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Last Updated: March 2015

Overview


Map of Estonia
Map of Estonia
  • Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalized its electricity and gas markets. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market, integration with the Nordic market, and the establishment of a regional gas market are priorities for Estonia.
  • While Estonia does not have significant conventional oil or natural gas resources of its own, it is a transit country for Russian oil en route to the Baltic Sea. Approximately 340,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) of mostly refined petroleum products was exported via Muuga and other ports in 2013.
  • Estonia does, however, stand out as one of the few producers of oil shale (fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of organic compounds such as kerogen) in the world and has mined it since 1916 from a basin in northeast Estonia near Narva. About 70% of Estonia’s total primary energy supply in 2012 came from oil shale, according to the International Energy Agency.
  • Estonia produced more than 12,000 bbl/d of petroleum liquids from oil shale in 2013. There are three oil shale producers in Estonia: VKG Oil, Eesti Energia (Enefit), and Kiviõli Keemiatööstus.
  • Enefit owns the largest oil shale-fueled power plants in the world, the Narva Power Plants (Balti and Eesti). Almost 90% of Estonia's power is generated using petroleum and gas derived from oil shale. The remaining power generation is primarily from biomass and wind, although small amounts of hydroelectric, natural gas and coal are also used.