 or more 37 28 20 6 2 N 9 (*) 6 3
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                   
Snack bar or concession stand 153 123 57 47 19 N 30 1 8 21
Fast food or small restaurant 173 169 43 99 27 N 5 Q Q 3
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 64 29 25 10 N 66 1 13 52
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 221 137 60 22 Q 61 (*) 13 48
Small kitchen area 736 616 459 113 39 Q 119 Q 17 96
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                   
Data center or server farm 97 65 31 25 9 N 31 Q 9 20
Computer-based training room 244 158 69 68 20 N 86 2 28 55
Student or public computer center 238 121 69 38 15 N 117 Q 28 88
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                   
Economizer cycle 601 429 217 167 41 Q 172 6 45 121
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 2,630 1,436 935 234 26 547 28 143 376
Building automation system (BAS)2 781 538 279 206 51 Q 243 9 61 173
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                   
Multipaned windows 3,012 2,586 1,400 887 219 80 426 20 95 311
Tinted window glass 1,875 1,598 780 618 159 41 277 11 67 199
Reflective window glass 549 489 237 193 57 Q 60 5 16 39
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 1,633 777 680 140 36 234 9 68 157
Skylights or atriums 591 508 225 208 63 Q 83 6 26 50
Light scheduling 918 787 348 360 76 Q 130 11 33 86
Occupancy sensors 813 612 251 300 61 Q 201 7 53 140
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 309 149 128 32 Q 40 Q 13 24
Daylight harvesting 125 102 58 29 12 Q 24 Q 8 10
Demand responsive lighting 176 154 64 75 15 N 23 Q Q 11
Building automation system (BAS)
for lighting2
208 168 57 94 17 Q 41 2 10 28
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 3,699 3,156 1,699 1,142 283 33 543 29 138 376
Cooling 3,517 3,000 1,585 1,117 283 15 516 30 133 352
Lighting 4,757 4,053 2,199 1,516 338 N 704 33 174 498
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
(*) = Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.